WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulated retail tariff

  1. Tariff regulation with energy efficiency goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrardi, Laura; Cambini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to promote energy efficiency by its customers given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the firm's energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fixed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strengthens the firm's incentives to pursue energy conservation. Instead, if the firm's effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumer's effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts. - Highlights: • We study the optimal tariff structure that induces an utility to adopt energy efficiency activities. • The regulator optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. • If energy efficiency activities have a high effectiveness, decoupling emerges as a solution. • If the energy efficiency actions are less effective, the tariff has a higher per unit price and lower fixed fee. • The optimal tariff structure also depends on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts

  2. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  3. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  4. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  5. Report on electricity sales regulated tariffs - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context of regulated tariffs for electricity sale, this report aims at assessing the level of tariff stacking for 2015 while taking some factors (EDF commercial costs, tariff for the use of electricity public network or TURPE) into account, at calculating the rate of EDF cost coverage by sales regulated tariffs, at assessing price adjustments made between November 2014 and July 2015. The first part proposes a detailed analysis of tariffing by cost stacking, and the second part a detailed analysis of EDF production costs

  6. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  7. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  8. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  9. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2011-01-01

    in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from...... competitive prices....... default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than...

  10. Retailer licensing and tobacco display compliance: are some retailers more likely to flout regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rae; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Walsberger, Scott; Tang, Anita; Chapman, Kathy; Egger, Sam

    2017-03-01

    To assess retailer compliance with a licensing scheme requiring tobacco retailers to list their business details with the government, to examine whether listed retailers are more likely to comply with a point-of-sale (POS) display ban and other in-store retailing laws and to explore variations in compliance between different retailer types and locations. An audit of 1739 retailers in New South Wales, Australia, was used to assess compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. Auditors actively searched for and audited unlisted retailers and all listed retailers in 122 metropolitan and regional postcodes. Multivariate generalised linear regression models were used to examine associations between compliance and retailer type, remoteness and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic level, proportion of population under 18 years and proportion born in Australia). One unlisted tobacco retailer was identified for every 12.6 listed tobacco retailers. Unlisted retailers were significantly more likely than listed retailers to breach in-store retailing laws (plaws was only 73.4%. Retailers in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had lower compliance than those in high socioeconomic areas. Some tobacco retailers did not list their business details with the government as required, even though there was no financial cost to do so. Unlisted retailers were more likely to violate in-store regulations. The results suggest licensing schemes can be useful for providing a list of retailers, thus facilitating enforcement, but require a system to search for, and respond to, unlisted/unlicensed retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Tor Arnt, E-mail: tor.a.johnsen@bi.no [Norwegian School of Management BI, NO-0442 Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Ole Jess, E-mail: ojo@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde University, Building 10.1, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Nordic residential electricity consumers can now choose among a number of contracts and suppliers. A large number of households have continued to purchase electricity from the incumbent supplier at default contract terms. In this paper, we compare the situation for such passive customers. Danish default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from the monopoly period. Danish margins are higher than the competitive Norwegian margins but are earned from a much lower level of consumption. The annually margins earned per consumer are very close in the two countries, which indicates that the Danish regulation is achieving its objective of approaching competitive prices. - Highlights: > Prices of active and passive Nordic residential electricity consumers are compared. > Active consumers get lower prices in Sweden but not in Norway. > Prices of passive consumers differ considerably among the four Nordic countries. > Danish regulated prices compare well with unregulated prices in the other countries. > Passive consumers in Finland have low prices compared with the other countries.

  12. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2011-01-01

    Nordic residential electricity consumers can now choose among a number of contracts and suppliers. A large number of households have continued to purchase electricity from the incumbent supplier at default contract terms. In this paper, we compare the situation for such passive customers. Danish default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from the monopoly period. Danish margins are higher than the competitive Norwegian margins but are earned from a much lower level of consumption. The annually margins earned per consumer are very close in the two countries, which indicates that the Danish regulation is achieving its objective of approaching competitive prices. - Highlights: → Prices of active and passive Nordic residential electricity consumers are compared. → Active consumers get lower prices in Sweden but not in Norway. → Prices of passive consumers differ considerably among the four Nordic countries. → Danish regulated prices compare well with unregulated prices in the other countries. → Passive consumers in Finland have low prices compared with the other countries.

  13. 75 FR 55409 - Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... currency with members of the retail public (i.e., ``retail forex transactions''). The new regulations and... in detail the historical background of the regulation of retail forex transactions, and the events... between forex firms and retail customers on the other hand.\\5\\ \\3\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail...

  14. CIVIL-LEGAL REGULATION OF THE SUPPLY AGREEMENT WITH RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat T. Kamalieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues in the sphere of delivery contracts with retailеrs. The author makes conclusions based on the conducted analysis of regulations, litigation, commercial practices, in particular on the example of legal delivery contracts with retail chains.

  15. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  16. Audit report on GDF Suez supply costs in natural gas sale regulated tariffs. 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation or CRE (legal framework, previously published opinion), this report first presents and comments the main evolutions of the European supply portfolio of GDF Suez in 2012: long term contracts to be negotiated again on significant volumes, a diversified portfolio with 30 per cent of short term purchases. In the second part, it analyses the adequacy between noticed and provisional supply costs on the one hand, and those estimated by means of the tariff formula for the calculation of natural gas sale regulated tariffs on the other hand. The third part gives recommendations regarding future decisions on the evolution of GDF-Suez natural gas regulated sale tariffs: discussion of the relevance of the formula used since January 2013, of perspectives for reviewing this tariff formula, of market share to be integrated, should the occasion occur, in the modified formula, and of the supply range to be taken into account

  17. The Conseil d'Etat ruling to the dispute about the report from the 9. Chamber of Dispute Section - No. 370321. Regulated tariffs for the supply of natural gas - The Conseil d'Etat judges that the continuation of regulated tariffs for the supply of natural gas is contrary to E.U. law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignereux, Bastien; Nicolazo de Barmon, Marie-Astrid

    2017-07-01

    The National Association of energy retailer operators (ANODE) brought proceedings to the Conseil d'Etat arguing that the decree of 16 May 2013 regarding regulated tariffs for the supply of natural gas was 'ultra vires'. The ANODE submitted that this tariff regulation breached European Union Law. Applying the findings of the preliminary ruling of 7 September 2016 given in this matter by the European Court of Justice, the Conseil d'Etat, in today's decision, annulled the decree of 16 May 2013 on the grounds that the imposition of a natural gas tariff regulation infringed European Union Law. In light of the great uncertainty that would affect contracts signed by millions of consumers as a result of such an annulment, and with regard to the necessity to prevent the legal insecurity that would ensue, the Conseil d'Etat has judged, exceptionally, that the past effects of this decree, which ceased to apply on 1 January 2016, must nevertheless be regarded as irrevocable

  18. QF certification and state regulation of retail sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of qualify facilities (QFs) and the industrial facilities to which they provide power. The paper presents case histories of Alcon and Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority versus FERC, Union Carbide Corporation and Fina Oil and Chemical Company versus FERC, state decisions regarding regulation of retail sales by QFs and steps to avoiding similar confrontations

  19. Promoting nuclear energy: market price or regulated tariffs? - 5042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its negative effects, the scheme for aiding renewable energies presently in force in Europe is likely to penalise investments in nuclear energy. The F.I.T. system is a costly mechanism and a source of perverse effects as a switching of the merit order curve on the spot electricity market (with sometimes negative prices). Restoring an equity and 'equal opportunity' for nuclear energy in Europe needs to implement a 'Contract for Differences' scheme for nuclear energy, like the model now gaining favour in the U.K. The contract for differences signed between EDF and the UK government means that if the wholesale price that EDF secures for Hinckley's power falls below the index-linked preset value, the difference will be covered by payments from the UK government. It appears that nuclear power has weakened in Europe by the system of guaranteed purchase prices for renewable energies. Moreover this system is costly. New fairer rules must be implemented in the market. Either the market is left on its own to send the signals to all investors (including renewable energies), or a minimum of regulation is introduced in order to limit the costly surges of under and over capacity. But in the latter case it is necessary to treat all the energy sources in an equal way and guarantee the nuclear industry that it will also recover its fixed costs over the long term)

  20. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication operator. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Re-investment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selected to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommunication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.Keywords: Financial flexibility, Price war, Telecommunication Regulation, Real Option

  1. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication opera-tor. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele-communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Reinvestment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selec-ted to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommu-nication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.

  2. Report on ENGIE's regulated tariffs for gas sale - Audit supply costs and non-supply related costs. Deliberation of the Commission for energy regulation on the 25 May 2016 bearing approval of the audit report on supply costs and non-supply related costs as basis for the calculation of the evolution of ENGIE's regulated tariffs for natural gas sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe De; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of the analysis performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2015 by discussing the share of consumptions provided under the regulated tariff with respect to those provided on the retail market, the evolution of these tariffs, by noticing that ENGIE costs have been covered by income associated with sales at regulated tariffs. The second part addresses perspectives of evolution for supply costs by outlining the existence of market indexing, the lack of factors which would justify an evolution of gas price indexing level, and a possible reviewing of indices at the moment of revision of the indexing formula. The third part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs. It notices the impact of recent evolution of infrastructure costs, some lack of information regarding provisional trade costs, and a significant decrease of these costs for 2016

  3. Tariff formulation and equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svartsund, Trond

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the transmission tariff is to provide for socioeconomic use of the transmission grid. The present tariff structure is basically right. The responsibility for the formulation of the tariff resides with the local grid owner. This must take place in agreement with the current regulations which are passed by the authorities. The formulation must be adaptable to the local requirements. EBL (Norwegian Electricity Industry Association) is content with the current regulations

  4. Living in the twilight zone : from regulation to retail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, B.

    1998-01-01

    The electric power industry structure in the province of Alberta was discussed. One of the biggest challenges facing the industry is the transition from regulation to open retail competition. Deregulation in the industry began in 1996 with the Electric Utilities Act. In January 1999 the market will open for large industrial customers and full customer choice is to be in place by January 2001. The challenges that Alberta will face in moving to full customer choice was the special focus of this presentation. Adding to these formidable challenges is the fact that the Alberta market is small and is physically isolated from other electrical systems with very limited interconnections with other areas. In consequence, the system may be nearing a point of supply and demand balance for generation and needs some immediate market action to avoid capacity shortages. Alberta Power is tackling these challenges on three fronts: (1) the regulated wire business, (2) the deregulation framework, and (3) new competitive opportunities

  5. 78 FR 21019 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all.... 7 U.S.C. 1a(21). \\4\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules, ``Federal regulatory agency'' includes...

  6. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f(a)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat... retail forex statutory provisions will be the section where the provisions will be codified in the...

  7. Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

  8. Evaluating the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector using agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chengzhu; Yu, Shiwei; Zhu, Kejun; Hailu, Atakelty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a desirable increasing block tariff for the residential gas retail market has been a challenging task for regulated utilities, especially in China. To deal with such problems, in this paper, we establish an agent-based, computational economics system to provide a formal evaluation of the direct and indirect influences of several issued increasing block tariffs in the residential gas market. Moreover, a comprehensive demand response behaviour model has been improved in term of price elasticity, while still coping with income levels and complex social environment. We also compute and compare the outcomes of several increasing block tariffs with the initial flat tariff by running the system on a test-case using real-world data from a middle-scale gas retail market in Wuhan. The results indicate that there is an appropriate increasing block gas tariff scheme that has greater ability to improve social equity while still ensuring operator revenue and promoting gas conservation. In order to offset the limitations of the proposed increasing block tariffs, the regulator should adopt some complementary measures, such as applying appropriate policies targeting the intended consumers, and allowing large families to obtain extra allowance of volume. - Highlights: •Analyse the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector. •An agent-based computational economics system is utilised for policy analysis. •Increasing block tariff can generate revenue while still promote gas conservation. •The increasing subsidy for low income household can improve the social equity.

  9. Retail gas markets - a case of regulated deregulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.

    2001-01-01

    While much has been said recently on the introduction of full retail contestability in Australia's gas markets, the process is far from over. The General Manager (Retail) with Origin Energy-and a new addition to the Australian Gas Association Board-provides an overview of the process to date, and how it might progress in the future. He concluded that in Australia, the retail gas market is relatively small and the processes initiated to achieve full retail competition are still largely fragmented across jurisdictions. These factors have potential to generate costs which could severely dent, if not exceed the anticipated benefit of competition

  10. 75 FR 3281 - Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... members of the retail public (i.e., ``retail forex transactions''). The Commodity Exchange Act, as amended... forex transactions offered by NFA's members. Additionally, the Proposal would amend existing regulations... forex. \\1\\ Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110-246, 122 Stat. 1651, 2189-2204 (2008...

  11. Retail experience in the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the experience gained to date in the de-regulated electricity market through an examination of the commercial market. In 2001, chaos provided opportunity, while in 2002 the emphasis was on operations. In 2003, the landscape reflected hyper-competition, selling second services, and a changing landscape. A discussion followed on the residential market with a look at market structure, economics, and uncertainty concerning the future. The following components were identified as working well: wholesale market, commercial market, market model/data, and innovation in offerings and green supply. Areas requiring further improvement were also identified. It was suggested that the residential de-regulated roadmap should be clarified and retail friendly transactions should be imposed. Other improvements involve education and operations/system capabilities. The author concluded that the deregulated electricity market is still an immature market, where progress is being made in the commercial market. The residential market is in a critical period, with a market model still evolving. figs

  12. Deliberation of the French Energy Regulatory Commission of 18 January 2017 forming a decision on the tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe de; Chauvet, Christine; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The new tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals in Montoir-de-Bretagne (Montoir) and Fos Tonkin, which are operated by Elengy, and for the Fos Cavaou terminal, which is operated by Fosmax LNG, known as 'ATTM51', take effect on 1 April 2017 for a period of approximately four years. They were adopted after a broad consultation of stakeholders and following studies that were made public. The ATTM5 tariffs offer all stakeholders visibility on the changes to tariffs between 2017 and 2021, and provide incentive to LNG terminal operators to improve their efficiency in terms of both cost control and the service quality provided to the users of their terminals. The ATTM5 tariffs show a significant reduction compared to the ATTM4 tariffs: the decrease of the average unit tariff for the ATTM5 period is of 6.5 % for Montoir, 18.2 % for Fos Tonkin, and 18.6 % for Fos Cavaou. These decreases are mainly due to the lower return on assets. To a lesser extent, the reduced operating expenses reinforce the tariff reduction. They can be partly explained by the reduced expenditure related to the decrease in activity, and by the higher productivity achieved by Elengy and Fosmax LNG over the ATTM4 period, enabling the LNG terminal users to benefit from this. The ATTM5 tariffs introduce a change to the structure of the services offer. They create in particular a basic service, the main offer of the LNG terminal operators, which can be supplemented by the subscription to a uniform option. They extend several experimental services initiated during the ATTM4 tariff period. They increase the flexibility available to the terminal's clients on their subscriptions. Finally, they give Fosmax LNG the possibility to offer over the long-term the 10 % capacity previously restricted to the short-term subscriptions

  13. Competition, regulation, and pricing behavior in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    OpenAIRE

    Contín Pilart, Ignacio; Correljé, Aad F.; Palacios, María Blanca

    2006-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990 the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that "liberalization" was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. This paper examines the pricing behavior of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results...

  14. Audit report on GDF Suez's supply costs and non-supply related costs in natural gas regulated sale tariffs - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    After having recalled the legal context of objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), this report proposes an analysis of GDF Suez's dissociated accounting which showed that costs are covered by natural gas regulated sale tariffs. In the second part, it comments the current market indexing used in tariff formula, comments current and present negotiations and their consequences for the market indexing share in long term contracts, discusses the issue of tariff volatility related to an increased market indexing share, discusses the possible re-examination of indices at the occasion of formula reviewing, and outlines that the diversified supplier portfolio allows optimisation operations. The third part addresses non-supply related costs: evolution of different infrastructure costs (related to distribution, transport, and storage) to be taken into account in regulated sale tariffs, evolution of commercial costs. Some recommendations are then made regarding the perspective of a tariff formula revision, and the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  15. The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

    2001-07-01

    After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

  16. Are retailers compliant with zoning regulations that ban tobacco sales near schools in Changsha, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Foraker, Randi E; Xie, Mengyao; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco retail sales are prohibited within 100 m of schools in many large cities in China. However, little is known about the enforcement of this zoning regulation. The objectives of this study were to estimate tobacco retailers' compliance with the regulation, examine the density of tobacco retail stores, describe the types of tobacco products sold in stores and how they are marketed, and determine if there are displays of warning messages in retail stores around schools and in neighbourhoods in Changsha, China. Tobacco retail stores located within 200 m of 36 schools and 36 residential neighbourhoods were audited by trained students with a validated audit form. On average, there were about 3 tobacco retail stores within 100 m of the front entrance of schools. The density of the stores and the types of tobacco products sold in the stores were similar near schools and in neighbourhoods. Over one-fourth of the stores had exterior tobacco advertisements. Interior advertising was slightly less prevalent, and it was most prevalent among tobacco shops (62.5%). Tobacco displays that target children were pervasive, with about 83% of tobacco retail stores displaying cigarettes within 1 m of the floor and 59% displaying cigarettes within 0.3 m of toys and candy. About 40% of stores within 100 m of a school had a visible retail licence. Only 19.6% of the stores had a 'smoke-free' sign and 22.2% had a 'no sales to minors' sign. We observed low enforcement of the regulation that bans tobacco retail sales near schools and high prevalence of tobacco displays that target children in Changsha, China. Chinese officials should act to effectively enforce the regulation bans of tobacco sales near schools. In addition, regulations are urgently needed to limit tobacco marketing practices at the point of sale, especially those targeting youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The operation of French electric power and natural gas retail markets - Report 2014-2015. Report 2015 by the CRE on the operation of French electricity and natural gas markets - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets (customers, number of providers, and so on), and an executive summary, this voluminous report proposes a presentation of CRE's missions regarding the survey and control of retail markets, and of the methodology adopted to survey retail markets, and a recall of the main steps of electricity market and natural gas market opening. Then, it its first chapter, the report proposes a detailed picture and analysis by the end of 2014 for the electricity retail market, for the natural gas retail market, and a discussion about key process follow-up and power cut-off for unpaid bills. The second chapter addresses supplies and prices. It analyses the levels and evolutions of electricity regulated tariffs, of regulated tariffs for gas sales, and of the various market supplies. The third chapter addresses issues related to competition and to the operation of the retail market: the end of sales regulated tariffs, general framework for the survey of providers' practices, provider price practices, analysis of commercial practices implemented by providers, evolutions of the competitive environment on the retail market. An appendix briefly addresses retail markets and regulated tariffs in Europe. A second report proposes a more synthetic presentation which is used as a press file, proposes an executive summary, and addresses the following issues: status of competition (key data for 2014 and 2015), the end of sales regulated tariffs for professionals as a major step of market opening to competition, favourable regulatory context and market price leading to an intensified competition on the residential market, the preferred market supplies for residential consumers, comparison between fixed price and regulated tariffs, an almost non-existent opening in the competition of local distribution utilities, and regulated tariffs in Europe

  18. Pricing and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrelund, A.

    1993-01-01

    Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

  19. Price regulation and relative price convergence: Evidence from the retail gasoline market in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvankulov, Farrukh; Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Ogucu, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores price regulation and relative price convergence in the Canadian retail gasoline market. We use monthly data (2000–2010) on retail gasoline prices in 60 Canadian cities to investigate (i) whether the retail gasoline market in Canada has experienced a relative price convergence to the mean, which is expected, given the increased economic integration across Canadian provinces; and (ii) whether the introduction of price regulation mechanisms in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in July 2006 had any impact on the price convergence in these provinces. We use a nonlinear panel unit root test and find solid evidence that Canadian retail gasoline markets are well integrated across locales; however, the share of converging cities reveals a significant decline since July of 2006. The impact of price regulation on price convergence is mixed; our results indicate that since the enactment of the regulation in all New Brunswick cities (9) included in the dataset, gasoline prices converge to the national mean. Volatility of price is also significantly reduced. In contrast, in the wake of price regulation in Nova Scotia, all 6 cities of the province are non-convergent to the mean with increased volatility and overall price level. - Highlights: ► The paper examines price regulation and convergence of gasoline prices in Canada. ► Overall in 2000–2010 the Canadian retail gasoline market was well integrated. ► Price convergence across cities has significantly declined since July 2006. ► The impact of price regulation at province level on a price convergence is mixed. ► The paper relies on the most advanced nonlinear panel unit root test.

  20. Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeto, Dewey; Woo, C.K.; Horowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

  1. Tools Related to the Federal Tobacco Products Regulations: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    PSA to announce a new mobile text message program that will help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 9/16/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  2. New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillelmon, B.

    1995-01-01

    The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

  3. Regulating the sale of tobacco in New Zealand: A qualitative analysis of retailers' views and implications for advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet; McGee, Rob; Egan, Richard

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the sale of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, the retail availability of tobacco in New Zealand (NZ) is relatively unregulated. Tobacco is almost universally available, and the absence of a licensing scheme for tobacco retailers makes enforcement of retail-level legislation challenging. As a key stakeholder group, the views of tobacco retailers are likely to influence the tobacco retail policies that gain political support. We explored NZ tobacco retailers' views towards mandatory licensing of tobacco retailers, and how they perceived policies that would reduce tobacco availability. We conducted face-to-face interviews with tobacco retail store owners and managers throughout NZ (n=21). A semi-structured interview guide was used, and interviews explored participants' views of existing tobacco retail policies, the NZ government's goal of becoming a smokefree country by 2025, possible future policies, such as licensing of tobacco retailers, and perceptions of selling tobacco. Qualitative content analysis was conducted using the interview transcripts as the data source. The tobacco retailers interviewed expressed varying views on how tobacco sales should be regulated. Around half of the study participants were positive or indifferent about mandatory retailer licensing, and several believed licensing would not have a large impact on them. The idea of restricting the sale of tobacco within 500m of a school was generally well received by participants, and had more support than policies that would prohibit certain outlet types from selling tobacco. In contrast to claims made by industry-related organisations, a proposed licensing policy is unlikely to be met with blanket opposition from tobacco retailers. Advocacy efforts may garner more support for tobacco retail policies if the purpose of policies was framed in terms of protecting young people from smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  5. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio; Correlje, Aad F.; Blanca Palacios, M.

    2009-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power

  6. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  7. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...

  8. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2012-2013 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are still progressively opening to competition. Competition dynamics, even if more limited on the electricity market, is changing in a favorable way. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays more and more attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This activity is going to become reinforced in the future with the scheduled disappearance of regulated sales tariffs. This report presents the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2012 (supplies, offers and prices), with a comparison with other European countries (Germany, UK, Belgium)

  9. Public consultation by the French Energy Regulatory Commission of 14 September 2016 relating to the new tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals. Evolution of the ATM5 offer Proposals from Elengy and Fosmax LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this public consultation is to gather input from the market regarding the options envisaged by the CRE for the ATTM5 tariffs. These concern the tariff regulation framework, the level of tariffs and the structure of the tariff offerings of the LNG terminals. Items from the tariff documentation sent to the CRE by Elengy and Fosmax LNG would lead to a change in unit tariffs of -0.7% for Montoir, -13.9% for Fos Tonkin and -11.9% for Fos Cavaou. At this stage, with regard to the requests from Elengy and Fosmax LNG, the CRE is planning: - to adjust the trajectories of the net operational charges requested by the LNG terminal operators; - to decide on a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) equal to that of the transmission network operators, within a range from 4.75% to 5.5% actual before tax, plus a bonus reflecting the specific risks to LNG terminals, within a range from 1.0% to 2.4%. Depending on the rate of remuneration applied, and the direction of the net operational charges selected, the change in the ATTM5 tariff may be between -2.5% and -10.6% inclusive for Montoir, between -14.4% and -18.5% inclusive for Fos Tonkin and between -14.8% and -26.1% inclusive on average per year for Fos Cavaou. The CRE is planning the following schedule for drawing up the ATTM5 tariff and its entry into force: - this public consultation is open up to 14 October 2016; - the CRE's tariff deliberation, having consulted the French Higher Energy Council (CSE), will be adopted at the end of 2016; - the ATTM5 tariff will enter into force on 1 April 2017. At the same time as this public consultation, the CRE is publishing an audit of the request from LNG terminal operators on the rate of remuneration for the period of the ATTM5

  10. 76 FR 56103 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions; Conforming Changes to Existing Regulations in Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... off-exchange foreign currency transactions with members of the retail public (i.e., retail forex... various provisions of the CEA as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to retail forex transactions... counterparty to a retail forex transaction under CEA Section 2(c)(2)(B) (``permitted counterparty''), which...

  11. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2011-2012 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are progressively opening to competition. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This report presents, first, the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2011. Then, an economic analysis of the supplies on retail market is made. Next, a qualitative analysis of transparency and operation on retail markets is presented. Finally, CRE makes some proposals for the improvement of the transparency and operation of these markets

  12. 76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... country of origin. The Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S... 1 Appendix 2 Sum of tariff origin Appendix 1 & 2 Tokyo R. Uruguay R. schedule NON-CHEESE ARTICLES... 201,635 201,635 [[Page 63540

  13. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  14. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  15. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  16. Regulations as a Tool to Increase Consumer Protection on the European Retail Payment Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Harasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify the main areas of customers' threats concerning using financial services and the in-depth review of European industry- -specific consumer regulations concerning current accounts and payments. Design/methodology/approach - Desk research including in-depth analysis of industry- specific consumer regulations referring to current accounts and payment services having the character of EU directives and regulations, European Commission reports, and documents. Findings - The paper shows that consumers' interests are threatened even when they use basic financial services as current account and combined payment instruments. The analysis based on of desk resources has revealed that the regulations give effect to customer protection only if they strictly correspond to defined areas of threats and particular types of risks. Research implications/limitations - The experience of the recent financial crisis proved that the asymmetry of knowledge and information was one of the crucial reasons disrupting customers' position on financial markets. Research findings will help to identify gaps in regulations and develop the quality of further initiatives aimed on informing customers about the implementation of regulations and improving their financial literacy level. Originality/value/contribution - The payment products are rarely discussed in the literature in the context of consumers' protection and financial regulations. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an overview of financial consumer protection issues concerning retail payments.(original abstract

  17. Report on gas sales regulated tariffs of GDF Suez. Audit of supply costs and of non-supply related costs - May 2015. Deliberation of the Commission for Energy Regulation of the 13 May 2015 bearing approval of the report of analysis of supply and non-supply related costs used as a basis for the calculation of the evolution of natural gas sales regulated tariffs of GDF Suez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-05-01

    After a presentation of the context and objectives of works performed by the CRE (the French commission for energy regulation), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2014 by presenting and discussing the fact that regulated tariffs have followed a downward trend since the beginning of 2014, that sales at regulated tariffs have strongly decreased, and that GDF Suez costs have been covered by revenues from sales at regulated tariffs. The second part proposes an analysis of the evolution perspectives for supply costs by commenting the calculation formula, the difference between gas market price and LT contract prices, the always stronger indexing of contracts on gas market prices. The last part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs by commenting the taking of infrastructure cost evolution into account, the steadiness of provisional commercial costs, and the consequence of the customer portfolio evolution on the distribution of commercial force costs. Some recommendations are made on the evolution perspectives for supply and non-supply related costs, and on the modalities of assignment of commercial costs among the different types of customers (regulated tariffs or market price)

  18. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  19. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.; Versaevel, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, R. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales; Van Norden, S. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales]|[Centre for Interuniversity Research and Analysis on Organizations, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Versaevel, B.

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  2. Open auctioning of nuclear drawing rights: a fair way out from regulated tariffs on the mass market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2008-12-01

    The author presents a tariff approach which will consider the nuclear assets of the French operator as a property belonging to the French citizens who accepted the development of these equipment and who, as consumers, have already largely paid these assets. He describes this market mechanism which would assign drawing rights to all competitors. This mechanism is inspired by the VVP Spanish instrument, bidding or auctioning instruments implemented in different countries, and the EDF's drawing right assignment mechanism. He highlights and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of such an instrument

  3. Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolinario, I.; Felizardo, N.; Leite Garcia, A.; Oliveira, P.; Trindade, A.; Vasconcelos, J.; Verdelho, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

  4. WTO Agricultural Tariffication with Lessons for Tariff Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong¡-Bin Im

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA, all agricultural non-tariff trade barriers should be converted into equivalent tariffs and further, reduced over time. However each member country has the authority to choose the tariff types when it converts NTBs to tariffs such as ad valorem tariff and specific tariff. The paper tries to find the reason for the choice of a certain type of tariff in the process of tariffication after the UR negotiation on agriculture. To achieve this goal, the paper analyses the effects of tariffication of a fixed quota into tariffs on price, trade and welfare in a number of scenarios related to the sources of uncertainty. In this paper, we examine the nonequivalence of specific tariff and ad valorem tariff, which are general type of tariffs used in the most of countries. The paper has shown that the two types of tariffs selected by tariffication of import quota are not generally equivalent in both their effects on price and trade stability and welfare with the trade model under uncertainty. The main conclusion of this study is that there is no general presumption that one tariff regime is superior to the other tariff regime under conditions of uncertainty. The precise source of uncertainty and the properties of the relevant demand and supply functions might affect the determination of tariff type selected after tariffication of non-tariff barriers.

  5. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis

  6. Incentivizing intelligent customer behavior in smart-grids: a risk-sharing tariff & optimal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCurrent electricity tariffs for retail rarely provide incentives for intelligent demand response of flexible customers. Such customers could otherwise contribute to balancing supply and demand in future smart grids. This paper proposes an innovative risk-sharing tariff to incentivize

  7. Eligibility in the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, F.

    2003-01-01

    The true liberalization of the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain was initiated in 1997 and 1998 respectively with the approval of the Electricity Act and the Hydrocarbons Act that set up the regulatory framework for both sectors. The initial eligibility calendars established were speeded up by later legal dispositions which set the full eligibility in January 2003. Therefore in January the number of eligible consumers increased from 65,000 electricity consumers to 22 million and from around 5,000 gas consumers to 4.5 million. In Spain there has been however a coexistence of a liberalized market and a regulated market. While in the liberalized market the consumer will pay a regulated Third Party Access (TPA) tariff for the use of the network and a free price for the energy, in the regulated market the consumer will pay all-inclusive tariffs which are established by the Government in the case of the electricity tariffs and by the Ministry of Economy in the case of the gas tariffs. Today any electricity and gas consumer can choose whether he wants to be supplied through the regulated market or through the liberalized one. Only the electricity HV (High Voltage Supply) all-inclusive tariffs are to disappear in 2007. No date has been set for the others. Also important is to highlight the increase in the consumption of both energy sources. The electricity demand has increased about 38 percent from 1997 (155 TWh/year) to 2002 (214 TWh/year). The gas sector, on the other hand, has increased at a higher rate. From 150 TWh/year in January 1999 to almost 270 TWh/year in July 2003, an 80 percent increase in four and a half years.(author)

  8. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  9. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  10. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  11. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  12. Report on gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers (others than GDF Suez). Analysis of supply costs and of non-supply related costs - May 2015. Deliberation of the Commission for Energy Regulation of the 27 May 2015 bearing approval of the report of analysis of supply and non-supply related costs used as a basis for the calculation of the evolution of natural gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwige, Catherine; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    After a presentation of the context and objectives of works performed by the CRE (the French commission for energy regulation), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2014 by presenting and discussing the distribution of costs taken into account in regulated tariffs of historic providers, and by noticing that the CRE is able to give its opinion on cost coverage by revenues only for a limited number of providers. The second part proposes an analysis of provider supply conditions and their evolution perspectives. The last part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  13. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.; Su Xuejuan

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  14. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  15. 49 CFR 1312.2 - Requirement to publish and file a tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and advertising and promotional material. (d) Effect of filing. The tender of a tariff and its receipt... tariff that is on file with the Board and in effect under this part. (b) Adherence to tariff. The carrier... laws, the Board's regulations, or any decision of the Board or a court, or have any effect on the...

  16. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  17. Costs and Tariff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of magnitude as construction costs. Proposed Civil Nuclear Liability Bill 2008: Reactor operators liable for accidents; must take insurance for Rs. 100-300 crores. Tariff: Despite all this, NPCIL claims it will not cost customers more than Rs. 4 per unit incl. waste disposal and decommish. It wont be easy. We wish them luck !

  18. The compounding effect of tariffs on medicines: Estimating the real cost of emerging markets' protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Even low import tariff rates have a significant compounding effect on the final retail price of medicines, which in turn impacts on affordability. While much of the "access to affordable medicines" debate is about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and business practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers, import duties and national protectionism are swept under the political rug. In this paper, we provide a synopsis of tariff barriers for exports of pharmaceutical products to the world's major...

  19. Is Italian regulation of Deceptive advertising Really Effective? A Content Analysis of the Authority’s Sentences (1999-2004) in Three Sectors: Mobile Communication, Cosmetics, Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    K. Premazzi

    2005-01-01

    Study involving a content analysis of the Italian Authority’s Sentences about deceptive advertising in the mobile communication, cosmetics, and retailing sector in the period 1999-2004, with the main aim to assess the effectiveness of the Italian regulation on this subject.

  20. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  1. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-04-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  2. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  3. Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ortega, Maria Pia; Perez-Arriaga, J. Ignacio; Rivier Abbad, Juan Rivier; Gonzalez, Jesus Peco

    2008-01-01

    Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

  4. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2006-05-01

    The opening up of the UK residential electricity sector in 1999 prompted several studies of the impact this had on both the level and structuring of retail charges, and on incumbent players' market power. Drawing on observations of regional tariffs for the month of January 2004, this paper supports previous conclusions based on simulated retail charges, looking at the response of real tariffs to distribution and transmission costs, customer density, and the length of low voltage underground circuit. We also investigate whether vertically integrated suppliers have a particular effect on charges ceteris paribus the effect of cost drivers and supplier-related factors. (author)

  5. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  6. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, Eraldo; Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

  7. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  8. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  10. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  11. A survey of transmission tariffs in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusztig, C.; Feldberg, P.; Orans, R.; Olson, A.

    2006-01-01

    One goal of electricity restructuring is to facilitate voluntary transactions in workably competitive wholesale electricity markets. Unfettered wholesale trading, however, can only take place under open and comparable access to transmission by all market participants at non-discriminatory tariffs. Since a rich body of literature exists for topics like nodal pricing, transmission rights, ancillary services, and optimal dispatch, this paper's focus is to survey the transmission tariffs actually used in North America to achieve open and comparable transmission access. In doing so, it provides a practical guide to developing a transmission tariff, illustrated by the survey's role in shaping the tariff filed by a company like the British Columbia Transmission Company (BCTC) with its regulator, the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). (author)

  12. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  13. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  14. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... places between which cargo will be carried; (2) List each classification of cargo in use; (3) State the... any, used to maintain the organization's tariffs. (c) Tariff record. The tariff record for each tariff... person and address; (6) Default measurement and currency units; (7) Origination and destination scope...

  15. Consumer views on safety of over-the-counter drugs, preferred retailers and information sources in Sweden: after re-regulation of the pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Barzi, Sahra; Bernsten, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. To examine the adult general public's views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Totally 8,302 people (42%) answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals' recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents' country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%), counseling provided (35%), the product range (34%) and the confidence in staff (27%). Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%). The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42%) and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals' recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.

  16. Consumer views on safety of over-the-counter drugs, preferred retailers and information sources in Sweden: after re-regulation of the pharmacy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerlund T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. Objective: To examine the adult general public’s views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. Methods: A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Results: Totally 8,302 people (42% answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals’ recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents’ country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%, counseling provided (35%, the product range (34% and the confidence in staff (27%. Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%. The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42% and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. Conclusions: The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals’ recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.

  17. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rate....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....

  18. Taxes, Tariffs, and The Global Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    James Levinsohn; Joel Slemrod

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we develop some simple models of optimal tax and tariff policy in the presence of global corporations that operate in an imperfectly competitive environment. The models emphasize two important differences in the practical application of tax and tariff policy - tax, but not tariff, policy can apply to offshore output and tariff, but not tax, policy can be industry-specific. Recognizing the multinationals' production decisions are endogenous to the tax and tariff policies they fac...

  19. Effect of tariffs on the performance and economic benefits of PV-coupled battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared under three different retail tariffs. • The battery ageing, i.e. capacity and discharge capability reduction is simulated. • A dynamic tariff (1-h resolution) increases the battery discharge value up to 28%. • A Li-ion cost of 375 CHF/kW h is required for Geneva for PV energy time-shift. • This requirement becomes 500 CHF/kW h if demand peak-shaving is also performed. - Abstract: The use of batteries in combination with PV systems in single homes is expected to become a widely applied energy storage solution. Since PV system cost is decreasing and the electricity market is constantly evolving there is marked interest in understanding the performance and economic benefits of adding battery systems to PV generation under different retail tariffs. The performance of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery systems in combination with PV generation for a single home in Switzerland is studied using a time-dependant analysis. Firstly, the economic benefits of the two battery types are analysed for three different types of tariffs, i.e. a dynamic tariff based on the wholesale market (one price per hour for every day of the year), a flat rate and time-of-use tariff with two periods. Secondly, the reduction of battery capacity and annual discharge throughout the battery lifetime are simulated for PbA and Li-ion batteries. It was found that despite the levelised value of battery systems reaches up to 28% higher values with the dynamic tariff compared to the flat rate tariff, the levelised cost increases by 94% for the dynamic tariff, resulting in lower profitability. The main reason for this is the reduction of equivalent full cycles performed with by battery systems with the dynamic tariff. Economic benefits also depend on the regulatory context and Li-ion battery systems were able to achieve internal rate of return (IRR) up to 0.8% and 4.3% in the region of Jura (Switzerland) and Germany due to

  20. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyland, Terry; Zaccour, Georges

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  1. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  2. Price regulation to remove EE-DSM disincentives and pressure for increased energy sales in monopoly segments of restructured electricity and gas markets: the multiple drivers target (MDT) tariff scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliano, L.; Alari, P.; Ruggieri, G.; Irrek, W.; Thomas, S.; Leprich, U.

    2002-01-01

    Even in restructured markets a part of the energy business remains a monopoly and should be correctly regulated. We present an analysis which reveals common structures in schemes enacted in UK, Norway, Portugal and recently (on the basis of this study) in Italy. The identified structure, which we named Multiple Driver Target (MDT) regulation is a performance-based regulation scheme, which provides incentives for greater economic efficiency, without creating biases against environmental efficiency. The method relies on a statistical analysis of the correlation of utility costs and a few 'cost drivers' (e.g. number of customers served, grid length, sold or transported energy). We discuss how MDT can be used to set price levels and price changes in the regulatory period in such a way to correctly match the evolution of costs and avoid awarding unwanted signals to utilities. At the opposite, pure Price Cap regulation provides artificial incentives to utilities to increase energy sales (even if this is not economic for the customers nor for society ) beyond the predicted levels foreseen in the price fixing Rate Cases. We show that Under MDT regulation the reduction in profits due to reduced sales as a consequence of DSM is minimised. In so doing this procedure removes the most important disincentive for utilities to implement DSM programmes since lost profits due to reduced sales can be substantially higher than direct costs of DSM programmes; once MDT regulation is in place, also these direct costs can be recovered through a small part of the tariff. We also discuss how MDT can be implemented with a moderate effort by regulatory authorities. (author)

  3. Retail sales of scheduled listed chemical products; self-certification of regulated sellers of scheduled listed chemical products. Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    In March 2006, the President signed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which establishes new requirements for retail sales of over-the-counter (nonprescription) products containing the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. The three chemicals can be used to manufacture methamphetamine illegally. DEA is promulgating this rule to incorporate the statutory provisions and make its regulations consistent with the new requirements. This action establishes daily and 30-day limits on the sales of scheduled listed chemical products to individuals and requires recordkeeping on most sales.

  4. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  5. Time- and place dependent tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, I.; Feilberg, N.; Hornnes, K.S.

    1996-11-01

    To study the variation of the marginal losses in the Norwegian regional and distribution networks, a stylized radial network and an existing network example were analyzed as described in this report. The main conclusion is that the marginal-cost (the marginal losses) varies with time and place in a way that is little reflected in the energy components of the transfer- and distribution tariffs. The difference between the actual marginal-cost at a given time at a given place and the transport price that confronts an actor through the tariffs is so large that one must ask if there is any point in basing a price on marginal-cost as long as today's calculation methods are used. The problem varies somewhat between the network levels. In the distribution network the range of variation is large within the same voltage level/tariff level. If the situation improves, a time differentiation is still required. A further improvement can be obtained by a place differentiation, for example by differentiation between densely and sparsely populated areas. However, this is difficult to realize. In the central network the problem is the same, but it is easier technically and administratively to arrive at a more correct arrangement. In practice there are no great problems in differentiating the price down to individual bus bars. This would relate input and output tariffs more correctly and logically. If time differentiation is intended to capture load variations, it seems that certain improvements are possible in the present classification. It appears that spring and autumn should stand apart as one period. Furthermore, the marginal loss tariff should be based on the water supply situation at the beginning of the tariff period. 10 refs., 13 figs., 17 tabs

  6. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar; Groenli, Helle

    2000-01-01

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would

  7. Quantifying price risk of electricity retailer based on CAPM and RAROC methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    In restructured electricity markets, electricity retailers set up contracts with generation companies (GENCOs) and with end users to meet their load requirements at agreed upon tariff. The retailers invest consumer payments as capital in the volatile competitive market. In this paper, a model for quantifying price risk of electricity retailer is proposed. An IEEE 30 Bus test system is used to demonstrate the model. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is demonstrated to determine the retail electricity price for the end users. The factor Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC) is used to quantify the price risk involved. The methodology proposed in this paper can be used by retailer while submitting proposal for electricity tariff to the regulatory authority. (author)

  8. Quantifying price risk of electricity retailer based on CAPM and RAROC methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    In restructured electricity markets, electricity retailers set up contracts with generation companies (GENCOs) and with end users to meet their load requirements at agreed upon tariff. The retailers invest consumer payments as capital in the volatile competitive market. In this paper, a model for quantifying price risk of electricity retailer is proposed. An IEEE 30 Bus test system is used to demonstrate the model. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is demonstrated to determine the retail electricity price for the end users. The factor Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC) is used to quantify the price risk involved. The methodology proposed in this paper can be used by retailer while submitting proposal for electricity tariff to the regulatory authority. (author)

  9. 18 CFR 281.204 - Tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tariff filing... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule § 281...

  10. 49 CFR 1312.4 - Filing of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identifying each publication filed, and by the appropriate filing fee (see 49 CFR part 1002). Acknowledgment... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION... English with rates explicitly stated in U.S. dollars and cents. Two copies of each tariff publication...

  11. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  12. NPP electrical price and tariff in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad Nasrullah and Sriyana

    2010-01-01

    Construction of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is always become a controversial issue. Nuclear utility and other party which support the NPP present a calculation of NPP electricity cost too optimistic. However for utility and other party that contra to nuclear present a calculation of NPP electricity cost too pessimistic. This study present to reduce the controversy of nuclear cost. In this study, capital cost (Engineering Procurement Construction, EPC) was taken from Asian, America and Europe, operating and maintenance cost uses experience data of PLN, and nuclear fuel cost uses data year of 2008 with high price, low price and average price scenario. The methodological tools used to compare electricity generation cost was LEGECOST, a program developed by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), while for electricity tariff- price calculation using a program developed by PLN research and development center. With the discount rate 10%, the result shows that the cheapest electricity generation cost of NPP is less than 40 mills/kWh, and average electricity tariff was 55 mills/kWh. In the Europe countries the electricity tariff more expensive than NPP in Asia. However generating cost and electricity tariff of NPP in United Stated of America (USA) less competitive because investment cost more expensive. Generating cost and electricity tariff was different at each country depend on salary, labor wage, materials price, construction specification, regulation related to NPP and environment aspect. (author)

  13. Getting a grip on tariffs and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    The tariff and subsidy support available for windpower producers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. is compared. Tariffs and subsidies, along with the availability of finance, are important supportive factors in the development of wind energy in Europe. The available tariffs, subsidies and financing mechanisms available in a country determines how the wind energy programme develops. (author)

  14. The Impact of Utility Tariff Evolution on Behind-the-Meter PV Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This analysis uses a new method to link the NREL Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model with the NREL distributed generation market demand model (dGen) to explore the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV). The evolution most notably takes the form of decreased mid-day electricity costs, as low-cost PV reduces the marginal cost of electricity during those hours and the changes are subsequently communicated to electricity consumers through tariffs. We find that even under the low PV prices of the new SunShot targets the financial performance of DPV under evolved tariffs still motivates behind-the-meter adoption, despite significant reduction in the costs of electricity during afternoon periods driven by deployment of cheap utility-scale PV. The amount of DPV in 2050 in these low-cost futures ranged from 206 GW to 263 GW, a 13-fold and 16-fold increase over 2016 adoption levels respectively. From a utility planner's perspective, the representation of tariff evolution has noteworthy impacts on forecasted DPV adoption in scenarios with widespread time-of-use tariffs. Scenarios that projected adoption under a portfolio of time-of-use tariffs, but did not represent the evolution of those tariffs, predicted up to 36 percent more DPV in 2050, compared to scenarios that did not represent that evolution. Lastly, we find that a reduction in DPV deployment resulting from evolved tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios we examined. Any reduction in DPV generation was replaced with utility-scale PV generation, to arrive at the quantity that makes up the least-cost portfolio.

  15. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  16. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  17. The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nigel; Rice, John

    2013-01-01

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: • Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. • Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. • Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. • Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies

  18. Community ideology vs national realism? The tricky problem of electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavoine, Ivoa; Veyrenc, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors first outline that regulated electricity tariffs trend to crystallize oppositions between European and national political legitimacies. In this respect, they comment the obviously diverging and incompatible positions of France and of the European Union on the regulation of electricity prices: legal procedures against France exist for a defect of transposition of a European directive; another procedure concerns the control of State subsidies; France has maintained a tariff regulation. The authors outline that these oppositions will have to be solved by national and European judges, and then comment that this opposition is related to the strong attachment of France to a tariff system built as a protection against European harmonisation: tariffs are considered as the most efficient and fairest regulation system

  19. Wright tariffs in the Spanish electricity industry: the case of residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger

  20. Tariff Considerations for Micro-Grids in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-16

    This report examines some of the key drivers and considerations policymakers and decision makers face when deciding if and how to regulate electricity tariffs for micro-grids. Presenting a range of tariff options, from mandating some variety of national (uniform) tariff to allowing micro-grid developers and operators to set fully cost-reflective tariffs, it examines various benefits and drawbacks of each. In addition, the report and explores various types of cross-subsidies and other transitional forms of regulation that may offer a regulatory middle ground that can help balance the often competing goals of providing price control on electricity service in the name of social good while still providing a means for investors to ensure high enough returns on their investment to attract the necessary capital financing to the market. Using the REopt tool developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to inform their study, the authors modeled a few representative micro-grid systems and the resultant levelized cost of electricity, lending context and scale to the consideration of these tariff questions. This simple analysis provides an estimate of the gap between current tariff regimes and the tariffs that would be necessary for developers to recover costs and attract investment, offering further insight into the potential scale of subsidies or other grants that may be required to enable micro-grid development under current regulatory structures. It explores potential options for addressing this gap while trying to balance This report examines some of the key drivers and considerations policymakers and decision makers face when deciding if and how to regulate electricity tariffs for micro-grids. Presenting a range of tariff options, from mandating some variety of national (uniform) tariff to allowing micro-grid developers and operators to set fully cost-reflective tariffs, it examines various benefits and drawbacks of each. In

  1. Tariff Model for Combined Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Kolar

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By analysing the cwTen.t situation on the Croatian transportationmarket, and considering all parameters needed forthe development of combined transport, measures are suggestedin order to improve and stimulate its development. Oneof the first measures is the standardisation and introduction ofunique tariffs for combined transport, and then government incentivefor the organisation and development of combinedtransport means and equipment. A significant role in thisshould be set on adequately defined transport policy.

  2. From tariffs to prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baena, D. Eduardo Martin

    1998-01-01

    It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)

  3. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... accounting. The regulations restate and clarify the computation of ending inventory values under the retail... method of accounting for inventories must clearly reflect income. Section 1.471-2(c) provides that the...-retail ratio, or cost complement. The numerator of the cost complement is the value of beginning...

  4. Turning green: Agent-based modeling of the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska-Pyzalska, Anna; Maciejowska, Katarzyna; Suszczyński, Karol; Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Weron, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach we study the temporal dynamics of consumer opinions regarding switching to dynamic electricity tariffs and the actual decisions to switch. We assume that the decision to switch is based on the unanimity of τ past opinions. The resulting model offers a hypothetical, yet plausible explanation of why there is such a big discrepancy between consumer opinions, as measured by market surveys, and the actual participation in pilot programs and the adoption of dynamic tariffs. We argue that due to the high indifference level in today's retail electricity markets, customer opinions are very unstable and change frequently. The conducted simulation study shows that reducing the indifference level can result in narrowing the intention–behavior gap. A similar effect can be achieved by decreasing the decision time that a consumer takes to make a decision. - Highlights: • We propose an agent-based model to study the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs. • The decision to change the tariff is based on the unanimity of τ past opinions. • The model explains why the empirically observed intention–behavior gap exists. • The adoption of dynamic tariffs is impossible due to the high level of indifference in today's societies. • Reducing the indifference level or decreasing the decision time can result in narrowing the gap

  5. Investigating preferences for dynamic electricity tariffs: The effect of environmental and system benefit disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryk, Stephen; Mead, Doug; Mourato, Susana; Torriti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makers’ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: • We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. • We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. • People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. • People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. • Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology

  6. Tariff structures for the transport of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenken, R.M.L.; Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  7. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  8. Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Kaare P.; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)

  9. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tariff becomes effective, if such company or companies did not file such a tariff in the preceding... two-year period. Such tariffs shall be filed with a scheduled effective date of July 1. Such tariff... section shall not preclude the filing of revisions to those annual tariffs that will become effective on...

  10. Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) highlights pricing effects in the US gas value chain: Do we need wellhead price-floor regulation to bail out the unconventional gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2011-01-01

    The total annual revenue stream in the US natural gas value chain over the past decade is analyzed. Growth of total revenues has been driven by higher wellhead prices, which peaked in 2008. The emergence of the unconventional gas business was made possible in part by the pre-recessional rise in global energy prices. The general rise in natural gas prices between 1998 and 2008 did not lower overall US gas consumption, but shifts have occurred during the past decade in the consumption levels of individual consumer groups. Industry's gas consumption has decreased, while power stations increased their gas consumption. Commercial and residential consumers maintained flat gas consumption patterns. This study introduces the Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) as a tool to calculate and monitor an average retail price based on the different natural gas prices charged to the traditional consumer groups. The WACORG also provides insight in wellhead revenues and may be used as an instrument for calibrating retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. Such price-floor regulation is advocated here as a possible mitigation measure against excessive volatility in US wellhead gas prices to improve the security of gas supply. - Highlights: → This study introduces an average retail price, WACORG. → WACORG can monitor price differentials for the traditional US gas consumer groups. → WACORG also provides insight in US wellhead revenues. → WACORG can calibrate retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. → Gas price-floor can improve security of gas supply by reducing price volatility.

  11. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  12. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wang; Sheble, Gerald B.; Lopes, Joao A. Pecas; Matos, Manuel Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  13. 75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... elements ``are required to properly identify the nature of the tariff filing, organize the tariff database... (or other pleading) and the Type of Filing code chosen will be resolved in favor of the Type of Filing...'s wish expressed in its transmittal letter or in other pleadings, the Commission may not review a...

  14. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  15. Electricity tariffs in France: price list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinta, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    On April 20, 1997, Electricite de France (EdF) started the first step of its tariffs change as planned in the 1997-2000 company contractual agreement. A second step followed on May 1, 1998. The 1997 tariffs represent an average decay of 6% explained in constant currency while the 1998 average decay is of 3.5%. The average decay over the whole 1997-2000 period will be of 14%. These decays are followed by changes in the tariffs structure which are summarized in this paper as a series of tables: tariff of sales (domestic customers and farmers, professionals, public, communal and inter-communal organizations, overseas departments and Corsica) and tariffs of purchase (hydraulic and wind producers in mother country and overseas departments). (J.S.)

  16. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic... carrier bags (PRCBs) from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). On April 26... to a U.S. industry. Pursuant to section 736(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the...

  17. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  18. Tariff based competition : latest developments in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provided an explanation of the concept of regulated rates in the natural gas industry, including cost based rates, tariff defined services, tariff defined terms and conditions, discounting and capacity release. Definition of competitive alternatives, such as negotiated rates and negotiated terms and conditions, was included. Additional alternatives, comprising revisions to capacity release programs and further unbundling of the natural gas industry, were also examined. A section on market competition dealt with the development of market centers and hubs, the impact of new pipeline projects as well as recontracting and decontracting. Under the heading of 'Maximizing Value' were discussed issues such as seasonally adjusted contract quantities and seasonally adjusted rates. Other competitive issues, such as access to alternative supplies and alternative markets, quality of customer relations, and timing of contract expirations, also received attention

  19. Electricity tariff design for transition economies. Application to the Libyan power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneses, Javier; Gomez, Tomas; Rivier, Juan [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Angarita, Jorge L. [Europraxis Operations, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a general electricity tariff design methodology, especially applicable for transition economies. These countries are trying to modernize their power systems from a centralized environment (with normally, a public vertically integrated electric company) to a liberalized framework (unbundling electricity companies and, eventually, starting a privatization process). Two issues arise as crucial to achieving a successful transition: (1) ensuring cost recovery for all future unbundled activities (generation, transmission, distribution and retailing), and (2) sending the right price signals to electricity customers, avoiding cross-subsidies between customer categories. The design of electricity tariffs plays a pivotal role in achieving both objectives. This paper proposes a new tariff design methodology that, complying with these two aforementioned criteria, requires a low amount of information regarding system data and customer load profiles. This is important since, typically, volume and quality of data are poor in those countries. The presented methodology is applied to computing tariffs for the Libyan power system in 2006, using real data. (author)

  20. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  1. Residential dual energy programs: Tariffs and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs

  2. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee avec modifications par le Senat en deuxieme lecture, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.565)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  3. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee par le Senat, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.238)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  4. Modelling altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and electricity tariff charge using data analytics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.

  5. Strategic evaluation of bilateral contract for electricity retailer in restructured power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive market scenario, consumers make payments for the consumption of electricity to retailers at fixed tariff. The retailers buy power at the Market Clearing Price (MCP) in spot market and/or through bilateral contract at agreed upon price. Due to these different modes at buying and selling ends, the retailers are faced with an involved task of estimating their payoffs along with the risk-quantification. The methodology presented in this paper gives a range of bilateral quantity and associated price for a retailer to ensure risk-constrained payoff. The exercise is carried out with a single retailer in the market as well as for a case of competition amongst two retailers. Risk is quantified using Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC). The problem is evaluated to get a range of bilateral quantity to be quoted for a particular bilateral price at fixed tariff of loyal load and fixed value of switching load. This summary combined with risk-averseness of the retailer leads him to make a judicial choice about bilateral transactions such that it leads to a risk-constrained payoff. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every tariff...

  7. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which authority... in the Government Filing File and the Filing Advice Status File, and shall be referenced in such a... notice. (b) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to the electronic tariff for which...

  8. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Index of tariffs. 341.9... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.9 Index of tariffs. (a) In general. Each carrier must publish as a separate tariff publication under its FERC Tariff numbering system, a complete index...

  9. Welfare versus market access : the implications of tariff structure for tariff reform

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Anderson; J. Peter Neary

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effects of tariff changes on welfare and import volume can be fully characterised by their effects on the generalised mean and variance of the tariff distribution. Using these tools, we derive new results for welfare- and market-access-improving tariff changes, which imply two "cones of liberalisation" in price space. Because welfare is negatively but import volume positively related to the generalised variance, the cones do not intersect, which poses a dilemma for trad...

  10. Understanding the tariff. Access to the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since the European directive of December 19, 1996 about the common rules of the European power market, the eligible companies can chose their power supplier anywhere in Europe. The manager of the French power transportation network (RTE) supplies a network access to these companies according to a tariff fixed by the decree no. 2002-1014 from July 19, 2002. The aim of this document is to explain this tariff: tariffing principles ('mail-stamp' principle, voltage domain, subscribed output power tariffs, input power tariffs), tariffing elements (access to the grid, elements of output tariffs (subscribed power, overload, emergency tariffs, modifications etc..)), invoicing modalities, output tariffs, definitions. (J.S.)

  11. Approaching a feed-in tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-05-01

    New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.

  12. Pricing of electricity tariffs in competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, J.; Raesaenen, M.

    1999-01-01

    In many countries electricity supply business has been opened for competition. In this paper we analyze the problem of pricing of electricity tariffs in these open markets, when both the customers' electricity consumption and the market price are stochastic processes. Specifically, we focus on regular tariff contracts which do not have explicit amounts of consumption units defined in the contracts. Therefore the valuation process of these contracts differs from the valuation of electricity futures and options. The results show that the more there is uncertainty about the customer's consumption, the higher the fixed charge of the tariff contract should be. Finally, we analyze the indication of our results to the different methods for estimating the customer's consumption in the competitive markets. Since the consumption uncertainties enter into the tariff prices, the analysis indicates that the deterministic standard load curves do not provide efficient methods for evaluating the customers' consumption in competitive markets

  13. 47 CFR 64.709 - Informational tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by... Price Analysis Branch, Competitive Pricing Division. (e) Any changes to the tariff shall be submitted...

  14. Formulas for Industrial Tariff Reduction and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Moonsung Kang

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations under the WTO is the liberalization of trade in industrial products, so-called non-agricultural market access (NAMA). The mandate on the NAMA negotiations is contained in Paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration which aim(s), by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers,...

  15. Tariff System and Electricity Price in the Republic if Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topic, J.; Jurisic, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and development of Electricity Tariff System in Croatia with special emphasis on the tariff system established in 1991. The analyzed period of the application of the tariff system in force and all other tariff rates from 1991 to 1995 are the basis for the assessment of required and possible alternations of tariff rates till the year 2000. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 plan

  16. 電信零售價格調整上限制之研究 Comparative Study on the Price Cap Regulation of Telecom Retail Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉孔中 Kung-Chung Liu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 各國自1980 年代開始自由化電信市場時,紛紛改採用較具有效率誘因的價格調整上限法管制零售價格,以電信業者技術或服務創新所帶來的效率增加⎯⎯所謂的效率因子或調整係數X 值⎯⎯扣除通貨膨脹或其他總體經濟變數變動後之數值,作為其調整價格之上限。國家通訊傳播委員會(NCC)審酌電信事業生產經營效率、各國費率水平及平均降幅、各國監理機關所訂X 值範圍及保障消費者權益等五個因素,於2006 年底公告新的X 值:ADSL電路出租為△CPI + 5.35%,900 兆赫及1800 兆赫行動電話業務中市話撥打行動電話的服務、預付資費方式的服務及月租型服務之不同費率選單中通信費單價最高者,均為△CPI + 4.88%。本文回顧實施零售價格調整上限制最有經驗的英國與美國聯邦(而不包括各州的零售價格管制),發現該制均盛極而衰,走向結束。本文檢討NCC 調整X 值之作法中三點可檢討之處:1.未要求中華電信舉證其ADSL 之成本與利潤,錯失進一步合理降低ADSL 價格的機會;2.要求連續三年調降月租型行動電話服務不同費率選單中通信費單價最高通信費4.88%,並非針對競爭不足的特定業務;3.未充分說明調整係數 X 之組成元素。本文最後點出事前管制零售價格的必要性會日益降低,故應該加強電信業者間資費管制的研究與規範。 When liberalizing telecom markets in the 1980s, countries world over adopted the price cap regime to regulate retail prices that telecom companies may charge their customers. Under price cap telecom companies may not raise the retail prices above the level where efficiency gains—commonly known as the efficiency factor or X factor-minus inflation rate. The National Communications Commission (NCC promulgated new X factors for various telecom services at the end of 2006: X for ADSL is

  17. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  18. POLICIES OF RETAIL SECTOR OF INDIA AND OTHER SELECTED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Subhadip

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Before 1991, the retail sector was mainly unorganized and fragmented. The rapid growth of the organized retail sector has resulted in the decreasing sales of unorganized retail outlets. Along with that, the traditional unorganized retailers were lagging behind in the context of promotional strategies. This study intends to examine the government policies of different countries including India regarding the unorganized and organized retail sector. The present study examines whether the government provides a tight legal framework along with economic support to the small and unorganized retailers to sustain in this big fight. The study concludes that in the environment of intense competition, governments of different countries (including India had helped small as well as big domestic retail chains through formulating appropriate policies over time. The governments had helped domestic retail chains by providing capital support and/or formulating strict legislations to restrict entry of foreign retailers in their respective countries. In India, all the regulations regarding retail sector is still in state level and is being influenced by the existing political parties of different states. Thus, it varies across states and their impacts are also heterogeneous.

  19. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.

  20. Strategy for Addressing the Retail Sector under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's Regulatory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Strategy lays out a cohesive and effective plan to address the unique challenges the retail sector has with complying with the hazardous waste regulations while reducing burden and protecting human health and the environment.

  1. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  2. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  3. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  4. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  5. THE RETAIL CONCENTRATION AND CHANGES OF THE GROCERY RETAIL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Blaženka; Knego, Nikola; Delić, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Concentration is one of several key processes that are taking place in retail markets of the European countries. Retail concentration process occurs in all EU countries and it’s manifested with the decreasing number of leading retailers with simultaneous increase in their market share. Undergoing process of retail market concentration is bringing new challenges to all market participants: suppliers, existing retailers and customers. In this paper we will discuss concentration in retail indust...

  6. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  7. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  8. Audit report on social tariffs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    This document reports an audit study performed by the ADEME and related to energy social tariffs, to their modalities and distribution costs, and aimed at proposing recommendations to improve these arrangements or to create a new one. In a first part, it outlines that these tariffs are apparently based on simple and fair principles, describes how eligible households are identified, outlines that these tariffs do not solve arrangement structural inequity between heating modes, that the awarded amount depends on too many parameters, that providers are totally reimbursed (sometimes even more), and that the arrangement is still insufficient to solve the problem of energy poverty. The second part addresses operational modalities and highlights their complexity. Recommendations are then stated which are aimed at consolidating and simplifying them, and at modifying them to create an actual energy shield

  9. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  10. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.; Davis, F.; Dilovska, I.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  11. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  12. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  13. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  14. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  15. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  16. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  17. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  18. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  19. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  20. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  1. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  2. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  3. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  4. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  5. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...

  6. Tariffs by marginal cost are the real economic values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the electric power tariffs by marginal cost in Brazilian sectors is presented with some considerations bout the economy, politics and a forecasting for 1995. Two tables with tariffs and costs are also shown. (author)

  7. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  8. 18 CFR 281.212 - Draft tariff and index of entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft tariff and index... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment...

  9. Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

  10. The Evolution and Future of Retailing and Retailing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dhruv; Motyka, Scott; Levy, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The pace of retail evolution has increased dramatically, with the spread of the Internet and as consumers have become more empowered by mobile phones and smart devices. This article outlines significant retail innovations that reveal how retailers and retailing have evolved in the past several decades. In the same spirit, the authors discuss how…

  11. Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

  12. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  13. Choosing the tariff for city passenger transportation in Kiev

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with basic problems of tariff policy of city passenger transportations by busses fleets of communal pattern ownership in Kiev. Principles of perfection of method of calculation of tariffs have been offered by introduction of rout and unique tariff.

  14. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section...

  15. Transmission tariffs - Principles, structure, aims and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenli, Helle; Sand, Kjell

    1997-11-01

    The report deals with several optimization techniques for increasing the efficiency of electric grid operation in Norway. Methods and tools used for the determination of transmission costs are discussed such as partial transmission tariffs and Ramsey-pricing etc. 7 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  17. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...

  18. Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the

  19. Local Retailers Response to Retail Internationalisation:Malaysia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Poh Ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the entirety of grocery retail internationalisation, and the happening in the Malaysian Grocery Retail. The results of a field study suggest that local retailers were generally optimistic about the industry in the next ten years, and the examination on their strategic behaviour in the face of grocery retail internationalisation suggests that local retailers have learned and understood the need for modernised strategies in their strategic posture as well as their competitiv...

  20. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  1. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.H.; Center, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  2. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  3. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...

  4. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  5. Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

  6. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  7. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  8. Ethics in retail business

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRUŠKA, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...

  9. Commission for energy regulation - 2012 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of the organisation, role and missions of the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and of its relationship with other institutional actors, this report describes and comments the action of the CRE in the fields of dialogue and transparency. It presents and comments key figures regarding the electricity and gas retail markets. It reports and comments the European reaction to the cold peak of February 2012 (historical peak for consumption and prices, inquiry on the causes of these price peaks, need of a European market). The next part addresses the relationship between electricity grids and territories (solidarity between electricity grids as the basis of the Europe of energy, evolution of French grids to face new needs and to take regional and local dimensions into account). Another part addresses gas infrastructures which are considered as the cornerstone of a good operation for the French market and for the integration of the European energy market (gas world market in 2012, definition of a target model for the gas market by European regulators, evolution of the French market in compliance with the European target model, new tariffs for the use of natural gas transport networks). The report then addresses the development of renewable energies: actions of CRE (bidding, opinion of tariffs), influence of renewable energy development on electricity prices on gross markets, needed evolution of electricity grids. A last part addresses the issues of energy cost, demand management, and struggle against energy poverty

  10. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  11. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    by the overlapping food certification requirements of various government agencies, which impose limitations on the buyers’ decision. Due to the exploratory nature of the study and its focus on the context of a particular geographical marketplace, the findings may not be generalizable to other countries. Originality......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...... the buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers...

  12. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harne, N.J.

    1996-05-01

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  13. Price cap regulation: the case of natural gas transport in the UK; La reglementation par price cap: le cas du transport de gaz naturel au Royaume Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L. [ATER, Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France)

    1999-09-01

    The transport and storage activities of British Gas company are controlled by a distinct organization named Transco. The access charges paid by the suppliers for the use of Transco's network are regulated by a price cap since October 1, 1994. However, Ofgas, the office of gas supply which is the regulation authority in charge of the control of competition and of British Gas activities, considers this control system as inefficient and has chosen a RPI (retail price index)-X (expected productivity factor)-type price cap for the control of gas transport tariffs. This has led to a disagreement between Transco and Ofgas which has delayed the implementation of the new system up to February 1998. This article compares the choices made by Ofgas for the control of gas transport tariffs with the economical theory. It recalls first, the reasons why the price cap appears as more efficient than the service cost regulation, the alternate method used by regulation authorities to control the tariffs of natural monopolies. Then, the difficulties linked with the implementation of the price cap for the transport of natural gas in the UK are analyzed in order to explain the reasons that led Ofgas to change its formula. Finally, the bases of an optimum hybrid formula are proposed. (J.S.)

  14. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  15. Coordinating Contracts for Two-Stage Fashion Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Retailer and Price-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the demand is sensitive to retail price, revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract have been shown to be able to coordinate supply chains with risk neutral agents. We extend the previous studies to consider a risk-averse retailer in a two-echelon fashion supply chain. Based on the classic mean-variance approach in finance, the issue of channel coordination in a fashion supply chain with risk-averse retailer and price-dependent demand is investigated. We propose both single contracts and joint contracts to achieve supply chain coordination. We find that the coordinating revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract in the supply chain with risk neutral agents are still useful to coordinate the supply chain taking into account the degree of risk aversion of fashion retailer, whereas a more complex sales rebate and penalty (SRP contract fails to do so. When using combined contracts to coordinate the supply chain, we demonstrate that only revenue sharing with two-part tariff contract can coordinate the fashion supply chain. The optimal conditions for contract parameters to achieve channel coordination are determined. Numerical analysis is presented to supplement the results and more insights are gained.

  16. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  17. Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.

  18. Impact of state policy on forming the competitiveness of retail trade in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rafailevna Salikhova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of the state regulation of retail trade and its influence on the formation of competitive advantage in retailing. Method logicalmathematical. Results the article considers the methods of retail trade regulation. The factors constraining the business activity of retail chains are analyzed the factors constraining the business activity of retail networks are revealed. The activities are proposed that would contribute to improving the competitiveness of domestic trade of Russia. Scientific novelty econometric model has been built that includes 8 factors. Within the model the influence of the studied factors on retail chains turnover is defined. Practical value the possibility to apply the obtained results to increase the efficiency of retail trade enterprises and consequently their competitiveness. nbsp

  19. Innovations in retail business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorescu, A.; Frambach, R.T.; Singh, J.; Rangaswamy, A.; Bridges, C.

    2011-01-01

    A retail business model articulates how a retailer creates value for its customers and appropriates value from the markets. Innovations in business models are increasingly critical for building sustainable advantage in a marketplace defined by unrelenting change, escalating customer expectations,

  20. Efficient buyer groups for prediction-of-use electricity tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Robu, V; Vinyals, M; Rogers, A; Jennings, NR

    2014-01-01

    Copyright ? 2014, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.Current electricity tariffs do not reflect the real cost that customers incur to suppliers, as units are charged at the same rate, regardless of how predictable each customers consumption is. A recent proposal to address this problem are prediction-of-use tariffs. In such tariffs, a customer is asked in advance to predict her future consumption, and is charged based both on her actual consumption and the deviation fr...

  1. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. Feed-in tariffs for renewable energies in Europe - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1999-01-01

    Tariffs paid for renewable electricity have become the decisive criteria for renewable energy development in Europe. This interdependency has been reflected by the introduction of various legislative schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) in an increasing number of Eu Member States which is being analysed in this paper. The rapidly expanding market for wind power in Europe has been the best example for the success of favourable tariff schemes for renewable energies. Such as supportive framework - especially as in Denmark and Germany - has allowed the emerging industry to develop and expand, with thousands of new jobs created. Taking a closer look at installation rates, it is obvious that many existing regulations and tariff schemes in other Member States do not seem sufficient to allow for an accelerated market introduction of RES. Therefore, favourable framework conditions - especially with regard to financing - are required at European level. This is why this paper proposes the introduction of a common European legislation granting minimum tariffs to renewable energies which are fed into the electricity grids. The proposed directive is in line with several resolutions of the European Parliament and with many documents adopted by the European Commission, the latest the Green Paper on RES. (orig.)

  3. Welfare-Ranking Ad Valorem and Specific Tariffs under Monopolistic Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an ad...... valorem tariff. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...

  4. Innovations and czech retail business

    OpenAIRE

    Pecho, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe current trends in global retail, the current state of retail in Czech Republic and possible need of bringing innovation to the outburst of Millennials generation economic activity. Introduction is devoted to theoretical description of retail and its meaning. As part of the thesis, there is a significant part containing relations within the worldwide retail and also its current trends and development. Furthermore, part of the thesis is devoted to the devel...

  5. Organized Retailing of Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Thomas, Sujo

    2012-01-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, more and more retailers are trying to put their best efforts to discover new avenues of success when it comes to the sales of horticultural commodities. There are several Indian companies as well as foreign companies who have been focusing all their energies to succeed in the organized retail sector of Indian horticulture commodities. The Indian retail industry is worth $470 million and organized retail stands at $26 million which...

  6. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  7. The State of Online Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  8. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  9. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  10. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatchew, Adonis; Baziliauskas, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: → Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. → Most projects are either solar or wind. → Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) → Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  11. Solar feed-in tariffs in a post-grid parity world: The role of risk, investor diversity and business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karneyeva, Yuliya; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, feed-in tariffs have spurred significant deployment of solar photovoltaics in Germany and other countries. With recent cost trends, several countries are approaching retail grid parity. Some policymakers conclude that now is the time to remove feed-in tariffs, as grid parity creates a self-sustaining market, where economically rational investors will invest even in the absence of government incentives. Recent experience in key European solar markets, however, shows that with the advent of grid parity and the reduction of feed-in tariffs, investment in new solar capacity has decreased rather than increased, making it questionable whether low-carbon energy policy targets will be reached. We conduct a cross-case study analysis of three PV markets – Germany, Italy and Switzerland – to investigate the role of feed-in tariffs for the near- and post-grid parity stages of diffusion, accounting for investor diversity and distinguishing between implications for revenue-based and savings-based business models. We find that recent market trends are strongly driven by increased levels of risk, especially policy risk and exposure to revenue risk. We therefore suggest that relatively frugal but stable policy environments may be conducive to further growth of investment in photovoltaics and minimize cost to society. - Highlights: • Cost reductions of PV have led countries to move away from secure feed-in tariffs. • Exposure to higher risk reduces investment in PV deployment. • Revenue-based and savings-based business models are affected differently by risk. • Corporate, institutional and retail investors differ in their cost of capital. • If PV investor diversity shall be maintained, some risk mitigation is needed.

  12. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J; Vilkko, M; Antila, H; Lautala, P [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  13. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  14. Effective Retail Sales Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canei, Robert A.

    The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…

  15. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  16. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  17. Management Training in Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  18. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  19. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  20. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Rooderkerk (Robert); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be

  1. Ninth international conference on metering and tariffs for energy supply. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Contributions to the ninth international conference on Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply are presented. Topics reviewed include legal metrology, regulation and the commercial framework (3 papers); metering in a competitive supply (7 papers); interactive papers (13 papers); standardisation (5 papers); equipment design (5 papers); equipment manufacture and testing (5 papers); data collection and processing (6 papers); securing and enhancing revenue (5 papers); prepayment systems (5 papers); and metering as a business (4 papers). (UK)

  2. The emerging marijuana retail environment: Key lessons learned from tobacco and alcohol retail research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Haardoerfer, Regine; Freisthler, Bridget

    2018-06-01

    The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults. Moreover, retail marketing or point-of-sale practices may differentially target subpopulations and differ by neighborhood demography and local policy. This literature and the methods employed for studying the tobacco and alcohol market could inform research on the retail environment for marijuana, as current gaps exist. In particular, much of the existing literature involves cross-sectional research designs; longitudinal studies are needed. Moreover, standardized measures are needed for systematic monitoring of industry marketing practices and to conduct research examining neighborhood differences in exposure to retail marketing for marijuana and its contribution to use modality and frequency, alone and in combination with nicotine and alcohol. The use of standardized measures for tobacco and alcohol marketing have been critical to develop an evidence base from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that document the impact of retail marketing on substance use by adolescents and adults. Similar research is needed to establish an evidence base to inform federal, state, and local regulations of marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  4. The new tariffs for photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    The new tariffs for the purchase of photovoltaic electricity were published by French authorities in January 2010. This new framework is more constraining and the tariffs are lower. For installations integrated to the building: 0.580 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for buildings dedicated to accommodation and buildings over 2 years of age dedicated to teaching and health; 0.500 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for other old buildings with 4 walls and a roof; 0.420 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for installations over 3 kWc on new buildings with a roof (but not necessarily with 4 walls) dedicated to any use except accommodation. For other installations: -)in the country: 0.314 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations below 250 kWc and from 0.310 to 0.377 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations over 250 kWc; -) in Corsica and DOM-COM: 0.400 euros/kWh (instead of 0.438 euros/kWh). (A.C.)

  5. Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar; Gjelsvik, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  7. X - FACTOR EVALUATION UNDER RPI-X REGULATION FOR INDIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVAN KHETRAPAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With regulators’ growing interest in improving operational efficiency and quality supply, the time is nearing when performance based regulation will become norm for regulating the distribution tariff in Indian electricity distribution sector. In this context, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions proposed replacing rate-of-return regulation with most commonly used performance based regulatory regime, i.e., Price Cap regulation also known as RPI-X (Retail Price Index - Productivity Offset regulatory framework. However, the potential problem associated with applying price cap regulation scheme in practice is the determination of productivity offset or X factor used in price caps setting. This paper proposed an approach to calculate the X-factor for 58 government-owned and privately-owned electricity distribution utilities in India during a five year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. A Stochastic Frontier model through an input distance function is first applied to compute the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the estimated TFP is then used to calculate the utility-specific X-factor. With rely on calculated X-factor, the distribution utilities would be able to cap either on prices or revenues thus accounting the inflation in the tariff determination. This will be more realistic approach as compared to cost plus approach.

  8. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  9. Don't Sell Tobacco to Minors: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-08

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18.  Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/8/2010.

  10. Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, LJH; Heijdra, BJ

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff shock has

  11. Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff

  12. Tariffs for natural gas, heat, electricity and cogeneration in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurance, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration and horticulture, and natural gas supply contracts. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, the tariffs and compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. Also attention will be paid to tariffs for electricity transport. Finally, several taxes, excises and levies that have a direct or indirect impact on natural gas tariffs, are discussed. 9 refs

  13. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, B.; Durieux, B.; Chevalier, J.M.

    2006-03-01

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  14. 76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... with the Commission's Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS), Report and Order (Order). This notice is...: Pamela Arluk, Pricing Policy Division, Wireline Competition Bureau, at (202) 418-1520, or email: pamela...

  15. Gas Transport Services. West European Gas Transmission Tariff Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1999, the Dutch gas transmission company, Gastransport Services (GTS), has commissioned an independent consultant to prepare reports comparing gas transportation tariffs across Western Europe on an annual basis. This report describes the tariffs in force at 1 February 2006. The previous report was published in May 2005, and reported on the tariffs which were in force at 1 January 2005. Since then several companies have published revised carriage arrangements, or have adjusted their tariffs (e.g. to reflect inflation, or for other reasons). In this report we compare the GTS tariff with the transportation tariffs in eleven other countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This means that all West European countries with Third Party Access to gas transmission systems (except Finland) are covered in this report. In this main part of the report, we concentrate on showing charts which illustrate the comparisons of tariffs, at various distances, volumes and load factors. This gives an overall picture of the tariffs offered by each company, rather than concentrating on particular cases. The detailed calculations for each of the 45 cases are shown in the Appendix to this report, and the conclusions from the cases are shown in a colour-coded chart in the Summary and Conclusions.

  16. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section. (3) Carriers and conferences may assess a reasonable fee for access to their tariff publication systems and such fees shall not be discriminatory. (4) Tariff publication systems shall provide... provided at the expense of the publishers. Any recurring connection fees, hardware rental fees, usage fees...

  17. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  18. Barriers in EU retail financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Looking at the retail financial markets and identifing a number of ‘‘natural’’ and ‘‘policy induced’’ obstacles to free trade. We use the term ‘‘natural’’ barriers to refer to those arising as a result of different cultures or consumer preferences, while different state tax policies or regulations are classified as ‘‘policy induced’’ barriers.

  19. Restructuring of LDCs and retail marketing by producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.

    1998-01-01

    The restructuring of local distribution companies (LDCs) and retail marketing producers and the challenges facing market participants were discussed. In Canada, LDC operations are regulated by provincial utilities commissions. This presentation focused on Ontario because it has the largest and most active retail gas market in Canada where some significant LDC restructuring initiatives are taking place. The current state of retail gas pricing in Ontario was also reviewed. Consumers Gas or Union Gas are the two utilities that serve most of the 2.2 million natural gas customers in Ontario. Both utilities have fully integrated supply and marketing businesses which include the sale and delivery of natural gas, related products and services. Suncor's recent entry into the retail natural gas market has been successful. Suncor currently has the third largest number of retail customers in Ontario and a significant share of that market. LDCs will become delivery companies who focus on providing reliable and safe distribution of natural gas to all customers and will provide open access to all gas marketers on a non-discriminatory basis. This will result in more sophisticated marketing to retail customers, retail customer contracts will change to fixed term, fixed price agreements, and there will be strong brand identification. Additional opportunities will be created as a result of deregulation of the electricity industry

  20. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the values of wholesale and retail marketing of natural gas to offer choice to all Canadians. The initial wholesale market dealt with physical bilaterals, financial bilaterals and transmission rights, while the mature wholesale market deals with futures contracts, reserve markets, dispatchable loads, swaps, trades and emissions trading. Wholesale prices include debt reduction charges, transmission charges transformation charges, ancillary charges, and independent market operator (IMO) fees. Retail rates offered by local distribution companies (LDC) include distribution charges, adjustments to SSS, and distribution losses. The role of marketers is to provide consumers with what they want, which is annual fixed rates with aggregation and load profiling as well as billing and procurement services

  1. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  2. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  3. Vliv reklamy na retail

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the connection of two aspects: retail and advertising and to provide general overviews. To foreshadow expected changes in the consumer's behaviour and establish how important the role advertisement constitutes. Research is also focused on direct influence of advertisement on customers. This thesis is composed of both a theoretical and a practical part. The first two chapters of the theoretical part represent a description of basic information about advertising an...

  4. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  5. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui; Goh, Wei Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  6. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Sagar, Ambuj D.; Abhyankar, Nikit; Sreekumar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  7. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  8. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  9. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  10. The retailing of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.

  11. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  12. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  13. A comparison of three policy approaches for tobacco retailer reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Hall, Marissa G; Isgett, Lisa F; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1000 ft of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 ft the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another "gold standard" three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 ft of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Who benefited from the US tariffs on the Chinese tires?

    OpenAIRE

    Joonhyung, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...

  15. Cross-subsidy in electricity tariffs: evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.

    2004-01-01

    The recent reforms in India have been equated to the reduction of cross-subsidization in electricity tariffs. Examining the usefulness of cross subsidies in electricity tariffs in India, I have argued that they are prone to considerable inefficiencies and should be discontinued. I have also formally examined the viability of above-cost tariffs in the industrial sector to allow subsidized domestic and agricultural consumption. Finally, I have used data from a distribution company in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India to estimate industrial demand for electricity and have found that the policy of cross-subsidy may have indeed gone overboard in India. (author)

  16. Tariff Reduction Effects of WTO/DDA Agricultural Negotiations: Analysis of the Chairman's Second Draft Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kyun Choi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The average tariff reduction rate is 20% point higher in five developed countries analyzed in this study compared to five developing countries following the direction offered by the Chairman's Draft Text. Average tariff reduction rates are 31.6% for the five developing countries and 51.4% for the five developed countries. Korea's tariff reduction rate reaches to 36.1%, the highest reduction in developing countries, when Korea retains the developing country status. When Korea makes tariff reductions following the direction for developed countries, the average tariff reduction rate rises to 55.8%. Tariff reductions following the second Draft Text affect the tariff structure. Tariff escalation, dispersion and peaks can be mitigated by applying the tariff reduction methods proposed in the Second Draft Text. Tariff reductions give rise to the effects of reducing tariff escalation problem and the effects are stronger for the commodities with higher tariff rates and in developed countries. The average tariff rate for tariff peak commodities is reduced by 40% in developing countries and by 60% in developed countries. Tariff dispersion is also mitigated by reducing tariff rates. The difference of the average tariff rate between Korea and Australia is reduced to 38.5% from 59.8% by cutting tariff rates with the rules proposed in the second Draft Text. Korea needs to prepare the Country Schedule in advance to evaluate the potential outcome of the tariff cut following the Draft Text and to capture various voices from producers, consumers and other related institutions. For the preparation of the Country Schedule, Korea needs to decide minimum tariff cut items within a group of the commodity classified by tariff rates and this procedure requires discussion among producer and consumer groups.

  17. 14 CFR 399.40 - Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs for domestic air transportation on... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.40 Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983. The Board will not approve or accept any tariff filings for interstate of overseas air transportation...

  18. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilby, M.

    2001-01-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs

  19. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  20. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  1. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  2. Utility Green Tariff Programs: Considerations for Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny

    2017-05-08

    This FEMP First Thursday presentation will explain the concept of a utility green tariff, how it differs from a green pricing program, and what questions federal agencies should have about participating.

  3. INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN THE COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE TARIFF SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Zasypkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of a single channel financing in the health system of the Russian Federation based on the standards of the compulsory health insurance (CHI requires a single channel financing of the health system through the CHI as one of the main direction using payment of the medical services in the form of so-called «full» tariff [1-12].It is not a secret that for many years the medical services tariff in the CHI system contained from only five items of expenditures (salary, charges on payroll, soft goods and clothing, medicines, bandages, other medical expenses, and food. On one hand, such defective tariff was based on the parallel government financing of the medical institutions (MIs, on the other hand, because of this tariff, the manager was hoppled in the control of the financial flows.

  4. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...-B402, Washington, DC 20554. Customers may contact BCPI, Inc. via their Web site, http://www.bcpi.com... electronically. This information is helpful in tracing modifications made to tariffs, so we conclude that it must...

  5. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Bhattacharya, K.; Fuller, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  7. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur la proposition de loi tendant a autoriser les consommateurs particuliers a retourner au tarif reglemente d'electricite, la proposition de loi reversibilite de l'exercice des droits relatifs a l'eligibilite pour l'achat d'energie electrique et la proposition de loi tendant a preserver le pouvoir d'achat des menages en maintenant les tarifs reglementes de vente d'electricite et de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  8. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  9. Tariff Policy and Transport Costs under Reciprocal Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Oshiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes tariff competition by investigating the strategic interactions among firms that are highly mobile across national boundaries. Although high transport costs yield a geographic dispersion of the industry, sufficiently low transport costs result in a core-periphery location where nobody bears tariff burdens. In any case, the world economy would be in a much better position under an international coordination scheme. An economy is only required to enforce a weak international ...

  10. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different Tariff Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing stru...

  11. Smart Meter Tariff Design to Minimise Wholesale Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, William; Carroll, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Smart metering in electricity markets offers an opportunity to explore more diversetariff structures. In this article a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to design Time ofUse tariffs that minimise the wholesale risk to the supplier in residential markets.Residential demand and the System Marginal Price of Ireland's Single ElectricityMarket are simulated to estimate the wholesale risk associated with each tariff.

  12. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  13. EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

  14. 29 CFR 779.110 - Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act. 779.110 Section 779.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.110 Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the...

  15. Influencia de la regulación regional en la eficiencia en el sector minorista (1999-2012 || Influence of regional regulation on efficiency in the retail sector in the period 1999-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Carmona, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la identificación de los factores explicativos de las diferencias de eficiencia en las empresas del sector minorista (CNAE-09 4711 en España, prestando especial atención a la regulación con el fin de vislumbrar la forma en que esta ha influido en el desempeño de las empresas a raíz de los cambios legislativos acaecidos en el periodo 1999-2012. Preliminarmente también se realiza una primera etapa de análisis donde se estudian los niveles y evolución de la eficiencia y productividad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la eficiencia técnica media del sector para todo el periodo de estudio se cifra en el 65,9%, de manera que las empresas que operan en este podrían haber obtenido el mismo nivel de output con un ahorro potencial del 34% de los inputs. La escala a la que operan las compañías, alejada de su ́optimo, se constituye como el principal causante de la ineficiencia técnica. Respecto a la productividad total de los factores, experimentó un crecimiento medio en todo el periodo del 0,3%. En cuanto a los factores determinantes de la eficiencia, la regulación y el tamaño presentan una relación positiva y estadísticamente significativa. Igualmente la localización también influye sobre la eficiencia, mientras que la edad no se configura como factor determinante de la misma. || The main objective of this study is the identification of the explanatory factors on the differences in efficiency in the retail sector enterprises (CNAE-09 4711 in Spain, paying particular attention to the regulation in order to clarify the way in which this regulation has influenced the performance of the companies because of the legislative changes occurred in the 1999-2012 period. Moreover, a preliminary analysis is carried out to study levels and evolution of efficiency and productivity. The results show that the average technical efficiency for this retail sector in the period under study is estimated at 65

  16. Optimal electricity price calculation model for retailers in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusta, J.M.; Dominguez-Navarro, J.A. [Zaragoza Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zaragoza (Spain); Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. [La Rioja Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Logrono (Spain); Perez-Vidal, J.M. [McKinnon and Clarke, Energy Services Div., Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity retailing, a new business in deregulated electric power systems, needs the development of efficient tools to optimize its operation. This paper defines a technical-economic model of an electric energy service provider in the environment of the deregulated electricity market in Spain. This model results in an optimization problem, for calculating the optimal electric power and energy selling prices that maximize the economic profits obtained by the provider. This problem is applied to different cases, where the impact on the profits of several factors, such as the price strategy, the discount on tariffs and the elasticity of customer demand functions, is studied. (Author)

  17. Optimal electricity price calculation model for retailers in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Dominguez-Navarro, J.A.; Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Perez-Vidal, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity retailing, a new business in deregulated electric power systems, needs the development of efficient tools to optimize its operation. This paper defines a technical-economic model of an electric energy service provider in the environment of the deregulated electricity market in Spain. This model results in an optimization problem, for calculating the optimal electric power and energy selling prices that maximize the economic profits obtained by the provider. This problem is applied to different cases, where the impact on the profits of several factors, such as the price strategy, the discount on tariffs and the elasticity of customer demand functions, is studied. (Author)

  18. Distributional effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through wholesale and retail electricity price impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cludius, Johanna; Forrest, Sam; MacGill, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) has spurred significant investment in renewable electricity generation, notably wind power, over the past decade. This paper considers distributional implications of the RET for different energy users. Using time-series regression, we show that the increasing amount of wind energy has placed considerable downward pressure on wholesale electricity prices through the so-called merit order effect. On the other hand, RET costs are passed on to consumers in the form of retail electricity price premiums. Our findings highlight likely significant redistributive transfers between different energy user classes under current RET arrangements. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. By contrast, many households are paying significant RET pass through costs whilst not necessarily benefiting from lower wholesale prices. A more equitable distribution of RET costs and benefits could be achieved by reviewing the scope and extent of industry exemptions and ensuring that methodologies to estimate wholesale price components in regulated electricity tariffs reflect more closely actual market conditions. More generally, these findings support the growing international appreciation that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The Australian RET has complex yet important distributional impacts on different energy users. • Likely wealth transfers from residential and small business consumers to large energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of wind likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to RET costs. • RET costs for households could be reduced if merit order effects were adequately passed through. • Need for distributional impact assessments when designing and implementing clean energy policy

  19. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... currency with retail customers, subject to the requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The... shall prescribe \\5\\ (a retail forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... associations are depository institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules...

  20. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  1. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  2. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  3. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, taken...... together, are interpreted to have let to neglecting the notion of meaning in existing research. It is argued that taking a constructivist perspective can help overcome the limitations of previous research and contribute to the development of an understanding of retailer buying as meaningful action.retailer...

  4. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  5. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  6. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inapplicability of âretail conceptâ to some types of sales... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES... Retailâ § 779.321 Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible...

  7. Commission de regulation de l'energie. activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2011 activity report of CRE. Contents: 1 - Board of Commissioners' Message; 2 - The operation of the CRE and the activity of CoRDiS (Standing Committee for disputes and sanctions); 3 - Overview of the electricity and gas retail markets; 4 - Third energy package and certification; 5 - Europe of Energy; 6 - Renewable energy; 7 - Nome law (law on the reorganisation of the electricity market); 8 - Gas tariff; 9 - Linky smart meter; 10 - Gas distribution tariff and smart meter; 11 - Appendix: Summary of the CRE's main decisions in 2011

  8. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF CATALOGUE RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Bezic; Katija Vojvodic; Zrinka Gjanovic

    2012-01-01

    Today`s retail environment is characterised by new, store and non-store, retailing formats, a wide range of new products, the use of new information and communication technologies and, consequently, the changing customer behaviour. Catalogue retailing is a non-store retail format that has a long history in North America and Europe. Previous research revealed that the primary shopping motives related to catalogue retailing were convenience oriented. Other motives included recreational orientat...

  9. « Retail Brand Equity: A PLS Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Jara

    2009-01-01

    In large retail stores, France is characterized by market saturation and even a decline of several retail concepts such as variety stores, or even supermarkets and hypermarkets (Cliquet, 2000). This situation leads to a fierce competition and raises questions which affect marketing strategies of French retail companies. Given the legal context, the French retailers can increase sales through retail brands which appear to be henceforth among the most effective marketing tools. Indeed, product ...

  10. Optimal Retail Price Model for Partial Consignment to Multiple Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the product pricing decision-making problem under a consignment stock policy in a two-level supply chain composed of one supplier and multiple retailers. The effects of the supplier’s wholesale prices and its partial inventory cost absorption of the retail prices of retailers with different market shares are investigated. In the partial product consignment model this paper proposes, the seller and the retailers each absorb part of the inventory costs. This model also provides general solutions for the complete product consignment and the traditional policy that adopts no product consignment. In other words, both the complete consignment and nonconsignment models are extensions of the proposed model (i.e., special cases. Research results indicated that the optimal retail price must be between 1/2 (50% and 2/3 (66.67% times the upper limit of the gross profit. This study also explored the results and influence of parameter variations on optimal retail price in the model.

  11. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Vifor Bogdan; Cirlan, Florica; Mihailescu, Florentina

    2004-01-01

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of

  12. 76 FR 33065 - Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... regulation 1.3 as well. The Commission also proposes adding the term ``retail forex customer'' to regulation... appears in regulation 5.1(k).\\21\\ \\21\\ 17 CFR 5.1(k) currently defines ``retail forex customer'' as ``a...,'' ``retail forex exchange transactions,'' and ``commodity option transactions'' with the term ``commodity...

  13. 77 FR 66287 - Adaptation of Regulations To Incorporate Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... the term ``retail forex customer'' in regulation 1.3 because it appears in several regulations in part... receive any comments to the Proposal's addition of a definition of ``retail forex customer'' to regulation 1.3. \\26\\ 17 CFR 5.1(k) currently defines ``retail forex customer'' as ``a person, other than an...

  14. Reducing the power load by means of seasonal tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    It has been found that, on a typical winter day, a network tariff that depends on the season may lead to a 5 per cent reduction in the power load of a row house. This is one of the results of a project which investigated the effect of season-dependent tariffs with 108 customers in Trondheim, Norway. For flats in blocks, the impact was insignificant and evidently other instruments were required. Results from this project and other projects in the 'End-user market' have been important for the proposed new seasonally differentiated tariffs. The effect of time variable network tariffs has been tested with 20 commercial customers in Trondheim over a period of three years and 13 of these customers adapted themselves actively to the new tariff and achieved a reduction of the peak load of from five to three per cent. In the summer, the price was about half that of a winter day. It is critical for the intended effect to occur that the arrangement is long-lasting and predictable for the customer. This contributes to increased adaptation and investment in the necessary equipment

  15. Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Burim Gashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.

  16. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  17. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  18. Tobacco Control Act: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-22

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 6/22/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 6/22/2010.

  19. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  20. Retail Visual Assistant Digital Artefact

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Window display, store layout and visual merchandising are defined as the ability to attract and sell to the consumer silently. One of the biggest challenges facing small retail businesses in towns and villages around the globe is how to compete against large multinationals in the visual layout and presentation of their merchandise and shops. One of the key advantages that large retail units have over small ones is professionally merchandised stock incorporated into a strategic spatial layout....

  1. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  2. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  3. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    PSA to help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18 and the requirement to sell products face-to-face.

  4. Electricity price and tariff problems and approaches to their solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piha, M.

    1994-01-01

    The following problems are discussed: (i) integrity of the tariff system, price setting and price control in relation to the secondary market; (ii) long-term contracting relations between the subjects - primary and secondary market entities; (iii) the setting of electricity purchase prices from independent producers; (iv) international integration of national systems, including electricity import prices; (v) cross-subsidies within the system; (vi) identification of adverse environmental impacts and their remediation by incorporating the associated costs into electricity prices; (vii) the cost basis of prices; (viii) objectivization of the cost basis; (ix) unification/diversification of the price and tariff levels and the associated distribution rent problem; (x) rational structure of the tariff system with respect to its complexity and ties to the measuring and control instrumentation and their efficiency; and (xi) breakdown of the costs of heat and electricity cogeneration and a fair price setting. (J.B.)

  5. MEASURING INEFFICIENCY IN THE PRESENCE OF AN EXPORT TAX, AN IMPORT TARIFF, AND A STATE TRADING ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural sales cooperative unions (ASCUs) in Turkey are heavily influenced by both domestic and international government policies. Both export taxes and import tariffs are used as policy tools to regulate cotton markets. Domestic price support programs, water subsidies, fertilizer subsidies, and credit subsidies have also been used as domestic policy tools. These types of subsidies are not uncommon among developing countries. This paper provides empirical estimates of the degree of econom...

  6. Prices and tariffs in a liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijkers, F.; Wals, A.; Battjes, C.; Scheepers, M.

    2000-01-01

    First, it is described how prices and tariffs were determined before the introduction of the liberalization. Next, a brief overview is given of the transfer to the liberalized market and how the situation is on this market at present. Special attention is paid to the pricing of electricity in a free market, which is determined by competition between electricity producers in the Netherlands and abroad. Finally, a comparison is made between the expected prices and tariffs in a liberalized market and the prices before the liberalization

  7. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, L.; Swagerman, D.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  8. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    . Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more......Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals...

  9. Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikov, B.E.; Gitel'man, L.D.; Artemov, Yu.N.; Fiantsev, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

  10. Dynamic Power Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes dynamic power tariff (DPT), a new concept for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), and heat pumps (HPs). The DPT concept is proposed to overcome a drawback of the dynamic tariff (DT) method, i.e., DPT can replace...... the price sensitivity parameter in the DT method, which is relatively unrealistic in practice. Based on the control theory, a control model with two control loops, i.e., the power flow control and voltage control, is established to analyze the congestion management process by the DPT method. Furthermore...

  11. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs

  12. 78 FR 69660 - Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial Energy... LLC, Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Entergy Arkansas, Inc., Entergy Gulf States Louisiana, LLC....206 (2013), Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission...

  13. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  14. Creating employees' motivational paths in the retail trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kantanen Teuvo; Julkunen Saara; Hiltunen Esa; Nickell David

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the manifestation of intrinsic motivation by exploring the sources of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among employees of a retail hypermarket. The research uses narrative and ethnographical analysis from 24 interviews. Two unique dimensions were created for motivational power—source and growth process—for a new typology of work motivation. The typology consists of four processes: intrinsic regulation, intrinsic valuation, extrinsic valuation, and extrinsic regulation. T...

  15. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Barquín, Julián; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ► Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ► Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ► Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ► Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  16. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party. (e...

  17. Participatory environmental governance in China: Public hearings on urban water tariff setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the

  18. 75 FR 18882 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations For Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Secretary of the Treasury for Tax, Trade, and Tariff Policy, Treasury asked that the Commission conduct an... Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, pursuant to section 1205 of the Omnibus Trade and...

  19. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in the...

  20. 14 CFR 221.102 - Accessibility of tariffs to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tariffs to the public. 221.102 Section 221.102 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Inspection § 221.102 Accessibility of tariffs to the public. Each file of tariffs shall be kept in complete...

  1. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  2. Response to DOE's call for comments on its discussion paper on wholesale and retail market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, T.

    2005-01-01

    The options available to the Government of Alberta concerning retail electricity policy were reviewed by the Office of the Utilities Consumer Advocate. The Council claims that the deregulation of Alberta's electricity market has been a success because competition has added new generation and removed inefficient generation from service. However, the Council is concerned that the transition to competitive retail electricity market can impose additional costs and risks on small consumers. Therefore, it proposes that electricity be bought on a central basis for small consumers using a suitable mix of 3 to 5 year hedges; that competitive and regulated retailers be given full access to a centrally purchased hedge supply; that regulated retailers be offered a small customer service margin price incentive per kWh over the hedged energy rate; and that the regulated rate option be reviewed in 4 years. 1 fig

  3. Natural gas tariffing principles in France and tariffs evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This short document explains the principle of gas tariffing in France which is based on the marginal cost of development and on the equality between consumers. The evolution of industrial and domestic gas tariffs since 1997 is summarized in tables. (J.S.)

  4. Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economic net loss in production, consumption and exchange gain economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand, such that the welfare distribution value will be bigger; (b) sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia by knowing that cane field calculation in East Java in the ...

  5. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitiveness of sugar products in Indonesia was evaluated using the of East Java wet and dry farmlands and was found to be higher than similar products from overseas as shown by DRC value of less than 1. Keyword: Sugar, Welfare distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), import tariff, Indonesia ...

  6. The gas tariffing principles in France and the tariffs evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The gas tariffing, in France, is based on the cast tariffing and on the equality of treatment of the consumers. To respect these principles the gas utilities uses two actions: the prices control and the group contract between the State and Gaz de France. To illustrate this policy the tariffs evolution since 1997 are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...

  8. New experimental electricity tariff systems for household end use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    A significant tool in Demand Side Management is the structure of tariffs. Price incentives can be directed at different parts of the efficiency-concept: efficiency in capacity planning, efficiency in total electricity consumption, efficiency in total fossil fuel use, efficiency in total energy

  9. Evaluation and optimization of feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Kuk; Lee, Chi-Guhn

    2012-01-01

    Feed-in tariff program is an incentive plan that provides investors with a set payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources that is fed into the power grid. As of today, FIT is being used by over 75 jurisdictions around the world and offers a number of design options to achieve policy goals. The objective of this paper is to propose a quantitative model, by which a specific FIT program can be evaluated and hence optimized. We focus on payoff structure, which has a direct impact on the net present value of the investment, and other parameters relevant to investor reaction and electricity prices. We combine cost modeling, option valuation, and consumer choice so as to simulate the performance of a FIT program of interest in various scenarios. The model is used to define an optimization problem from a policy maker's perspective, who wants to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the overall energy supply, while keeping the total burden on ratepayers under control. Numerical studies shed light on the interactions among design options, program parameters, and the performance of a FIT program. - Highlights: ► A quantitative model to evaluate and optimize feed-in tariff policies. ► Net present value of investment on renewable energy under a given feed-in tariff policy. ► Analysis of the interactions of policy options and relevant parameters. ► Recommendations for how to set policy options for feed-in tariff program.

  10. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas Tamas, Meszaros; Bade Shrestha, S.O.; Zhou Huizhong

    2010-01-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  11. Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; van der Meijden, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open

  12. what is the optimal level of tariffs for african countries?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Series focuses on economic policy-making topics and provide a forum for ... question become highly important for structuring trade policies for maximum gains from ... The study therefore suggests a country by country approach to tariff ... many countries of Africa, the issue is no longer whether or not to liberalize trade, or.

  13. Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Ardelean; A. Ceclan; L. Czumbil; D. D. Micu; E. Simion

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

  14. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  15. Gas transportation tariffs in the european union market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In a liberalised market, it is an indubitable competitive advantage for a firm to accede at the gas grid with a low cost. The comparison among gas transportation tariffs of 18 European gas transportation companies for a big industrial consumer, shows that Italy is in the medium-high position of the ranking [it

  16. 75 FR 48629 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... composition requirements of our rules. This would ensure that all tariffs have a basic uniformity that will... transmittal: (1) A summary of the filing's basic rates, terms and conditions; (2) A statement concerning... filing, the basis of ratemaking employed, and economic information to support the changed or new matter...

  17. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  18. Governmental intervention approaches to promote renewable energies—Special emphasis on Japanese feed-in tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Yuji, Naka

    2012-01-01

    Almost all countries have issued laws and regulations to promote renewable energy (RE). However, the applications and motivations of such laws as well as achievements have been different. Currently, the Japanese government has announced its targets to expand the electricity feed-in tariff scheme for solar power, along with other energy sources, within two years to meet the goal set by the Japanese Prime Minister who, in the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) held in September 2009, proclaimed to cut 25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 1990 levels by 2020. In this paper, the current Japanese energy policies and measures for promoting RE in comparison to popular methods followed worldwide are explored. Furthermore, a Least Cost Feed-in Tariff (LCFIT) Simulation Model for Japanese case was developed to calculate the optimal mix of technologies to reach certain targets. The LCFIT also calculates the tariff that should be proposed for each technology and the total cost for the program with and without a carbon tax and estimates the premium added to the bill of the customer every month. - Highlights: ► RE governmental interventions vary with country's economical, social and topological condition. ► LCFIT Model showed that Japan can apply the FiT system with reasonable burdens on the customers. ► Applying 20% of carbon tax can lead to declining the burdens on the customer by about 32%–45%. ► The R and D expenditures on RE is almost one-fourth that of nuclear power in some countries. ► Japanese scenarios seem very satisfying compared to that of Germany and other European countries.

  19. College-Level Education in Retailing: A Comparison of Perceptions of Retail Employment Executives and Retail Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Sue Stringer

    The tremendous changes in methods of operation experienced in the retailing field in recent years, have brought about changes in the nature and extent of formal education required of potential retail executives. The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative value of various elements of college retailing programs in the…

  20. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  1. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  2. Retail applications of signature verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  3. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajacic, Goran, E-mail: Goran.Krajacic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Duic, Neven, E-mail: Neven.Duic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Tsikalakis, Antonis, E-mail: atsikal@corfu.power.ece.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zoulias, Manos, E-mail: mzoulias@cres.g [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings (CRES), Pikermi (Greece); Caralis, George, E-mail: gcaralis@central.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Panteri, Eirini, E-mail: panteri@rae.g [Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE), Athens (Greece); Carvalho, Maria da Graca, E-mail: mariadagraca.carvalho@europarl.europa.e [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: {yields} Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. {yields} Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. {yields} Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. {yields} Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. {yields} Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  4. Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Marco; Desideri, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. • Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. • The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. • The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy

  5. THE AGGREGATE IMPACT OF ONLINE RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Tran

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of online retail on aggregate welfare, I use a spatial model to calculate a new measure of store level retail productivity and each store's equilibrium response to increased competitive pressure from online retailers. The model is estimated on confidential store-level data spanning the universe of US retail stores, detailed local-level demographic data and shortest-route data between locations. From counterfactual exercises mimicking improvements in shipping and increased ...

  6. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  7. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  8. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  9. 77 FR 37614 - Tariffs (Other Than Tariff Review Plan); Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... (Other Than Tariff Review Plan); Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable Rates for Local Exchange Carriers; High-Cost Universal Service Support AGENCY... with the Commission's Connect America Fund, Report and Order (Order). The Commission submitted...

  10. Retailing Laboratory: Delivering Skills through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Valdez, Ana Dolores; Valdez Cervantes, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    Building from a theoretical foundation of active learning, this article describes how using a retail laboratory in an educational curriculum can benefit both students and strategic partners. Students work alongside strategic partners, and the retail laboratory enables them to probe and design novel retailing strategies, such as launching new…

  11. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyer...

  12. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all... codified at 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E)). In this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions will...

  13. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an... of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f(a)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat... the retail forex statutory provisions are to the sections in which the provisions will be codified in...

  14. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all... codified at 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E)). In this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions will...

  15. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... a retail forex business, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities Exchange Act...) of which the broker-dealer is a member insofar as they are applicable to retail forex transactions... Exchange Act, to permit a registered broker or dealer (``broker-dealer'') to engage in retail forex...

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  17. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  18. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  19. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  20. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...

  1. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  2. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  3. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  4. Participatory environmental governance in China: public hearings on urban water tariff setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Jin; Mol, Arthur P J

    2008-09-01

    In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the decision-making on tariffs. Water tariff decision-making seems to move away from China's conventional mode of highly centralized and bureaucratic policy- and decision-making. The legalization, institutionalization and performance of public hearings in water tariff management forms a crucial innovation in this respect. This article analyzes the emergence, development and current functioning of public hearings in water tariff setting, and assesses to what extent public hearings are part of a turning point in China's tradition of centralized bureaucratic decision-making, towards more transparent, decentralized and participative governance.

  5. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  6. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  7. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff Public...

  8. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    supply in Europe, 50% increase in gas prices in 2005, Predominance of large-scale operators on the European market); The opening of the gas markets (The opening of the markets in European Union countries, The opening of the French gas market); CRE: regulator of the French gas market (Changes in natural gas regulated retail tariffs, Tariffs and terms for using regulated infrastructures); C - Regulation of the electricity market: Electricity players and markets (European players on the French market, Wholesale electricity market, Retail market); Access to public electricity grids (CRE's action concerning access to interconnections with neighbouring countries, Application of a new tariff for use of public electricity grids as from 1 January 2006, Electricity metering systems, CRE's monitoring of the quality of service of public electricity grids, Approval of RTE's investment programme, Improvement in terms for access to public electricity grids, Standard specifications for the public electricity transmission grid, Balancing mechanism); Public electricity service (Support systems for cogeneration and renewable energies, Public electricity service charges, Recovery of CSPE); D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction (CRE's activity in figures, Dispute settlements: a means of specifying the terms and conditions of access and use of systems) Resources (CRE staff, Changes in departmental organisation); European and international activity (Relations with other regulators, Relations with European Union institutions, Relations outside the European Union); E - Appendices: Glossary, Abbreviations, Units and conversions, Index of insets, tables and figures, Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER)

  9. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    imports in gas supply in Europe, 50% increase in gas prices in 2005, Predominance of large-scale operators on the European market); The opening of the gas markets (The opening of the markets in European Union countries, The opening of the French gas market); CRE: regulator of the French gas market (Changes in natural gas regulated retail tariffs, Tariffs and terms for using regulated infrastructures); C - Regulation of the electricity market: Electricity players and markets (European players on the French market, Wholesale electricity market, Retail market); Access to public electricity grids (CRE's action concerning access to interconnections with neighbouring countries, Application of a new tariff for use of public electricity grids as from 1 January 2006, Electricity metering systems, CRE's monitoring of the quality of service of public electricity grids, Approval of RTE's investment programme, Improvement in terms for access to public electricity grids, Standard specifications for the public electricity transmission grid, Balancing mechanism); Public electricity service (Support systems for cogeneration and renewable energies, Public electricity service charges, Recovery of CSPE); D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction (CRE's activity in figures, Dispute settlements: a means of specifying the terms and conditions of access and use of systems) Resources (CRE staff, Changes in departmental organisation); European and international activity (Relations with other regulators, Relations with European Union institutions, Relations outside the European Union); E - Appendices: Glossary, Abbreviations, Units and conversions, Index of insets, tables and figures, Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER)

  10. Vape shop retailers' perceptions of their customers, products and services: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer Y; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Garcia, Robert; Garcia, Jocelyn; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve Y

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has spurred the growth of vape shops, but little is known about the retailers who may play an important role in the introduction and dissemination of vape products. In this paper we examine how retailers profile their customers and their perceptions of vaping, and the services their shops provide. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of retailers (n=77) located across southern California. Open-ended questions were coded and analyzed using a content analysis approach. Three themes emerged from the content analysis: who vapes, why people vape, and the vape shop environment. Retailers profiled customers as friendly, health conscious, and interested in tobacco cessation or cessation maintenance. Retailers believed e-cigarettes were used recreationally or as products that help curb other addictive behaviors. While most retailers reported positive experiences with vaping, some reported potentially negative experiences including failed cessation attempts, dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes, and increased nicotine dependence. Retailers reported that they regularly answer questions about vaping and believe their shops function as social lounges that are tied to other recreational activities. Retailers attach certain characteristics to their clientele, perceive certain health benefits associated with vaping, and seek to establish their shops as places that provide guidance on vape products as well as shops with a recreational aesthetic. As vape shops grow in popularity, additional research on, and regulation of, these retailers will be necessary. Education campaigns are needed to inform retailers of the benefits and consequences of vaping.

  11. No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

  12. Workshop: Rethinking the profession and education of retail design

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, Katelijn; Claes, Stephanie; Vanrie, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We strongly believe retail design is becoming a discipline in its own right. Today, the growth of digital technology asks for new ways of retailing. The intertwining of retail and society makes it challenging for retailers to stay relevant in relation to the consumers changing habits. Fitch believed that ‘shopping is the purpose of life’ (Fitch, 2012). His belief shifted the way all stakeholders in retail thought about what retail and retail design should be about. By rec...

  13. 47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .../2 inch (8.89 cm) diskette, or a 5 inch CD-ROM, formatted in an IBM-compatible form using either WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word 6, or Microsoft Word 97 software. No diskettes shall contain more than one... following format: “1 of _”, “2 of _”, etc. (b) The tariff must contain the carrier's name, the international...

  14. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment...

  15. Retail unbundling: how much progress has been made?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.

    1999-01-01

    Bentek Consulting Services is a power market research and management consulting firm that provides information and analytical services to large non-regulated retail marketing companies. Their studies have indicated that retail unbundling in the the U.S. energy sector is unfolding too slowly because many local distribution companies (LDCs) are subverting the process and many marketers make the problem worse with bad management. In an unbundled market, the local utilities' monopoly merchant role will be replaced by numerous competitive energy merchants. Both customers and suppliers could benefit financially from unbundling. In addition, unbundling holds promise for more efficient use of resources. One way to determine the success of unbundling is to determine how many customers have actually switched to a non-regulated utility. The numbers vary from a low in California of 5 per cent to a high of more than 50 per cent in Pennsylvania. The factors that determine customer participation were also reviewed. 2 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, Ronnie; Lange, Ian

    2013-01-01

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  17. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  18. Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, A.R.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

  19. Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    (1) We estimate CO 2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find −15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ► Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ► Net carbon exports: industrialized region −15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ► CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ► The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ► They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

  20. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap

  1. Containment of fertilizers and pesticides at retail operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1990-06-28

    Environmental protection has become as important to the fertilizer retailer as the products and services he offers. Emphasis on environmental protection at the dealer level is largely in response to state regulations designed to protect groundwater. The national Clean Water Act of 1987 gave states the lead in developing groundwater protection strategies. Several states have adopted new or stronger regulations and others are moving to do so. Fertilizer dealers need to keep up with these regulations and promote groundwater protection. This paper describes several containment systems for fertilizers and pesticides to help dealers decide how to modify their plants to protect groundwater.

  2. The new contaminated land power: the implications for petrol retailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, I.

    1995-08-01

    The likely effects of the new contaminated land power, legislation, which is about to become law, are discussed for petroleum retail sites. These sites are owned and operated in a variety of ways and it is expected that as regulations become more rigorous, the number of legal suits against previous owners is set to rise sharply. The various complications of ownership, and liability are also considered. (UK)

  3. The new contaminated land power: the implications for petrol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, I.

    1995-01-01

    The likely effects of the new contaminated land power, legislation, which is about to become law, are discussed for petroleum retail sites. These sites are owned and operated in a variety of ways and it is expected that as regulations become more rigorous, the number of legal suits against previous owners is set to rise sharply. The various complications of ownership, and liability are also considered. (UK)

  4. The factors of retail brand positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the basic characteristics of a retail process as a function of the development of a successful brand. The retail network is continuously progressing, developing its abilities, successfully adjusting to its environment, and which is the most important it is persistently following wishes and needs of its consumers, and is satisfying them through high-quality offers. The retail network is relatively a new business structure, which has a great potential for competitive advantage. Once, prestigious partners to retailers, which have represented successful brands, they are often perceived to be stripped of rank and to come back at the level of common suppliers. Also, the suppliers' brands have no longer the position as they had, their status has decreased and their former power is gone, as a more superior, compared to the retailers. The inertia, enjoying 'the old glory', thinking in the manner of the same well-established formula as well as the inability to adjust themselves to the changes occurring among consumers have led the majority of the brands to be stuck in the past. The companies have to stop this increasing phenomenon, if they do not want to face in the near future, even more dramatic and more harmful consequences. Since the main aim of the research, performed in this work, was to determine the importance of retail brand positioning, the retail environment was analyzed, with special emphases on the consumer role in retail, and factors of successful retail activities. As a special aspect of successful retail, the environment of retail place was determined and within this, the effects of the retail places' atmosphere. For setting the retail strategy framework, the following basic entities are observed: product, price, exclusivity, quick response, information technology, price strategy, logistics and competitiveness. .

  5. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions

  6. Retail competition in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defeuilley, Christophe [LARSEN and EDF R and D, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-02-15

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  7. Executing the Perfect Retail Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Rygaard Jonas, Louise

    The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally fo...... and management levels in the organisation. It is argued that responsibility for brand expressions should be more decentralised.......The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally...... focus has been on using corporate communication to align employees around the corporate brand to achieve this. Through in-depth, longitudinal, ethnographic research this paper suggests that coherence can only be achieved by understanding the complex interplay of identities between occupational groups...

  8. Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid gilanpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.

  9. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  10. Shopper marketing strategy in food retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogetić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading role of retailers in food industry marketing channels significantly contributes to shopper marketing affirmation. Shopper marketing is a new marketing paradigm which focuses on the shopper and point-of-sale. Results of thorough literature review on shopper marketing have been presented in this paper. In addition, research methodology includes surveying 1000 shoppers in food retail stores in Belgrade area. The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary. Significant research finding is that shoppers' perceptions in food retail market require a profiled approach to retail store strategy adjustments, which includes shopper marketing programs and activities. The paper opens a number of questions regarding possible approaches to shopper marketing by crisscrossing the variables of retail formats, sex, and shoppers' income categories.

  11. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based...... on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  12. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate and compare network tariff designs. Four design attributes are proposed for this aim: (i) network cost recovery; (ii) deferral of network reinforcements; (iii) efficient consumer resp...

  13. Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international tr...

  14. Electricity distribution tariffs and distributed generation : quantifying cross-subsidies from consumers to prosumers

    OpenAIRE

    Picciariello, Angela; Vergara, Claudio; Reneses, Javier; Frías, Pablo; Söder, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of distributed generation (DG) can cause an increase or a decrease on distribution network costs. Tariff design is the main tool for allocating these costs to customers who own and operate DG resources. Currently, however, either DG units are exempt from paying distribution tariffs or they are subject to tariffs originally designed according to a traditional pricing model without DG in the grids, also known as load-based pricing. Partial recovery of the allowed distributi...

  15. Estimating the Economic Effects of Reducing Non-Tariff Barriers in the EEU

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Demidenko, Mikhail; Pelipas, Igor; Tochitskaya, Irina; Shymanovich, Gleb; Lipin, Andrey; Movchan, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The report provides the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of non-tariff barriers on mutual trade in the EEU and gives recommendations as to how to remove them. It is based on a poll of 530 Russian, Kazakh and Belarusian exporters. In the research non-tariff barriers are divided into two groups. The first group includes non-tariff barriers such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, quotas, prohibitions, and quantitative controls. The second group comp...

  16. MARKETING OBJECTIVES AMONG RURAL FOOD RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    Food retailers representing four retailer types (family operated grocery stores, produce markets, meat/egg/dairy markets, and convenience stores) in rural Georgia communities were surveyed as to their marketing objectives. Qualitative marketing objectives were ranked by the marketers as to marketing intentions, and by customers as to marketing expectations. More definitive and quantitative marketing objectives were also ranked by the food retailers as to the priority of implementation in thei...

  17. Retail Tactical Planning: An Aligned Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer , Heidi; Dukovska-Popovska , Iskra; Kiil , Kasper; Kaipia , Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Quality in Production Management; International audience; This paper addresses tactical planning in retailing through a case study approach in one grocery retailing company. The issues are how tactical planning is conducted and how the different plans are connected. The study complements earlier retail planning studies by showing the sequence of planning phases and by studying the fragmented plans as a process. The master category planning is important and sets borders for the other p...

  18. GENDER ASPECTS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    DEPUTATOVA ELENA YURYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Situation in Russian retail demonstrates a highly competitive structure. Irrespective of segmentation ways, many retailers have still been using common ways of marketing communications and the search of loyal customers remains an elusive target for many companies. The problem is that a great variety of retailers have similar offers both to men and women, ignoring the fact it should be different. The article deals with differences of men and women consumer behavior aspects in choosing shops, t...

  19. Supply Chain Management in Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladana Brajevic

    2009-01-01

    Companies attempt to change their ways of doing business to find out new approaches to customers. Internationalization and consolidation of retailing turned traditional retail industry upside down. Fast and efficient operational models and new technologies constantly challenge retailers. The term supply chain management (SCM) is relatively new in the literature, appearing first in 1982. Supply chain is a set of institutions that moves goods from the point of production to the point of consump...

  20. Retail payments and the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payme...

  1. New Trends in Logistics as Retail Support

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Renko; Dejan Ficko; Kristina Petljak

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Informatisation, internationalisation and globalisation have dramatically changed retail sector; speeding up the retail processes, creating new sale formats, fastening the increase of income etc. During the last decade, logistics influenced the development of retailing by cutting down costs and increasing the service quality level. The main purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of market trends that affected logistics and directly caused changes in Croatian retailin...

  2. Potentials of RFID Application in Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foscht, Thomas; Kotzab, Herbert; Maloles III, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The willingness of retailers to adopt RFID systems, as well as finding optimal RFID applications has yet not been investigated. This paper examines the issues associated with the RFID adoption based on the results of a conjoint analysis. The conjoint measurement looked at the trade-off decisions...... among different possible set-ups of RFID applications in retailing companies. Considerable willingness to adopt, but low diffusion and a structure of preferences with respect to RFID features was shown throughout the examined retailing companies. Furthermore, differences were shown among different types...... of retailers in their preferences for RFID system features and clusters were implied....

  3. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  4. Implementation of Integrated Retail Module (IRM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin, Richard A; Bona, Richard E; Brekhus, Dennis A; Padilla, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    ...) systems for achieving reduced military clothing inventories though automated systems providing asset visibility at the wholesale retail and manufacturing levels and balanced flow replenishment...

  5. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....

  6. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  7. Retail Consulting Class: Experiential Learning Platform to Develop Future Retail Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjoo; Polidan, Mary

    2018-01-01

    The retail industry is undergoing a significant transformation. Factors such as technological advancement and evolving consumer demands have forced companies to rethink their traditional approaches to retail. Retailers have since embraced data-driven strategies with real-time implementation to stay relevant in this complex, ever-changing industry.…

  8. Light, Low, Mild, and Similar Terms: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps raise retailers' and manufacturers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, manufacturers can not produce any tobacco products labeled or advertised as "light," "low," or "mild." As of July 21, 2010, manufacturers may no longer distribute these products.

  9. Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

  10. Nr 150 - Private bill introducing a progressive energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois; Le Roux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This document presents a private bill which, by introducing a progressive energy tariff, aims at speeding up energy transition (by inciting households to reduce their consumption, notably by insulating their housing), and at addressing the ineluctable issue of energy price increase. This private bill notably applies a bonus-malus concept by defining an energy consumption threshold which is to be determined by means of several parameters related to climate, housing occupancy, heating mode. This raises several issues concerning for example housing insulation of rented housing. All these aspects lead to a rather complex process to define and implement such a progressive pricing approach

  11. Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

  12. The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald

    The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...

  13. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  14. Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps

    OpenAIRE

    Dacko, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Retail settings are being challenged to become smarter and provide greater value to both consumers and retailers. An increasingly recognised approach having potential for enabling smart retail is mobile augmented reality (MAR) apps. In this research, we seek to describe and discover how, why and to what extent MAR apps contribute to smart retail settings by creating additional value to customers as well as benefiting retailers. In particular, by adopting a retail customer experience perspecti...

  15. The Impact of Retail Formats on the Development of Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten Ćuzović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of retail formats and their impact on the development of food retailing, through empirical testing of the largest food retailers within the timeframe 2009-2014. Research Design & Methods: This paper shall, in addition to the review of literature on the development of retail formats, focus on the analysis of the Global Power of Retailing report 2011-2016. Statistical material consists of the available data on the ranking of the largest retail companies, viewed by sales volume, in the period from 2009 to 2014, published annually by the consulting firm, Deloitte Touche. Findings: The research results show the dominant share of food retailers in the total number of retailers in the list of Top 250 retailers. In addition, the results point to a different structure of food retail formats in the period from 2009 to 2014. The position of individual food retailers in the list of the most successful ones changes over time and standard multiple regression results show that this is due to the introduction of new retail formats. Implications & Recommendations: Continuing innovation in the field of retail formats is very important to food retailers. Decision makers need to pay special attention and focus on increasing the sales volume and better ranking of companies in the list of most successful ones, where one of the factors is the introduction of new retail formats. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of the FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in terms of economy.

  16. Impact of Demand Side Response on a Commercial Retail Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Saleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Grid has placed increased emphasis on the development of Demand Side Response (DSR tariff mechanisms to manage load at peak times. Refrigeration systems, along with HVAC, are estimated to consume 14% of the UK’s electricity and could have a significant role for DSR application. However, characterized by relatively low individual electrical loads and massive asset numbers, multiple low power refrigerators need aggregation for inclusion in these tariffs. In this paper, the impact of the Demand Side Response (DSR control mechanisms on food retailing refrigeration systems is investigated. The experiments are conducted in a test-rig built to resemble a typical small supermarket store. The paper demonstrates how the temperature and pressure profiles of the system, the active power and the drawn current of the compressors are affected following a rapid shut down and subsequent return to normal operation as a response to a DSR event. Moreover, risks and challenges associated with primary and secondary Firm Frequency Response (FFR mechanisms, where the load is rapidly shed at high speed in response to changes in grid frequency, is considered. For instance, measurements are included that show a significant increase in peak inrush currents of approx. 30% when the system returns to normal operation at the end of a DSR event. Consideration of how high inrush currents after a DSR event can produce voltage fluctuations of the supply and we assess risks to the local power supply system.

  17. A comprehensive method to find RPO trajectory and incentive scheme for promotion of renewable energy in India with study of impact of RPO on tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereef, R.M.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) regime in India started in 2011 with the announcement of benchmark RPO (BRPO) of states for the Financial Year (FY) 2011 by respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC), to promote Renewable Energy (RE). The report submitted to Forum of Regulators (FoR) in this regard has recommended uniform rate of increase of BRPO of states and studied the impact of RPO on tariff for FY 2011–2015. However, more rigorous analysis is needed for fixing BRPO in a scientific manner and for fair allocation of incentives to promote RE. This paper attempts to evaluate all states on a common platform to find BRPO, giving due weightage to the state-wise energy demand and RE generation, ensuring minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years and hence less impact of RPO on tariff. To encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO, a financial incentive scheme is proposed giving due weightage to RE consumption, RE capacity addition and RPO compliance of the states. The methods are illustrated for the Indian states using real system data. A study of RPO's impact on electricity tariff of Indian states is also conducted and reported for FY 2011–2015, considering Renewable Energy Certificate (REC). - Author-Highlights: • Proposes a comprehensive method to find the BRPO of Indian states for promoting RE. • Minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years hence less impact of RPO on tariff. • Incentive scheme to encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO. • Study of impact of RPO on tariff of Indian states is conducted

  18. Manufacturer and retailer brands in food retail assortments: Notes from a shopping trip across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    and perform a variety of activities and services, which provide added value in the eyes of consumers (Burt 2000). In this connection, branding is becoming increasingly important, as food retailers develop their own brands within and across product categories. Many retailers are attempting to cultivate...... an overall brand identity in order to protect and identify their market offering (Burt & Sparks 2002). The assortment of products food retailers offer typically includes manufacturer brands, re-tailer brands and generic or unbranded products. In recent years, increasing competition in food retailing has made...... retailers is discussed. Then, the findings from a shopping trip across Europe are presented. Finally, a discussion of the findings is provided and it is briefly considered how the findings of this study were used as input for a study of consumer perceptions of the brand architectures of food retailers...

  19. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the

  20. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  1. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  2. Part-time labour in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Thurik, Roy; Wijst, Nico

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding the influence of its use on labor productivity.

  3. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  4. Part-time labour in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); N. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding

  5. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... with persons who are not ``eligible contract participants'' (commonly referred to as ``retail forex... temporary Rule 15b12-1T to allow a registered broker-dealer to engage in a retail forex business until July... forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011 and will remain...

  6. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  7. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsible for checking consumer or household eligibility but shall report to NTIA suspicious patterns of customer behavior. (4) Use commercially reasonable methods to order and manage inventory to meet customer... requires the retailers to self certify that they: (A) Have been engaged in the consumer electronics retail...

  8. Documentation of the Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model (RPM) provides a first‐order estimate of average retail electricity prices using information from the EPA Base Case v.5.13 Base Case or other scenarios for each of the 64 Integrated Planing Model (IPM) regions.

  9. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  10. Social media: a new frontier for retailers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Gomez Boria, Miguel A.; Swoboda, B.; Morschett, D; Rudolph, T.; Schnedlitz, P.; Schramm-Klein, H

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades the retailing industry is finding itself in a state of constant evolution and transformation. Globalization, mergers and acquisitions, and technological developments have drastically changed the retailing landscape. The explosive growth of the Internet has been one of the

  11. Labour costs and queueing theory in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); A.R. Thurik (Roy); C.A. Bout

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper approximation results for the M/G/s queueing model are used to derive an empirically verified shop type dependent non-homogeneous relation between labour volume and sales in retail trade. Moreover, we formulate the retailer's labour management as a formal minimization

  12. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  13. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores...

  14. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  15. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  16. Reverse Revenue Sharing Contract versus Two-Part Tariff Contract under a Closed-Loop Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunya Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of remanufacturing has been recognized in research and practice. The integrated system, combining the forward and reverse activities of supply chains, is called closed-loop supply chain (CLSC system. By coordination in the CLSC system, players will get economic improvement. This paper studies different coordination performances of two types of contracts, two-part tariff (TTC and reverse revenue sharing contract (RRSC, in a closed-loop system. Through mathematical analysis based on Stackelberg Game Theory, we find that it is easy for manufacturer to improve more profits and retailer’s collection effects by adjusting the ratio of transfer collection price through RRSC, and we also give the function to calculate the best ratio of transfer collection price, which may be a valuable reference for the decision maker in practice. Besides, our results also suggest that although the profits of the coordinated CLSC system are always higher than the contradictory scenario, the RRSC is more favorable to the manufacturer than to the retailer, as results show that the manufacturer will share more profits from the system through RRSC. Therefore, RRSC has attracted the manufacturers more to closing the supply chain for economic consideration.

  17. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  18. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  19. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility and UK Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a preliminary examination of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR commitments and agendas being addressed and reported by the UK‟s leading retailers. The paper begins with a short discussion of the characteristics and origins of CSR and of the current structure of retailing in the UK. This is followed by an illustrative examination of the CSR issues publicly reported by the UK‟s top ten country of origin retailers and the paper draws its empirical material from the CSR reports posted on the World Wide Web by these retailers. The findings reveal that the UK‟s top ten retailers are addressing and reporting on four sets of CSR themes namely those relating to the environment; the marketplace; the workplace and the community. The paper concludes with a discussion of a number of general issues relating to these themes.

  1. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel good described in § 10.421 of this subpart that does not... tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim... subheading in Chapter 52 through 62 of the HTSUS under which each non-originating cotton or man-made fiber...

  2. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good described in § 10.521 of this subpart that does not qualify... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim... Chapter 61 or 62 of the HTSUS under which each non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel good is...

  3. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Theoretical Framework and a Computational Case in Mobile Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces individual tariffs at service and content bundle level in mobile communications. It gives a theoretical framework (economic, sociological) as well as a computational game solution method. The user can be an individual or a community. Individual tariffs are decided through interactions between the user and the supplier. A numerical example from mobile music illustrates the concepts.

  4. Analysis on the Tariff Cut Formula in the WTO’s Negotiation on Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Cheul Song

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector, which is Korea's most sensitive sector, is supposed to resume its negotiation by the end of 1999 according to WTO's Agreement on Agriculture. As Korea needs to propose in the negotiation of tariff reduction a device by which exceptional measures on sensitive sectors can be allowed, it is important to establish some application method of tariff cut in advance. As no specific form of tariff reduction has yet been established, this study tries to apply to agriculture different tariff cut methods proposed in the course of GATT/WTO negotiation and to analyze the merits and shortcomings of each form of tariff reduction. In this way, it will lay a strong foundation for designing a negotiation scheme that will give Korea a favorable position in future tariff negotiation. The results of study show that UR method is considered as the most favorable method for Korea. It is desirable for Korea to actively take initiatives in next negotiation by developing and proposing its own tariff reduction scheme that would probably result in the adoption of a form of tariff cut favorable to Korea.

  5. Intergenerational and international welfare leakages of a tariff in a small open economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J.H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    1999-01-01

    A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with imperfect competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces output and employment and leads to an appreciation of the real exchange rate both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff

  6. Two-band tariff for domestic use: Italian Electricity Board rate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barteselli, R.

    1992-01-01

    ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has begun to introduce a new rate structure for households: the 'two-band tariff'. This article is an effort to examine in principle how the new tariff could optimize load management when applied to the whole household sector

  7. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a

  8. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: water demand management, price elasticity, change in water tariff, block tariff, WC/WDM model. INTRODUCTION ... ever developed for a 6-block pricing structure and allows for limited available input data from ..... Payment Strategies and Price Elasticity of Demand for Water for. Different revenue Groups in Three ...

  9. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... by the United States of Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Under these TRQs, a low tariff rate.... High-tier tariff rates were reduced by 15 percent over the 6 years following Uruguay Round Agreement... 1960s, and expanded when the United State implemented the Uruguay Round Agreement. Applicants for the...

  10. Economic and environmental effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.J. Brooks; J.A. Ferrante; J. Haverkamp; I. Bowles; W. Lange; D. Darr

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the incremental economic and environmental impacts resulting from changes in the timing and scope of forest products tariff reductions as proposed in the Accelerated Tariff Liberalization (ATL) initiative in forest products. This initiative was proposed for agreement among member countries of the World Trade Organization. The analysis of...

  11. Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO 2 . (A.L.B.)

  12. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example. Keywords: water demand management, price elasticity, change in water tariff, ...

  13. 75 FR 75695 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 1205-8 (Addendum)] Certain Footwear.... 1205-8, Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... addition of new tariff lines applicable to the subject footwear. DATES: December 22, 2010: Deadline for...

  14. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges). ...

  15. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower

  16. EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.

  17. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  18. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  19. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to open-quotes play the marketclose quotes. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers

  20. How satisfied are hospital systems with their ownership of retail clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissi, Amer; Charland, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Retail clinics--while innovative--can no longer be considered a new model of healthcare delivery, as an increasing number of hospitals and health systems now own them. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which hospital systems are satisfied with their ownership of retail clinics. In terms of operational challenges, respondents to our survey, administered to representatives from 19 health systems, were relatively satisfied with clinic staffing and their relationship with the retailers regarding lease terms, store locations, and shopper demographics. They expressed mostly neutral levels of satisfaction with regulations and laws related to retail clinics and low satisfaction with insurance reimbursement and clinics' seasonal patterns. The two areas that received the lowest respondent satisfaction ratings were patient volume and response to marketing initiatives. When asked to share their perceptions of their organization's satisfaction with various strategic aspects of retail clinic ownership, respondents revealed that the clinics were achieving several important strategic goals, such as improved access, increased referrals, defense against competitors, and increased brand exposure. They indicated overall dissatisfaction with profitability and cost-reduction outcomes. We conclude that serious operational challenges and strategic threats must be overcome if retail clinics are to be a successful service line for hospitals and health systems.

  1. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning

  2. Managing Food Allergens in the U.K. Retail Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Gowland, M Hazel; Points, John

    2018-01-01

    The U.K. food and grocery market is highly significant financially and dominated by 10 retailers within a regulated and extremely economically competitive environment. We summarize the approach of U.K. retailers to allergen risk assessment (RA) and risk management (RM) within the U.K. legal framework and explore public visibility of retailers' allergen policies. RA and RM of allergens appear effective in curtailing retail-triggered severe food allergy reactions. However, allergen recalls remain high, precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) remains an area of confusion, and there is no consistent Web-based provision of information for consumers who have allergies. Resolution of PAL awaits an agreed-on threshold framework, but a key challenge is to engage with patients and gain their trust rather than thrust education at them. It would be helpful for retailers to publish their allergen RA and RM policies. A target should be agreed on between government and retailers for a reduction in the proliferation of PAL wording variants by a given date within the next 3 years. A further hurdle is potentially flawed allergen analysis-development of reference methods and reference materials are acknowledged needs. Laboratories should report allergen results in an informative manner, communicating uncertainty and caveats. Ideally a laboratory representative would be included on any incident control team. Efforts must continue to standardize preparedness for protecting and defending food and drink from deliberate attack.

  3. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...

  4. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity report june 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    imports in gas supply in Europe, 50% increase in gas prices in 2005, Predominance of large-scale operators on the European market); The opening of the gas markets (The opening of the markets in European Union countries, The opening of the French gas market); CRE: regulator of the French gas market (Changes in natural gas regulated retail tariffs, Tariffs and terms for using regulated infrastructures); C - Regulation of the electricity market: Electricity players and markets (European players on the French market, Wholesale electricity market, Retail market); Access to public electricity grids (CRE's action concerning access to interconnections with neighbouring countries, Application of a new tariff for use of public electricity grids as from 1 January 2006, Electricity metering systems, CRE's monitoring of the quality of service of public electricity grids, Approval of RTE's investment programme, Improvement in terms for access to public electricity grids, Standard specifications for the public electricity transmission grid, Balancing mechanism); Public electricity service (Support systems for cogeneration and renewable energies, Public electricity service charges, Recovery of CSPE); D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction (CRE's activity in figures, Dispute settlements: a means of specifying the terms and conditions of access and use of systems) Resources (CRE staff, Changes in departmental organisation); European and international activity (Relations with other regulators, Relations with European Union institutions, Relations outside the European Union); E - Appendices: Glossary, Abbreviations, Units and conversions, Index of insets, tables and figures, Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER)

  5. Customer retention: maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    The current market environment in the electricity industry is one of changing regulations with many of the rules being developed. There is a great deal of customer confusion and uncertainty with some customers unaware of their contestable status and many are insecure about mixing retail and distribution supplies. This paper discusses customer retention and maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market. It draws on some conclusions from a survey released by the Australian Chamber of Manufacturers entitled `Customer feedback on Victoria`s competitive electricity market`. An overview is presented of the retail market in Australia which is one of very strong price-based competition, with as yet little differentiation. A process is described for retaining customers which involves asking the customer what he/she wants in a language which they understand. The best way to determine customer needs is through a combination of internal and external sources. Enhancing customer loyalty and differentiating and marketing the product are also discussed. As the market matures, customer retention and satisfaction will be based on value added services at a reasonable cost. (author). 6 figs.

  6. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinlong

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: → Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. → Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. → Further market-oriented reforms are needed. → Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  7. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livatyali, H.

    2011-01-01

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable

  8. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  9. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  10. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Steven; Durant, Vincent; Mabee, Warren E.

    2013-01-01

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW −1 h −1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW −1 h −1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW −1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW −1 h −1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  11. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  12. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing

  13. 76 FR 19741 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... the types of operations traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants when those operations are conducted at any retail store or restaurant or similar retail-type establishment... Retail Store Operations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. [[Page 19742

  14. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  15. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  16. Strategi Periklanan pada Bisnis Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veny Ari Sejati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the benefits of advertising strategy of Poundland. The method used is a qualitative approach because its ability to produce an in-depth description to obtain an authentic understanding of the experience of the people concerned. The study found that Poundland conducted intensive advertising by utilizing important moments such as Halloween, Christmas, Mother Day, etc using Internet media, social media, and e-mail sent 1-2 times per week. Poundland also employs other media such as word of mouth spread among students. Catalog is also used as the print media to reach the consumers. Poundland uses communication technology and take advantage of important moments for advertising strategy. This description can be a reference for retail businesses in Indonesia to pay attention to important events in Indonesia such as national moments and utilizing non-traditional communication technologies as an advertising strategy.

  17. Gaining access to the retail customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing Ontario's municipal electric utilities (MEUs) in the new competitive electricity marketplace are discussed. Various roles that MEUs are in a good position to perform have been suggested. Among them are: to represent consumer interests, to serve as a source of unbiased information to consumers, to provide meter ownership, meter reading, data management, billing and collection services on behalf of customers and all competitors. This author considers MEUs as assets to be leveraged and not liabilities to be fixed. The majority of retail customers in Ontario have been well served by their MEUs in the past and the performance-based regulation required by Bill 35 will guarantee that MEUs continue to be accountable to consumers and competitors for prices and standards of the services they receive. For this reason, it seems excessive to compare publicly-owned MEUs with private gas companies and conclude that the rules should be the same. To be viable, MEUs should remain over 50 per cent municipally owned, and rather than limit their activities, they should be given operational and commercial freedom to benefit their consumers and their municipality

  18. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    key players in the industry of retailing (Wilson, 2012; Verizon, 2012) and covers the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels and responsible customer service. This article aims at contributing to a characterisation...... and definition of omni-channel retail information systems (OCRIS) by using the information systems research tradition as a distinctive starting point (Treiblmaier and Strebinger, 2008; Avgerou, 2001; Parboteah et al., 2009). Omni-channel retailing has evolved since 2010 with the ultimate aim of aligning physical...

  19. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  20. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 3. Quarter 2017 (Figures as at 30/09/2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part