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Sample records for regulated kidney market

  1. Kidney Sales and Market Regulation: A Reply to Semrau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J

    2017-11-15

    Luke Semrau argues that the documented harms of existing organ markets do not undermine the case for establishing regulated systems of paid kidney donation. He offers two arguments in support of this conclusion. First, Semrau argues that the harms of kidney selling are straightforwardly amenable to regulatory solution. Second, Semrau argues that even in existing black markets, sellers would likely have experienced greater harm if the option of selling a kidney were not available. This commentary challenges both of Semrau's claims. I argue that there is no reason to believe that kidney sellers benefit from the current black market trade in organs, and highlight a number of potential issues regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of Semrau's proposed market regulations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  3. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  4. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...... of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace...

  5. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  6. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  7. Banking regulation and market making

    OpenAIRE

    Cimon, David A.; Garriott, Corey

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of market makers subject to recent banking regulations: liquidity and capital constraints in the style of Basel III and a position limit in the style of the Volcker Rule. Regulation causes market makers to reduce their intermediation by refusing principal positions. However, it can improve the bid-ask spread because it induces new market makers to enter. Since market makers intermediate less, asset prices exhibit a liquidity premium. Costs of regulation can be assessed by m...

  8. Targeting of regulated necrosis in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martin-Sanchez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The term acute tubular necrosis was thought to represent a misnomer derived from morphological studies of human necropsies and necrosis was thought to represent an unregulated passive form of cell death which was not amenable to therapeutic manipulation. Recent advances have improved our understanding of cell death in acute kidney injury. First, apoptosis results in cell loss, but does not trigger an inflammatory response. However, clumsy attempts at interfering with apoptosis (e.g. certain caspase inhibitors may trigger necrosis and, thus, inflammation-mediated kidney injury. Second, and most revolutionary, the concept of regulated necrosis emerged. Several modalities of regulated necrosis were described, such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and mitochondria permeability transition regulated necrosis. Similar to apoptosis, regulated necrosis is modulated by specific molecules that behave as therapeutic targets. Contrary to apoptosis, regulated necrosis may be extremely pro-inflammatory and, importantly for kidney transplantation, immunogenic. Furthermore, regulated necrosis may trigger synchronized necrosis, in which all cells within a given tubule die in a synchronized manner. We now review the different modalities of regulated necrosis, the evidence for a role in diverse forms of kidney injury and the new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Resumen: La idea de que el término necrosis tubular aguda supone una denominación inapropiada se deriva de estudios morfológicos de necropsias humanas. La opinión generalizada ha sido que la necrosis representa una forma pasiva de muerte celular no regulada que no es susceptible de manipulación terapéutica. Los recientes avances han mejorado nuestra comprensión de la muerte celular en la lesión renal aguda. En primer lugar, la apoptosis origina una pérdida celular, pero no desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria. Sin embargo, los intentos rudimentarios de interferir en la apoptosis

  9. Self-regulation in securities markets

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper canvasses the trends in self-regulation and the role of self-regulation in securities markets in different parts of the world. The paper also describes the conditions in which self-regulation might be an effective element of securities markets regulation, particularly in emerging markets. Use of self-regulation and self-regulatory organizations is often recommended in emerging m...

  10. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  11. Phosphorus Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Wadi N; Moore, Linda W

    2016-01-01

    Serum phosphorus levels stay relatively constant through the influence of multiple factors-such as parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and vitamin D-on the kidney, bone, and digestive system. Whereas normal serum phosphorus ranges between 3 mg/dL to 4.5 mg/dL, large cross-sectional studies have shown that even people with normal kidney function are sometimes found to have levels ranging between 1.6 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL. While this may partially be due to diet and the factors mentioned above, total understanding of these atypical ranges of serum phosphorus remains uncertain. Risks for bone disease are high in people aged 50 and older, and this group comprises a large proportion of people who also have chronic kidney disease. Consuming diets low in calcium and high in phosphorus, especially foods with phosphate additives, further exacerbates bone turnover. Existing bone disease increases the risk for high serum phosphorus, and higher serum phosphorus has been associated with increased adverse events and cardiovascular-related mortality both in people with chronic kidney disease and in those with no evidence of disease. Once kidney function has deteriorated to end-stage disease (Stage 5), maintaining normal serum phosphorus requires dietary restrictions, phosphate-binding medications, and dialysis. Even so, normal serum phosphorus remains elusive in many patients with Stage 5 kidney disease, and researchers are testing novel targets that may inhibit intestinal transport of phosphorus to achieve better phosphate control. Protecting and monitoring bone health should also aid in controlling serum phosphorus as kidney disease advances.

  12. Market reaction to bank liquidity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Brunella; Onali, Enrico; Schaeck, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We measure market reactions to announcements concerning liquidity regulation, a key innovation in the Basel framework. Our initial results show that liquidity regulation attracts negative abnormal returns. However, the price responses are less pronounced when coinciding announcements concerning capital regulation are backed out, suggesting that markets do not consider liquidity regulation to be binding. Bank- and country-specific characteristics also matter. Liquid balance sheets and high cha...

  13. Regulation of Banking and Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio); D. Heremans (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper is one chapter of the volume “Regulation and Economics” of the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. The authors review the economics of banking and financial markets and the regulatory response to market failure. Market failure in finance depends

  14. Integrating gas and electric markets and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The issues determining what energy companies must do to compete in an increasingly competitive energy market and what regulators must do to ensure fairness in competition were discussed. The similarities of gas and electric markets, and the factors driving their integration were highlighted. The importance of communications and customer service in the energy market and the nature of market power in the gas and electric industries was described. Three reasons were given why gas/electric mergers will be beneficial: (1) operating efficiency, (2) applying gas experience to electric markets, and (3) opportunity to exercise market power. Potential regulatory problems were also reviewed

  15. The role of regulators in competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the key features of restructuring the electric power industry in Ontario were presented, with reference to Ontario Power Generation, a successor company to emerge from Ontario Hydro. Restructuring has resulted in a pool-based model with financial bilateral contracts, corporate separation instead of functional unbundling, and a market power mitigation framework based on decontrol of assets and revenue cap/rebate. The regulators in the Ontario model are the Ontario Energy Board, the Independent Electricity Market Operator, and the Federal Energy Regulators. Regulators are pressured to keep prices low while recognizing that price signals are essential for market functioning. The paper discussed the historical practice of system operators working under the assumption of 'reliability at any price', and examined if it is compatible with a market structure. It was noted that independent system operators hold significant power over market design and functioning, but have little oversight. 2 figs

  16. Reassessing marketing of kidneys from the 2008 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eli A; Friedman, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Progressive improvements in all aspects of the kidney transplant regimen establish this form of renal replacement therapy as superior to peritoneal or hemodialysis in terms of extent of rehabilitation and long-term recipient survival. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure sustained by dialytic therapy has not been associated with substantially increased deceased donor kidney contributions, causing intensified stressful waiting periods for potential recipients lacking a live kidney donor. Neither public relation campaigns nor local government efforts have substantially increased kidney donation. Buying a donor kidney is illegal and condemned as fostering exploitation of poor people by the wealthy. Widely publicized examples of coercion of unwilling donors create a negative image of harmful, inhumane conduct deployed to obtain kidneys sold and transplanted under unsavory circumstances. Yet efforts to establish and test governmental programs to supervise and sustain acceptable standards for the sale and implantation of kidneys from fully informed, medically evaluated and protected, fairly compensated donors have been resisted and frustrated by those who consider such compensation loathsome. Accordingly, while selling kidneys is prohibited by law, pressure from those wanting to quench the number of deaths of wait-listed dialysis patients continues forcing reexamination of an issue that, like prohibition of the possession and sale of alcohol in the United States in 1920, places the will of a people in opposition to unreasonably restrictive laws. The debate continues.

  17. Gaz de France and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  18. Can market forces and competition supplant regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing regulators and governments as utilities and pipelines transform from regulated monopolies into competitive businesses were discussed. In the past, the absence of competition required that utility and pipeline companies be regulated by governments to ensure fair pricing and good performance. The question of whether or not competition can entirely replace regulation was examined. Although the focus was on the natural gas industry, the regulatory trends in other industries were also briefly considered. In 1985, the federal government agreed to allow the commodity price of natural gas to fluctuate in response to market forces. This began the process of deregulation in the Canadian natural gas industry. Direct purchasing introduced competition and ended the monopolies of local distribution companies in purchasing gas. The main benefits of the competitive market structure were that consumers could choose products and services from a range of competing companies at competitive prices. This was critical to the success of the Canadian economy since Canada is the third largest exporter of energy and the eighth largest consumer of energy. It was suggested that even in a competitive market abuse of market power is possible, therefore, there is an important role for government in ensuring the existence of a level playing field. A variety of issues involved in an effective transition to a competitive market were also discussed. 2 figs

  19. Markets, prices and regulation in energetic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The author first outlines some fundamental characteristics of the different energy world markets (oil, natural gas, coal, electricity). He outlines their availability, locations, and different main geographical areas. Then, he discusses the relationships between costs and prices in which intervene external costs, taxes, feed-in tariffs, national regulations, incentives for consumers. He discusses the issue of regulation of some energy activities, i.e. how State may or may not intervene on the markets, how competition may influence the market, how activities can thus be divided (production, transport, distribution) with implications and consequences for prices. He finally outlines concerns about the future financing of investments required to face tomorrow's needs

  20. State regulation of the coming competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Utilities and state commissions can have retail competition without a federal presence by integrating economics and reliability through a concept called Wide Open Load Following, or WOLF. Under WOLF, the transaction between the utility and the consumer would continue to be a sale that is subject to regulation by the state commission. As a retail sale, the transaction requires no FERC involvement. This article shows how WOLF combines economics and physics for pricing retail electric sales in a competitive market so that the sales remain under the jurisdiction of a state authority, even while third parties participate in the market

  1. Essays on market discipline, banking and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Matías Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor This Dissertation presents three studies on market discipline, implicit guarantees, sovereign risk and bank regulation. Chapter one analyzes whether larger banks are deemed as Too Big to Save by analyzing their stock returns' reaction to a set of announcements regarding governments' bailout capacity. In order to assess if there has been a risk transfer from banks to sovereigns (due to implicit guarantees), chapter two analyzes the...

  2. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Azevedo Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population.

  3. Kidney black markets and legal transplants: are they opposite sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates why the illegal traffic of kidneys exists and remains resilient in the Philippines. It also evaluates the efficacy of the legal and regulatory framework for kidney (and organ) transplantation, and the corresponding implications for health policy. The experiences of comparable countries are noted. Three surveys were employed in this study: 1) a review of related literature on kidney black markets; 2) questionnaire-based interviews of a multi-stage probability sample of 131 kidney vendors from the two largest supplier regions in the Philippines; and 3) a comparative content analysis of pertinent legal and regulatory measures to address the underground kidney trade. Survey results, based on a 4.0 percent statistical margin of error, indicate that kidney vendors are typically males (98.4 percent) who belong to the lower income classes/groups D and E (88.5 percent). The vast majority of vendors (89.2 percent) were unrelated to kidney recipients, many of whom were of foreign descent (60.3 percent). The study finds that certain key elements underpin the kidney black market in the Philippines: an open, brokered and compensation-based contractual system between unrelated donors and sellers. These elements are sustained and reinforced by a robust supply-and-demand interface anchored on brokerage pricing, government incapacity, policy contradictions and public tolerance or indifference. The study suggests that the relative ambiguity of, and continuity between, the legal and underground kidney transplant systems be carefully addressed prior to enacting more specific reforms. The study also calls attention to the unintended consequences of various reform efforts, which are often neglected in formulating health policy and evaluating its costs and benefits.

  4. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  5. Evaluating the Value of Flexibility in Energy Regulation Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we perform an econometric analysis on the benefits of introducing flexibility in the Danish/Nordic regulating power market. The paper investigates the relationships between market power prices and regulation volumes, in order to quantify the effects of flexibility on regulating power...... prices. Further, we analyze the benefit for various types of flexibility and market objectives, to detect the type of energy flexibility that maximizes the benefits. Results show that if 3.87% of total demand is flexible, market can reduce the regulation cost by 49% and the regulation volume by 29.4%....

  6. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  7. Coal marketability: Effects of deregulation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical utility deregulation will force power plants to compete for sales because they will not longer have captive markets. Market uncertainty and uncertainty about future environmental regulations have encouraged power plants to shift to low sulfur coal and/or to use emissions allowances to comply with Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Mines in Northern and Central Appalachia and the Illinois Basin shipped 240 million tons of non-compliance coal to power plants without scrubbers in 1997. Under Phase 2, this coal will be replaced by low sulfur coal and/or be used with emission permits. It is possible that Powder River Basin coal production will have to increase by over 200 million tons/year to meet new demand. The prices of emissions permits will impose penalties on non-compliance coal that will probably drive out marginal coal producers. For example, if the cost of an emission permit is $200, coal from the Pittsburgh bed could bear a sulfur penalty of $6.55 per ton and similarly, coal from the Herrinbed could bear a penalty of $8.64 per ton

  8. The role of regulation in Europe's energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author emphasizes the two main issues of the role of a regulation authority in the de-regulated European internal energy markets: regulation and competition and regulation and security of supply. He explains the manner in which the European Commission will organize the preparation of new or revised guidelines under the regulation. (J.S.)

  9. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  10. Normotension, hypertension and body fluid regulation: brain and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, P; Evans, R G

    2017-01-01

    The fraction of hypertensive patients with essential hypertension (EH) is decreasing as the knowledge of mechanisms of secondary hypertension increases, but in most new cases of hypertension the pathophysiology remains unknown. Separate neurocentric and renocentric concepts of aetiology have prevailed without much interaction. In this regard, several questions regarding the relationships between body fluid and blood pressure regulation are pertinent. Are all forms of EH associated with sympathetic overdrive or a shift in the pressure-natriuresis curve? Is body fluid homoeostasis normally driven by the influence of arterial blood pressure directly on the kidney? Does plasma renin activity, driven by renal nerve activity and renal arterial pressure, provide a key to stratification of EH? Our review indicates that (i) a narrow definition of EH is useful; (ii) in EH, indices of cardiovascular sympathetic activity are elevated in about 50% of cases; (iii) in EH as in normal conditions, mediators other than arterial blood pressure are the major determinants of renal sodium excretion; (iv) chronic hypertension is always associated with a shift in the pressure-natriuresis curve, but this may be an epiphenomenon; (v) plasma renin levels are useful in the analysis of EH only after metabolic standardization and then determination of the renin function line (plasma renin as a function of sodium intake); and (vi) angiotensin II-mediated hypertension is not a model of EH. Recent studies of baroreceptors and renal nerves as well as sodium intake and renin secretion help bridge the gap between the neurocentric and renocentric concepts. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 75 FR 77048 - Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to the consumer, unless the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing... Proposal: Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations. OMB Number: 1550-0112. Form Number: N/A...

  12. 7 CFR 982.40 - Marketing policy and volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the declared policy of the act, it shall compute and announce an inshell trade demand for that year... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy and volume regulation. 982.40 Section 982.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  13. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sandra Azevedo; Canziani, Maria Eugênia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population. Resumo Anemia é uma complicação frequente e seu impacto na morbimortalidade é bem conhecido em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). A descoberta da hepcidina e de suas funções contribuíram para melhor compreensão dos distúrbios do metabolismo de ferro na anemia da DRC. Hepcidina é um peptídeo produzido principalmente pelos hepatócitos, e através de sua ligação com a ferroportina, regula a absorção de ferro no duodeno e sua liberação das células de estoque. Altas concentrações de hepcidina descritas em pacientes com DRC, principalmente em estádios mais avançados, são atribuídas à diminuição da excreção renal e ao aumento de sua produção. Elevação de hepcidina tem sido associada à ocorrência de infecção, inflamação, aterosclerose, resistência à insulina e estresse oxidativo. Algumas estratégias foram testadas para diminuir os efeitos da hepcidina em pacientes com DRC, entretanto, serão necessários mais estudos para avaliar o impacto de sua modulação no manejo da anemia nessa população.

  14. The regulation of growth and metabolism of kidney stem cells with regional specificity using extracellular matrix derived from kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John D; Freytes, Donald O; Anandappa, Annabelle J; Oliver, Juan A; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana V

    2013-12-01

    Native extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted and maintained by resident cells is of great interest for cell culture and cell delivery. We hypothesized that specialized bioengineered niches for stem cells can be established using ECM-derived scaffolding materials. Kidney was selected as a model system because of the high regional diversification of renal tissue matrix. By preparing the ECM from three specialized regions of the kidney (cortex, medulla, and papilla; whole kidney, heart, and bladder as controls) in three forms: (i) intact sheets of decellularized ECM, (ii) ECM hydrogels, and (iii) solubilized ECM, we investigated how the structure and composition of ECM affect the function of kidney stem cells (with mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs, as controls). All three forms of the ECM regulated KSC function, with differential structural and compositional effects. KSCs cultured on papilla ECM consistently displayed lower proliferation, higher metabolic activity, and differences in cell morphology, alignment, and structure formation as compared to KSCs on cortex and medulla ECM, effects not observed in corresponding MSC cultures. These data suggest that tissue- and region-specific ECM can provide an effective substrate for in vitro studies of therapeutic stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  16. Modelling of hydro and wind power in the regulation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviluoma, J.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.

    2006-01-01

    The amount of required regulation capacity in the power system is affected by the wind power prediction errors. A model has been developed which can evaluate the monetary effects of prediction errors. The model can be used to evaluate (1) the regulation costs of wind power, (2) regulation market prices including effects related to the participation of power producers in the regulating power market, (3) value of accurate wind forecasts and (4) the effect of decreasing the length of the spot market clearance. This article discusses the problems related to developing a realistic model of the regulating power market including the interaction between the spot market and the regulating power market. There are several issues that make things complicated. (1) How to calculate the minimum amount of needed secondary (minute) reserves. Traditionally the Nordic TSOs have used an N-1 criteria in each country to determine the required amounts of positive secondary reserve, but as installed wind power capacity grows, it will become relevant to include the wind power prediction errors in the estimation of secondary reserves. (2) Consumption forecast errors and plant outages also contribute to activation of regulating power and should have stochastic input series besides wind power. (3) Risk premiums and transaction costs in the regulating power market are difficult to estimate as well as the effects of the possible use of market power. This is especially true in the Nordic system with the high share of hydro power, since the water value and hydrological limitations make things more complex than in a thermal system. (4) The available regulation capacity is not necessarily equal to the truly available capacity. All producers don't participate in the regulation market although in principle they could. (orig.)

  17. THE BASIS OF THE MARKET REGULATION OF PAYMENT CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetagurov G. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to basics and the regulation problems of the modern payment cards market. In particular, it addresses the key participants in a payment system, which include the Central Bank, credit organizations, settlement and clearing centers. The paper explores the basic functions of the participants. The author analyzes approaches of card payment systems to development and implementation monitoring of standards and regulations relative to the technology: hardware and software, communication channels, etc. The article contains analysis of information exchange in the framework of payment cards market and specific features of the design and development of a payment infrastructure. It discusses the economic model of the payment cards market, which is based on commission payments. The paper describes the key fees. At the final stage of the study, the author examines the role of different global regulators in the payment card market, conducts an analysis of the foundations of the Russian legislation regulating this market.

  18. Retail experience in the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the experience gained to date in the de-regulated electricity market through an examination of the commercial market. In 2001, chaos provided opportunity, while in 2002 the emphasis was on operations. In 2003, the landscape reflected hyper-competition, selling second services, and a changing landscape. A discussion followed on the residential market with a look at market structure, economics, and uncertainty concerning the future. The following components were identified as working well: wholesale market, commercial market, market model/data, and innovation in offerings and green supply. Areas requiring further improvement were also identified. It was suggested that the residential de-regulated roadmap should be clarified and retail friendly transactions should be imposed. Other improvements involve education and operations/system capabilities. The author concluded that the deregulated electricity market is still an immature market, where progress is being made in the commercial market. The residential market is in a critical period, with a market model still evolving. figs

  19. Do Less Regulated Markets Attract Lower Quality Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore, the delist......The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore...... equivalent to firms listing in more regulated markets...

  20. Russian electricity market reform: Deregulation or re-regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Olga; Viljainen, Satu; Makkonen, Mari; Kuleshov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Russia commenced liberalization of electricity prices in 2007 increasing the liberalization rate by 10–25% every six months. It was planned to reach full liberalization by 2011. Currently, the degree of liberalization is uncertain because of intense price regulation and a highly concentrated market in the hands of four large generating companies. Increased regulation and further consolidation may drive the market towards its pre-reform state. This paper analyses the competitive landscape of the Russian electricity market by assessing the ownership structure of electricity generation, price drivers, and government involvement in the electricity wholesale market in Russia. The main research question is why the targeted level of market liberalization has not been fully achieved in the Russian electricity market. - Highlights: ► Congested grid; deficit of capacity and market concentration hinder competition. ► Investment needs of the power sector led to price shocks. ► Price increase and poor competition force the government to regulate prices. ► Low liberalization rate and non-cost-reflective pricing is a result of price regulation. ► Increased regulation and consolidation drive the market toward its pre-reform state.

  1. Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of

  2. Innovation in regulation of rapidly changing health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Henson, Spencer; Peters, David H

    2014-06-24

    The rapid evolution and spread of health markets across low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has contributed to a significant increase in the availability of health-related goods and services around the world. The support institutions needed to regulate these markets have lagged behind, with regulatory systems that are weak and under-resourced. This paper explores the key issues associated with regulation of health markets in LMICs, and the different goals of regulation, namely quality and safety of care, value for money, social agreement over fair access and financing, and accountability. Licensing, price controls, and other traditional approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services have played an important role, but they have been of questionable effectiveness in ensuring safety and efficacy at the point of the user in LMICs. The paper proposes a health market systems conceptual framework, using the value chain for the production, distribution and retail of health goods and services, to examine regulation of health markets in the LMIC context. We conclude by exploring the changing context going forwards, laying out implications for future heath market regulation. We argue that the case for new approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services in LMICs is compelling. Although traditional "command and control" approaches will have a place in the toolkit of regulators, a broader bundle of approaches is needed that is adapted to the national and market-level context of particular LMICs. The implication is that it is not possible to apply standard or single interventions across countries, as approaches proven to work well in one context will not necessarily work well elsewhere.

  3. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  4. Distributed resources and re-regulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly defines distributed resources (DR) and discusses the current status of DR. The main focus is on discussing the value DR can provide to re-regulated electricity markets. DR can, under certain circumstances, help to significantly reduce the main problem of re-regulation, i.e. market power. Distributed generation and demand-side resources may, even if only small quantities in terms of size of the entire market are utilised, be able to help to significantly reduce market power. This results in a significantly more efficient market. To achieve such benefits, however, DR must be in operation during times when market power issues are likely to arise. To a certain extent this is the case as demand-side resources are usually independent of established generation companies. In addition, many business cases for DG require DG to actually operate to capture the second revenue. (author)

  5. Hereditary kidney cancer syndromes: Genetic disorders driven by alterations in metabolism and epigenome regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumi, Hisashi; Yao, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although hereditary kidney cancer syndrome accounts for approximately five percent of all kidney cancers, the mechanistic insight into tumor development in these rare conditions has provided the foundation for the development of molecular targeting agents currently used for sporadic kidney cancer. In the late 1980s, the comprehensive study for hereditary kidney cancer syndrome was launched in the National Cancer Institute, USA and the first kidney cancer-associated gene, VHL, was identified through kindred analysis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome in 1993. Subsequent molecular studies on VHL function have elucidated that the VHL protein is a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which provided the basis for the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the HIF-VEGF/PDGF pathway. Recent whole-exome sequencing analysis of sporadic kidney cancer exhibited the recurrent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes and the later study has revealed that several chromatin remodeling genes are altered in kidney cancer kindred at the germline level. To date, more than 10 hereditary kidney cancer syndromes together with each responsible gene have been characterized and most of the causative genes for these genetic disorders are associated with either metabolism or epigenome regulation. In this review article, we describe the molecular mechanisms of how an alteration of each kidney cancer-associated gene leads to renal tumorigenesis as well as denote therapeutic targets elicited by studies on hereditary kidney cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of ... and earnings by age, gender, level of education and other characteristics. Researchers will analyze the effects of labour market regulation, particularly ...

  7. Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India ... unhealthy foods and beverages are increasing the non-communicable disease burden and risk ... and promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to Indian children and ...

  8. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  9. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  10. Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Foods and beverages rich in salt, sugar, calories, and saturated fats, but deficient in micronutrients, have flooded Indian food markets. Indian consumers are showing an increased preference for them. This project will help strengthen Indian policies for regulating advertising and marketing of food and beverage products in ...

  11. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  12. Energy in transition. Between regulation and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzetzky, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Actually, the energy industry is affected in a changing market environment. The expansion of the renewables led to a share of about 30 % of the German electricity production and is always rising. The renewables energy levy has reached a level of 6.35 Euro Cents per kWh, which is actually a high level. Investments in new power plants are stopped due to low market electricity prices. The market pressure on the utilities is high and their business models have to be scrutinised. The NRW state government supports the magic political triangle of a secure, affordable and environmentally friendly energy supply. Instead of further interventions we have to develop our existing energy system cautiously. Anything else would not meet the requirements for invests in the energy supply and the magic triangle of energy politics.

  13. Osr1 Interacts Synergistically with Wt1 to Regulate Kidney Organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Xu

    Full Text Available Renal hypoplasia is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and several adult-onset diseases. Recent studies have associated a variant of the OSR1 gene with reduction of newborn kidney size and function in heterozygotes and neonatal lethality with kidney defects in homozygotes. How OSR1 regulates kidney development and nephron endowment is not well understood, however. In this study, by using the recently developed CRISPR genome editing technology, we genetically labeled the endogenous Osr1 protein and show that Osr1 interacts with Wt1 in the developing kidney. Whereas mice heterozygous for either an Osr1 or Wt1 null allele have normal kidneys at birth, most mice heterozygous for both Osr1 and Wt1 exhibit defects in metanephric kidney development, including unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. The developmental defects in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos were detected as early as E10.5, during specification of the metanephric mesenchyme, with the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- mouse embryos exhibiting significantly reduced Pax2-positive and Six2-positive nephron progenitor cells. Moreover, expression of Gdnf, the major nephrogenic signal for inducing ureteric bud outgrowth, was significantly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme in Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- littermates. By E11.5, as the ureteric buds invade the metanephric mesenchyme and initiate branching morphogenesis, kidney morphogenesis was significantly impaired in the Osr1+/-Wt1+/- embryos in comparison with the Osr1+/- or Wt1+/- embryos. These results indicate that Osr1 and Wt1 act synergistically to regulate nephron endowment by controlling metanephric mesenchyme specification during early nephrogenesis.

  14. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Tamer; Oguz, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly

  15. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, T.

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly. (author)

  16. The need for regulation in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sampaio Nunes, P.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The need for effective regulation; Energy issues requiring regulatory policy; Models adopted in different Member States of the European Union; Results achieved by Member States; Infrastructure. (R.P.)

  17. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  18. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  19. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  20. Estimating WACC for Regulated Industries on Developing Financial Markets and in Times of Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stubelj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the estimation of weighted average cost of capital (WACC for regulated industries in developing financial markets from the perspective of the current financial-economic crisis. In current financial market situation some evident changes have occurred: risk-free rates in solid and developed financial markets (e. g. USA, Germany have fallen, but due to increased market volatility, the risk premiums have increased. The latter is especially evident in transition economies where the amplitude of market volatility is extremely high. In such circumstances, there is a question of how to calculate WACC properly. WACC is an important measure in financial management decisions and in our case, business regulation. We argue in the paper that the most accurate method for calculating WACC is the estimation of the long-term WACC, which takes into consideration a long-term stable yield of capital and not the current market conditions. Following this, we propose some solutions that could be used for calculating WACC for regulated industries on the developing financial markets in times of market uncertainty. As an example, we present an estimation of the capital cost for a selected Slovenian company, which operates in the regulated industry of electric distribution.

  1. Regulation and development of the Argentinean gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzo, Ricardo; Dyner, Isaac; Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Gas markets are becoming increasingly important around the world and the long-term evolution of these markets is of strategic importance for many countries. This makes it essential to understand how regulation and intervention in these markets affects the long-term prospect for the secure supply of gas. We use Argentina as a case to illustrate some of the issues and consequences of gas regulation. Argentina is a country that has had a significant increase in the use of gas over the years, and where a potential gas deficit looms large in the present and the future. Based on a simulation model developed to understand the supply of gas in Argentina, we discuss how regulation will influence the long-term supply of gas in both Argentina and surrounding countries. Using the model, we develop a series of scenarios to highlight the consequences of different current and possible future interventions in the market by the Regulator. Finally, we discuss short-term regulatory options to reduce the impact of a gas deficit, and the possibility of securing the long-term supply of gas in Argentina. - Research Highlights: →This study show that even short intervention in markets can have long term impact. →Simulation can help to understand the evolution of the Argentinean gas markets. →Scenarios highlight the gas shortage.

  2. Addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to the prevailing view that the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) law, which amended the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), is the 'gold standard' for chemical regulation, the central premise of this article is that the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act for the ...

  3. Regulation of Telecommunications: The Choice Between Market and Regulatory Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Trubnikov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper examines the main regulatory frameworks of the telecommunications industry through the concept of market failure and analyses how and why the policy often leads to undesirable outcomes that might be considered as regulatory failure. Methodology/approach/design – The research uses the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications as a base for the analysis of the main policy objectives through the prism of the market failure theory with an eye to the interests of the main market players in the telecommunications markets. Findings – About any aspect of regulation allows to find ways to create opportunities for some groups of the industry and stifle activity of others. Despite the theory of market failure provides reasonable justifications for regulation of telecommunications markets, it is possible to argue that many of these problems are mainly the consequence of the policy and could be better solved by market mechanisms. Originality/value – The results of the research allow to look at the problems of telecommunications development and issues of the high level of concentration of the telecommunications markets as regulatory formed problems rather than consequences of the inherited industry’s characteristics.

  4. Muddling up the Market: New Exempt- Market Regulations may do more Harm than Good to the Integrity of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From private debt and equity markets to crowd funding, exempt markets have been used to raise more money for Canadian enterprises in recent years than all public offerings put together. Vastly more: Between 2010 and 2012, exempt-market offerings raised four times as much capital as the initial and secondary public offerings during the same period. The precise reasons behind the immense popularity of exempt markets can only be guessed at; it may well be due to the desire, by both issuers and by investors, to avoid the regulatory costs associated with raising capital in public markets. We are left to speculate, however, because the Canadian exempt market remains relatively unstudied, despite its enormous role in funding capital investments in Canada. The lack of information about exempt markets, however, is not stopping provincial regulators in Canada’s largest markets from charging ahead with new proposals for rules that would govern exempt markets. Unfortunately, with so little information available about these markets, whatever the aim of the reforms in pursuing the goals of effective market regulation, they may end up being more harmful than helpful. Ontario is proposing to broaden the category of investors eligible to participate in these markets under a new exemption. But the category will remain stricter than in many other markets and Ontario proposes to also put very low limits on how much each investor is allowed to put at risk. Quebec, Alberta and Saskatchewan are also proposing the same $30,000 limit for any given 12-month period. And Ontario will prohibit the sale of exemptmarket securities by agents that are related to, or affiliated with, the registrant, even if measures are employed that have previously been accepted in managing and mitigating conflicts of interest. This will have a direct and damaging impact on exempt-market dealers, who are only allowed to sell exempt-market securities. All of these proposals are intended to

  5. Key role of the kidney in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    was significantly increased in BNX rats. The rapid rise in FGF23 after BNX was independent of parathyroid hormone or FGF receptor signaling. No evidence of early stimulation of FGF23 gene expression in the bone was found. Furthermore, acute severe hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia had no impact on intact FGF23......High circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have been demonstrated in kidney failure, but mechanisms of this are not well understood. Here we examined the impact of the kidney on the early regulation of intact FGF23 in acute uremia as induced by bilateral or unilateral...

  6. Effect of business regulation on investment in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birungi Korutaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an empirical analysis of the business regulatory factors that influence investment in a selection of 29 emerging market economies. Both theoretical and empirical literature on the effect of the regulatory environment on investment is reviewed. A panel data analysis over the period 2003–2007 reveals that investment is influenced by secure property rights and the degree of business entry regulation. The results carry important policy implications for improving the investment climate of emerging market economies.

  7. The Regulation of the Credit Card Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Faruk Aysan; L. Yildiz

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth in Turkish credit card market brought together new issues. Card holders and consumer unions complain about the high interest rates, economists complain about the default rates and banks complain about the amnesties. After all of these complaints coinciding with the accelerating suicide incidences due to credit card debts, regulation has been enacted in the credit card market in Turkey. In 2003, credit cards had been taken into the scope of the Consumer Protection Law. This wa...

  8. Competitive Market Analysis of Transplant Centers and Discrepancy of Wait-Listing of Recipients for Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, P. S.; Saidi, R. F.; Cutie, C. J.; Ko, D. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are over 250 kidney transplant programs in the USA. Objective: To determine if highly competitive regions, defined as regions with a higher number of transplant centers, will approve and wait-list more end-stage renal disease (ESRD) candidates for transplant despite consistent incidence and prevalence of ESRD nationwide. Methods: ESRD Network and OPTN data completed in 2011 were obtained from all transplant centers including listing data, market saturation, market share, org...

  9. Liquidity Regulation, the Central Bank, and the Money Market

    OpenAIRE

    Scheubel, Beatrice; Körding, Julia

    2013-01-01

    As reliance on excessively short-term wholesale funding has been one of the major causes for the 2007-2009 financial crisis, recent advances in global liquidity regulation try to curb the excessive reliance on short-term wholesale funding without being clear on how such an approach will affect the overall equilibrium on money markets. In particular, liquidity regulation may interfere with the central bank's influence on short-term money market rates. This paper tries to fill the gap in unders...

  10. Healthcare market research examined. Relevant, rigorous and highly regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Douglas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]Market research is invariably confused with marketing – but, in fact, the two disciplines are very different. Put in its simplest terms, marketing is about promotion whilst market research is about understanding. Accordingly, data collected for market research purposes are used in a completely different way to that gathered for marketing, with research practices heavily regulated to ensure high ethical standards.Let’s begin with a definition of what, exactly, market research is. According to the ICC/ESOMAR International Code 2007 (a definition also adopted by the European Pharmaceutical Market Research Association, it is: «the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organisations using the statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision-making. The identity of respondents will not be revealed to the user of the information without explicit consent and no sales approach will be made to them as a direct result of their having provided information».

  11. Financial Sector Regulation and Reforms in Emerging Markets: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eswar S. Prasad

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex conceptual and practical challenges that emerging market economies face as they attempt to reform their frameworks for financial regulation. These economies are striving to balance the quest for financial stability with the imperatives of financial development and broader financial inclusion. I argue that these objectives can in fact reinforce one another. I also discuss aspects of macroeconomic policies and cross-border regulation that have impl...

  12. Guidance Cue Netrin-1 and the Regulation of Inflammation in Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithavathi Ranganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common problem in the hospital setting and intensive care unit. Despite improved understanding, there are no effective therapies available to treat AKI. A large body of evidence strongly suggests that ischemia reperfusion injury is an inflammatory disease mediated by both adaptive and innate immune systems. Cell migration also plays an important role in embryonic development and inflammation, and this process is highly regulated to ensure tissue homeostasis. One such paradigm exists in the developing nervous system, where neuronal migration is mediated by a balance between chemoattractive and chemorepulsive signals. The ability of the guidance molecule netrin-1 to repulse or abolish attraction of neuronal cells expressing the UNC5B receptor makes it an attractive candidate for the regulation of inflammatory cell migration. Recent identification of netrin-1 as regulators of immune cell migration has led to a large number of studies looking into how netrin-1 controls inflammation and inflammatory cell migration. This review will focus on recent advances in understanding netrin-1 mediated regulation of inflammation during acute and chronic kidney disease and whether netrin-1 and its receptor activation can be used to treat acute and chronic kidney disease.

  13. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  14. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  15. Pareto Improving Price Regulation when the Asset Market is Incomplete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Polemarchakis, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price

  16. Interactions of Reduced Deforestation and the Carbon Market: The Role of Market Regulations and Future Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Niels; Dixon, Alistair; Livengood, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been proposed as a potentially inexpensive and plentiful source of emission abatement to supplement other longterm climate policies. However, critics doubt that REDD credits are environmentally equivalent to domestic emission reductions, and suggest an excess supply may disrupt carbon markets. In this context, we investigate the economic implications of emissions market regulations and future emissions reduction commitments, as ...

  17. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Rukavina Mikusic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP and Ang-(1-7 may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7 was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7 and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7 stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7 on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7 was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7 on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7 enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  18. Evaluating Industry Self-Regulation of Food Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale L; Castonguay, Jessica S; Filer, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    Concern has grown about the role of televised food advertising as a contributor to childhood obesity. In response, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation, with participating companies pledging to limit child-targeted advertising to healthier products. The implicit promise of the industry initiative is a significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children, thereby negating the need for governmental regulation to accomplish that objective. This study assesses the efficacy of industry self-regulation by comparing advertising content on children's TV programs before and after self-regulation was implemented. A systematic content analysis of food advertisements (n=625 in 2007, n=354 in 2013) appearing in children's TV programs on the most popular cable and broadcast channels was conducted. All analyses were conducted in 2014. Findings indicated that no significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children has been achieved since industry self-regulation was adopted. In 2013, 80.5% of all foods advertised to children on TV were for products in the poorest nutritional category, and thus pose high risk for contributing to obesity. The lack of significant improvement in the nutritional quality of food marketed to children is likely a result of the weak nutritional standards for defining healthy foods employed by industry, and because a substantial proportion of child-oriented food marketers do not participate in self-regulation. The lack of success achieved by self-regulation indicates that other policy actions are needed to effectively reduce children's exposure to obesogenic food advertising. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  20. Electricity regulation and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity industry of China has been in a process of reforms since the 1980s. This paper gives a review on the three main stages of reforms in China so as to trace out key features of various reform measures including those for power investment financing, the separation between government and power enterprises, and the division between power generation firms and power grids. The findings suggest that further regulatory change in China's electricity market reform is necessary when integration of the electricity markets and increased competition are paving the way ahead for a market-oriented structure. Prospective electricity regulation in the form of a strong legal system and effective institutions that protect market competition and promote appropriate incentives for efficiency are suggested in the paper. (author)

  1. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  2. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  3. 7 CFR 27.95 - Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. 27.95 Section 27.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... and Differences § 27.95 Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. Every bona fide spot market...

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Kitamura, Shinji; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-04-25

    The kidneys are exposed to hypoxic conditions during development. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), an important mediator of the response to hypoxia, is believed to have an important role in development. However, the relationship between HIF and branching morphogenesis has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we examined whether HIF regulates kidney development. We harvested kidneys from day 13 rat embryos (E13Ks) and cultured the organs under normoxic (20% O2/5% CO2) or hypoxic (5% O2/5% CO2) conditions. We evaluated the kidneys based on morphology and gene expression. E13Ks cultured under hypoxic conditions had significantly more ureteric bud (UB) branching than the E13Ks cultured under normoxic conditions. In addition, the mRNA levels of GDNF and GDNF receptor (GFR-α1), increased under hypoxic conditions in E13Ks. When we cultured E13Ks with the HIF-1α inhibitor digoxin or with siRNA targeting HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions, we did not observe increased UB branching. In addition, the expression of GDNF and GFR-α1 was inhibited under hypoxic conditions when the kidneys were treated with siRNA targeting HIF-1α. We also elucidated that hypoxia inhibited UB cell apoptosis and promoted the expression of FGF7 mRNA levels in metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells in vitro. These findings suggest that hypoxic condition has important roles in inducing branching morphogenesis during kidney development. Hypoxia might mediate branching morphogenesis via not only GDNF/Ret but also FGF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat kidneys exposed to high +Gz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to high gravitational acceleration forces acting along the body axis from the head to the feet (+Gz severely reduces blood flow to the visceral organs, including the kidneys. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK figures predominantly in mediating kidney cell responses to a wide variety of stress-related stimuli. Though previous studies have shown the activation of ERK in some experimental models, the regulation of ERK associated with +Gz exposure has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high +Gz exposure on ERK activation in the kidneys. Using a small animal centrifuge, eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz or +13Gz three times for 3 minutes each. The bilateral kidneys were obtained from each rat, and the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, the collecting duct epithelium displayed faint cytoplasmic staining with no nuclear staining of p-ERK. By contrast, rats exposed to +10Gz showed strong nuclear staining intensity for p-ERK. In the renal papilla, the epithelial cells of collecting ducts and thin segments of the loop of Henle exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p-ERK. Rats exposed to +13Gz also showed the same staining intensity and distribution of p-ERK expression as that of rats exposed to +10Gz. This study is the first to describe +Gz exposure-induced alteration in the expression of p-ERK in the kidneys. Our finding suggests that high +Gz exposure leads to the activation of ERK in the renal papilla.

  6. Down-regulation of rat kidney calcitonin receptors by salmon calcitonin infusion evidence by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouizar, Z.; Rostene, W.H.; Milhaud, G.

    1987-01-01

    In treating age-related osteoporosis and Paget disease of bone, it is of major importance to avoid an escape phenomenon that would reduce effectiveness of the treatment. The factors involved in the loss of therapeutic efficacy with administration of large pharmacological doses of the hormone require special consideration. Down-regulation of the hormone receptors could account for the escape phenomenon. Specific binding sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) were characterized and localized by autoradiography on rat kidney sections incubated with 125 I-labeled sCT. Autoradiograms demonstrated a heterogeneous distribution of 125 I-labeled sCT binding sites in the kidney, with high densities in both the superficial layer of the cortex and the outer medulla. Infusion of different doses of unlabeled sCT by means of Alzet minipumps for 7 days produced rapid changes in plasma calcium, phosphate, and magnesium levels, which were no longer observed after 2 or 6 days of treatment. Besides, infusion of high doses of sCT induced down-regulation of renal sCT binding sites located mainly in the medulla, where calcitonin (CT) has been shown to exert it physiological effects on water and ion reabsorption. These data suggest that the resistance to high doses of sCT often observed during long-term treatment of patients may be the consequence of not only bone-cell desensitization but also down-regulation of CT-sensitive kidney receptor sites

  7. The regulation of growth and metabolism of kidney stem cell with regional specificity using extracellular matrix derived from kidney

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, John D.; Freytes, Donald O.; Anandappa, Annabelle; Oliver, Juan A.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Native extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted and maintained by resident cells is of great interest for cell culture and cell delivery. We hypothesized that specialized bioengineered niches for stem cells can be established using ECM-derived scaffolding materials. Kidney was selected as a model system because of the high regional diversification of renal tissue matrix. By preparing the ECM from three specialized regions of the kidney (cortex, medulla, and papilla; whole kidney, heart, an...

  8. The role of preservation solution on acid-base regulation during machine perfusion of kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

    2006-01-01

    To meet the current clinical organ demand, efficient preservation methods and solutions are needed to increase the number of viable kidneys for transplantation. In the present study, the influence of perfusion solution buffering strength on renal pH dynamics and regulation mechanisms during kidney ex vivo preservation was determined. Porcine kidneys were hypothermically machine perfused for 72 h with either Unisol-UHK or Belzer-Machine Perfusion solution, Belzer-MP solution. Renal perfusate samples were periodically collected and biochemically analyzed. The UHK solution, a Hepes-based solution (35 mM), provided a more efficient control of renal pH that, in turn, resulted in minor changes in the perfusate pH relative to baseline, in response to tissue CO2 and HCO3- production. In the perfusate of Belzer-MP kidney group a wider range of pH values were recorded and a pronounced pH reduction was seen in response to significant rises in pCO2 and HCO3- concentrations. The Belzer-MP solution, containing phosphate (25 mM) as its main buffer, and only 10 mM Hepes, had a greater buffering requirement to attenuate larger pH changes.

  9. COMPETITION AND REGULATION IN THE EU ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Havriş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When prices are high and public service obligations are not properly fulfilled, consumers wonder if they obtain what they need from the market. In electricity and gas markets of the EU Member States, apart from the persistence of high, non-transparent regulated prices, a number of shortcomings have been identified by the European Commission, such as a less than optimal network use for energy transmission, a lack of coordination and cooperation across borders by transmission system operators and national authorities, and a lack of transparent and simple procedures for dealing with consumers’ complaints. These are the main elements of the infringement proceedings that the European Commission decided to launch on 25 June 2009 against 25 Member States for non–compliance with certain Community provisions in the Second Internal Energy Market Package, which entered into force on 1 July 2007. Quite emblematic is the fact that it occurred the same day as the adoption of the Third Internal Energy Market Package aiming to ensure a proper functioning of the EU energy market. We intend to analyse what has happened in the recent years at the EU level in order to liberalise and remove the significant remaining obstacles to competition in the energy market.

  10. Can the regulated market help foster a free market for wind energy in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalbem, Marta Corrêa; Brandão, Luiz Eduardo Teixeira; Gomes, Leonardo Lima

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy has been negotiated in Brazil's regulated market through auctions organized by the government. Bilateral negotiations in the free market have been scarce. In 2011 wind farms were allowed to bid in ‘A minus 5 (A−5)' auctions, for energy with first delivery date 5 years ahead. This new design was expected to stimulate negotiations in the free market, as the 20-year contract in the regulated market eases financing while the 5-year grace period grants wind farms the option to sell whatever energy is generated beforehand in the free market. We modeled bidders' price decision in A−5 auctions as Real Options and concluded that given the low prices averaging USD 50/MW h, winners are tempted to defer investment, expecting more favorable equipment and energy prices, or a better knowledge of the wind site. Construction is likely to begin in 2–3 years, with little time left for the free market. Bidders that consider the option of eventually abandoning the project are more price competitive, increasing chances that some wind farms will never materialize. Therefore, this attempt to foster the free market may not pay-off and, moreover, it may have the unfavorable effect of turning Brazil's energy expansion planning a more difficult task. - Highlights: • Tight auction prices make winners exercise options to defer construction. • Investors that consider the option to abandon the project tend to win the auction. • High chances of default, when investors take abandonment options into account. • Auctioning wind farms for energy delivery 5 yr later will not foster a free market

  11. To quell obesity, who should regulate food marketing to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ben

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global hegemony of the United States in the production and marketing of food, while a marvel of economic success, has contributed to the epidemic of obesity that is particularly afflicting children. So far the U.S. government has declined to regulate the aggressive ways in which food producers market high-energy, low-nutrition foods to young people. That public-health responsibility has been left to an industry-created scheme of self-regulation that is deeply flawed; there is a compelling need for government involvement. The issue is certain to be raised by health advocates at a U.S. Federal Trade Commission meeting in mid-July to discuss the self-regulatory approach, but the outlook for remedies to emerge from the meeting is not encouraging.

  12. Environmental regulation of a power investment in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, H.; Halseth, A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects: energy conservation, a natural gas fired CCGT and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and the environmental costs of these emissions are not, in general, fully reflected in market prices. We develop a theory of second best optimal regulation for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate substantially from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, we find it optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO 2 emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax

  13. Market Failure, Regulation and Education of Financial Advisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Steen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the recent series of financial scandals in the Australian financial advice industry. It examines the causes, consequences and responses to theses scandals by financial institutions, investors and regulators through the lens of relevant finance theory and extant literature. Although the paper focuses on the recent Australian experience the discussion and findings presented are of relevance to financial market regulation worldwide. It is proposed that a combination of compensation, education, training and structural reforms are required to reduce the undesirable effects of information asymmetry, adverse selection and moral hazard in the finance sector.

  14. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the ‘regulatory pyramid’, alcohol being less regulated than tobacco. PMID:28118411

  15. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentine Petronella Martino

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1 is unnecessary; (2 is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3 will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4 faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5 that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  16. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  17. Developing products and services for a deregulated market while regulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Products and services developed for a deregulated electric power industry were discussed. The wide-ranging discussion covered products created by unbundling existing services, new products and services related to energy use, products created by expansion into communications services, and the pricing of products and services. In addition to products and services, the discussion also covered strategies for a deregulated market and the challenges of raising equity capital in a regulated environment

  18. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  19. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  20. MARKET FAIRNESS IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW AND ETHICS: A Study on Modern and Traditional Market Regulations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapa Khamal Rokan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated by unfair market conditions in the form of marginalization of traditional markets in Indonesia due to unequal competition with the modern market. This article tries to find a fair legal formulation to maintain the existence of a small market (traditional. To find the legal formulation, the author attempts to discuss market regulation in Indonesian legislation, analyzed and found it to be optimized to create a fair market arrangements in the perspective of Islamic law. This study propose a paradigm that the market functions not only as an business institution but also as religious and social institutions based on brotherhood which requires mutual respect and responsibility. There are prescriptive law to maintain the existence of traditional markets in Indonesia, which optimizes the concept of ownership as a form of common ownership and optimize the regulation of cooperation between the traditional and the modern market economy based on the doctrine of Islamic law.

  1. Aberrant Regulation of Notch3 Signaling Pathway in Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Jessica; Home, Trisha; Patel, Nisha; Magenheimer, Brenda; Tran, Pamela V; Maser, Robin L; Ward, Christopher J; Calvet, James P; Wallace, Darren P; Sharma, Madhulika

    2018-02-20

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and liver that ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease. Currently there is no globally approved therapy for PKD. The Notch signaling pathway regulates cellular processes such as proliferation and de-differentiation, which are cellular hallmarks of PKD. Thus we hypothesized that the Notch pathway plays a critical role in PKD. Evaluation of protein expression of Notch signaling components in kidneys of Autosomal Recessive PKD (ARPKD) and Autosomal Dominant PKD (ADPKD) mouse models and of ADPKD patients revealed that Notch pathway members, particularly Notch3, were consistently upregulated or activated in cyst-lining epithelial cells. Notch3 expression correlated with rapidly growing cysts and co-localized with the proliferation marker, PCNA. Importantly, Notch inhibition significantly decreased forskolin-induced Notch3 activation and proliferation of primary human ADPKD cells, and significantly reduced cyst formation and growth of human ADPKD cells cultured in collagen gels. Thus our data indicate that Notch3 is aberrantly activated and facilitates epithelial cell proliferation in PKD, and that inhibition of Notch signaling may prevent cyst formation and growth.

  2. Composite indicators of labour market regulations in a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksynska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Technological progress and the internet brought about new possibilities of creating, storing, exchanging, replicating, and using various kinds of data for research. This paper discusses some of the dangers embedded into the reuse of data produced by some institutions by other institutions through the combination and aggregation of initial data into various data products. To this end, we use an example of labour market regulations’ indicators developed by the World Economic Forum, the International Institute for Management Development (IMD, and the Fraser Institute, which are all partly based on the World Bank Employing Workers Indicator. We document how these three indicators compare and identify both their common and specific limitations. For each of these indicators, the choice of subcomponents and of aggregate techniques results in different pictures of labour market regulations, despite the use of the overlapping initial sources of data. Our comparative exercise calls for continuous efforts to improve the indicators of labour market regulations, as well as for cautious use of such indicators for research and policy advice. JEL codes: J00, J8, Y1

  3. Environmental regulation of a power market investment in an international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-01

    This document examines the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects, energy conservation, a natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbine and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and in general the environmental costs of these emissions are not optimally reflected in market prices. A theory of second best optimal regulation is developed for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate considerably from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, it is found optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Regulation of Danish energy markets with imperfect competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, M.; Hansen, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use a new CGE model of the Danish economy with the acronym ECOSMEC (Economic COuncil Simulation Model with Energy markets and Carbon taxation). The model is a hybrid of two existing static models developed by respectively the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council and by the MobiDK project in the Ministry of Business and Industry. Distinct features of the ECOSMEC model are a rather disaggregated modelling of energy demand and supply, introduction of various market structures in the energy sector, and a consistent specification of different household types. The simulations presented in the paper have the following implications: First, a uniform CO 2 tax of approximately 300 DKK per ton CO 2 could reduce emissions by 20 per cent in a scenario with perfect competition in the energy sector. However, assuming different market structures in the energy sector influences the uniform CO 2 tax needed to reach a given emission target. In the paper we assume that the Danish energy sector is a natural monopoly regulated to comply with average cost pricing, but we also discuss alternative descriptions of imperfect competition. Second, the empirical arguments for differentiated CO 2 taxes motivated by imperfect energy markets are weak. This is in line with earlier international studies on environmental taxes and imperfect competition. Third, the Danish economy could benefit from a deregulation of the electricity and district heating sector with respect to welfare and economic activity. This result holds also if CO 2 emissions are kept constant. (au)

  5. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  6. Do Market Regulation and Financial Imperfections Affect Firm Size? New Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Fonseca; Natalia Utrero González

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance that market regulation and financial imperfections have in firm size. We analyse institutions affecting labour market as Employment Protection Laws (EPL) and Product Market Regulation (PMR). Moreover, we study the effects of these institutions on firm growth. We use data from 29 industrial sectors across 15 developed countries. We find that market regulations related to financial imperfections help to explain differences in firm structure across countries.

  7. The economics of electric energy storage and its interaction with market regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to expose the interaction between the economics of EES and market regulation. An exhaustive investigation of relevant market regulations for the business of storage is conducted by examining (a) spot and futures markets, (b) ancillary services' procurement and (c) possible capacity enhancement. It is concluded that market regulation can be and should be improved in a number of ways to better recognize the value of EES. (author)

  8. Promoting nuclear energy: market price or regulated tariffs? - 5042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its negative effects, the scheme for aiding renewable energies presently in force in Europe is likely to penalise investments in nuclear energy. The F.I.T. system is a costly mechanism and a source of perverse effects as a switching of the merit order curve on the spot electricity market (with sometimes negative prices). Restoring an equity and 'equal opportunity' for nuclear energy in Europe needs to implement a 'Contract for Differences' scheme for nuclear energy, like the model now gaining favour in the U.K. The contract for differences signed between EDF and the UK government means that if the wholesale price that EDF secures for Hinckley's power falls below the index-linked preset value, the difference will be covered by payments from the UK government. It appears that nuclear power has weakened in Europe by the system of guaranteed purchase prices for renewable energies. Moreover this system is costly. New fairer rules must be implemented in the market. Either the market is left on its own to send the signals to all investors (including renewable energies), or a minimum of regulation is introduced in order to limit the costly surges of under and over capacity. But in the latter case it is necessary to treat all the energy sources in an equal way and guarantee the nuclear industry that it will also recover its fixed costs over the long term)

  9. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  10. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  11. Core designs for the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberger, J.; Bernro, R.; Pettersson, H.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The electricity market deregulation in the Nordic countries encourages innovations and cost reductions for power production in the Vattenfall reactors. The competition on the electricity market is strong, electricity price reductions dramatic and uncertainties about the future power demand is large. In the fuel area this situation has given increased attention to traditional areas like flexibility in power production, improved core designs, need for margins (improved fuel designs), improved surveillance, decreased lead times. At Vattenfall new fuel designs are already being implemented following the last fuel purchase, for which flexibility and margins, were given high values in the evaluations with the multipurpose task of eliminating fuel related problems and meeting the future market situation. This strategy has given Vattenfall a flying start to meeting the demands of the de-regulated market. What has been added are broad studies undertaken to investigate the various route into the future with respect to finding the most effective strategies for fuel and core design and optimization. In the present paper the Vattenfall priorities for fuel designs and margins are presented in a schematic manner summarizing the results of the last fuel purchase and also presenting the current program for LFAs. Technical limitations, licensing and R and D aspects, with respect to improving the fuel utilization will be mentioned. The main focus in the paper is on the broad study carried out in the PWR core design area. Driven by the relatively low power demand various possibilities for higher production flexibility have been investigated specifically extended coast-down, coast-up and yearly load follow. Further to reduce the costs for fuel consumption improvements in core designs have been studied: improved low leakage loading patterns, low enriched end zones, improved Gd designs etc. Main results and conclusions of the core design studies will

  12. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  13. Neural regulation of the kidney function in rats with cisplatin induced renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Niamh E.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a disturbed cardiovascular homeostasis. This investigation explored the role of the renal innervation in mediating deranged baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and renal excretory function in cisplatin-induced renal failure. Methods: Rats were either intact or bilaterally renally denervated 4 days prior to receiving cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and entered a chronic metabolic study for 8 days. At day 8, other groups of rats were prepared for acute measurement of RSNA or renal function with either intact or denervated kidneys. Results: Following the cisplatin challenge, creatinine clearance was 50% lower while fractional sodium excretion and renal cortical and medullary TGF-β1 concentrations were 3–4 fold higher in both intact and renally denervated rats compared to control rats. In cisplatin-treated rats, the maximal gain of the high-pressure baroreflex curve was only 20% that of control rats, but following renal denervation not different from that of renally denervated control rats. Volume expansion reduced RSNA by 50% in control and in cisplatin-treated rats but only following bilateral renal denervation. The volume expansion mediated natriuresis/diuresis was absent in the cisplatin-treated rats but was normalized following renal denervation. Conclusions: Cisplatin-induced renal injury impaired renal function and caused a sympatho-excitation with blunting of high and low pressure baroreflex regulation of RSNA, which was dependent on the renal innervation. It is suggested that in man with CKD there is a dysregulation of the neural control of the kidney mediated by its sensory innervation. PMID:26175693

  14. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy causes metal accumulation and metallothionein up-regulation in rat liver and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2007-01-01

    in liver and kidney. We found that metal ions are liberated from CoCrMo alloys and suggest that they are released by dissolucytosis, a process where macrophages causes the metallic surface to release metal ions. Animals with intramuscular implants accumulated metal in liver and kidney and metallohionein I....../II were elevated in liver tissue. The present data do not tell whether kidney and liver are the primary target organs or what possible toxicological effect the different metal ions might have, but they show that metal ions are liberated from CoCrMo alloys that are not subjected to mechanical wear...... and that they accumulate in liver and kidney tissue. That the liberated metal ions affect the tissues is supported by an up-regulation of the detoxifying/pacifying metalloprotein I/II in the liver. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  15. The crosstalk between the kidney and the central nervous system: the role of renal nerves in blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Erika E; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? This review describes the role of renal nerves as the key carrier of signals from the kidneys to the CNS and vice versa; the brain and kidneys communicate through this carrier to maintain homeostasis in the body. What advances does it highlight? Whether renal or autonomic dysfunction is the predominant contributor to systemic hypertension is still debated. In this review, we focus on the role of the renal nerves in a model of renovascular hypertension. The sympathetic nervous system influences the renal regulation of arterial pressure and body fluid composition. Anatomical and physiological evidence has shown that sympathetic nerves mediate changes in urinary sodium and water excretion by regulating the renal tubular water and sodium reabsorption throughout the nephron, changes in the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate by regulating the constriction of renal vasculature, and changes in the activity of the renin-angiotensin system by regulating the renin release from juxtaglomerular cells. Additionally, renal sensory afferent fibres project to the autonomic central nuclei that regulate blood pressure. Hence, renal nerves play a key role in the crosstalk between the kidneys and the CNS to maintain homeostasis in the body. Therefore, the increased sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney and the renal afferent nerve activity to the CNS may contribute to the outcome of diseases, such as hypertension. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  16. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  17. Study of rat kidney transamidinase structure and regulation with monoclonal antibodies and the purification and characterization of human kidney transamidinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of monoclonal antibodies to transamidinase made possible the development of an immunosorbent inhibition assay for transamidinase protein using a 125 I-labeled monoclonal antibody. This assay is a more direct measurement of transamidinase protein than the determination of the amount of polyclonal antibody required to precipitate the transamidinase activities. Rats were fed diets supplemented with creatine and/or glycine, and the amounts of transamidinase protein were determined with the assay using the monoclonal antibody. The transamidinase activities of kidneys from the rats fed the various supplemented diets ranged from 10 to 40% of the control values, whereas, the amounts of transamidinase protein were, in all instances no lower than 66% of the control values. Purified homogeneous rat kidney transamidinase and rat kidney supernatants were subjected to isoelectric focussing and four to five fractions of the enzyme were obtained. Polyclonal antibodies, but not the monoclonal antibodies were found by Western blotting experiments to recognize all the forms of the enzyme obtained by the isoelectric focussing. The author concluded that the monoclonal antibodies recognized forms of the enzyme that changed very little in amount, relative to the alterations in enzyme activities, when rats were fed a diet containing creatine

  18. Guanine nucleotide regulation of α1-adrenergic receptors of muscle and kidney eptihelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, B.I.; Hughes, R.J.; Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of adrenergic agents with α 1 -adrenergic receptors of two cell lines, the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and BC3H-1 muscle cells. While gaunylylimidodiphosphoate (Gpp(NH)p) had no effect on the affinity or the total number of [ -3 H]prazosin binding sites in membranes prepared from these cells, the nucleotide decreased the apparent affinity of the agonist epinephrine in competing for [ 3 H]prazosin binding sites in both cell types. The EC 50 of Gpp(NH)p was ∼100 μM, and a maximal effect was seen at 500 μM. In contrast, 100 μM Gpp(NH)p yielding maximal shifts in binding of epinephrine to β-adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 cell membranes. Guanine nucleotides were significantly more effective than adenine nucleotides in shifting agonist affinity for the α 1 -receptor and Mg ++ was required to observe a maximal effect. α 1 -receptor agonists activated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in both cell types, but have no direct effect on membrane adenylate cyclase activity. In intact BC3H-1 cells, α 1 -agonists inhibited β-adrenergic cAMP production, an effect which appears in preliminary studies not to result from enhanced phosphodieterase activity. These results show that agonist binding to α 1 -adrenergic receptors in mammalian kidney and muscle cells is regulated by guanine nucleotides. This regulation and inturn transmembrane signalling (PI hydrolysis) by these receptors appear to involve a guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein, which may be different than G/sub s/ and G/sub i/

  19. Regulation of N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J Y; Pan, J M; Dong, Z G; Ning, S M; Yang, C S

    1987-11-15

    In previous work, the low Km form of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) demethylase has been demonstrated to be due to a specific form of cytochrome P-450 (designated as P-450ac) and to be the enzyme required for the metabolic activation of NDMA. The present work deals with the regulation of P-450ac in rat liver during development as well as the mechanism of induction of P-450ac in rat liver and kidney by inducers. NDMA demethylase activity was almost undetectable in the liver of newborn rats, increased after day 4, and remained elevated throughout the first 17 days of the neonatal period. The enhancement of NDMA demethylase activity during development was accompanied by corresponding increases of P-450ac content and P-450ac mRNA levels as determined by Western and slot blot analyses, respectively. No sex differences with respect to this enzyme were observed in the developing rats. Acetone treatment on late-term pregnant rats for 2 days resulted in transplacental inductions of P-450ac and P-450ac mRNA in the newborn rats. Pretreatment of young male rats and adult female rats with acetone or isopropyl alcohol caused increases of NDMA demethylase activity and P-450ac content in the liver but no significant change in the P-450ac mRNA level. These facts suggest the possible existence of a posttranscription regulatory mechanism under these induction conditions. The presence of P-450ac in rat kidney was demonstrated by Western and Northern blot analyses. The renal form of P-450ac seemed to be regulated in a fashion similar to the hepatic P-450ac regarding its response to inducing factors such as fasting and acetone treatment.

  20. EU Energy Market and Regulation enter a new Framework: Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Union provides a new framework for market and regulation. This contribution discusses its main elements (dimensions), in particular energy market functioning. Energy Union adds some new focal points to its development, e.g. research and innovation, in addition to sustainability. Energy Union also aims at improving customers position on the market, and paves the way for efficiency enhancements in regulation and market monitoring at European level. Three aspects of potential future improvements are discussed how the existing Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators may further contribute to the efficient market functioning and implementation of planned infrastructure investment. (author).

  1. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...

  2. The regulation of market manipulation in Australia: a historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation ...

  3. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    's participation in a regulated market results in an average decline in its stock returns of up to 50 basis points per day, and a cumulative loss of more than 3.5% of its market value. Negative shocks to securities returns persist for at least two months. Participation in a regulated market, however, is not always unfavorable, as involved firms not directly targeted by regulatory action appear to gain sizable risk premiums. Additional evidence suggests that, although there is no direct linear relationship between firm size and effect magnitude, large firms tend to be hurt more in the short term, while small firms suffer bigger declines in returns over a longer time period. The last chapter turns to global electricity sectors to examine the development of Demand Response (DR) programs, which have become popular means of addressing the sector's central market failure of pricing below marginal generation cost. DR programs incorporate demand signals into retail electricity rates, and have the potential to effectively and inexpensively improve grid reliability and increase end-use efficiency. However, DR faces many challenges, arguably the most important of which is a general lack of information among consumers regarding usage levels and existence of alternative providers and rate plans. Financial considerations, lack of access to technological infrastructure, and misaligned producer incentives also play an important role in DR's limited success.

  5. The regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. An econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    1999-08-01

    What differentiates the structure of Nord Pool from other power exchanges around the world is the way the balance from the spot market is maintained until the actual, physical delivery takes place, via the regulating power market in Norway. This paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market, by analysing the cost of being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. Some power producers with unpredictable fluctuations (e.g. wind) will need to buy regulation services. The disclosed pattern implies that these producers must pay a limited premium of readiness in addition to the spot price; this premium is independent of the amount of regulation. The level of the premium of readiness for down-regulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the level of the spot price. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the premium for up-regulation is less correlated to the spot price. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of regulation affects the price of regulating power for up-regulation more strongly than it does for down-regulation. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for example wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. 12 refs

  6. 77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import... states that the Department normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier...

  7. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  8. 75 FR 61842 - Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing... person from using certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing...

  9. Altered myogenic vasoconstriction and regulation of whole kidney blood flow in the ASIC2 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Kimberly P; McKey, Susan E; Stec, David E; Drummond, Heather A

    2015-02-15

    Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that degenerin proteins contribute to myogenic constriction, a mechanism of blood flow regulation and protection against pressure-dependent organ injury, in renal vessels. The goal of the present study was to determine the importance of one family member, acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2), in myogenic constriction of renal interlobar arteries, myogenic regulation of whole kidney blood flow, renal injury, and blood pressure using ASIC2(+/+), ASIC2(+/-), and ASIC2(-/-) mice. Myogenic constriction in renal interlobar arteries was impaired in ASIC2(+/-) and ASIC2(-/-) mice, whereas constriction to KCl/phenylephrine was unchanged. Correction of whole kidney renal vascular resistance (RVR) during the first 5 s after a 10- to 20-mmHg step increase in perfusion pressure, a timeframe associated with myogenic-mediated correction of RVR, was slowed (4.2 ± 0.9, 0.3 ± 0.7, and 2.4 ± 0.3 resistance units/s in ASIC2(+/+), ASIC2(+/-), and ASIC2(-/-) mice). Although modest reductions in function were observed in ASIC2(-/-) mice, greater reductions were observed in ASIC2(+/-) mice, which may be explained by protein-protein interactions of ASIC2 with other degenerins. Isolated glomeruli from ASIC2(+/-) and ASIC2(-/-) mice had modest alterations in the expression of inflammation and injury markers (transforming growth factor-β, mouse anti-target of antiproliferative antibody-1, and nephrin), whereas ASIC2(+/-) mice had an increase in the remodeling marker collagen type III. Consistent with a more severe loss of function, mean arterial pressure was increased in ASIC2(+/-) mice (131 ± 3 mmHg) but not in ASIC2(-/-) mice (122 ± 3 vs. 117 ± 2 mmHg in ASIC2(+/+) mice). These results suggest that ASIC2 contributes to transduction of the renal myogenic response and are consistent with the protective role of myogenic constriction against renal injury and hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  11. The impact of Mexico's CRE regulation on Pemex marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The past, present and future of the natural gas industry in Mexico was reviewed. As far as the past is concerned, Pemex-Gas was a state monopoly, not subject to an independent regulatory authority. It was primarily concerned with providing natural gas to domestic consumers, it engaged in minimal marketing activities, and it was highly centralized. In the country as a whole, there was a notable indifference to regulation, and an almost total absence of a regulatory culture. Natural gas was seen as a minor byproduct of petroleum, not as an engine of economic growth. Reforms introduced in May 1995 attempt to institute revolutionary changes by creating a federal regulatory commission, (Comision Reguladora de Energia, CRE for short), and strongly encouraging private sector involvement in the storage, transmission and distribution of natural gas, while reserving exclusive jurisdiction for exploration and production to the State. Provisions of the new natural gas legislation were explained, including the impact on transportation, distribution and retail sales by the State Gas company, Pemex-Gas, and its assigned leading role in bringing about the legislated changes. A fully functioning open access system is expected to be in place by November 1997

  12. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeus, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.meeus@eui.e [Florence School of Regulation, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Boccaccio 151, Florence (Italy); Electrical Engineering Department (ESAT-ELECTA), KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: {yields} Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. {yields} Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. {yields} Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. {yields} More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  13. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: → Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. → Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. → Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. → More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  14. roposal on the Method of Regulating Ascending Kidney Water and Descending Heart Fire -through pharmacopuncture technique-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is aimed at diagnosing and suggesting treatment plans for commonly seen clinical manifestation of heat symptom in the upper body and coldness in the lower body, also known as hot above, cold below syndrome. Methods : Various reasons attribute to the presence of hot above, cold below syndrome, but mainly contributed by blockage of normal Qi flow by abnormality of heart-kidney root, spleen-stomach axis, and liver-lung axis. Diagnosing these abnormalities and timely alleviation to the healthy state is presented in the study. Results : 1For heat in the upper body, Huang Lian Jie Du Tang(黃連解毒湯, CF, or JsD pharmacopuctures are injected on GB21, GB20. Qi stagnation in the thoracic area is treated with BUM injection on CV17. For impairment of transportation and transformation in the middle energizer, BUM pharmacopuncture is injected on CV12. Coldness in the lower energizer was relieved by bee venom or Sweet BV(Bee Venom free from enzymes on CV6. Conclusion : Above proposed methods of regulating water-fire were effective in treating hot above, cold below syndrome in clinical manifestations. But once the symptom subsides, treatment focused on eliminating innate cause should be rendered to achieve more successful results.

  15. The paradigm change in international natural gas markets and the impact on regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, Coby; Correlje, Aad; De Jong, Jacques; Toenjes, Christoph

    2006-04-01

    CIEP was strongly involved in the preparation of the discussions on the regulation of gas markets at the World Gas Conference in Amsterdam, 6-9 June 2006. CIEP's new study on gas market regulation served as the starting note for the strategic panel discussion 'The art of regulation'. It combines a theoretical foundation for the discussion on gas market regulation with the outcomes of a series of workshops, which addressed gas market regulation in various parts of the world. In particular, the authors aimed at examining whether changing circumstances in international gas markets require adaptations in current regulatory regimes.The study highlights that the regulation of gas markets, made up of elements such as international agreements, licensing and permitting procedures, competition policy, consumer protection and network access regulation, needs to take the specific regional circumstances of the gas market in question into account. There is no 'one size fits all' solution that is applicable to all gas markets in order to bring about the investments necessary

  16. Regulation and Flexibility of the Croatian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vedran Sosic

    2004-01-01

    The Croatian Labor Code was significantly reformed in 2003 as a result of extensive negotiations lasting about two years. Proponents of the reform emphasized the supposed rigidity of the labor market, resulting from restrictive employment protection legislation, as a main rationale for the reform. Critics believed that the labor market is much more flexible than often thought due to inadequate enforcement of legislation. This study aims to assess the level of labor market dynamics by construc...

  17. The consumers' role in a de-regulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Doehl, Oeystein; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Larsson, Jan; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The electricity market is market characterized by large price variations. This may have many causes, such as large variation of demand, large differences in the operating costs of the utilities or large variation in precipitation. Price variations caused by the supply side of the market may be counterbalanced by reducing consumption when the price is high, for example by using other energy sources, or by increasing consumption when the price is low

  18. Competition policy and regulation in hydro-dominated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Luiz Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the main competition issues that arise in electricity systems dominated by hydro generation, arguing that technological differences between hydro and thermal plants may allow hydropower producers to exert market power in different and subtler ways compared to thermal generators. The key for market power in hydro-based systems is the strategic allocation of a given amount of output across periods, rather than a straightforward reduction of total output. The paper examines the interaction between strategic hydro reservoir operation and transmission capacity constraints, and summarizes the implications of market power for system reliability. A review of recent relevant literature is included. Finally, possible interventions to mitigate market power are analysed

  19. Local Commune Administration as a Regulator of the Local Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Services Market

    OpenAIRE

    Małysko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...

  20. Papers of the CAMPUT 2003 educational conference : Markets in Transition : The changing face of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The North American energy landscape is evolving: markets are in transition and regulatory roles are shifting. Regulators, government policy makers, and industry representatives exchanged information concerning the changes facing regulatory agencies, industry and energy users. The eleven sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) the future of the regulator in a continental energy market, (2) gas markets in transition, (3) electricity markets in transition (including Regional Transmission Organization/Standard Market Design issues), (4) are open access markets the answer? (5) the changing face of regulation, what's up? (6) energy policy updates in British Columbia and Atlantic Canada, (7) Ontario electricity update and deregulation one year later, (8) northern issues, (9) intervener funding, (10) affiliate transactions, regulatory and business issues, and (11) cost of capital update. The conference featured 43 presentations, of which two were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Papers of the CAMPUT 2003 educational conference : Markets in Transition : The changing face of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The North American energy landscape is evolving: markets are in transition and regulatory roles are shifting. Regulators, government policy makers, and industry representatives exchanged information concerning the changes facing regulatory agencies, industry and energy users. The eleven sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) the future of the regulator in a continental energy market, (2) gas markets in transition, (3) electricity markets in transition (including Regional Transmission Organization/Standard Market Design issues), (4) are open access markets the answer? (5) the changing face of regulation, what's up? (6) energy policy updates in British Columbia and Atlantic Canada, (7) Ontario electricity update and deregulation one year later, (8) northern issues, (9) intervener funding, (10) affiliate transactions, regulatory and business issues, and (11) cost of capital update. The conference featured 43 presentations, of which two were indexed separately for inclusion in the database

  2. CHALLENGES OF FINANCIAL AUDIT - THE IMPACT OF INTRODUCING UNIQUE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitica Pepi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is related to the new type of relationship between financial audits (statutory and unique regulation of financial markets in Romania.The Romanian authorities have decided as from 2013 regulation of financial markets, capital market, insurance market and private pensions market to achieve by a single entity, this situation will also lead to a number of challenges in the relationship between the auditor and the new regulatory regime. The main elements of our study are: the relationship between the audit committee and regulatory authority; quality of financial reporting for financial market entities. The auditor plays an important role in financial markets because it certifies the financial statements in accordance with European Union practice . It is also interesting to note potential interference that can occur in single regulation between compliance audit and financial stability and return on investment between performance audit and financial markets.In this case, financial regulation can coexist with compliance audit. EU legislation recommends that the auditor discuss with the audit committee the quality and acceptability of the financial reporting process.This recommendation is what should constitute a possible consensus to be highly unlikely between audit committees would align auditors in financial reporting disputes with management financial entities. In this regard, auditors should identify the factors we consider important in determining the quality of financial reporting. .We conducted this research in an effort to identify the possible divergence between the type of regulations that can emit single regulatory authority and the audit process. New regulator will operate on two levels, issue general regulations apply to all three categories of financial markets, capital market, insurance market and private pensions market, but in the same time and in greater extent will issue specific regulations of each market in

  3. Resolvin D1 Protects Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Kidney Injury by Down-regulating Nuclear Factor-kappa B Signal and Inhibiting Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Liang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In LPS-induced AKI, RvD1 could decrease TNF-α level, ameliorate kidney pathological injury, protect kidney function, and improve animal survival by down-regulating NF-κB inflammatory signal as well as inhibiting renal cell apoptosis.

  4. Market development in CEE between regulation and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthier, S.

    2002-01-01

    European energy markets are undergoing profound changes. These are characterised by privatisation, deregulation and intensified competition. The energy supply companies are tackling the task of adapting to a changing business environment which is calling for new strategies. This evolution affects also the energy markets of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The paper highlights the impact of this situation for the gas markets of CEE countries. It discusses three major aspects: the introduction of market prices as requirement for successful market development, strategies for gas companies to master the upcoming challenges and finally main factors influencing the development of the gas markets. Currently, different issues are coming up in CEE countries which will play a major role in the development of the gas industries of these countries. While preparing for entering the EU, CEE energy markets have to develop an appropriate regulatory framework for the time before and after the accession to the EU. This concerns especially the introduction of market prices. In order to tackle successfully the upcoming competition gas companies have to increase efficiency, particularly by increasing sales activities. Economically efficient capital investments are necessary to develop existing market potential. With the further increase of gas demand and cross-border gas trading, more gas will come from the western direction. This development will create good opportunities for successful cooperation between central and western European gas companies. Appropriate strategic investors can support market development while bringing in needed capital for the development of the infrastructure, know-how and expertise in sales and marketing activities and finally experience in facing inter fuel and gas to gas competition. (author)

  5. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  6. Developing power markets - Development of market place for meeting the demand - Case India, in transition from regulated to competitive structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pranay; Sarkar, Prabhajit Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Power Market players of developing countries with supply deficit are exposed to a unique combination of price risk and quantity risk which is not the case with developed nations that have taken path of liberalization to open up their power markets. India has one of the largest generation capacities in the world, yet till recently the Indian Power sector was highly regulated. However, the last decade has witnessed many initiatives so as to make the sector market oriented. This paper provides opportunity for developing countries to learn from Indian experience of introducing competition in the power sector.

  7. Credit Rating Agencies, Financial Regulations and the Capital Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Shahzad (Khurram)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies the role of credit rating agencies (CRAs) in capital markets, and the effects of two important regulatory decisions that are taken to improve the quality of information available to the capital markets. In particular, this thesis examines a) the importance of credit

  8. Stochastic Optimal Regulation Service Strategy for a Wind Farm Participating in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    in the stochastic optimization to deal with the uncertainty of the up regulation price and the up regulation activation of the power system.The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen to evaluate the effect of the proposed strategy. Simulation results showthe proposed......As modern wind farmshave the ability to provideregulation service for the power system, wind power plant operators may be motivated to participate in the regulating market to maximize their profit.In this paper, anoptimal regulation servicestrategy for a wind farm to participate...... strategy can increase the revenue of wind farms by leavinga certain amount of wind powerfor regulation service....

  9. 75 FR 33501 - Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...] RIN 1550-AC40 Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit... Supervision is amending its regulations to eliminate restrictions on certain kinds of transfers from money... for savings deposit, Regulation D lists several types of savings deposit accounts, including Money...

  10. Regulated Medicare Advantage And Marketplace Individual Health Insurance Markets Rely On Insurer Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Structure, control and regulation of the formal market for medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. ... It is relatively new and underdeveloped. ... physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies.

  12. Structure, control and regulation of the formal market for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntade, Adegboyega E; Oluwalana, Isaac B

    2011-01-01

    There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. The formal market is subject to the national regulatory framework for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is relatively new and underdeveloped. This study was designed to appraise this market with special emphasis on the market participants, market structure, marketing functions performed, conduct of sellers in the market and; standards and regulations to which the market is subject. Information used for this study was collected through personal interviews and interactions with key participants in the market; especially the officials of regulatory agency. The market structure was analysed in terms of the share of market controlled by participants and product types. Concentration Ratios (CR2 and CR4) were used to assess the market share. Marketing functions being performed were described in terms of the exchange, physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies. The regulatory framework under which the market operates was appraised. The market was highly concentrated with a CR2 and CR4 of 58.5% and 80.8 %; respectively. Imported products accounted for only 12.3% of the market. The predominant modes of presentation of the product were capsule (41.6%) and liquid (36.2%). About 20.77% of the products were classified as multivitamins, 13.85% were antibiotics while 10.77% addressed sexual dysfunctional problems. These products were regulated under the Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) decrees, 1993-1999. Only 2.3% of the products have received full registration status while the others were only listed.

  13. A Historical Overview of the Regulation of Market Abuse in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In an early attempt to combat market abuse in the South African financial markets, legislation such as the Companies Act, the Financial Markets Control Act and the Stock Exchanges Control Act were enacted. However, these Acts failed to effectively curb market abuse activities that were allegedly rife in the financial markets. Consequently, the Insider Trading Act was enacted and came into effect on 17 January 1999. While the introduction of the Insider Trading Act brought some confidence in the financial markets, market abuse activities were still not extinguished. The provisions of the Insider Trading Act were to some extent inadequate and ineffectively implemented. Eventually, the Securities Services Act was enacted to repeal all the flawed provisions of the Insider Trading Act. Notwithstanding these efforts on the part of the legislature, more may still need to be done to increase the number of convictions and settlements in cases involving market abuse in South Africa. It is against this background that a historical overview analysis of the regulation of market abuse is carried out in this article to expose the flaws that were previously embedded in the South African market abuse laws prior to 2004. This is done to raise awareness of the situation on the part of the relevant stakeholders, as they consider whether such flaws were adequately resolved or subsequently re-introduced under the Securities Services Act and the Financial Markets Act. To this end, the article firstly discusses the historical development and regulation of market manipulation prior to 2004. Secondly, the regulation and enforcement of insider trading legislation prior to 2004 are examined. Moreover, where possible, certain flaws of the previous market abuse laws that were re-incorporated into the current South African market abuse legislation are isolated and recommendations are made in that regard.

  14. [Review for treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Ping; Zeng, Jie; Jiao, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2018-01-01

    The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus and Psoraleae Fructus up-regulated the expression of key proteins and genes of BMP-Smads and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathways to promote bone formation. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix inhibited the bone resorption by mediating the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway. ②Kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine prevented and treated osteoporosis through a variety of ways: icariin in Epimedii Folium, naringin in Drynariae Rhizoma, osthole in Cnidii Fructus and psoralen in Psoraleae Fructus can regulate BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway to promote bone formation, but also activate OPG/RANKL/RANK, CTSK and other signaling pathways to inhibit bone resorption. ③The crosstalk of the signaling pathways and the animal experiments of the traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis as well as their multi-target mechanism and comprehensive regulation need further clarification. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries

  16. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries.

  17. THE CONTRADICTIONS OF THE FORMATION OF FUNCTIONAL AND TARGET REGULATION OF THE STOCK MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of formation of the inversion type of the stock market and its contradictions were investigated, the necessity of transition to a functional-target regulation of the stock market was proved the ways of optimization of the institutional system by integrating the functions of regulatory authorities were proposed.

  18. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Mujinja, Phares Gm

    2011-02-28

    Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.

  19. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  20. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. VDR Activation Reduces Proteinuria and High-Glucose-Induced Injury of Kidneys and Podocytes by Regulating Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and proteinuria is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations. The expression of Vitamin D receptor (VDR in patients with chronic kidney diseases was decreased, while VDR agonists could partially alleviate the proteinuria of DN in animal models. The present study was designed to determine the expression of VDR in renal tissues and its relationship with proteinuria the diabetic model db/db mice. Methods: The regulation effects of VDR on the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed using RNA interference and VDR agonist paricalcitol. Results: With the increase in age of the db/db mice, the VDR protein and mRNA levels in renal tissues were decreased, proteinuria increased, and the protein and mRNA levels of GSK-3β of and β-catenin increased. Paricalcitol treatment resulted in the up-regulation of VDR and down-regulation of GSK-3β and β-catenin, indicating that VDR had a regulatory effect on the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusion: VDR activation could reduce proteinuria of DN mice and alleviate high-glucose-induced injury of kidneys and podocytes by regulating the key molecules of Wnt signaling pathway.

  2. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7 regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Haege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  3. CXC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CXCR7) Regulates CXCR4 Protein Expression and Capillary Tuft Development in Mouse Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haege, Sammy; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Background The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. Methodology/Principal Findings We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. Conclusions/Significance We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries. PMID:22880115

  4. Retail gas markets - a case of regulated deregulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.

    2001-01-01

    While much has been said recently on the introduction of full retail contestability in Australia's gas markets, the process is far from over. The General Manager (Retail) with Origin Energy-and a new addition to the Australian Gas Association Board-provides an overview of the process to date, and how it might progress in the future. He concluded that in Australia, the retail gas market is relatively small and the processes initiated to achieve full retail competition are still largely fragmented across jurisdictions. These factors have potential to generate costs which could severely dent, if not exceed the anticipated benefit of competition

  5. The role of power exchanges for the creation of a single European electricity market: market design and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseleau, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity sector worldwide is undergoing a fundamental transformation of its institutional structure as a consequence of the complex interactions of political, economic and technological forces. The way the industry is organized is changing from vertically integrated monopolies to unbundled structures that favor market mechanisms. This process in Europe, known as the liberalization process, has had a wide impact on the European electricity industry. The focus of this dissertation is an analysis of the role of electricity power exchanges in the recently liberalized electricity markets of Europe. In the context of creating a competitive electricity market at a European level, the key questions considered are the functioning of these power exchanges with respect to electricity characteristics, market design and regulatory framework. In Europe, very little attention has been paid to the role of these new marketplaces and to the issue of market design in general. Hence the main purpose of this work was to analyze how these marketplaces facilitate the trading of electricity and the role they can play in the construction of a pan-European competitive electricity market. An analysis of power exchange requires taking into account the 'double-duality' of such institutions. One, power exchanges are both a market and an institution. As a market they facilitate the trading of electricity and determine an equilibrium price. As an institution power exchanges have their own objectives and constraints, and play a role in the market design of the overall electricity market. Two, the relationship between electricity power exchanges and liberalization is neither linear nor one way: liberalization encourages the birth of such marketplaces yet marketplaces are more than the results of such process, they are also a driving force of the liberalization process. This thesis is divided into three parts. The current situation in Europe and different existing theoretical approaches in

  6. Integration of REDD into the international carbon market: Implications for future commitments and market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Alistair; Anger, Niels; Holden, Rachel; Livengood, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Integrating reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) into a post-Kyoto intergovernmental carbon market could significantly decrease global carbon prices and the costs of mitigating climate change. We investigate this impact by simulating the impact of the supply of REDD units on the international carbon market in 2020 under unlimited and restricted exchange conditions. We find restricting supply or demand of REDD credits reduces such price impacts, but comes at the cost of ...

  7. Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation as well as the impact of market regulations on the development of biomass power generation. The evaluation of the existing instruments focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. Feed-in tariffs and net metering are important instruments to get the different technologies 'off the ground', however, they can only be considered an interim solution as they do not necessarily lead to cost reduction. A bidding process is one way to achieve these cost reductions, but high transaction costs will support the development of large renewable energy projects, which is not always the desired effect. Fixed quotas combined with green certificate trading or a power exchange in combination with Green Pricing seem to lead to similar costs reduction, however, so far there is only limited experience with such instruments. The analysis of the impact of market regulations focuses on international electricity markets with a power exchange. Such markets exist, for example, in Scandinavia, England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand and California. The analysis showed that new distributed generation, for example based on biomass, faces significant market barriers. Furthermore, distributed generation is not treated equally within the market regulations compared to large-scale power generation

  8. TGP attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulates the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein in the kidneys of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yunxia; Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Xinxing; Wang, Kun; Wu, Yonggui; Xia, Lingling

    2017-01-16

    Recent evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-inflammation chain contributes to diabetic renal injury. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether total glucosides of peony (TGP) could inhibit ERS and attenuate up-regulation of TXNIP in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. TGP was orally administered daily at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphor- eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and TXNIP was assessed. Results indicated that TGP significantly decreased diabetes-induced albuminuria and it acted by down-regulating activation of the ERS-TXNIP-inflammation chain in the kidneys of diabetic rats. These findings indicate that renoprotection from TGP in diabetic rats possibly contributed to inhibition of ERS and decreased expression of TXNIP. These findings also offer a new perspective from which to study the molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy and prevent its progression.

  9. Regulating financial markets: Costs and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Górnicka, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the interactions between the institutional design of financial systems, and the financial agents that regulatory institutions supervise. It explores the channels through which financial regulation affects financial agents’ lending, funding, and risk-taking decisions. By

  10. Hyaluronan Biology and Regulation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells and its Role in Kidney Stone Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asselman (Marino)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRenal stone disease is a widespread problem afflicting more and more people throughout the world. Epidemiological studies show an increase in incidence and prevalence rates. In North America and Europe the yearly incidence is estimated to be about 0.5% 1, 2. The prevalence of kidney

  11. Inside the black box: incentive regulation and incentive channeling on energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Heine (Klaus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims to achieve more insight into the complex interplay between the "external" market regulations and "internal" regulations (corporate governance) of energy firms. In recent years, many countries have deregulated the incumbent energy monopolies and have introduced new modes

  12. Marketing of food and beverage in Brazil: scientific literature review on regulation and self-regulation of advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Kassahara; Flavia Mori Sarti

    2017-01-01

    The effects of marketing strategies for promotion of foods and beverages have been investigated due to its potential impacts on populations’ food choices, particularly among children and adolescents. The paper presents an academic literature review on regulation and self-regulation of food and beverage advertisements in Brazil, based on search performed in electronic databases. Majority of studies were based on law analysis or qualitative study of advertisements. There are sufficient evidence...

  13. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  14. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronit, K; Jensen, J D

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognised that the industry has a role in and hence needs to be involved in halting the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self-regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms-obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing-and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles and, subsequently, on the basis of abstracts. Of the 4978 identified publications, 22 were included in the final review. The studies show that commitments in industry self-regulation schemes tend to be relatively vague and permissive, that the measurable effects of the self-regulations tend to be relatively small and that some extent of public regulation may catalyse the effectiveness of industry self-regulation. Although the reviewed studies vary in terms of analytic units and methods applied, they generally stress an ineffectiveness of existing self-regulation schemes. Food industry self-regulation in relation to obesity prevention is an emerging field of research, and further research is needed in such schemes' definitions of regulatory standards, their monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms, and their interactions with public regulation, if industry self-regulation of marketing behaviour is to become an effective and credible approach.

  15. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  16. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, I.; Correlje, A.; Huerta, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  17. Dialectics of public and market regulation of a region and municipality socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motives of improving public regulation influence to socio-economic and social processes, increasing quality and effectiveness of public (PR and market (MR regulators, their optimal and flexible cooperation were examined in the article. The essence and content of public-legal regulators (PLR in the sustainable and balanced development of territories, regions and country as a whole was reviewed. The PLR was classified by criteria of the “scale” of their regulation influence, regulation methods and consequences. Special attention was paid to the quality of PLR of federal and intergovernmental relations at the regional and municipal levels. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of public and market regulators in regional and territorial development were suggested.

  18. Innovation in energy networks. A study on the changing relation between regulation, technology and market in liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, R.W.; Bouwmans, I.; Kling, W.L.; Slootweg, J.G.; Stout, H.D.; De Vries, L.J.; Van Poelje, H.; Wolters, M.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the development a view on the future of the energy infrastructure for the next 10-15 years, including the related regulation, focusing on the strategic options for development of networks. Attention is paid to (1) planning concepts (to what extent should existing planning concepts be revised as a result of liberalization and technical innovation); and (2) positioning of networks (what are the consequences of the separation of energy markets in commercial and regulated sectors for the development of the energy sector) [nl

  19. COMMODITY MARKET REGULATION: EXPORTING COUNTRIES VERSUS IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Leonardo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The high in commodity prices in the international market in the last decade, tensions escalated between exporting and importing commodities countries, the extent of having their demands and pressures discussed in the main international organizations, especially in the G20. As altas nas cotações das commodities no mercado internacional na última década acirraram as tensões entre países exportadores e importadores de commodities, a ponto de terem suas reivindicações e pressões debatidas no...

  20. The role of government in a competitive power market : strategic behaviors and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Restructuring in the Korean power industry has fundamentally changed the role of government. The role of government in a new environment may include : (1) promoting competition (2) prohibiting collusion or unfair trade practices (3) securing uninterrupted power supply (4) providing universal services to consumers (5) implementing appropriate price regulation. Focusing on the first two issues, this report has analyzed anti-competitive strategic behaviors and an impact of market power and tried to provide regulatory guidelines. This report surveyed three types of theoretical models analyzing a bidding behavior in an electric power market. The Cournot model is applied to the Korean electricity market. The following policy implications are derived. (1) The Cournot-Nash equilibrium price can be regarded as a threshold in market surveillance. (2) Had the fossil stations been divided among six instead of five companies, then market power would have been weakened in a reasonable degree. This finding also renders some implications with respect to business permission, divestiture, and merger. Among those, it is argued that a large new entrant rather than small IPPs contributes to increasing competition and lowering market power. (3) Increase in responsiveness of final demand to wholesale price fluctuation is an important factor to lower the Cournot equilibrium price and so market power. Therefore, appropriate regulatory system should be arranged to make power demand more elastic. (4) Activating contract markets such as CfD and introducing the capacity credit market can greatly help to lower market power. (author). 36 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Forbearance, Regulation, and Market Power in Natural Gas Storage: The Case of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.; Ware, R.; Wetston, H.

    2007-07-01

    In late 2006 the Ontario Energy Board rendered a landmark decision to forbear from the price regulation of natural gas storage services. This paper examines the key issues and provides some economic analysis of the evidence. The decision followed a proceeding during which evidence was given on whether the market for storage is competitive or is subject to significant market power possessed by dominant and incumbent utility firms in the province. Intervenors in the proceeding were in broad agreement on the use of standard concepts from North American antitrust analysis of merger reviews: identification of the relevant product and geographic markets, analysis of market structure within the relevant market, and assessment of barriers to entry. A critical issue at the hearing was the extent of the geographic market; a broad market encompassing U.S. storage facilities in neighbouring states supports a finding of competition, whereas a narrower geographic market restricted to Ontario makes market power more likely. Since gas storage is only as functional as the pipelines connected to it, evidence was directed at assessing the availability of pipeline capacity in both primary and secondary markets. (auth)

  2. Three essays on regulated markets. Renewable energies, hospital competition and health insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried, Matthias

    2012-11-15

    This doctoral thesis presents an analysis of regulated markets especially focusing on the behavior of the actors, the effects of regulatory interventions on market outcome, and the necessity of the regulation itself. With respect to the particular characteristics, three different markets are analyzed: the German market for photovoltaic capacity, the German hospital sector, and the market for health insurance with respect to outpatient care. Chapter two provides an analysis of the German system of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic power with respect to effectiveness and efficiency. To ensure a certain volume of investment in photovoltaic capacity investors receive fixed feed-in tariffs for 20 years for each unit of energy they feed into the grid. This remuneration is reduced according to a certain cut-off scheme for devices which will be installed in the future. In the past view years, an enormous volume of photovoltaic devices has been installed, especially in the weeks before the cut-offs. To analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the German feed-in tariff system, first, the determinants of such investment are analyzed by estimating an Error Correction model. The results of the estimation are used to simulate alternative mechanisms of adjusting the feed-in tariffs and compare them to the current regime in terms of target achievement and social costs. One of the key results is that the current system causes early investments, but does not induce over-investment. Moreover, it is shown that a system of continuously adjusted feed-in tariffs could be more appropriate than the current regime and that the adjustment should be related to the investment costs. In chapter three, the German hospital market which is characterized by regulated treatment fees and several different ownership types is analyzed. This part of the thesis tries to answer the question how the existence of non-profit hospitals influences market outcome and welfare compared to a market where

  3. Differential regulation of glomerular and interstitial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney of hibernating ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; Hut, Roelof A; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Epema, Anne H; van Goor, Harry; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-09-01

    Hibernating animals transiently reduce renal function during their hypothermic periods (torpor), while completely restoring it during their periodical rewarming to euthermia (arousal). Moreover, structural integrity of the kidney is preserved throughout the hibernation. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial vasodilatory mediator and a protective factor in the kidney. We investigated renal NOS expression in hibernating European ground squirrels after 1 day and 7 days of torpor (torpor short, TS, and torpor long, TL, respectively), at 1.5 and at 10 h of rewarming (arousal short, AS, and arousal long, AL, respectively), and in continuously euthermic animals after hibernation (EU). For that purpose, we performed NOS activity assay, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a decreased glomerular eNOS expression in hibernating animals (TS, TL, AS, and AL) compared to non-hibernating animals (EU, p EU. In all methods used, torpid and aroused squirrels did not differ. These results demonstrate differential regulation of eNOS in glomeruli and interstitium of hibernating animals, which is unaffected during arousal. The differential regulation of eNOS may serve to reduce ultrafiltration without jeopardizing tubular structures during hibernation.

  4. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  5. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990–2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second‐reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Results Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self‐regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non‐regulatory initiatives. Conclusions The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. PMID:26173765

  6. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second-reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self-regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  7. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Financial Market Regulation in Germany - Capital Requirements of Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Karl Detzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines capital adequacy regulation in Germany. The first part reviews capital adequacy regulation from the 1930s up to the financial crisis and identifies two main trends: a gradual softening of the eligibility criteria for equity and increasing reliance on internal risk models. While the first trend has been reversed following the financial crisis, internal risk models still play a central role. Therefore, the second part discusses the problems with the use of internal risk models and discusses the potentials of Basel 2.5 and Basel III to alleviate the identified problems. It is concluded that the relevant problems are not resolved. Therefore, in the final part some suggestions of how the problems could be addressed properly are given.

  9. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  10. Pension fund regulation: Unintended consequences of foreign investment restrictions in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retirement savings allow investors to earn income after retirement by saving while being part of the workforce. Retirement savings comprise the largest portion of retirement savings and should be safeguarded by effective regulation. To safeguard retirement savings, exposure to foreign asset investments is limited. However, in an emerging economy, limiting foreign asset investments, especially investment in developed markets, could hamper the potential investment returns due to the translation risk. To assess the effect of translation risk, a preservation provident fund was used in the present study to determine whether the returns of this preservation provident fund would be adversely affected by investment allocation regulation. The findings indicated how the translation effect affected the preservation provident fund, illustrating the adverse unintended consequences of investment regulation in emerging market economies. Consequently, regulators should reconsider the maximum allowed foreign asset investment in pension fund regulations to enhance investment returns from foreign asset investments

  11. Competition, regulation, and pricing behavior in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    OpenAIRE

    Contín Pilart, Ignacio; Correljé, Aad F.; Palacios, María Blanca

    2006-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990 the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that "liberalization" was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. This paper examines the pricing behavior of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results...

  12. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Sudip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.

  13. Markets, citizenship and rights: state regulation of labour migration in Malaysia and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2010-01-01

    The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of citizenship demands closed membership, civil and human rights seem to undermine the State capacity to exclude foreigners once in the country. The present thesis analyses this trilemma between markets...

  14. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076

  15. Exchange markets for regulating power; ''Boersliche'' Regelenergiemaerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, A. [European Energy Exchange AG, Leipzig (Germany). Abt. Produktentwicklung

    2004-07-01

    Free markets for the commodity power are an organic component of a deregulated energy industry. This applies also for the procurement of regulating power by the transmission system operators (TSO). The foundation of exchanges makes perfect sense, when the price of the commodity has an impact beyond the exchange transaction. Exchange structures can help to solve the existing problems for the minute reserve markets in Germany. (orig.)

  16. Competition in energy markets - law and regulation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter Duncanson; Brothwood, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of the origins, aims and implementation of the EU energy directives is essential to an understanding of the emerging internal market in energy in the European Union. This book provides a detailed and practical account of the legislation and the various developments in the Member States that are leading to a competitive energy market for the first time. It explains the legislation, EU case law and the relevant national laws, regulations and competence of the enforcing authorities. (Author)

  17. Differences in regulation and efficiency on the electricity market. A preliminary study in the Market Design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, Goeran; Lindblom, Ted; Olsson, Sven-Olof; Sandoff, Anders

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a pilot study focusing on corporate governance and mechanism design issues concerning the electricity industry. With respect to the on-going deregulation, enlargement and internationalisation of electricity markets, especial emphasis is put on exploring the importance of the regulatory environment for accomplishing overall market efficiency. Throughout this preliminary study a central assumption has been that the actors on electricity markets are trying to maximise profits under conditions of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This means that transaction costs should be taken into consideration when studying and analysing the efficiency of electricity markets. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of this paper is resting largely on information theories, like 'Transaction Cost Economics', 'Agency Theory', 'Public Choice and Regulation' and 'Information Economics'. The pilot study consists of three parts. The first part is focusing on the development of a relevant theoretical framework. This part is demonstrating important pricing principles and regulatory incentives for accomplishing an efficient electricity market and, thus, a fair competition between electricity actors, i.e. power companies and other traders of electricity. In such a market design we have distinguished three cornerstones: 1. Marginal cost based electricity pricing, both for energy and capacity. 2. Long-range planning of production and transmission expansions. 3. Transparent transmission pricing and open access to all regional and local transmission grids. The following areas are examples of theoretical research issues that are of a particular interest in practice: The production and transmission of electricity is characterised by considerable economies of scale. The financing of new production and transmission capacity is, however, hard to manage with internal funding when electricity prices are based on marginal costs. What methods or (pricing) strategies

  18. Liberalising Dutch Energy Markets. Champions and governance, rules and regulations. The 1995-2005 stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.

    2006-09-01

    Liberalisation of Dutch energy markets was not a sudden change of policy direction, but rather the result of policy evaluations and discussions which had already been going on for quite some time when the Minister of Economic Affairs issued an Energy White Paper in early 1996, and the EU Directives for the electricity market (1996) and the gas market (1998) were introduced. The Dutch followed a two-way track, aiming at a phased market liberalisation for gas and electricity with full legal electricity network unbundling and a merger of the four large power generators into a national champion. For gas, the Dutch position as a major natural gas producer led to the proposition of a structure that was much more careful, following the EU Directive to the millimetre. Some ten years since the White Paper was issued, Dutch decision-making, legislation and regulation of the energy market has gone through a fascinating, burdensome and complex, and sometimes chaotic and frustrating process. This study highlights the importance of market dynamics and the almost unbearable and unsolvable balance between policy, legislation and regulation. Further attention is given to the role of Dte ( Office of Energy Regulation) and its evolution into a full merger with the NMa (Netherlands Competition Authority), and ownership and privatisation discussions against the backdrop of the developments in the wider European energy markets. Overall, the study concludes that it appears to be too early to tell whether energy market policies of the last decade have delivered the expected results in either quantitative or monetary terms. What the process did deliver, however, was a lot of turbulence and dynamics, a boost for innovation in marketing and technology drives, and increased awareness about consumer power in which the threat to switch in itself produces results of improved service, more transparency and increased accountability

  19. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  20. Guide to a Strategic Procurement Planning Approach on Regulated Commodity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Marcus; Wüst, Thorsten

    The access of Virtual Organizations to raw materials normally requires external resources. In many cases, the market for raw materials is regulated and the VO principles of trust, customer orientation etc. are not applicable. In consequence, the VO needs to provide reliable solutions for the customer while being dependent on the access to the required raw materials. The objective of the proposed paper is to present a guide to a strategic procurement planning for the manufacturing industry on regulated commodity markets. This guide can be used to evaluate specific sourcing options. The main goal of this guide is to identify the negative effects of market regulation at an early stage and reduce them by developing strategic alternatives. The successful application of this guide is demonstrated by the practical example of the refractory industry and one of their commodities, refractory grade bauxite.

  1. Financial markets regulation in the energy sector. A few financial aspects of energy transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to energy legislation, financial markets legislation and regulation (FMR) are becoming increasingly important for the energy sector. Consequently, parties on the energy market not only have to deal with the energy and competition authorities (the Dte and NMa respectively), but may also face supervision by The Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM). Energy transactions may trigger certain prohibitions and obligations under financial and securities law, the most relevant of which are discussed in this article. Both the recent changes as a result of the Financial Markets Supervision Act ('Wet op het financieel toezicht', Wft) entering into force as per 1 January 2007 and the anticipated future amendments following the implementation of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) are examined [nl

  2. Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Amy; Poterba, James; Rothschild, Casey

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate how equilibrium screening models can be used to evaluate the economic consequences of insurance market regulation. We calibrate and solve a model of the United Kingdom's compulsory annuity market and examine the impact of gender-based pricing restrictions. We find that the endogenous adjustment of annuity contract menus in response to such restrictions can undo up to half of the redistribution from men to women that would occur with exogenous Social Security-like annuity contracts. Our findings indicate the importance of endogenous contract responses and illustrate the feasibility of employing theoretical insurance market equilibrium models for quantitative policy analysis.

  3. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL MARKETS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ROMANIA AS A EU MEMBER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU CRISTIAN DOBRE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets are increasingly becoming an area of major interest to the European Union in its efforts to achieve competitive global development levels similar to those of the United States. The Lisbon Agenda is a testimony to this, although the latest assessments are not at all optimistic about the achievement of the target as expected for 2010. To meet its objectives, the EU has generated a comprehensive package of regulatory initiatives, composed of directives and regulations that translate its policies into the field. The paper aims at a careful review of all of them. Approximation of investment and capital markets is made from the two major chapters of Community policies whose freedom of movement within the internal market is a fundamental desideratum of the European Union: the free movement of capital and freedom of movement of services. Financial markets are an integral part of European capital under current conditions, so development regulation helps European Union member states achieve their financial goals. At the same time, by imposing these regulations, we observe the European Union's intention to act as a starter of systems to bring to the development of states and not to leave behind the countries that are in difficulty, through a rigorous and transparent regulation of the financial markets.

  5. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  6. The organisation of work and systems of labour market regulation and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....

  7. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. The impact of the new wave of financial regulation for European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijman, Luuk

    2012-01-01

    As the financial and physical markets for energy have increasingly become intertwined, energy trade is also covered by financial legislation. The European Commission wishes to strengthen this financial regulation of energy trade. It has put forward a set of regulatory proposals aimed at stabilizing financial markets and limiting volatility of energy prices. The most noteworthy are EMIR, MAD, REMIT and the revised MiFID. Key elements are transparency, new trading venues, central clearing obligations and mandatory transaction reporting. This article evaluates the likely outcomes for energy markets, given the new incentives for market parties. It argues that although there is no ground to exempt particular energy market participants such as energy companies from financial legislation, increased regulation will not necessarily bring about the effects the Commission desires. The causal link between derivatives trading and volatility of energy prices is not known precisely and many of the economic effects of the proposed legislation are theoretically and empirically ambiguous. Moreover, potentially conflicting instruments and objectives risk policy inconsistency. - Highlights: ► The European Commission has put forward a set of financial legislation to stabilize both financial markets and energy prices. ► This article assesses the impact of this financial regulation on energy markets. ► It shows that the theoretical and empirical effects of key elements in this legislation are ambiguous. ► It argues that, if enacted, particular market parties such as energy companies should not be exempted. ► It concludes that this set of legislation will not necessarily bring about the effects the Commission desires.

  9. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  10. Marketing of food and beverage in Brazil: scientific literature review on regulation and self-regulation of advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Kassahara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of marketing strategies for promotion of foods and beverages have been investigated due to its potential impacts on populations’ food choices, particularly among children and adolescents. The paper presents an academic literature review on regulation and self-regulation of food and beverage advertisements in Brazil, based on search performed in electronic databases. Majority of studies were based on law analysis or qualitative study of advertisements. There are sufficient evidences on the need for government regulation of advertisements addressed to children and adolescents complementarily to institutional self-regulation in order to tackle ethical transgressions on food and beverage advertisements identified in Brazil. Additionally, there should be imposition of rigorous penalties for noncompliance to ethical rules and proposition of incentives towards actions encouraging healthy food consumption patterns, in order to comprise an actual system for promotion of public health.

  11. Is the price squeeze doctrine still viable in fully-regulated energy markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiwak, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Simply stated, a price squeeze occurs when a firm with monopoly power on the primary, or wholesale, level engages in a prolonged price increase that drives competitors out of the secondary, or retail level, and thereby extends its monopoly power to the secondary market. A price squeeze will not be found, however, for any short-term exercise in market power. Rather, because anticompetitive effects of a price squeeze are indirect, the price squeeze must last long enough and be severe enough to produce effects on actual or potential competition in the secondary market. In regulated electric industries, a price squeeze claim usually arises from the complex relationship between the supplier, the wholesale customer, the retail customer, and the federal and state regulators. The supplier sells electric power to both wholesale and retail customers. Wholesale transactions are regulated by federal regulators, and retail transactions are regulated at the state level. The wholesale customers in turn sell power to their retail customers. Over the last several years, there have been substantial developments in the application of the price squeeze doctrine to fully-regulated electric utilities. This article will examine the current developments in this area, and attempt to highlight the burdens potential litigants, both plaintiffs and defendants, must overcome to succeed

  12. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  13. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Theoretical and Methodological Bases to Form the Parity of State Regulation of the National Economy and Market Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahno Tetiana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the existing approaches regarding the optimal balance of mechanisms of economic regulation and identify factors that influence the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation of economy. The analysis of the existing studies has made it possible to establish that the mixed economy model, which is organized on the basis of the market price system but uses various forms of government intervention to correct macroeconomic instability, is the most optimal one for effective development. The smoothing, preventing of negative consequences of effects of market regulators is the goal of state regulation of economy. It is substantiated that the optimal correlation of mechanisms of state regulation and market self-regulation is not a constant value. The maximum effective ratio in application of these mechanisms will not always be achieved under condition of equal government intervention and self-regulation. It depends on the country’s potential, its involvement in the system of the world market economy, level of development of the society, as well as historical features of the country’s development and phase of the economic cycle. Prospects for further research are the substantiation of a new paradigm for the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation in the context of financial uncertainty and effect of supranational regulators, growing contradictions of globalization-regionalization based on the use of the system and synergetic approach.

  15. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  16. Field Experience from Li-Ion BESS Delivering Primary Frequency Regulation in the Danish Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the practical experience from operating a 1.6 MW/ 0.4 MWh lithium ion battery energy storage system, which is providing primary frequency regulation service on the Danish energy market. Aspects of the battery system requirements and the used control strategy...

  17. Markets, citizenship and rights: state regulation of labour migration in Malaysia and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2010-01-01

    The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of

  18. It extended for come into force the Electric Energy Whole Sale Market regulation and annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    It has seen seen the deadline set by the decree no. 86 March 5, 2003 for entry into force of the Regulation of wholesale power market and the desirability to adapt the wording of its provisions and for reasons of urgency.

  19. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A; Moraes, Carlos T; Sanderson, Thomas H; Stemmler, Timothy L; Grossman, Lawrence I; Kagan, Valerian E; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Salomon, Arthur R; Edwards, Brian F P; Hüttemann, Maik

    2017-01-06

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr 28 , leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr 28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr 28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr 28 in vivo We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via "controlled respiration," preventing ΔΨ m hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  1. Price regulation and relative price convergence: Evidence from the retail gasoline market in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvankulov, Farrukh; Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Ogucu, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores price regulation and relative price convergence in the Canadian retail gasoline market. We use monthly data (2000–2010) on retail gasoline prices in 60 Canadian cities to investigate (i) whether the retail gasoline market in Canada has experienced a relative price convergence to the mean, which is expected, given the increased economic integration across Canadian provinces; and (ii) whether the introduction of price regulation mechanisms in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in July 2006 had any impact on the price convergence in these provinces. We use a nonlinear panel unit root test and find solid evidence that Canadian retail gasoline markets are well integrated across locales; however, the share of converging cities reveals a significant decline since July of 2006. The impact of price regulation on price convergence is mixed; our results indicate that since the enactment of the regulation in all New Brunswick cities (9) included in the dataset, gasoline prices converge to the national mean. Volatility of price is also significantly reduced. In contrast, in the wake of price regulation in Nova Scotia, all 6 cities of the province are non-convergent to the mean with increased volatility and overall price level. - Highlights: ► The paper examines price regulation and convergence of gasoline prices in Canada. ► Overall in 2000–2010 the Canadian retail gasoline market was well integrated. ► Price convergence across cities has significantly declined since July 2006. ► The impact of price regulation at province level on a price convergence is mixed. ► The paper relies on the most advanced nonlinear panel unit root test.

  2. Governance and regulation of the tourism industry: An internet marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebambo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish governance and regulation issues pertaining to Internet marketing approaches within the South African tourism sector. The study focuses on the norms and practices of Internet marketing among small-scale lodging establishments in Bushbuckridge – a small tourist town in northeast South Africa. In-depth interviews were collected from eight participating bed and breakfast (B&B owners. Findings revealed that, while Internet awareness was quite high, only a few B&Bs utilised the Internet for marketing. Participants cited lack of clear industry guidelines on Internet marketing approaches as well as limited Internet experience, among others, as barriers to adoption. Implications and recommendations of the study are presented within the ambit of the existing literature

  3. Tradeable emission permits regulations in the presence of imperfectly competitive product markets. Welfare implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartzetakis, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the interaction of a competitive market for emission permits with an oligopolistic product market. It is well known that a competitive permits market achieves the cost minimizing distribution of abatement effort among the polluting firms for a given reduction in emissions. However, when the product market is oligopolistic, it may redistribute production inefficiently among firms. It has been suggested that this inefficiency can outweigh the gains obtained from using emission permits instead of command and control. Although this argument is clearly correct under full information, it is shown in the present paper that it reverses under incomplete information. In particular, it is shown that when tradeable emission permits are specified according to the standard textbook example, they yield higher social welfare than the command and control regulation. 1 fig., 2 appendices, 11 refs

  4. Thyroid hormone coordinately regulates Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase. alpha. - and. beta. -subunit mRNA levels in kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, A.A.; Brown, T.A.; Horowitz, B.; Chiu, R.; Schlotterbeck, J.; Bowen, J.; Schmitt, C.A. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Synthesis of the sodium pump, Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase, is regulated by thyroid hormone in responsive tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine if triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) regulates the concentration of the mRNAs coding for the two enzyme subunits, {alpha} and {beta}, and the time course of the response. A single dose of T{sub 3} was administered to hypothyroid rats that were killed at various times after injection. In the kidney cortexes of the T{sub 3}-injected animals, as well as hypothyroid and euthyroid rats, {alpha}- and {beta}-mRNA concentrations were measured by dot blot using cDNAs corresponding to the two mRNAs; {alpha}-subunit abundance was measured by Western blot using antibodies to the enzyme, and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity was measured enzymatically. {alpha}- and {beta}-mRNAs increased coordinately to 1.6-fold over hypothyroid levels by 12 h after T{sub 3}. The authors conclude that T{sub 3} regulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase synthesis and activity by coordinately increasing the mRNAs of both the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of the enzyme.

  5. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  6. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  7. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  8. 77 FR 5385 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. Nos. AMS-FV-10-0094; FV11-985-1A FIR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West...

  9. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. Nos. AMS-FV-11-0088; FV12-985-1A FIR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West...

  10. 77 FR 13019 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0088; FV12-985-1 PR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural...

  11. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0064; FV13-985-1 FR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2013-2014 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural...

  12. 76 FR 27852 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0094; FV11-985-1 FR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable Quantities and Allotment Percentages for the 2011-2012 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural...

  13. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 985 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0014; FV12-985-2 PR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of... Excess Spearmint Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... Act (RFA), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic impact of this action...

  14. Cdc42 regulates epithelial cell polarity and cytoskeletal function during kidney tubule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Bertha C; Das, Amrita; Parekh, Diptiben V

    2015-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates key signaling pathways required for multiple cell functions, including maintenance of shape, polarity, proliferation, migration, differentiation and morphogenesis. Although previous studies have shown that Cdc42 is required for proper epithelial development and main......The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates key signaling pathways required for multiple cell functions, including maintenance of shape, polarity, proliferation, migration, differentiation and morphogenesis. Although previous studies have shown that Cdc42 is required for proper epithelial development...

  15. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  16. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  17. The impact of junk food marketing regulations on food sales: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Y; Noel, J K; Ungemack, J A; Burleson, J A

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of junk food broadcast marketing policies on nationwide junk food sales and identify policy characteristics effective in reducing sales. Country policy data (n = 79) were categorized in a thorough literature review and analysed using a repeated measures design against data on food sales per capita. Study conducted in United States, 2017. Countries with junk food broadcast marketing policies saw a decrease in junk food sales per capita after implementation, while those without said policies saw an increase (p = 0.013). Countries with statutory policies saw a decrease in sales per capita, while those with only self-regulation saw an increase (p = 0.004). Audience restrictions (p = 0.024) and standardized nutrition criteria (p = 0.008) were policy characteristics significantly associated with a decrease in sales per capita. Utilizing a novel approach to evaluate junk food broadcast marketing policies, the study demonstrated that countries with statutory policies saw a significant decrease in junk food sales per capita not seen in countries with no or only self-regulatory policies. To effectively reduce exposure to child-targeted junk food marketing, governments should establish strong, comprehensive statutory regulations. Additionally, countries that implement junk food marketing policies can use food sales data to track policy effectiveness. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Regulations and monitoring of the financial part of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Svante; Eliasson, Torben; Jenssen Aasmund

    2001-11-01

    The electricity derivatives market has grown significantly during the last few years. It refers to all commodity derivatives (options, futures and forwards) based on electricity and traded either on the Nord Pool Exchange or bilaterally between single parties. The growth of the derivatives market has also led to an increasing need for relevant regulation and monitoring. In this report ECON describes how the common financial regulations (e.g. Sweden's Securities Operations Act) affect power sector companies and how the electricity derivatives market is being monitored by the Swedish and the Norwegian financial supervisory authorities. The aim of the report is to give ideas about possible future research projects about the electricity derivatives market. In Sweden commodity derivatives based on electricity are generally considered to be 'financial instruments' according to The Trading in Financial Instruments Act. At least this seems to be the case with contracts traded on Nord Pool and bilateral contracts that can be subject to clearing by Nord Pool. In some cases, companies wanting to offer services regarding financial instruments in the Swedish market need a special licence and it comes from the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority. The services that require a special permit are: trading financial instruments, in one's own name, on behalf of another party, brokering of contacts between purchasers and sellers, trading in financial instruments on one's own account, management of another party's financial instruments, and underwriting or other participation in issuances of securities or offers to purchase or sell financial instruments directly to the public. A licence to conduct a securities operation brings with it, among other things, certain mandatory capital requirements. Securities operations should also be conducted in such a manner that public confidence is maintained in the securities markets. Regulation should insure that for example, insider trading is

  19. Pretranslational regulation of Na-K-ATPase in cultured canine kidney cells by low K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, J.W.; McDonough, A.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term upregulation of the sodium pump (Na-K-adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase)) entails an increase in the number of enzyme molecules. The authors incubated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in low K medium and studied the time course and magnitude of change in the relative abundance of the two Na-K-ATPase subunits ( and US ), in the synthesis rate of the subunits, and in the relative abundance of - and US -mRNA. When cells were incubated in medium containing 0.25 mM K , intracellular Na increased. The relative abundance of Na-K-ATPase subunits, measured with ( SVI)-labelled immunoblots of cell homogenates, increases such that after 24 h was 1.71 +/- 0.33 and US was 1.67 +/- 0.22 times control. After 8 h of K depletion, -synthesis rate, measured by immunoprecipitation of pulse-labelled cells, increased to 2.30 +/- 0.50 and beta increased to 2.07 +/- 0.42 times control. The - and US -subunit mRNA abundance, measured by hybridizing - and US -cDNA probes to total RNA, increased within 30 min to 1.93 +/- 0.24 and 2.29 +/- 0.64 times control, respectively. They conclude that regulatory adjustments of Na-K-ATPase abundance involve an increase in translation after a rapid and coordinate increase in the concentrations of - and US -subunit mRNA.

  20. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio; Correlje, Aad F.; Blanca Palacios, M.

    2009-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power

  1. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  2. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, R.L.; Cole, J.B.; Kelly, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO 2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO 2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO 2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO 2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  3. Role and regulation of apoptotic cell death in the kidney. Y2K update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A; Lorz, C; Catalan, M P; Justo, P; Egido, J

    2000-08-01

    Apoptosis is an active form of cell death that, in balance with mitosis, regulates cell number. Cell number abnormalities are a frequent feature of renal disease. We now review current concepts on the molecular regulation of apoptotic cell death, including the influence of survival and lethal factors from the extracellular microenvironment as well as the role of intracellular regulators of apoptosis, such as death receptors, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic bcl2-related proteins, the mitochondria and caspases. In addition the role of apoptosis in the genesis, persistence and progression and remodeling and resolution of renal injury is discussed. Information on the expression and function of apoptosis regulatory proteins in specific renal syndromes is summarized. Finally, future perspectives in research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  4. Understanding the role and value of marketing communications by a regulated, monopoly firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Frederick J.

    2003-10-01

    Expenditures on advertising and other marketing efforts have been found to generate profits for the firm and savings for the consumer in competitive industries. However, prior research has not addressed the use of these practices by price-regulated monopolies such as electric utility companies. Surprisingly, many utilities spend substanstially on advertising and sales despite having a captive customer base. Moreover, a unique feature within electric utilities is that much utility advertising involves demarketing, with a view to lessen strain on the system and to help avoid situations demanding high-cost energy. In this context, I ask the following questions: Is spending on marketing by monopoly firms justified? Does the consumer pay a higher price for electricity because of marketing or do shareholders pay for it? Do such activities provide a net welfare benefit? Finally, do measurable differences in marketing expenditures exist along the continuum from heavily regulated to nearly competitive markets? I analyze data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and from the National Regulatory Research Institute. I find a significant positive relationship between advertising and net income, supporting the notion that advertising expenditures benefit the utility firm. I do not, however, find a significant relationship between marketing effort and consumer price, suggesting that consumers may not be bearing the expense of such practices. I also investigate the manner in which advertising improves net earnings. Speciifically, I find that advertising is negatively related to indirect expenses in this industry. Surprisingly, advertising is also negatively related to electricity consumption. Overall, the results suggest that advertising creates value by reducing indirect expenses without raising prices. These finds thus support the premise of a net welfare gain. Finally, I also find that progress toward deregulation and the level of advertising expenditures are

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT PUMP MARKET IN POLAND IN RELATION TO NEW LEGAL REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wachowicz-Pyzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump market in Poland is one of the most dynamically developing branches of renewable energy sources (RES. Installations using different types of low-temperature heat pumps are becoming more and more popular especially among owners of detached houses. The article presents the characteristics of the heat pump market in Poland in recent years. Most important changes introduced on 20 February 2015 in the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (Journal of Laws 2015 pos. 478, were discussed. Also future prospects associated with increased use of heat pumps installations in the face of new regulations were analyzed.

  6. Liberalisation and Market Opening Versus Energy Policy and Regulation Proposals: the German Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieners, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the German electricity market became fully liberalised for competition. Prices for all consumer groups recorded a considerable drop. Service centres accepted measures for cost reduction, new strategies resulted in mergers. However, in view of economic efficiency, the German Government set life surroundings as the primary task. With new electricity market regulation numerous grants were introduced into renewable energy sources as well as the combined production of heat and electricity, which had a destabilising effect on all price savings on the part of the competition.(author)

  7. Industry self-regulation of food marketing to children: reading the fine print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2010-12-01

    despite the evidence showing the negative influences of food marketing on children's dietary beliefs and behaviours, and risk of adiposity, regulatory action to limit unhealthy food marketing has made little progress within Australia. Our aim was to describe and critically examine the Australian Food and Grocery Council's (AFGC) approach to self-regulate food marketing to Australian children through the Responsible Marketing to Children Initiative (Initiative). the Initiative's core principles and the commitments of the 16 signatory companies (as at December 2009) were assessed in terms of their capacity to limit unhealthy food advertising in media accessed by children. All information was publicly available from AFGC and signatory company websites (September- December 2009). limitations of the Initiative included inadequate definitions for when and where food marketing to children can occur, and permissive definitions of foods considered appropriate for advertising. The study also identified numerous examples of ongoing food marketing to children by AFGC companies that illustrate these limitations. until one reads the fine print, the self-regulatory commitments of companies signed to the AFGC Initiative may appear to be responsible. However, this study shows that the commitments are permissive and allow companies to circumvent the stated intent of the Initiative.

  8. Should the regulator allow citizens to participate in tradable permits markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since the seminal paper written by Weitzman (1974), the 'prices vs. quantities' debate regarding choice of policy instrument under imperfect information and uncertainty has been an ongoing concern for economists, especially in the field of the environment. In this debate, several papers have recommended that the regulator allow pollution victims (citizens) to participate in tradable permits markets. According to this literature, when pollution victims purchase and withhold (i.e. destroy) emission rights from polluting firms, this means that the overall quota is not efficient and that welfare gains will be realised. In this paper, we present further theoretical results showing that citizen participation in tradable quotas markets may become welfare decreasing. Indeed, citizens can aggravate the first error made by the regulator if they are also under uncertainty about the marginal benefit curve or if they exhibit strong enough risk aversion. Therefore, we recommend that the regulator limit citizen participation to a certain percentage of permits. In doing so, we extend the 'prices versus quantities' debate to simultaneous uncertainty and risk aversion by showing that a marketable permits system offers the regulator an opportunity to control the negative effects of agents' (citizens' and firms') risk aversion on welfare. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the 11th forum: Croatian Energy Day: Regulation problems relating to energy service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of the majority of processes and developments relating to energy sectors of today present the enhancement of energy sector efficiency, ensuring of stable financial sources and safe return of the means invested through practice of activities at the market of energy and energy services, i.e. public services or monopoly. This is to be achieved by means of energy sector restructuring and liberalisation, pluralism of ownership and transparency of the organisational and management scheme. Thereby, an important role and significance for the realisation of these aims, for the development and energy market functioning on the national level, as well as for the achievement of reciprocity and complementarity of national markets with regional and multi-national energy markets, is held by models and forms of energy activity regulation. In a limited sense, the regulation itself should constitute an adequate stimulating framework for free energy flows, transparent and non- discriminating conditions for the utilisation of transmission and transportation systems and networks, protection of supplier choice rights, pluralism of ownership and ownership rights, protection of energy and energy services' quality, environmental protection, protection of purchasers and consumers and protection of energy subjects. For all these reasons, aspects and problems appertaining to energy sector and energy activities' regulation have been chosen as the theme and contents of the 11th Forum. Various countries have undertaken and implemented or are in the process of implementation of different models and contents referring to energy sector and energy activity regulation. Experience and legislative practice are quoted as the main criteria. The aim of this Forum is to set forth and clarify experiences and solutions connected to the regulation of energy activities in numerous European countries or in the world

  10. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  11. Regulation of valine and α-ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or α-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of 14 C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM α-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added α-KG. Rates of CO 2 evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO 2 evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, α-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD

  12. Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the rat kidney by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Chen, Yuan Jian; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ming Yi; Toroslu, Cigdem; Romero, Damian G; Hughson, Michael D; de Rodriguez, Angela; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2003-08-01

    The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 1 (11betaHSD1) enzyme is an NADP+-dependent oxidoreductase, usually reductase, of major glucocorticoids. The NAD+-dependent type 2 (11betaHSD2) enzyme is an oxidase that inactivates cortisol and corticosterone, conferring extrinsic specificity of the mineralocorticoid receptor for aldosterone. We reported that addition of a reducing agent to renal homogenates results in the monomerization of 11betaHSD2 dimers and a significant increase in NAD+-dependent corticosterone conversion. Estrogenic effects on expression, dimerization, and activity of the kidney 11betaHSD1 and -2 enzymes are described herein. Renal 11betaHSD1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased to very low levels by estradiol (E2) treatment of both intact and castrated male rats; testosterone had no effect. NADP+-dependent enzymatic activity of renal homogenates from E2-treated rats measured under nonreducing conditions was less than that of homogenates from intact animals. Addition of 10 mM DTT to aliquots from these same homogenates abrogated the difference in NADP+-dependent activity between E2-treated and control rats. In contrast, 11betaHSD2 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly increased by E2 treatment. There was a marked increase in the number of juxtamedullary proximal tubules stained by the antibody against 11betaHSD2 after the administration of E2. Notwithstanding, neither the total corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone excreted in the urine nor their ratio differed between E2- and vehicle-treated rats. NAD+-dependent enzymatic activity in the absence or presence of a reducing agent demonstrated that the increase in 11betaHSD2 protein was not associated with an increase in in vitro activity unless the dimers were reduced to monomers.

  13. Channels, pumps, and exchangers in the gill and kidney of freshwater fishes: their role in ionic and acid-base regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Shahsavarani, A; Georgalis, T; Bayaa, M; Furimsky, M; Thomas, S L Y

    2003-11-01

    In freshwater fishes, the gill and kidney are intricately involved in ionic and acid-base regulation owing to the presence of numerous ion channels, pumps, or exchangers. This review summarizes recent developments in branchial and renal ion transport physiology and presents several models that integrate epithelial ion and acid-base movements in freshwater fishes. At the gill, three cell types are potentially involved in ionic uptake: pavement cells, mitochondria-rich (MR) PNA(+) cells, and MR PNA(-) cells. The transfer of acidic or basic equivalents between the fish and its environment is accomplished largely by the gill and is appropriately regulated to correct acid-base imbalances. The kidney, while less important than the gill in overall acid or base excretion, has an essential role in regulating systemic acid-base balance by controlling HCO(3) (-) reabsorption from the filtrate. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  15. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  16. The impact of price-cap regulations on market entry by generic pharmaceutical firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Guh, Daphne; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-04-01

    In 1998, the province of Ontario, Canada implemented price-cap '70/90' regulations: the first generic must be priced at ≤70% of the associated brand-name price and subsequent generics must be priced at ≤90% of the first generics' price. The price-cap was further lowered to 50% in 2006 and 25% in 2010 for all generic drugs regardless of the first or subsequent generic entrants. This study assessed the impact of such price-cap regulations on market entry by generic firms using the formulary database from 9 provinces (January 2004-March 2013). A logistic regression was estimated to compare the probability of entry during the three policy periods in Ontario ('70/90', '25', versus '50'). Since different price-caps were subsequently introduced in other provinces, Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, difference-in-differences was used to compare market entry. In Ontario, compared with the period '50', generic firms were 76% and 63% less likely to enter markets in the periods '25' and '70/90', respectively. The difference-in-differences showed that the entry probability decreased the most in Ontario during the '25' period from the '50' period. Lowering the price-cap level to 25% leads to a significantly lower probability of market entry by generic firms.

  17. Regulations for pressurized equipment in the European Single Market - construction of steam boilers, containers and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassmuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    The impulses produced by the data of the standardized EC Single Market have now reached pressurized equipment in the field of EC Guidelines and European standardisation. This must be regarded as a great challenge to the interested and concerned parties. All efforts to represent the interested parties in European Committees must be made. In order to reach the goal quickly and successfully, a considerable readiness to compromise is, however, necessary. At the end of the development process, a comprehensible, standardized set of regulations will be available for pressurized equipment throughout Europe. The regulations will consist of national ones converted into European Guidelines and Standards. (orig.) [de

  18. Auctioneers vs. commissaires-priseurs: The carnival mirror of profession regulation in the international art market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lazzaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent evolution of the French and the Anglo-Saxon profession regulations of auctioneers in terms of entry barriers and exercise of the profession. Firstly, following Stephen and Love's (1999 framework of the regulation of legal profession, we highlight the differences between regulations focussing on different levels (entry restrictions, advertising, fees, fee contracts, and organisational form. We show that French commissaire-priseurs and Anglo-Saxon auctioneers are bounded to quite opposed rules, relating to both the level of regulation (licensing against registration or certification and the scope of this regulation. Secondly, we try to assess the success of these regulations in terms of economic efficiency by comparing the international markets shares of French and Anglo-Saxon auctioneers. We further highlight how a weak regulation can disturb prices mechanisms and, in some cases, favour speculation. The discussion of some emblematic scandals highlights distortions provoked by a strong, as well as a weak regulation

  19. Alcohol regulation, communication strategies and underage alcohol consumption in Spain: Implications for social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Carla; Sancho-Esper, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it examines the communication strategies pursued by firms related to alcohol beverages in Spain during a decade with major changes in alcohol marketing regulations. Second, it analyzes the relationship between these strategies and underage alcohol consumption before and after 2007. Design/methodology/approach. Panel data methodology is implemented using data from ESTUDES national survey (average sample size 26,000 interviews, 2004-2010) an...

  20. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments.Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence.56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions.Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are generalisable to multiple jurisdictions and can

  1. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; Hallack, Michelle; Glachant, Jean-Michel; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: →Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. →Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. →Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. →Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  2. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  3. Bringing smart pills to market: FDA regulation of ingestible drug/device combination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Matthew; Liu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a pill that, after you swallow it, can track its position in your body. Or imagine a pill that can transmit a message to a doctor to tell him that you have taken your bitter medicine. Pills like this already exist. These so-called smart pills are an emerging type of medical therapy. However, this nascent technology has yet to reach the market and developers of these novel therapies face significant regulatory challenges. This article predicts how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate smart pills and shows how the current regulatory regime is inadequate. The article then proposes modifying the current regulatory regime to encourage development of smart pills and other innovative combination products by: (1) regulating combination products based on their "novel mode of action" rather than their "primary mode of action," (2) creating a marketing approval pathway specifically for combination products, and (3) eliminating regulations that require sponsors to get marketing approval from multiple centers within FDA and providing regulatory guidance specifically for ingestible drug/device combination products.

  4. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  5. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Into the void: Regulating pesticide use in Colorado's commercial cannabis markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subritzky, Todd; Pettigrew, Simone; Lenton, Simon

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016. Two key issues are identified. First, a public safety threat has arisen relating to application of pesticides on cannabis with intensified toxicity in concentrated products of particular concern. Second, as a pioneering jurisdiction, Colorado faces a considerable knowledge gap. To expand collective learning on this issue, for which no regulatory template and little research exists, state regulators tapped industry and other stakeholder expertise while attempting to ensure public safety goals were achieved and regulatory capture by industry was limited. Four years since the recreational cannabis market in Colorado was legalised, the State continues to grapple with the pesticide issue as testing regulations and cultivation standards are yet to be finalised. While more work is needed, Colorado has made significant progress in developing regulations relating to this complex matter. As governments of countries such as Canada and US states, including California, contemplate changes to recreational cannabis laws, Colorado's experience can assist regulators in other jurisdictions considering policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulations as a Tool to Increase Consumer Protection on the European Retail Payment Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Harasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify the main areas of customers' threats concerning using financial services and the in-depth review of European industry- -specific consumer regulations concerning current accounts and payments. Design/methodology/approach - Desk research including in-depth analysis of industry- specific consumer regulations referring to current accounts and payment services having the character of EU directives and regulations, European Commission reports, and documents. Findings - The paper shows that consumers' interests are threatened even when they use basic financial services as current account and combined payment instruments. The analysis based on of desk resources has revealed that the regulations give effect to customer protection only if they strictly correspond to defined areas of threats and particular types of risks. Research implications/limitations - The experience of the recent financial crisis proved that the asymmetry of knowledge and information was one of the crucial reasons disrupting customers' position on financial markets. Research findings will help to identify gaps in regulations and develop the quality of further initiatives aimed on informing customers about the implementation of regulations and improving their financial literacy level. Originality/value/contribution - The payment products are rarely discussed in the literature in the context of consumers' protection and financial regulations. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an overview of financial consumer protection issues concerning retail payments.(original abstract

  8. The Evolution of the Theory and Practice of State Regulation of Addictive Goods Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yuryevich Skokov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of state regulation of the market of addictive goods and services in the context of the periodization of ideas about the role of the state in the economy in general, in historical and economic era, in the formation of the species of addictive goods markets. In the age of mercantilism the sphere of regulation of addictive goods markets was not the subject of attention of economists, but in practice there is an idea of the need for state protectionism. During its criticism in the framework of the theory of physiocrats and in the beginning of the classical school, alcohol products become a subject of research of economists, as the major source of budgetary funds. The abolition of serfdom, the development of private industrial activity, changing the farming tax system to the excise tax, indicate the penetration of traditional liberal principles in domestic economy in the field of addictive goods. The German historical schools focused on the active role of the state with respect to national peculiarities of the economy, found support and development in the works of Russian scientists that support the alcohol and tobacco monopoly. In the Soviet period the principles of Marxist political economy were formed on the basis of total nationalization of production and distribution of allowed addictive goods. The margin school is characterized by psychological interpretation of economic processes in the field of addictive goods under the conditions of perfect competition, in particular the role of consumers in the pricing. In the period of theoretical struggle of monetarism against keynesianism, which coincided with the drug boom, there were areas of economics of crime and punishment, drugs. In the neoliberalism period the antiprohibitionist movement was formed in the field of addictive goods. Changing some postulates of neoclassical economics by neo-institutional economic theory contributed to the development of empirical

  9. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  10. [Impact of Emotion Regulation and Emotional Arousal on Quality of Life and Adherence of Couples after Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Luisa; Franke, Laura; Tkachenko, Daria; Schiffer, Mario; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication increases the risk of graft failure. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (ERS) seem to be a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas for patients in relationships spousal support appears as a protective resource. Emotional arousal, objectively measured by the fundamental frequency (f 0 ) during spousal supportive communication is associated with supportive behavior. This study examined the relationship between beliefs about immunosuppressive medication, quality of life, ERS, emotions and emotional arousal, assessed during social support interactions of both spouses of N=50 couples after kidney transplantation. Maladaptive ERS of the transplant recipient were associated with lower mental quality of life of the partner, marginally higher own negative affect and lower beliefs about medication. Maladaptive ERS of the partner showed negative correlations with own mental quality of life. Regarding f 0 , gender differences were found. Higher f 0 of the male transplant recipient were associated with more maladaptive ERS of the female partner. Marginally significate correlations were found with lower own beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of the wife of the male transplant recipient showed correlations with lower own positive affect, more negative affect of the male patient and lower beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of female transplant recipients were associated with lower own maladaptive ERS and lower maladaptive ERS of the husband. The findings support the relevance of early interventions focusing on identifying and modifying maladaptive ERS for both the patient and partner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A potential kidney-bone axis involved in the rapid minute-to-minute regulation of plasma Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anders; Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    , as induced by total bilateral nephrectomy and to study the effect of absence of kidneys on the rapid recovery of p-Ca(2+) from a brief induction of acute hypocalcemia. METHODS: The rapid regulation of p-Ca(2+) was examined in sham-operated rats, acute nephrectomized rats (NX), acute thyroparathyrectomized......(TPTX) rats and NX-TPTX rats. RESULTS: The results clearly showed that p-Ca(2+) falls rapidly and significantly very early after acute NX, from 1.23 ± 0.02 to 1.06 ± 0.04 mM (p hypocalcemia was induced by a 30 min iv infusion of EGTA. Control groups had saline. After discontinuing EGTA...... a rapid increase in p-Ca(2+) took place, but with a lower level in NX rats (p effect of accumulation of Calcitonin and C-terminal PTH, both having potential hypocalcemic actions. Acute TPTX resulted in hypercalcemia, 1.44 ± 0.02 mM and less in NX-TPTX rats,1...

  12. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognized that the industry plays a role and needs to be involved to halt the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self-regulati......Objective: Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognized that the industry plays a role and needs to be involved to halt the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self......-regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Design: Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms: obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing, and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles......, and subsequently on the basis of abstracts. Results: Of the 4978 identified publications, 22 were included in the final review. The studies show that commitments in industry self-regulation schemes tend to be relatively vague and permissive, that the measurable effects of the self-regulations tend to be relatively...

  13. New market based price regulation on combined heat and power in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Jesper; Nielsen, Marianne; Hansen, Anders B.; Lawaetz, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Major economic risks can become reality when local co-generation plants (L-CHP ) meet the full market penetration with new market based price regulation. Co-generation produces more than 50% of the national electricity consumption and half of the production is generated from L-CHP. The new price regulation is assumed to take action in 2004. The paper will present an analysis of a market based price regulation on the L-CHP-sector. The paper will spotlight on L-CHP in district heating systems supplying heat for domestic purposes. When smaller and medium sized CHP sell electricity they are paid an average price of 46 Euro per MWh. The return of selling electricity shall primarily cover the expenditure of buying gas for electricity production and writing off investments cost of a CHP-plant. With the framework of today it is a fact that the plants (in average) are only slightly competitive compared to individual heat production plants. When CHP meet market conditions there is a high risk that electricity prices will be reduced significantly (prices of 20 - 30 Euro per MWh) for a longer period. Significantly reduced electricity prices will result in dramatically increased heat prices. If no action is taken there will be a potential risk that heat consumers in the smaller and medium sized cities together must pay an extra bill of 200 million Euro each year. It corresponds to an average increase of the heating bill of 300 - 500 Euro per year for an average house. This is far from acceptable. There will also be a high risk that companies with industrial CHP will permanently convert to heat only boiler and only use their CHP occasionally because CHP plants might not be cost-effective when electricity prices are low. These effects can cause a significant increase of the national CO 2 emission

  14. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia

  15. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiao [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shetty, Sreerama [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708 (United States); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Shuxia [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Zhenyu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Fu, Jian, E-mail: jian.fu@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  16. Regulation of distribution grid prices at the beginning of market liberalisation - Experience in Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wind, J.; Luchsinger, C.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the experience gained in the deregulation of electricity distribution grids in Norway and Sweden and compares it with the possible options for Switzerland. The report looks at the requirements placed on the future Swiss regulation of electricity distribution grids and the various regulation models such as Rate-of-Return, Price-Cap, Revenue-Cap and Benchmarking that could be used in the short and long term. The choice of Sweden and Norway from the list of countries with liberalised electricity markets is discussed. The results of the study of the two countries are discussed individually, including the structure of the sector, the various stages of deregulation, the main characteristics encountered at the start of deregulation, regulation of grid prices at the beginning of liberalisation and experience gained in each case. The report is supplemented by a comprehensive list of the sources used

  17. The effect of labour market regulation on domestic workers in Orchards and Soshanguve, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Matjeke

    2012-01-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to analyse and compare the effects of, and level of compliance with, the regulation of the domestic worker sector in two very different residential areas in Pretoria. Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted all previous micro-study investigations of the topic in Langenhoven Park, Bloemfontein. We need more micro-level studies to investigate the effects of regulating this labour market because areas with different socioeconomic conditions may yield different results. Research design, approach and method: The researchers followed a quantitative micro- research design using structured questionnaires. They used the research methodology applied in similar micro-studies as the basis of the survey to make the results comparable. They used the criterion sampling technique. Respondents completed 87 questionnaires in Orchards and 89 in Soshanguve. Main findings: Evidence suggests that areas in close proximity to one another in the same metropolis yield significant differences in the wages or salaries and non-wage working conditions of domestic workers. A blanket approach to identifying and monitoring the effects of the legislation for this sector is not an appropriate one. Practical/managerial implications: The sector needs micro-studies over an extended period and in different areas to form a more nuanced picture of this multifaceted labour market. This study emphasised the necessity for improved monitoring of the existing legislation. Contribution/value-add: This is the first micro-study to compare the effects of regulating the domestic workers sector of two residential areas with different socioeconomic characteristics. The results will give authorities a better understanding of the level of compliance with, and effects of, the regulation of domestic workers. It will also guide the monitoring of, and enforcement decisions for, this labour market.

  18. Historical review of European gasoline lead content regulations and their impact on German industrial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Environmental protection policies in the automobile market were not implemented until the motorisation of the masses in the 1960s caused an increasing environmental burden. The rising air pollution was considered a latent danger for humans, animals and plants. In the years up to 1985 the EU passed several regulations to limit the mass pollutants CO, CxHy and NOx. Germany was the first EU-member nation to also be concerned with lead in gasoline, passing reduction regulations as early as in 1971. In 1986, several EU-member nations implemented the supply of unleaded gasoline. This decision was predominantly based on information about widespread forest damage. The reduction of lead emissions due to these regulations could be verified in different environmental systems. An example of this was the decline of atmospheric lead concentrations and human blood lead levels in Germany. The German mineral oil and automobile markets were also affected. The price trend of unleaded fuel was heavily influenced by tax incentives which benefited not only the gasoline traders but also the consumers. With regard to the distribution system, the market positions particularly of the medium-sized traders and the independent importers were weakened. In the automobile market, favourable terms of competition were experienced by producers who had already gained experience with catalyst systems in the U.S.-market. The gasoline lead content regulations had no effects on further economic indicators, except for competition. (orig.) [German] Infolge der Massenmotorisierung in den 60er Jahren stieg die Umweltbelastung durch den Automobilverkehr stark an. Luftverschmutzung durch Kraftfahrzeuge wurde erstmalig als latente Gefahr fuer die Gesundheit von Mensch, Tier und Pflanze wahrgenommen. Dies charakterisierte den Beginn der Umweltpolitik im Automobilsektor. Bis 1985 verabschiedete die Europaeische Union (EU) mehrere Rahmenrichtlinien zur Reduktion der Luftschadstoffe CO, CxHy und NOx. 1971 war

  19. State Regulation of the Savings Market Within the Context of “New Economy” Imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Viktorovna Litvin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of “new economy” which today is being shaped due to unprecedented progress of science and technology, and information revolution, we observe significant intensification of insecurity and instability risks as well as scaling-up and devastating impact of the downturn. Financial security of many countries and stable functioning of the national savings schemes are under threat which makes impossible expanded reproduction and further social welfare growth. In addition, over the last decades the financial component of crises has gained its role, new financial technologies and assets have become the key reason for the downturn. In this regard, the study of new potential threats of savings market volatility as a savings system core acquires special relevance. Based on the analysis of the main imperfections of savings market under the conditions of new economy, this article defines and analyzes priority directions of the state activity targeted at ensuring sustainability of the national savings system. The author outlines the scope of legal regulation for the savings market, reveals the peculiarities of its monopolization in the conditions of globalization taking into account specifics of this process on the post-industrial stage of civilization development. Manifestations of external effects in savings market have been investigated as well as mechanisms of neutralizing the negative externalities and encouraging positive ones. Both implications of information incomplete character and internalities referring to it have been examined. The methods to increase market savings saturation with information have been considered. The role of state guarantees to ensure sustainability and stability of the national savings systems development has been shown. Performance criteria for institutions in charge to guarantee savings return have been defined. Directions of improving the state system of safeguards have been offered. Mechanism of

  20. Liberalization of the natural gas market, public interests and regulations urge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisuisse, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Developments in the last two years showed that liberalization of the gas market comes with all kind of new and complex regulation. Examples are rules regarding supply permits, the introduction of a supplier of last resort and planning and building obligations for network operators. In the article an oversight of these rules has been given. The regulations are mainly based on public services interests, especially security of supply. It becomes clear that politicians on the one hand are in favour of liberalization, but on the other hand won't accept the accompanying risks for especially the smaller consumers. Security of supply has to be guaranteed under all circumstances. It is obvious that this layer of new rules results in an administrative burden for the parties on the market. Moreover, as a result of these rules the possibilities for real competition, which are already limited due to the special characteristics of the Gas market, have become less and less. In the mean time, the question arises whether it is still realistic to speak of liberalization. It is also doubtful whether the households will still benefit from the possibilities of freedom of choice. Within the coming months the so called second Gas directive has to be implemented. Members of Parliament should realize that, during this implementation process there is no room left to build in additional certainties for consumers [nl

  1. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states.

  2. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  3. THE PROBLEM OF REGULATING THE MARKET OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENTS IN RUSSIA IN CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Redko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the Bank of Russia became the megaregulator of the fi nancial market of Russia that opens new opportunities and prospects for development on the one hand, with another - there is a full monopolization of control and supervision of its participants. The author of article describes actual problems of regulation of the market of collective investments, relying on the existing practice of activity of management companies. Analyzing a situation from the point of view of protection of interests of the investor, and also for development of this sector of economy he suggests to shift focus in regulation. The main attention, in his opinion, needs to be turned on involvement of the experts conducting practicians and analysts in the sphere of professional and trust management for development of optimal solutions of the existing problems of the fi nancial market, and also for creation of the transparent and healthy economic environment of his activity. Aiming efforts at the development of innovative instruments of collective investment, it is possible to make signifi cant progress in overcoming of the crisis phenomena in fi nancial sector of economy

  4. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... reserve oil in such manner as to accurately account for its receipt, storage, and disposition. In a rule... FR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to Administrative Rules Regarding the Transfer and Storage of Excess Spearmint Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  5. The European Energy Regulators Group and the realization of the internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) in the realization of the internal energy market is discussed. It is concluded that the ERGEG has already achieved significant results in dealing with several complex technical and legal problems that hamper market integration in the energy sector. However, it is a fundamental problem that the ERGEG is neither an EU institution nor a national institution, resulting in a lack of its democratic accountability and in the legal protection against the actions taken by the ERGEG. Therefore, the future success of the ERGEG will depend on the ability of the European legislator to find answers to the question how to ensure that the ERGEG fulfils its tasks in a legitimate way [nl

  6. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  8. The new regulation of natural gas market; La nueva regulacion del mercado del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego Anabitarte, A.; Rodriguez de Santiago, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    We examine the regime governing the gas market in Spain under Law 34/98 of 7 October. The law distinguishes between regulated activities and non-regulated activities. This gives rise to the abandonment by the State of their right to regulate activities related with the gas sector and the opening of said market to free competition. The law privates said activities, through its sets forth that the Sate retains the right and thus must guarantee the supply of gas, as well at sets forth the conditions for rendering such services to individuals. The law also deals with property issues over the networks and the right of third parties to access them; we examine a series of legal explanations concerning these issues. Lastly, the provides that the legal relationship governed by said law changes from a system of State franchise in order to carry on an activity, to a system of prior authorizations subject to a number of ancillary clauses. (Author) 34 refs.

  9. Depository Accounting of Securities in the Ukrainian Stock Market Regulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veriha Hanna V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the procedures, technologies, prudential regulation of depository accounting of securities in the system of the Ukrainian stock market infrastructure and identify directions of its improvement. The article analyzes the dynamics of the number of licenses issued by types of professional activity in the stock market. The necessity for further improvement of mechanisms of the updated system of depository accounting of securities in Ukraine has been proved. There have been developed the following recommendations: to improve the unified rules of accounting and regulation support of the system of risk management of depository activity; develop tools for prudential regulation of depository activity and strengthen the control over fulfillment of prudential standards by the Central Depository and depository institutions; create the necessary conditions for the practical implementation of legal norms concerning establishment of clearing institutions and increase in the level of competition between depositaries; expand the correspondent relations of the Central Depository in relation to the establishment of international depositary relations for the liberalization of the international movement of securities; use segregated accounts providing the possibility of storage of client funds separately from the funds of the transfer bank to protect the capital of the issuer and investor from risks of any force majeure situations; mediate the movement of funds at implementing dividend payments through participants of the accounting system: issuer-the Central Depository-depository institution-depositor.

  10. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  11. Self-regulation by industry of food marketing is having little impact during children's preferred television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of self-regulation of food marketing to children by comparing, during children's preferred viewing on television, the differences in food/beverage marketing between two groups of corporations: 17 corporations participating in the Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) and 35 corporations not participating (non-CAI) in this initiative. The food/beverage marketing activities of CAI and non-CAI corporations during 99.5 hours of children's preferred viewing on television were compared. First, the preferred television viewing of 272 children aged 10-12 years from Ontario and Quebec who completed TV viewing journals for a seven-day period was determined. A total of 32 television stations were simultaneously recorded, and a content analysis of children's preferred viewing was conducted and included coding all food/beverage promotions and their nutritional content. Each food/beverage promotion was classified by corporation type (i.e., CAI or non-CAI). The CAI was responsible for significantly more food/beverage promotions, and used media characters and repetition more frequently in their food/beverage promotions than the non-CAI group. Nutritionally, the CAI food/beverage promotions were higher in fats, sugar, sodium and energy per 100 grams. A significantly greater proportion of the CAI food/beverage promotions were considered 'less healthy' compared to the non-CAI promotions. With the exception of the four corporations that did not market to children at all, the commitments that have been made in the CAI are not having a significant impact on the food and beverage marketing environment on television which is viewed by 10-12-year-olds.

  12. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  13. Strategies of diversification in regulated energy markets: the natural gas and electric power industries in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Gonzalez, Gerado; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Eibenschutz Hartman, Juan

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show a structured and systematic approach to analyze the strategies of diversification undertaken by the State-owned companies Petroleos Mexicanos and Comision Federal de Electricidad, during the period 1938-2006, in the Mexican energy market that has been strongly dominated by the State control. Furthermore, we explore the future of these strategies by using a Strengthens, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix. This analyze also include changes in regulation that should happen in order to consolidated the proposed strategies. (auth)

  14. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  15. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  16. Regulation of CO2 markets. Report of the mission entrusted to Michel PRADA, honorary Finance general inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report first discusses the current operation of the CO 2 emission permit European market and notices that its development took place in a context characterized by a light, incomplete and heterogeneous regulation, and that it therefore needs a better framework to make a carbon price emerge which will be robust on a long term in Europe. It shows that this market is presently mainly a by-product market and must be better structured. It highlights the uncertainty due to the lack of a homogeneous law qualification of CO 2 emission permits. It stresses the need of a stronger control of participants while preserving the open market principle, the need of a greater transparency and greater regulation stability, the implementation of a prevention and sanction framework. It proposes a quick setting up of a supervision architecture integrated to the CO 2 European market

  17. The Scenario Approach in the State Regulation of Addictive Goods Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yuryevich Skokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents alternative scenarios of the state regulation of the markets for addictive goods and services which include alcohol and alcohol-containing products, tobacco products, energy drinks, drugs, gambling games. The author reveals the content of inertial, modernizational, monopolistic and prohibitionist scenarios, and systematizes the effective measures which are used in the international practice of state regulation for reducing the number of challenges connected with the consumption of addictive goods and for adequate use of industrial capacities. The analysis conducted in the article touched upon the traditional practical measures on reducing shadow economic activity, realizing home-made products and substitutes, regulating the economic and physical availability, restricting advertising, sponsorship and sales promotion, as well as the measures aimed at the change of consumer behavior in the conditions associated with increased risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. It is determined that none of these measures is not implemented to the full extent in Russia because they are used under the conditions of informal and shadow offers, corruption in government bodies, lobbying, administrative barriers and low-level administrative and business ethics. The author composed a rating of measures effectiveness under alternative scenarios. On the basis of this analysis and the assessment of the development and status of modern society, the theory and practice of regulating addictive goods markets, the conclusion was made about the socio-economic advantages of the state monopoly which allows to minimize the private interest in increasing sales and gaining over-profits, adequately reflects the public interest, standardizes and unifies physical and economic accessibility of these goods and services, proves its efficiency in domestic practice and the experience of Scandinavian countries.

  18. Is the medical loss ratio a good target measure for regulation in the individual market for health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali

    2015-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Behavioural Law and Economics of the Precautionary Principle in the EU and Its Impact on Internal Market Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precautionary principle contributes to “the social” of internal market regulation as it counterbalances the loss aversion and availability bias of regulators who may too hastily endorse measures based to further the fundamental freedoms instead of fundamental rights and environmental protection.

  20. The Porta Palazzo farmers’ market: local food, regulations and changing traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Eden Black

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’impact des réglementations sur les marchés de producteurs en Italie, ainsi qu’à l’approvisionnement local et les choix du consommateur. En regardant la vie quotidienne du marché, on réalise que les réglementations ne sont pas seulement imposées, mais aussi négociées et interprétées en fonction des besoins locaux. Des changements dans les attitudes concernant l’hygiène des aliments dévoilent un discours sur la modernité et met en valeur la lutte de la nouvelle Italie pour s’adapter à une société de plus en plus « consumériste »tout en cherchant à garder les traditions et l’ alimentation locale. Malgré la compétition des hypermarchés et les réglementations de plus en plus restrictives, les marchés de producteurs ont une clientèle très fidèle et la plus jeune génération a commencé à s’intéresser à l’alimentation produite localement. Ce nouveau groupe a en plus un grand désir de participer à la vie sociale du marché, aspect qui rend ces institutions publiques uniques.This article looks at the impact of regulations on farmers’ markets in Italy, local food supply and provisioning choices. By exploring the everyday running of the market, it becomes clear that regulations are not just imposed, but rather negotiated and interpreted to fit local needs. Changing attitudes towards food hygiene also uncover discourses of modernity and struggles to adapt to the new Italian ‘consumer society’ while holding onto tradition and local food. Despite competition from supermarkets and increasingly restrictive regulations, farmers’ markets in Italy have a faithful core group of clients and interest is slowly growing on the part of a young generation who want to eat locally and share in the social life of the market.

  1. Agent-based Modeling Simulation Analysis on the Regulation of Institutional Investor's Encroachment Behavior in Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores the effective regulation of institutional investor's encroachment behavior in stock market. Given the theoretical and practical importance, the present study examines the effect of the self-adaptive regulation strategy (adjusting the regulation factors such as punishment and the probability of investigating successfully in time for the sake of the small & medium-sized investor protection.Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out through game theory and agent-based modeling simulation. Firstly, a dynamic game model was built to search the core factors of regulation and the equilibrium paths. Secondly, an agent-based modeling simulation model was built in Swarm to extend the game model. Finally, a simulation experiment (using virtual parameter values was performed to examine the effect of regulation strategy obtained form game model.Findings: The results of this study showed that the core factors of avoiding the institutional investor's encroachment behavior are the punishment and the probability of investigating successfully of the regulator. The core factors embody as the self-adaptability and the capability of regulator. If the regulator can adjust the regulation factors in time, the illegal behaviors will be avoided effectively.Research limitations/implications: The simulation experiment in this paper was performed with virtual parameter values. Although the results of experiment showed the effect of self-adaptive regulation, there are still some differences between simulation experiment and real market situation.Originality/value: The purpose of this study is to investigate an effective regulation strategy of institutional investor's encroachment behavior in stock market in order to maintain market order and protect the benefits of investors. Base on the game model and simulation model, a simulation experiment was preformed and the result showed that the self-adaptive regulation would be effective

  2. Health consumers and stem cell therapy innovation: markets, models and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli

    2014-05-01

    Global health consumer demand for stem cell therapies is vibrant, but the supply of treatments from the conventional science-based model of innovation is small and unlikely to increase in the near future. At the same time, several models of medical innovation have emerged that can respond to the demand, often employing a transnational value chain to deliver the product. Much of the commentary has approached the issue from a supply side perspective, demonstrating the extent to which national and transnational regulation fails to impose what are regarded as appropriate standards on the 'illicit' supply of stem cell therapies characterized by little data and poor outcomes. By contrast, this article presents a political economic analysis with a strong demand side perspective, arguing that the problem of what is termed 'stem cell tourism' is embedded in the demand-supply relationship of the health consumer market and its engagement with different types of stem cell therapy innovation. To be meaningful, discussions of regulation must recognize that analysis or risk being sidelined by a market, which ignores their often wishful thinking.

  3. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. State of play in direct-to-consumer genetic testing for lifestyle-related diseases: market, marketing content, user experiences and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Paula

    2013-02-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have aroused controversy. Critics have argued many of the tests are not backed by scientific evidence, misguide their customers and should be regulated more stringently. Proponents suggest that finding out genetic susceptibilities for diseases could encourage healthier behaviours and makes the results of genetics research available to the public. This paper reviews the state of play in DTC genetic testing, focusing on tests identifying susceptibilities for lifestyle-related diseases. It will start with mapping the market for the tests. The paper will review (1) research on the content of the online marketing of DTC tests, (2) studies on the effects of DTC genetic tests on customers and (3) academic and policy proposals on how to regulate the tests. Current studies suggest that the marketing of DTC genetic tests often exaggerates their predictive powers, which could misguide consumers. However, research indicates that the tests do not seem to have major negative effects (worry and confusion) but neither do they engender positive effects (lifestyle change) on current users. Research on regulation of the tests has most commonly suggested regulating the marketing claims of the companies. In conclusion, the risks and benefits of DTC genetic tests are less significant than what has been predicted by critics and proponents, which will be argued reflects broader historical trends transforming health and medicine.

  5. Safety Margins and Their Economical Value in a De-regulated Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The definition of safety margins is sometimes ambiguous. Depending on assumptions used to evaluate the evolution of plant parameters and on acceptance criteria, the same design could well turn out to have positive, zero, or negative margin for the same operating situation. Very often, considering that an optimized reactor would have to operate with zero margin compared to at least one safety criterion, designers or utilities considered in their analyses penalizing assumptions. This was done for example either considering reduced component capability or very high core peaking factors, the latter generally exceeding by far what would be anticipated in perturbed situations. This approach has three major drawbacks: -having a reasonable understanding of the real importance of safety margins is difficult, -if a non-conservatism is identified in a methodology, there is a high risk of being in a no-compliance situation from a regulatory standpoint, -it leads to a limitation on allowable electrical output and constraints on technical specifications for example. In a regulated market, such a situation can be tolerable as the final customer has to pay the extra financial burden in any case. In a de-regulated market, the situation is significantly different. The final customer can choose his supplier, and is likely to go to those offering the best prices, i.e. those making optimal use of their available resources. There is so a need for better understanding of real plant capabilities. Revisiting assumptions used for evaluating safety margins is so highly recommended, if not imperative, to electricity companies. This will helpful to reshape company strategies in case of evolution of market conditions. (author)

  6. The influence of the European paediatric regulation on marketing authorisation of orphan drugs for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, Annemarie Rosan; de Boer, Anthonius; van der Vlugt-Meijer, Roselinda H; de Vries, Peter J

    2014-08-05

    Drug development for rare diseases is challenging, especially when these orphan drugs (OD) are intended for children. In 2007 the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation was enacted to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children through the establishment of Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). The effect of the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation on the marketing authorisation (MA) of drugs for children with rare diseases was studied. Data on all designated orphan drugs, their indication, MA, PIPs and indication group (adult or child) were obtained from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The outcome and duration of the process from orphan drug designation (ODD) to MA, was compared, per indication, by age group. The effect of the Paediatric Drug Regulation, implemented in 2007, on the application process was assessed with survival analysis. Eighty-one orphan drugs obtained MA since 2000 and half are authorised for (a subgroup of) children; another 34 are currently undergoing further investigations in children through agreed PIPs. The Paediatric Drug Regulation did not significantly increase the number of ODDs with potential paediatric indications (58% before vs 64% after 2007 of ODDs, p = 0.1) and did not lead to more MAs for ODs with paediatric indications (60% vs 43%, p = 0.22). ODs authorised after 2007 had a longer time to MA than those authorised before 2007 (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 2.80 (1.84-4.28), p < 0.001); potential paediatric use did not influence the time to MA (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.14 (0.77-1.70), p = 0.52). The EU Paediatric Drug Regulation had a minor impact on development and availability of ODs for children, was associated with a longer time to MA, but ensured the further paediatric development of drugs still off-label to children. The impact of the Paediatric Drug Regulation on research quantity and quality in children through PIPs is not yet clear.

  7. Regulating Market Entry of Low-Cost Private Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards a Theory of Private Education Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni

    2018-01-01

    This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...

  8. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  9. A Historical Overview of the Regulation of Market Abuse in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an early attempt to combat market abuse in the South African financial markets, legislation such as the Companies Act, the Financial Markets Control Act and the Stock Exchanges Control Act were enacted. However, these Acts failed to effectively curb market abuse activities that were allegedly rife in the financial markets.

  10. Legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading; Marktmissbrauchsrechtliche Regelungen des WpHG und der REMIT-VO im Stromspothandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsch, Alexander T.

    2014-07-01

    The thesis on legal market abuse regulations of WpHG (law on stock trading) and the REMIT-VO in the electricity spot trading include the discussion of the following issues: market abuse, its forms of appearance (market manipulation, insider trade, insider information), electricity spot trading, relevant legislative frame, market abuse regulations (WpHG), interdiction of market manipulation and related regulations.

  11. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  12. Children's recall of fast food television advertising-testing the adequacy of food marketing regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A; Sargent, James D

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald's and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. One hundred children aged 3-7 years were shown McDonald's and Burger King children's (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010-11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Premiums/tie-ins were common in children's but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children's ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children's vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice.

  13. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject.

  14. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010: Markets, regulation, strategies and know-how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Hans; Lennerfors, Thomas Taro; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2012-01-01

    of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one hand, the direction taken by two failing companies and, on the other, the courses followed by two......Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence...... companies that managed to grow despite difficult conditions. On a broader level, the article traces the development of expertise in a declining industry....

  15. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.; Versaevel, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, R. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales; Van Norden, S. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales]|[Centre for Interuniversity Research and Analysis on Organizations, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Versaevel, B.

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Food marketing targeting children: unveiling the ethical perspectives in the discourse on self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dillian Adelaine Cesar da; Cunha, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues da; Cunha, Thiago Rocha da; Rosaneli, Caroline Filla

    2017-07-01

    When it comes to food marketing, children are one of the major targets. Regulatory actions can play a strategic role in health protection. The objective of this research was to characterize the ethical perspective in the discourse against state regulatory actions on food marketing directed at children, aiming to understand the context of the discourse's production and how it creates meaning. The methodology adopted was qualitative, with documentary analysis and use of concepts and procedures from Discourse Analysis. The work of Hans Jonas, specifically his Responsibility Principle, and Garrafa and Port's Intervention Bioethics oriented the analysis. The self-regulation discourse analysis showed an ethical perspective in which relations of consumption predominate over the children´s vulnerability. The rhetorical excess is constant, as well as the use of resources like naturalization, untruthfulness, ideological dissimulation and euphemism. An erasure of social conflicts takes place, and an ahistorical perspective is present. The discourse does not align with Jonas´ Responsibility Principle, nor those of Intervention Bioethics. Lastly, the ethical perspective of the discourse represents a double paradox, because it is a business discourse that hides its competitive roots and metamorphoses into an ethical one.

  18. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  19. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  20. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, H.; Reuter, A.; Dulle, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following a power purchase agreement for constructing new generation capacity, the privatisation of the distribution and thermal generation assets, as well as a separation of the transmission assets from the hydro power generation assets, the government of El Salvador by 1998 decided to proceed with market liberalisation by establishing a day-ahead spot market. This spot market covers not only 40 percent of the total electricity demand but also determines the price for the remaining 60 percent, which are directly contracted between distribution companies and large final consumers on the one side and the power generators on the other side.With only 4 thermal generators and 1 hydro power generator supplying the market, the total construction, right from the beginning suffered from lack of competition. This was especially true in spring 2000 when all the water from the hydro power reservoirs was used up. The result was a price hike, similar to the one experienced later in California. The reaction of the government of El Salvador was to induce 'private' agreements among the generators not to go beyond a certain price limit and to make the still nationalised hydro power generator pay for that agreement. In addition to that the hydro power generator received the responsibility to keep the total market price at a certain monthly average.As the thermal generators could anticipate the offered strategy of the hydro power generator they also could make use of this construction and considerably increase their profits. The hydro power generator on the other hand loses more and more market control and must use up all its water for keeping the prices low. The way out of this situation, which in the long run, inevitably would lead to an inefficient market comprises following 5 measures all aimed at fostering the competition within the market: 1. the construction of an additional transmission line for strengthening the power exchange capacity with neighbouring countries; 2. the

  1. Hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems for trading on the spot and the regulating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Julija; Olsson, Magnus; Soeder, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper. (author)

  2. Regulation of distributed generation. A European Policy Paper on the Integration of Distributed Generation in the Internal Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-06-01

    In the SUSTELNET project criteria and guidelines have been developed that can create a level playing field in electricity markets between distributed generation (DG) and large scale power generation and will improve the network and market access of DG and electricity supply from renewable energy resources (RES). This report focuses on the European dimensions of DG regulation. The key findings of the SUSTELNET project are compared with the EU legislation, i.e. the current Electricity, Renewables and CHP Directives. Additional EU policy, regulation and initiatives are identified that can help Member States in developing future economically efficient and sustainable electricity supply systems

  3. Comments on the paper ''Market forces and planning by regulation: conflicts and complementarities'' by Rodney Stevensopn and Dennis Ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voll, S P [New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, NH (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The conflict between reliance on competitive markets and insistence on least-cost integrated planning highlights a fundamental difference in ideology, approach to regulation and assessment of the nature of the regulated industries that has developed between federal agencies and the state commissions in the USA in the last decade. While the conflict exists in the gas and telephone industries, and indeed would manifest itself in any industry subject to regulation at both the federal and state level, it is most apparent in the regulated electricity industry. The federal agencies (for electricity regulation the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)) view the state commissions as hopelessly old-fashioned in their attachment to traditional bureaucratic regulation; state regulators can argue that FERC has an unrealistic assessment of the nature of the electricity industry and an unfortunate indifference to the fate of captive ratepayers. (author)

  4. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published spot quotes to consider...

  5. Public service broadcasting (PSB regulation in Indonesia: Between market and public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform of public service broadcasting (PSB faces many obstacles in countries with political transition such as Indonesia. After 1998-political change, the arrival of ideas to establish PSB in Indonesia in two decades lacks of appropriate policies. As in other transitional states in Eastern Europe, there is the lack of regulatory design as well as its implementation. This paper examines process of formulating PSB law in 2002, particularly pays attention to industry capture over the making process as a critical tool to observe a long-controvercial of broadcasting law revision process in Indonesia (2012-2016. By use public interest and capture theories in regulation, this paper answers why the outcome of PSB regulation is weak by observing how the law was made. This study provides new analysis on PSB media law that still rare in Indonesia. As independent and non-profit body, Indonesian PSB represented by RRI (Radio of the Republic Indonesia and TVRI (Television of the Republic Indonesia is protected by Broadcasting Act.32/2002. It was enacted in favor of two actors: authoritarian officials with interest to use PSB as their mouthpiece in one side and the industry groups with interest to apply free market policy on the other.

  6. Economic analysis of photovoltaic systems for the residential market under China's new regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Sandy; Chen, Xiaoju; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    China has recently changed its regulation for producing energy from photovoltaic solar panels in order to encourage the use of the solar resource. This new regulation started with offering subsidies at a national level and this was later followed by local subsidies in addition to the national one. Being a large country, China has regions with good solar exposure and others with poor exposure. Each region has a different electricity price and the energy is purchased based on the Grid Coal Power electricity price that also varies throughout the country. In this work we analyze the economic profitability of different regions considering the solar radiation levels, savings in self-consumption, cash flows from injecting power into the grid and local prices for installations to show that the best return is obtained in the places with better solar radiation or where the electricity price is higher. The regional Feed-In tariffs help to compensate for lower radiation levels but do not make these regions very attractive from an investment perspective. - Highlights: • Summarizes national and local feed in tariffs for China for the residential market. • Provides average local prices for 1 kW, 3 kW and 5 kW photovoltaic installations. • Selects city with best IRR, NPV and DPBP based on prices, subsidies and radiation. • Performs sensitivity analysis to check which parameter has more effect on results.

  7. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  8. Children's recall of fast food television advertising-testing the adequacy of food marketing regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Bernhardt

    Full Text Available In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald's and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies.One hundred children aged 3-7 years were shown McDonald's and Burger King children's (MDC & BKC and adult (MDA & BKA meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010-11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk, and premiums/tie-ins.Premiums/tie-ins were common in children's but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children's ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk. Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children's vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77] p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002. For children's ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001.Children's net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice.

  9. Structure of the US gas market, regulation and pricing of the third party access to the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Mirabel, F.

    2000-06-01

    The opening of the US natural gas market to competition is followed by deep changes in the implemented regulations for an efficient organization and operation of the gas industry. The transformations of the industrial structures and the strategic behavior of the actors characterize the mutations of the gas markets in the USA. The aim of this paper is to transcribe in a synthetic form the characteristics of the gas market in North America and to model the structure of the industry in this sector opened to competition in its back-end. Two main questions are analyzed: the role and position of the former monopoly (utility) in this back-end market (should the local distribution companies continue to sell gas to end users?), and what kind of regulation should be implemented by the authorities in order to avoid the former monopoly to use its market power and make excessive profits. The analysis is made in two steps: the first part explains the hypotheses of the analysis using the characteristics of the North American market. It presents the general framework of the model and explains the two 'regulatory scenarios' retained in the study. The main steps of the resolution of the model are detailed in the second part. (J.S.)

  10. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  11. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  12. Self-regulation and the response to concerns about food and beverage marketing to children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Parke

    2009-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine reported in 2005 that food and beverage marketing to children and youth is "out of balance with healthful diets". The dominant policy response in the United States has been to encourage self-regulation by the food, beverage, advertising, and media industries. From a nutrition perspective, this deference to the private sector may seem surprising. This article reviews current economic and legal perspectives on food marketing to children that are motivating the policy decision to attempt a period of self-regulation. The empirical literature on this topic has been reinvigorated by new data on marketing practices and expenditures. The article concludes by considering whether more directive policies are possible in the future.

  13. The Market Value of Who We Are: The Flow of Personal Data and Its Regulation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on market-driven collection of personal data and its regulation in China. It argues that there is a growing demand for personal data from China’s advertising, marketing, and credit reporting businesses. Meanwhile, the rapid development of the Internet, notably social media and e-commerce, has generated very large pools of personal data on digital platforms. These two factors contribute to the fast growth of both legitimate and illegitimate collection and exploitation of personal information. Chinese laws and regulations lag behind the market and are not ready to regulate personal data as a key economic resource. They scatter in a wide array of economic and social sectors and lack a coherent structure and effective enforcement mechanism. Unspecified overarching rationale, ambivalent market regulation, inadequate enforcement, as well as safety risks of governmental databases are problems that hinder the protection of personal data in China. The role and implications of the new Internet Security Law, entering into force in June 2017, remain to be seen.

  14. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ..., 733,877 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil have already been sold or committed, which leaves just 186,505... of essential oils and the products of essential oils. In addition, the Committee estimates that 8 of...-1A IR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

  15. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [de

  16. The Regulation of Market Manipulation in Australia: A Historical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation prohibition will be presented first. Secondly, the available penalties and remedies for market manipulation are discussed. Thereafter, possible recommendations and significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may be utilised in South Africa are briefly stated. Lastly, concluding remarks are provided.

  17. Total glucosides of paeony regulates JAK2/STAT3 activation and macrophage proliferation in diabetic rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Yong-Gui; Su, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Pei; Qi, Xiang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., which has shown renoprotection in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) is an important mechanism by which hyperglycemia contributes to renal damage. Macrophages also play an essential role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Herein, we investigated the ability of TGP to modulate JAK2/STAT3 activation and macrophage proliferation in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. TGP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for eight weeks. Levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry and double immunohistochemistry were used to identify p-STAT3, ED-1, PCNA/ED-1, and p-STAT3/ED-1-positive (+) cells. The elevated 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate was markedly attenuated by treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg TGP. Western blot analysis showed that the significantly increased levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats were significantly inhibited by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg TGP treatment. The marked accumulation and proliferation of macrophages in diabetic kidneys were significantly inhibited by TGP treatment. ED-1+/p-STAT3+ cells were significantly increased in the kidneys from the model group but were significantly inhibited by TGP treatment. These results show that TGP significantly inhibited diabetic nephropathy progression and suggest that these protective effects are associated with the ability of TGP to inhibit the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and macrophage proliferation and action.

  18. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falit, Benjamin P., E-mail: bfalit2@allianceoncology.com [Pacific Cancer Institute, Wailuku, Hawaii (United States); Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Alexander, Brian M. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely

  19. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falit, Benjamin P.; Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Alexander, Brian M.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely to create

  20. SOS2 and ACP1 Loci Identified through Large-Scale Exome Chip Analysis Regulate Kidney Development and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Man; Li, Yong; Weeks, Olivia; Mijatovic, Vladan; Teumer, Alexander; Huffman, Jennifer E; Tromp, Gerard; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gorski, Mathias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nutile, Teresa; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Sorice, Rossella; Tin, Adrienne; Yang, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (nStage1: 111,666; nStage2: 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphi...

  1. 75 FR 34277 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-007, Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... executive agencies. Specifically, the head of the agency must conduct market research before issuing an... million for the procurement of items other than commercial items is required to conduct market research... 10 U.S.C. 2377(c), ``Preliminary Market Research'', to require the head of an agency to conduct...

  2. Organic anion and cation SLC22 "drug" transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 regulation during development and maturation of the kidney proximal tubule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Gallegos

    Full Text Available Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways. Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.

  3. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  4. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  5. [European Marketing Authorisation: a long process. Experiences of small biotech companies with the ATMP regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljovčić, Z

    2011-07-01

    On 30 December 2008, the Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) entered into force. Herewith the first EU-wide regulatory framework for ATMPs was established. It requires a central marketing authorisation application to the EMA (European Medicinal Agency). This new framework especially changes the code of regulatory practice for tissue engineered products (TEPs), as no registration procedure had been previously required for autologous TEPs. This also meant that no clinical proof of efficacy achieved by a pivotal clinical trial was necessary. Difficulties and their background as well as the vast requirements for product development that have to be addressed by small companies within a very short time frame are presented. Hereby, it is obvious that regulatory experience which is required to identify and implement the resulting implications was not in place yet and still had to be established. The lack of regulatory experience also resulted in difficulties with scientific advice preparation, expectations toward regulatory agencies, consultants, and transformation of regulatory requirements. Addressing the regulatory requirements within the transition period is even more difficult for entrepreneurs with products which are assigned for indications resulting in complex challenges to the trial design. Due to the enormous time pressure to generate data and due to the implied financial pressure, different adaptation strategies are evolving. In Germany the "hospital exemption" according to §4b AMG (German Medicinal Products Law) is of major importance. A reorientation toward acellular products and a slow down in development of new ATMP products is expected.

  6. Status of market, regulation and research of genetically modified crops in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel

    2016-12-25

    Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J; Epstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-05

    Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  8. Post-Marketing Regulation of Medicines Withdrawn from the Market Because of Drug-Attributed Deaths: An Analysis of Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2017-05-01

    Several medicinal products have been withdrawn from the market because of drug-attributed deaths. However, there has been no investigation of whether such withdrawals were justified, and the extent to which confirmatory studies are used to investigate drug-adverse event relationships when deaths are reported is uncertain. We documented medicinal products withdrawn from the market because of drug-attributed deaths, identified confirmatory studies investigating the drug-adverse event relationships, examined whether withdrawals of medicinal products because of drug-attributed deaths after marketing were justified based on a mechanistic analysis, and examined the trends over time. We searched electronic and non-electronic sources to identify medicinal products that were withdrawn because of drug-attributed deaths. We used a previously published algorithm to examine whether the withdrawals of products were justified. We then searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify studies investigating the drug-adverse event relationships, used the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria to document the levels of evidence, and assessed whether the evidence of an association was confirmed. We included 83 medicinal products. The reasons for withdrawal appeared to have been justified in 80 cases (96%). The median interval between the first reported adverse reaction that was related to the cause of death and the first reported death was 1 year (interquartile range = 1-3); products were withdrawn sooner when the interval between the first reported relevant adverse reaction and the first death was shorter. Confirmatory studies were conducted in 57 instances (69%), and there was evidence of an association in 52 cases (63%). Four products (5%) were re-introduced after initial withdrawal. Regulatory authorities have been justified in making withdrawal decisions when deaths have been attributed to medicinal products, using the precautionary principle when alternative decisions

  9. Vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: a policy brief with implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. The impact of marketing practices and its regulation policies on childhood obesity. Opinions of stakeholders in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-González, Diana; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Lobstein, Tim

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Spanish stakeholders' views on the relationship between childhood obesity and the marketing and advertising of food and beverages aimed at children in Spain, as well as on the corresponding of regulations. We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with Stakeholders/Key Informants (KI) from 13 organisations: experts (2), consumer advocates (1), public health advocates (2), food manufacturers (2), advertising advocates (1), government representatives (1), child/family/school advocates (2) and media (1). The variables studied were Prevalence of childhood obesity and its relationship to marketing/advertising and Regulation of marketing. In order to identify the most relevant arguments (pearls) in the discourses, a blind independent analysis by four members of the research team was performed. We found that the prevalence of childhood obesity was perceived to be higher than the European average. Self-regulation was identified as the main form of marketing control. Only food manufacturers and advertising agencies considered voluntary action and supervisory procedures to be effective. The other stakeholders advocated state control through legislation and non-state actions such as external assessment and sanctions. Despite the divergence of opinion between stakeholders, there was agreement on the need to improve supervision and to ensure compliance with current self-regulatory codes in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean; Lopez-Garcia, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  12. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  13. The System of Investment Processes in the IT Service Market and the Methodical Foundations for the Governmental Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protsykevych Arsen I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that investment processes in the IT market enable the development and efficient use of affordable investment resources to develop and ensure the competitiveness of market players. Different approaches to interpretation of essence of investment processes have been identified. It has been proven that in order to implement an effective public policy in the IT services market, investment process must be seen as a macroeconomic system of relationships in the formation, attraction and use of investments in the IT services market, implementation of investment projects by the IT business entities. With that, systematic approach to understanding investment process brings to the fore an awareness of its typology, which in turn affects the applied instruments and means of public investment policy in this sphere. It has been found that the characteristics of governmental regulation of investment processes in the market for IT services are first and foremost determined by the aspects of the market functioning, the selected objects of trade, the basic constituents of investment activity, and the institutional framework.

  14. Research on the Legal Regulation of Market Access for Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the concept of market access for agricultural products,this paper analyzes the necessity of establishing market access system of agricultural products,proposes the conception of establishing market access system of agricultural products in China;sets up the frame of market access system of agricultural products;analyzes the rationality of the frame of market access system of agricultural products;poses the consideration of economic law regarding setup of market access system of agricultural products.This paper also puts forward the legislative suggestions for establishing market access system of agricultural products as follows:establish the frame of market access system of agricultural products taking quality access as core;establish and perfect the compensation and relief system of guaranteeing benefit of manager and producers;establish the market access system of agricultural products with hierarchical structure;sort out existing laws and form the sound the legal frame of market access system of agricultural products.

  15. SOS2 and ACP1 Loci Identified through Large-Scale Exome Chip Analysis Regulate Kidney Development and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Man; Li, Yong; Weeks, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum...... creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (nStage1: 111,666; nStage2: 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea (PPM1J, EDEM3, ACP1, SPEG, EYA4, CYP1A1, and ATXN2L; PStage1......associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, SOS2 (P=5.4×10(-8) by sequence kernel...

  16. Demand Constraints and New Demands: Regulations, Markets and Institutions Efficiency (A Case Study for Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency is a key issue in economic research and for policy design, and certainly for food security challenges. In the food system dynamics the understanding of changes and trends is crucial to improve our capacity to deal with the objectives of sustainable development and quality of life. Food system efficiency evaluation is necessary with regard to production and consumption efficiencies as well as market and governance dilemmas. Regulations and institutional efficiency are crucial aspects that are frequently forgotten, and efforts should be made to improve the capacity to deal with those methodological needs. In many situations, in the real world, data and measurements are difficult or even impossible to get in numeric or quantitative terms. Frequently, a qualitative evaluation is the only way to proceed, but measurements and numeric references are still important, mainly when changes over time are central to the research. The actual paper follows a structural food system model (WFSE – World Food Security Equation and a general equilibrium approach (ICI model – induced changes and innovation model to show in a country case study (Cape Verde the important role of markets and institutions as compared to regulation practices directed to improve economic efficiency subject to demand behavior. Cape Verde is a very challenging country with regard to the food security status (where natural resources are very poor for agricultural production but with great success in global and macro terms in the last 10 years. The main problems nowadays are clearly at local level. The present research tries to highlight the global achievements and explore local assessment efforts on food consumption conditions. A specific region is studied, in the island of Santo Antão, one of the most important production regions. Three different production systems were compared mainly with regard to their respective influence on consumption habits, incomes and

  17. Bioinformatical Analysis of Organ-Related (Heart, Brain, Liver, and Kidney and Serum Proteomic Data to Identify Protein Regulation Patterns and Potential Sepsis Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hohn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, proteomic studies have revealed several interesting findings in experimental sepsis models and septic patients. However, most studies investigated protein alterations only in single organs or in whole blood. To identify possible sepsis biomarkers and to evaluate the relationship between protein alteration in sepsis affected organs and blood, proteomics data from the heart, brain, liver, kidney, and serum were analysed. Using functional network analyses in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that protein regulation patterns in organ tissues as well as in serum are highly dynamic. In the tissue proteome, the main functions and pathways affected were the oxidoreductive activity, cell energy generation, or metabolism, whereas in the serum proteome, functions were associated with lipoproteins metabolism and, to a minor extent, with coagulation, inflammatory response, and organ regeneration. Proteins from network analyses of organ tissue did not correlate with statistically significantly regulated serum proteins or with predicted proteins of serum functions. In this study, the combination of proteomic network analyses with cluster analyses is introduced as an approach to deal with high-throughput proteomics data to evaluate the dynamics of protein regulation during sepsis.

  18. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  19. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  20. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, W P; Schut, F T

    1994-11-01

    In 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and catastrophic risks (like several forms of expensive long-term care). However, there are two arguments to exclude some of the catastrophic risks from the competitive insurance market, at least during the implementation process of the reforms. Firstly, the prospects for a workable system of risk-adjusted payments to the insurers that should take away the incentives for cream skimming are, at least during the next 5 years, more favorable for the non-catastrophic risks than for the catastrophic risks. Secondly, even if a workable system of risk-adjusted payments can be developed, the problem of quality skimping may be relevant for some of the catastrophic risks, but not for non-catastrophic risks. By 'quality skimping' we mean the reduction of the quality of care to a level which is below the minimum level that is acceptable to society. After 5 years of health care reforms in the Netherlands new insights have resulted in a growing support to confine the implementation of the reforms to the non-catastrophic risks. In drawing (and redrawing) the exact boundaries between different regulatory regimes for catastrophic and non-catastrophic risks, the expected benefits of a cost-effective substitution of care have to be weighted against the potential harm caused by cream skimming and quality skimping.

  1. Does industry self-regulation protect young people from exposure to alcohol marketing? A review of compliance and complaint studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is considered to be potentially harmful to adolescents. In addition to statutory regulation, industry self-regulation is a common way to protect adolescents from alcohol marketing exposures. This paper critically reviews research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the alcohol industry's compliance procedures to manage complaints when alcohol marketing is considered to have violated a self-regulatory code. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: PubMed, SCOPUS, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations, government research centers and national industry advertising associations were also included. The search process yielded three peer-reviewed papers, seven non-peer reviewed reports published by academic institutes and non-profit organizations and 20 industry reports. The evidence indicates that the complaint process lacks standardization across countries, industry adjudicators may be trained inadequately or biased and few complaints are upheld against advertisements pre-determined to contain violations of a self-regulatory code. The current alcohol industry marketing complaint process used in a wide variety of countries may be ineffective at removing potentially harmful content from the market-place. The process of determining the validity of complaints employed by most industry groups appears to suffer from serious conflict of interest and procedural weaknesses that could compromise objective adjudication of even well-documented complaints. In our opinion the current system of self-regulation needs major modifications if it is to serve public health objectives, and more systematic evaluations of the complaint process are needed. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Record of proceedings: Conference on state regulation and the market potential for natural gas: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This conference was convened by the US Department of Energy and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners to provide a forum for state and federal policymakers, sate and federal regulators, and all segments of the natural gas industry to address issues of significance to the current and future use of natural gas, with particular emphasis on sate regulation. The conference brought together a cross-section of interested parties to begin the process of identifying the barriers to natural gas achieving its market potential and developing better communication between Federal officials, State officials and different segments of the natural gas and electric industries

  3. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  4. The impact of marketing practices and its regulation policies on childhood obesity. Opinions of stakeholders in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Davó-Blanes, M. Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-González, Diana; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Lobstein, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Spanish stakeholders’ views on the relationship between childhood obesity and the marketing and advertising of food and beverages aimed at children in Spain, as well as on the corresponding of regulations. We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with Stakeholders/Key Informants (KI) from 13 organisations: experts (2), consumer advocates (1), public health advocates (2), food manufacturers (2), advertising advocates (1), govern...

  5. 76 FR 14562 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... and small disadvantaged business, should be exempt from market research requirements because the... subcontracting opportunities for small- business concerns. Careful attention to market-research strategies is an effective method for creating contract opportunities for small- business concerns. It provides them with an...

  6. The impact of concentration and regulation on competition in the Dutch mortgage market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of industry structure and regulatory pricing constraints on competition in the Dutch mortgage market during the global financial crisis that began in 2008. This highly concentrated market became even more concentrated following the financial crisis, when some

  7. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  8. Regulation of the transfer market in professional Russian football: impact of the limit for legionaries in 2005–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Andreeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of limit for legionaries as a tool for regulating the Russian transfer market. Methods formal methods of the labor market supply and demand model combinatory analysis statistical methods. Results the article views the order of regulation of the labor relations with foreign legionaries in sports. It is defined that in most countries regulation implies limitation of the number of legionaries who can be claimed for the season or be on the field. The article analyzes the approaches to the transfer market regulation methods as well as the arguments for and against limiting the number of legionaries. Basing on the analysis of literature the author estimates the efficiency of transfer market regulating from the economics viewpoint as well as the results of sports events. The author checks the hypothesis about the inefficiency of the limit as a tool for increasing the quality of the Russian playersrsquo performance based on a number of indicators such as the inefficiency of the national teamrsquos performance number of legionaries their performance etc. The estimation was carried out on the basis of a number of theoretical models 1 model of increasing the footballersrsquo salaries 2 model of free selection of players by the coach and 3 model of quality playersrsquo selection. Basing on these models the hypothesis was disproved of the rapid ldquovictory effectrdquo from the limit ndash the first significant results of the regulation appeared in Russia not earlier than after 10 years. It is supposed that the limit can be explained by G. Akerlofrsquos model by controlling the number of legionaries it is possible to attract more qualified foreign players into the national league. Analysis of the Russian teamsrsquo experience showed that the limit has not resulted in 1 the increase of the legionariesrsquo quality of performance 2 the increase of the playing time of the Russian players on the field in the national

  9. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  10. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  11. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  12. 75 FR 27631 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ..., Marketing Specialist or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... creation of the marketing order, can create liquidity problems for some producers. The marketing order was...

  13. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  14. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  15. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  16. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  17. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Establish the technical regulation of MERCOSUR transport infectious materials and samples for diagnostic approve for resolution No.25/000 of MERCOSUR Common market group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical MERCOSUR (South Common Market) regulation presented for transport of infectious substances and analysis of samples in laboratories enabled by the Ministries of Health of the States Parts of the Mercosur for diagnostic [es

  19. Market and system integration of renewable energy sources. A legal analysis of the regulations for direct marketing in the EEG 2012; Markt- und Systemintegration der Erneuerbaren-Energien. Eine rechtliche Analyse der Regeln zur Direktvermarktung im EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Wieland [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The EEG 2012 presents optional funding instruments for direct marketing of EEG electricity, in particular a market bonus and a flexibility bonus. The author presents the new regulation for direct marketing in the EEG 2012, in consideration of the practice in energy law. Important aspects are a systematic integration of the new specifications in energy law and an analysis of their contents. Effects on the practice of energy management are investigated, as well as the chances and risks connected with implementation by the energy market partners.

  20. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  1. Trade law and alcohol regulation: what role for a global Alcohol Marketing Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew D; Casben, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Following calls for restrictions and bans on alcohol advertising, and in light of the tobacco industry's challenge to Australia's tobacco plain packaging measure, a tobacco control measure finding support in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper considers what role, if any, an international alcohol marketing code might have in preventing or reducing the risk of challenges to domestic alcohol marketing restrictions under trade rules. Narrative review of international trade and health instruments and international trade court judgements regarding alcohol products and marketing restrictions. The experience of European trade courts in the litigation of similar measures suggests that World Trade Organization rules have sufficient flexibility to support the implementation of alcohol marketing restrictions. However, the experience also highlights the possibility that public health measures have disproportionate and unjustifiable trade effects and that the ability of a public health measure to withstand a challenge under trade rules will turn on its particular design and implementation. Measures implemented pursuant to international public health instruments are not immune to trade law challenges. Close collaboration between health policymakers, trade officials and lawyers, from as early as the research stage in the development of a measure to ensure a robust evidence base, will ensure the best chance of regulatory survival for an international marketing code. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  3. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  4. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  5. Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Ross, Craig; Harris, Jennifer L; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael; Ostroff, Joshua; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) the amount of child-directed breakfast cereal advertising in 2007; (b) an assessment of the nutritional value for all cereals advertised on television; and (c) the relationship between nutrition quality and child exposure to television advertising for major cereal brands. In 2007, the average American child viewed 757 cereal ads, and 98 per cent of these ads promoted unhealthy cereals that would be prohibited from advertising to children in the United Kingdom. Healthy cereals were advertised in 2007 in the United States, but adults, not children, were predominantly exposed to these ads. These quantitative methods can be used in the future to evaluate the impact of industry self-regulation efforts to improve the marketing landscape.

  6. Energy in transition. Between regulation and market; Energiewirtschaft im Wandel. Zwischen Regulierung und Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horzetzky, Guenther [Ministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Energie, Industrie, Mittelstand und Handwerk des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Actually, the energy industry is affected in a changing market environment. The expansion of the renewables led to a share of about 30 % of the German electricity production and is always rising. The renewables energy levy has reached a level of 6.35 Euro Cents per kWh, which is actually a high level. Investments in new power plants are stopped due to low market electricity prices. The market pressure on the utilities is high and their business models have to be scrutinised. The NRW state government supports the magic political triangle of a secure, affordable and environmentally friendly energy supply. Instead of further interventions we have to develop our existing energy system cautiously. Anything else would not meet the requirements for invests in the energy supply and the magic triangle of energy politics.

  7. [Industry regulation and its relationship to the rapid marketing of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    In the market of medical devices, non-Japanese products hold a large part even in Japan. To overcome this situation, the Japanese government has been announcing policies to encourage the medical devices industry, such as the 5-year strategy for medical innovation (June 6, 2012). The Division of Medical Devices has been contributing to rapid marketing of medical devices by working out the standards for approval review and accreditation of medical devices, guidances on evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and test methods for biological safety evaluation of medical devices, as a part of practice in the field of regulatory science. The recent outcomes are 822 standards of accreditation for Class II medical devices, 14 guidances on safety evaluation of medical devices with emerging technology, and the revised test methods for biological safety evaluation (MHLW Notification by Director, OMDE, Yakushokuki-hatsu 0301 No. 20 "Basic Principles of Biological Safety Evaluation Required for Application for Approval to Market Medical Devices").

  8. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  9. Ezrin is down-regulated in diabetic kidney glomeruli and regulates actin reorganization and glucose uptake via GLUT1 in cultured podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Anita A; Koskelainen, Susanna; Hyvönen, Mervi E; Musante, Luca; Lehtonen, Eero; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Tienari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Szalay, Csaba; Révész, Csaba; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A; Hamar, Peter; Holthöfer, Harry; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes and a major cause of end-stage renal disease. To characterize the early pathophysiological mechanisms leading to glomerular podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy, we performed quantitative proteomic profiling of glomeruli isolated from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and controls. Fluorescence-based two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, coupled with mass spectrometry, identified 29 differentially expressed spots, including actin-binding protein ezrin and its interaction partner, NHERF2, which were down-regulated in the streptozotocin group. Knockdown of ezrin by siRNA in cultured podocytes increased glucose uptake compared with control siRNA-transfected cells, apparently by increasing translocation of glucose transporter GLUT1 to the plasma membrane. Knockdown of ezrin also induced actin remodeling under basal conditions, but reduced insulin-stimulated actin reorganization. Ezrin-dependent actin remodeling involved cofilin-1 that is essential for the turnover and reorganization of actin filaments. Phosphorylated, inactive cofilin-1 was up-regulated in diabetic glomeruli, suggesting altered actin dynamics. Furthermore, IHC analysis revealed reduced expression of ezrin in the podocytes of patients with diabetes. Our findings suggest that ezrin may play a role in the development of the renal complication in diabetes by regulating transport of glucose and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    OpenAIRE

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canad...

  11. Understanding the development of a regulated market approach to new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2018-05-09

    The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach to drugs. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). The analysis draws on 3 years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature. The reframing of the NPS issue from one of drug control to the need for stricter market regulation was achieved by the efforts of strategic policy entrepreneurs, including the legal high industry, drug law reform advocates, influential politicians and an independent legal advisory institution. This reframing was aided by the perceived saliency of the NPS problem and ineffectiveness of previous prohibition-based responses. In the absence of any political opposition to the regulatory approach, the Psychoactive Substances Act rapidly progressed through the Parliament. However, once the interim legal market was established, portrayal of the issues shifted away from experts and lobbyists to critique from local communities, local government, animal rights activists and the media, who viewed the new regime as a source of social and health problems. The mobilization of criticism ('Schattschneider mobilization') drew on ideas of animal welfare and community safety. With a looming national election, the government responded by ending the interim market with the urgent passage of amendment legislation. Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) helps explain how New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) policy first emerged on the political agenda and how the initial positive tone of expert support for reform shifted to a tide of popular criticism during the interim regime. However, with its emphasis on explaining agenda-setting, PET does not account for the legislative design shortcomings of the PSA. © 2018 Society for

  12. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  13. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  14. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  15. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but food is a major focus of family life and social events. Learn how to balance your food intake so you can eat the foods ... Getting Adequate Dialysis Healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ...

  16. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  17. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  18. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mothers used certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy What are the signs of kidney dysplasia? Many ... the use of certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant women should talk with their health care ...

  19. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  20. Regulations and policies that limit the growth of the U.S. Great Lakes cruising market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The worldwide cruise industry has seen remarkable growth since the 1990s. The cruise market on the Great Lakes has lagged the worldwide growth and compared to historical records, has fallen far short of its full potential. This paper reviews the hist...

  1. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Interior or authorized representatives; applicable laws; the general terms, conditions, and principles contained in these 2012 Conformed Criteria; and the General Power Contract Provisions in effect. Long-term... (DOE), is modifying Part C of its Conformed General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or...

  2. The Visible Hand: Markets, Politics, and Regulation in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2016-01-01

    In this article Huriya Jabbar examines how the regulatory environment in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans has influenced choice, incentives, and competition among schools. While previous research has highlighted the mechanisms of competition and individual choice--the "invisible hand"--and the creation of markets in education, Jabbar…

  3. The accelarating integration of banks and markets and its implications for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.; Berger, A.N.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.O.S.

    2010-01-01

    The banking landscape is in flux. Financial institutions and markets have become deeply intertwined and competitive pressures have intensified. Stability issues have become paramount, aptly illustrated by the credit crisis of 2007-2009. In this paper we review the existing literature to analyze the

  4. The accelerating integration of banks and markets and its implications for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.; Berger, A.N.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.O.S.

    2010-01-01

    The banking landscape is in flux. Financial institutions and markets have become deeply intertwined and competitive pressures have intensified. Stability issues have become paramount, aptly illustrated by the credit crisis of 2007-2009. In this paper we review the existing literature to analyze the

  5. Stock Exchange Mergers - The new Driver in the Harmonisation of Securities Market Regulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2009-01-01

      The creation of a single European financial market has been pursued vigorously through a number of harmonisation initiatives by European lawmakers and by some of the cross-border alliances between European stock exchanges. The very ambitious plans for harmonisation in the OMX and the Euronext...

  6. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... to add ``strawberries'' in section 9(b)(3) to the list of crops that require soil fumigation before planting fresh market tomatoes. Strawberries are susceptible to nematode damage and pose the same risk of... sections 9(b)(1) and (2)), peppers, eggplants, strawberries or tobacco have been grown and the soil was not...

  7. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  8. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (author)

  9. Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities - A contingent claims analysis using Parisian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the market-consistent valuation of pension liabilities in a contingent claim framework whereby a knock-out barrier feature is applied to capture early regulatory closure of a pension plan. We investigate two cases which we call "immediate closure procedure" and "delayed closure

  10. Smokeless tobacco marketing and sales practices in Appalachian Ohio following federal regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, E.G.; Ferketich, A.K.; Abdel-Rasoul, M.; Kwan, M.P.; Kenda, L.; Wewers, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (ST) use is increasingly prevalent among poor and vulnerable groups, especially rural males. Access to tobacco products, as well as marketing messages, is associated with tobacco usage. In June 2010, the Tobacco Control Act (TCA) marked the beginning of federal

  11. 76 FR 67259 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... of varying resource mixes on the transmission grid. \\6\\ A balancing authority achieves acceptable.... Provision by other resources is emerging, as technologies develop and tariff and market rules adapt to... reality, they are not,\\21\\ and that slower, larger resources are being given a compensatory advantage for...

  12. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  13. Labor market regulations and trade patterns: the panel data analysis within a modified Ricardian setting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura

    -, 05/2008 (2008), s. 1-33 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * international trade * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.deg.uac.pt/~ceeapla/pt/pdf/papers/Paper05-2008.pdf

  14. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  15. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  16. Children?s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising?Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald?s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3?7 years were shown McDonald?s and Burger King children?s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that air...

  17. Land distribution and acquisition practices in Ghana’s cocoa frontier: The impact of a state-regulated marketing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Fold, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Substantial differences in the size of landholdings among cocoa farmers in the Western Region – the last cocoa “frontier” in Ghana – are primarily a result of inheritance practices and the purchase of vast tracts of land by migrants in the initial period of the cocoa boom. Individual accumulation...... surplus from their higher volume of cocoa production into investments in non-farm activities and construction of new residential houses—and not in land acquisition based on market transactions. State regulation of the cocoa sector has spurred increased efficiency among private cocoa purchasing companies...

  18. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication operator. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Re-investment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selected to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommunication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.Keywords: Financial flexibility, Price war, Telecommunication Regulation, Real Option

  20. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  1. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  2. 75 FR 13445 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable... creation of the marketing order, can create liquidity problems for some producers. The marketing order was... 22, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 13445

  3. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  4. Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by calcium ion and adenine nucleotides. Effects on S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, V B; Roche, T E

    1981-04-28

    Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by energy-linked metabolites was investigated. Ca2+, ADP, or inorganic phosphate markedly enhanced the activity of the complex, and ATP or, to a lesser extent, GTP decreased the activity of the complex. Initial velocity studies with alpha-ketoglutarate as the varied substrate demonstrated that these modulators induced large changes in S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate (based on analysis in Hill plots) with no change in the maximum velocity (as determined by double-reciprocal plots). For all conditions studied, the Hill coefficients were significantly less than 1.0 with slopes that were linear over wide ranges of alpha-ketoglutarate concentrations, indicating negative cooperativity that probably resulted from multiple site-site interactions. Ca2+ (maintained at 10 muM by a Ca2+ buffer) decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 63-fold (from 25 to 0.40 mM); even in the presence of a positive effector, ADP or phosphate, Ca2+ decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 7.8- or 28-fold, respectively. Consistent with a mechanism of action dependent of Ca2+, ADP (1.60 mM) or phosphate (20 mM) reduced the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of Ca2+ (i.e., 4.5- or 1.67-fold, respectively); however, these effectors elicited larger decreases in S0.5 in the absence of Ca2+ (i.e., 37- or 3.7-fold, respectively). ATP (1.6 mM) increased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate, and Ca2+ appreciably reduced the effect, lowering the S0.5 98-fold from 66 to 0.67 mM. Thus the activity of the kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is poised to increase as the energy potential in mitochondria declines, and Ca2+ has a pronounced modulatory effect. Comparative studies on bovine heart alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and the effects of varying the ADP/ATP ratio in the presence or absence of Ca2+ or phosphate are also described.

  5. Provision of regulating energy in the context of direct marketing according to the EEG 2012; Zur Bereitstellung von Regelleistung im Rahmen der Direktvermarktung nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Daniel [Landgericht Koeln (Germany); Osborne Clarke, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric power from wind power plants and photovoltaic power plants cannot be stored and is not available at all times. The results are volatile power supply curves, risks of availability forecasting for grid owners or (direct) marketers, and enhanced requirements on grid operation with stable frequency. All this will directly affect the reliability of power supply in Germany. Grid integration and market integration of renewable energy sources are directly connected. The contribution discusses the challenges of ensuring grid stability as well as the legal regulations governing the supply of regulating power from renewable energy sources. Since 1 January 2012, regulating power from renewable energy sources is provided within the scope of the EEG only by direct marketing, i.e. without receiving fixed reimbursement rates. Direct marketing is only possible outside the scope of the EEG, but this is without relevance for the time being. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear reactors in de-regulated markets: Integration between providers and customers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The deregulation of electricity markets has in most cases coincided with the end of state monopolies, where financial risks were borne by customers/citizens. Today, despite an economic advantage, nuclear power development faces two main problems: public acceptance and reticence of investors (banks, utilities shareholders). The development of electricity markets provides different financial instruments in order to hedge financial risks, but it is currently difficult to fix forward contracts for more than three to four years, and this period is insufficient for the financing of a nuclear reactor. A solution could be the evolution of nuclear providers into nuclear operators selling electricity (MWh) rather than selling nuclear capacity (MW), nuclear fuel and services. In this case, their customers would be utilities and big customers aiming to hedge a part of their supplies with long-term contracts or stakes in nuclear reactors without some nuclear constraints. (author)

  7. Labour market regulation in Denmark during and beyond the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens; Rasmussen, Erling Juel

    Since the 1950s, Denmark has developed an economy, a social welfare system and an inclusive labour market which have been admired by overseas commentators (Smith, 2011, Auer 2000, Ganssmann 2000). In the process, it has transformed itself from a relatively low wage country to a high-wage, high...... policy ‘soul-searching’ and adverse economic and social changes. The so-called ‘Danish Model’ of employment relations and its ‘flexicurity’ approach has been heralded by many commentators for its ability to being adaptive and creating win-win economic, social and labour market outcomes (Auer, 2000; Due...... that the ‘Danish Model’ have been relatively successful in the last couple of decades, there have been frequent warnings that the end may be nigh for the ‘Danish Model’ (see Auer, 2009; Smith, 2011). A similar warning is the basic message of this article though in light of the remarkable Danish ability to re...

  8. Getting What You Pay For: Children's Use of Market Norms to Regulate Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echelbarger, Margaret; Gelman, Susan A; Kalish, Charles W

    2018-05-11

    Children are sensitive to a number of considerations influencing distributions of resources, including equality, equity, and reciprocity. We tested whether children use a specific type of reciprocity norm-market norms-in which resources are distributed differentially based strictly on amount offered in return. In two studies, 195 children 5-10 years and 60 adults distributed stickers to friends offering same or different amounts of money. Overall, participants distributed more equally when offers were the same and more unequally when offers were different. Although sensitive to why friends offered different amounts of money, children increasingly incorporated market norms into their distributions with age, as the oldest children and adults distributed more to those offering more, irrespective of the reasons provided. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  9. Conference Innovations in Derivatives Market : Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grbac, Zorana; Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in: • Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk. • Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling. • Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations. The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities. A panel discussion included in the book (featuring D...

  10. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication opera-tor. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele-communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Reinvestment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selec-ted to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommu-nication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.

  11. The International Politics of Harmonization: The Case of Capital Market Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Beth

    2001-01-01

    The vast expansion of international nancial activity over the last decade has been a central fact of international economic life. Balance-of-payments statistics indicate that cross-border transactions in bonds and equities among the G-7 countries rose from less than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1980 to over 140 percent in 1995. International bond and equity markets have reached staggering proportions: by the end of 1997, portfolio holdings of equity and long-term debt securit...

  12. The regulated energy economy versus the free energy market - The West German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesen, K.; Schwarz, H.O.

    1989-09-01

    The overall good performance of the West German energy industry in terms of energy policy objectives such as security of supplies, competitiveness, efficient use of energy and environmental protection, is attributable to an energy policy based on the principles of the market economy and steady application of these same principles. Today, though, a debate, at times controversial, on whether more market influence or more government intervention is required is underway in West Germany; in view of the successes of energy policy and the balance struck between free enterprise and the government in the past, this debate has met with little understanding in some quarters. It is generally agreed, though, that the quality of the challenges energy policy and the energy industry in West Germany will confront in the future will remain essentially unchanged. West German energy policy will have to deal with: reestablishing a consensus on coal and nuclear power policy; achieving a high standard of environmental protection in the European Communities, and strengthening the position of the energy industry as efforts are made to get moves underway to create a single European market for energy underway. No fundamental change in the course of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is needed to solve current energy policy issues or to preserve the underlying goals of this policy. An energy policy which continues to give priority where possible to market mechanisms as a means of adjustment and provides energy suppliers and users with a stable and reliable framework in which to operate, offers the best promise for meeting the challenges of the future. (author). 2 figs

  13. Market Regulators of Service Spheres Innovative Development as a Tool of Regional Socio-Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...

  14. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  15. Smart electricity metering as an energy efficiency instrument: Comparative analyses of regulation and market conditions in Europe. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Parsons, John; Kester, Josco C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The new European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services (ESD) (EC 2006/32, 2006) states the importance of installing metering and billing systems allowing consumers to regulate and steer their consumption. Extra information provided by these 'Smart Meters', is proposed as an important technological innovation to improve energy efficiency. In the next few years the European energy markets will face a challenging task - implementation of Smart Metering systems for small and middle-size customers. The public policies and implementation paths of Smart Metering today vary across Europe from full-scale implementation to very limited. Implementation of Smart Metering systems provides a technological basis, which makes it possible to implement new market-based products and services encouraging the Final Customers to save energy. Electricity suppliers and Distribution System Operators play a key role in a full utilisation of the energy saving potential from Smart Metering, but need a benefit for doing this. These new market opportunities could provide this benefit

  16. Assessment of the impact of market regulation in Mali on the price of essential medicines provided through the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Diadié; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-10-01

    In 1998, the government of Mali adopted a national pharmaceutical policy aimed at promoting a supply system for generic essential medicines that would guarantee equal access for all citizens. Distribution and delivery is a shared responsibility of both public and private sectors (wholesalers and pharmacies). To influence private sector behaviour, the national policy uses a combination of government regulation and market forces. In 2006, the government issued a decree fixing maximum prices in the private sector for 107 prescription drugs from the national list of 426 essential medicines. The current study assessed the impact of this intervention on the evolution of market prices (wholesale and retail), and the subsequent availability and public access to essential medicines in Mali. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in February and May 2006, and January 2009, with 16 wholesalers and 30 private drugstores in Bamako, Mali. The overall availability of essential medicines at private wholesalers (p=1) and pharmacies (p=0.53) was identical before and after the enforcement of the 2006 decree fixing maximum drug prices. Contrary to concerns expressed by wholesalers and pharmacies, and the other stakeholders, the decree did not impact negatively on availability of essential medicines. In fact, median wholesale prices in 2009 were 25.6% less than those fixed by the decree. In private pharmacies, retail prices were only 3% more expensive than the recommended prices, compared with being 25.5% more expensive prior to enforcement of the decree. The study shows that prices of essential medicines in Mali have evolved favourably towards the prices recommended by the government decree. Further, the study contributes to mounting evidence that market regulation by governments does not necessarily negatively affect drug availability; in fact, given the reduction in prices, the study shows that Malians arguably have better access to more affordable essential medicines

  17. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO 2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO 2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  18. The Commission’s internal conditions for social re-regulation: Market efficiency and wider social goals in setting the rules for financial services in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartlapp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is often considered as a prime example of a liberal regulatory state. We argue, however, that being limited to the regulatory policy does not prevent the European Commission from pursuing political aims going beyond market efficiency. We draw up two ideal-type perspectives of market regulation – being either efficiency or equality enhancing – that differ systematically in terms of rationale, degree of intervention, patterns of stakeholder access and conflict within the regulator. We trace these aspects in three financial services initiatives on the registration and supervision of reinsurers, equal treatment in financial services and the regulation of consumer credit. Our analyses suggest that there is scope for equality-enhancing re-regulation when proactive agents proceed decidedly on the basis of social-treaty concerns and frame regulatory beneficiaries as market participants as well as when they seek the redistribution of rights instead of resources.

  19. Effects of regulation on drug launch and pricing in interdependent markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, Patricia M; Epstein, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of price regulation and competition on launch timing and pricing of new drugs. Our data cover launch experience in 15 countries from 1992 to 2003 for drugs in 12 major therapeutic classes. We estimate a two-equation model of launch hazard and launch price of new drugs. We find that launch timing and prices of new drugs are related to a country's average prices of established products in a class. Thus to the extent that price regulation reduces price levels, such regulation directly contributes to launch delay in the regulating country. Regulation by external referencing, whereby high-price countries reference low-price countries, also has indirect or spillover effects, contributing to launch delay and higher launch prices in low-price referenced countries. Referencing policies adopted in high-price countries indirectly impose welfare loss on low-price countries. These findings have implications for US proposals to constrain pharmaceutical prices through external referencing and drug importation.

  20. The Energy Markets' complexity and the need for a multilevel regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The energy markets are very complex, because, on the one hand, they imply several different activities and, on the other hand, they involve various levels of government. The energy market is divided indeed in different segments: supply (generation or purchasing), transmission, distribution and sale, which are allocated at different levels of government, from the international and European level (with reference to the security of energy supply), to the local level (with specific regard to the distribution and sale). This complexity makes the energy sector particularly critical, under the pressure of political interests and economical needs. Another sensitive point is linked with the environmental protection, since the consumption of energy is one of the most polluting human activities, and the demand of energy is growing up together with the economical growth of the developing Countries. This problem is increasingly discussed at the international level, with reference to the climate change issue, in order to plan a sustainable development for the whole globe: because of it, the Kyoto Protocol was issued within the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change. It establishes legally binding commitments for the reduction of four greenhouse gases for all the 183 ratifying Countries, according the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and provides for the promotion of renewable energy. The European Union ratified the Protocol implementing the relative obligations through, for instance, the creation of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). The European Union most of all addressed the competitive issue, since the 70s, in order to achieve the result to create a free energy market in Europe. The last results of the European energy policy were the directives on electricity and natural gas in 2004, that imposed the complete opening of the energy markets in almost all the European Countries (with few exceptions). The implementation of the European

  1. Markets and institutions: relations agents/regulators. The new power of Spanish Autonomous Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guayo Castiella, I. de

    2007-01-01

    The implementation in Spain of the 2003 European Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity implies a more precise determination of who are the regulatory authorities, as well as which powers enjoy each of them; in Spain, also, the implementation process, relating to the regulatory authorities issues, including the competence of the Autonomous Communities. The implementation process has taken place soon after new Statutes of a number of Autonomous Communities have been passed, where energy issues, at least apparently, are subject to a new treatment. (Author) 25 refs

  2. Long-term contract auctions and market power in regulated power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soledad Arellano, M.; Serra, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    A number of countries with oligopolistic power industries have used marginal cost pricing to set the price of energy for small customers. This course of action, however, does not necessarily ensure an efficient outcome when competition is imperfect. The purpose of this paper is to study how the auction of long-term contracts could reduce market power. We do so in a two-firm, two-technology, linear-cost, static model where demand is summarized by a price inelastic load curve. In this context we show that the larger the proportion of total demand auctioned in advance, the lower are both the contract and the average spot price of energy.

  3. Anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy under current conditions of the international markets volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Satsyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the theoretical and methodological basis of anti-cyclic regulation of the countries’ economy under conditions of the world economy globalization. It suggests the analysis of practices of implementing of anti-cyclic policy in highly developed states, its defining features and directions under current global financial and economic crisis. There has been researched a practical toolkit of economic cycles diagnostics and cyclic fluctuations of total business activity in Ukraine based on this study. There are suggested recommendations concerning the formation of the effective mechanism of anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy.

  4. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna

    2012-12-28

    In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction

  5. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of

  6. Market implications of new regulations: impact of health and nutrition information on consumer choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro-Hurle, J.; Gracia, A.; Magistris, T. de

    2009-07-01

    Consumer concern for health impacts of diet has increased the use of nutritional information and claims by agro-food industry. Under the current European legislation on nutrition and health claims and on nutritional labelling, three type of nutritional information can be provided on food products: nutritional facts panel, nutritional claims and health claims. In this context, the aim of the paper is to assess how much consumers value the provision of three types of nutritional information in a meat product not precisely perceived as healthy, pork Frankfurt sausages, using a choice experiment. The data comes from a survey conducted in two Spanish medium size towns (Zaragoza and Cordoba) during 2007. A mixed logit model is used to estimate the effect of the nutrition information attributes on consumers utility and derive their willingness to pay. Results show that all three nutritional and health information items are valued by consumers, although preferences are heterogeneous. Health claims are significantly higher valued than nutritional attributes (facts panel or claim). Estimated market shares show that the use of any of the available labelling options will obtain significant market success even at prices including premiums above current price levels. (Author)

  7. The influence of the European paediatric regulation on marketing authorisation of orphan drugs for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, Annemarie Rosan; de Boer, Anthonius; van der Vlugt-Meijer, Roselinda H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug development for rare diseases is challenging, especially when these orphan drugs (OD) are intended for children. In 2007 the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation was enacted to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children through the establishment

  8. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and

  9. For-Profit Colleges and Universities: Their Markets, Regulation, Performance, and Place in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C., Ed.; Lechuga, Vicente M., Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book offers a clear-eyed and balanced analysis of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs), reviewing their history, business strategies, and management practices; setting them in the context of marketplace conditions, the framework of public policy and government regulations; and viewing them in the light of the public good. Individual…

  10. The influence of the European paediatric regulation on marketing authorisation of orphan drugs for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, Annemarie Rosan; de Boer, Anthonius; van der Vlugt-Meijer, Roselinda H; de Vries, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug development for rare diseases is challenging, especially when these orphan drugs (OD) are intended for children. In 2007 the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation was enacted to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children through the establishment

  11. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  12. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  13. MicroRNA-106b-5p regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity by targeting polycystic kidney disease-2 in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaorong; Qin, Xiaobing; Chen, Tingting; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Xiaoyue; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-09-01

    Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of miR-106-5p in the A549 and the A549/DDP cell line of NSCLC. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot were performed to confirm whether polycystic kidney disease-2 (PKD2) is a direct target gene of miR-106b-5p. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the distribution of PKD2 expression in patients who are sensitive and resistant to cisplatin. The experiments indicated that the expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly decreased in A549/DDP compared with that in A549. MiR-106b-5p affected the tolerance of cells to cisplatin by negatively regulating PKD2. Upregulation of miR-106b-5p or downregulation of PKD2 expression can cause A549/DDP cells to become considerably more sensitive to cisplatin. The results showed that miR-106b-5p enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by targeting the expression of PKD2. These findings suggest that the use of miR-106b-5p may be a promising clinical strategy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  14. Assessing tobacco marketing regulation implementation level in Georgia: evidence from Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Georgia 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Sturua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide; the biggest burden of it falls on low- and middle-income countries and this trend is expected to widen further in case of inaction. The overall objective of the study is to describe and analyze the findings of the Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Georgia 2016 related to tobacco marketing regulation. Methods The current study in Georgia was a population-based STEPS survey of randomly selected adults aged 18-69 within each sex and 10-year age-group. A multi-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for that age range in Georgia. A total of 5554 adults participated in the current survey. We assessed level o tobacco marketing regulation implementation in Georgia. Results Study results reported high prevalence of tobacco use in Georgian population (31.1% (95 % CI: 29.0-33.1. Study findings showed that about half of the current smokers are exposed to anti-tobacco information on TV or radio 52.3% (95% CI: 48.9 - 55.7, whereas 35.5% (95% CI: 32.2 - 38.8 reported being exposed to cigarette marketing at points of sales of tobacco products and 4.7% (95% CI: 3.2-6.1 to any cigarette promotions. Health warnings on cigarette packs was reported to be noticed by 88.7% (95% CI: 85.8-91.6 of current smokers; only 33% (95% CI: 25.4 - 40.7 of them reported having thought about quitting because of these warnings. Conclusions The prevalence of smoking in Georgia is high compared to other countries of the European Region and it is very likely that smoking related NCDs burden will increase. Stricter tobacco control policies coupled with anti-tobacco media campaigns can address this problem. Improved health warnings on tobacco packages and total ban of tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship should be implemented in order to overcome prevailed tobacco industry marketing strategies.

  15. Study of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle tissue of cow and sheep marketed in Hamedan in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of heavy metals in food safety and detrimental effects of their high concentrations in food stuff is well documented. In this study, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in kidney, liver and muscle tissues of cow and sheep at Hamedan retails were evaluated. A total number of 180 samples was assessed for the amount of heavy metals as ppb in wet weight. For this, wet-digestion method was used to determine the concentration of given elements by ICP (Varian ES-710. Results showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals was determined in the liver and kidney samples, while the lowest concentration was found in muscle tissue. Among the heavy metals, Fe in cow’s liver had the highest concentration (25507±879 ppb and Cd in muscle tissue of sheep has the lowest concentration (192±54 ppb. In overall, accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of cows was higher than sheep. Statistical comparison of accumulated metals concentration in various tissues of these two animal groups showed significant difference (P

  16. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  17. The underlying physiological basis of the desert rodent Meriones shawi's survival to prolonged water deprivation: Central vasopressin regulation on peripheral kidney water channels AQPs-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgot, A; El Hiba, O; Belkouch, M; Gamrani, H

    2018-02-01

    Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes. Our results showed both a body mass decrease accompanied by a remarkable kidneys hypertrophy. The immunohistochemical study showed a significant increase of AQP-2 immunoreactivity in the medullar part of Meriones kidneys allowing probably to Meriones a great ability to water retention. Consistently, we demonstrate that the increased AQP-2 expression occurred together with an increase in vasopressin (AVP) expression in both hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which are a major hub in the osmotic control circuitry. These various changes seen either in body weight and kidneys or at the cellular level might be the basis of peripheral control of body water homeostasis, providing to M. shawia strong resistance against chronic dehydration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Naming and Shaming in Financial Market Regulations: A Violation of the Presumption of Innocence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette J.W. Pfaeltzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naming and shaming in the financial markets has become a well-known enforcement tool by national supervisors both within and outside the EU. The Netherlands is one of the Member States which permits the publication of offences and administrative sanctions including the name of the offender. However, such publication practice might raise some concerns in the light of certain fundamental human rights. For instance, does naming and shaming violate the presumption of innocence? This article tries to answer this question by evaluating the Dutch publication regime under the Financial Supervision Act. Are the legal safeguards as provided under this Act sufficiently adequate to prevent an infringement of the presumption of innocence?

  19. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  20. Through the integration to the regulated market of fresh vegetables in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Podgoršek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Disconnectedness of Slovenian producers is reflected in a markedly disadvantageous position in purchasing and sales marketing. Therefore, we raised a research question about the possibilities for the creation of an optimal model for the integration of producers. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the readiness of stakeholders in the chain of vegetable production for mutual cooperation. The aim of the research is to find the optimal model of vegetable producers' integration and/with other stakeholders. Method: We have come to the results through different research tools. We have analyzed questionnaires with MS Excel and Statgraphyc plus 4.0, having errected an organization model for the integration of growers through a system analysis, comparative analysis and with multicriterion decision-making method DEXi. We have verified these results by applying a method of participatory research. Results: We found in this research that primarily larger agricultural holdings, which produce vegetables, wish to cooperate more intensively with each other. Using the research tools, we have determined the optimal form of mutual cooperation between producers. It is an economic cluster. However, gradual organizing via an producer organization, in particular due to the financial support of the EU, is reasonable. Organization: Competitive advantages acquired as the result of interconnection of growers will be felt on any agricultural holding. Society: By improving the conditions for the marketing of vegetables, self-sufficiency in vegetables will also grow, which will undoubtedly increase the autonomy of society and its independence from food imports from elsewhere. Originality: The study has made an innovative approach to the organization of the optimal model of the integration of vegetable growers. Limitations/Future Research: The study is limited to the vegetable sector, for the other sectors a new study should be carried out.

  1. 76 FR 11971 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable... create liquidity problems for some producers. The marketing order was designed to reduce the price... 4, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 11971

  2. THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE OPERATION OF THE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) CURRENCY MARKET (FOREX) IN UKRAINE AND THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Podorozhnyi; Dmytro Sirokha; Pavlo Komirchyi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to evaluate the state of legal institutionalization of the OTC foreign exchange market in Ukraine, as well as its comparison with the foreign experience of legal regulation of OTC currency relations in Ukraine and EU countries. The subject of the study is the legal and administrative framework for the functioning of the OTC currency market (Forex) in Ukraine and in the EU countries. The methodology of the study consists of: historical and legal method, which allowed ...

  3. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  4. Implementation of information systems at pharmacies - a case study from the re-regulated pharmacy market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Tora; Ohlson, Mats; Hanson, Elizabeth; Petersson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    When the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated in 2009, Sweden moved from one state-owned pharmacy chain to several private pharmacy companies, and four new dispensing systems emerged to replace the one system that had previously been used at all Swedish pharmacies for more than 20 years. The aim of this case study was to explore the implementation of the new information systems for dispensing at pharmacies. The vendors of the four dispensing systems in Sweden were interviewed, and a questionnaire was sent to the managers of the pharmacy companies. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 350 pharmacists who used the systems for dispensing prescriptions. The implementation of four new dispensing systems followed a strict time frame set by political decisions, involved actors completely new to the market, lacked clear regulation and standards for functionality and quality assurance, was complex and resulted in variations in quality. More than half of the pharmacists (58%) perceived their current dispensing system as supporting safe dispensing of medications, 26% were neutral and 15% did not perceive it to support a safe dispensing. Most pharmacists (80%) had experienced problems with their dispensing system during the previous month. The pharmacists experienced problems included reliability issues, usability issues, and missing functionality. In this case study exploring the implementation of new information systems for dispensing prescriptions at pharmacies in Sweden, weaknesses related to reliability, functionality and usability were identified and could affect patient safety. The weaknesses of the systems seem to result from the limited time for the development and implementation, the lack of comprehensive and evidence-based requirements for dispensing systems, and the unclear distribution of quality assurance responsibilities among involved stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16–24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16–24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). Primary and secondary outcome measures E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Results Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. Conclusions In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. PMID:26310400

  6. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-08-26

    Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Online cross-sectional survey. Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16-24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16-24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Lutzker, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has unfortunately remained true that radionuclide renal imaging studies have not been so widely accepted as other types of scintigraphy, despite improvements in radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques. Perhaps this is because of the variety of established radiologic techniques available for the study of the kidneys and the addition of new modalities such as CT scanning and ultrasound. Clinicians may have become confused by the multiplicity of options, which has obscured the distinction between renal scintigraphy and all other methods of imaging the kidney, i.e., that renal scintigraphy provides functional information in an easily quantifiable form. It is interesting that pediatric practitioners have more easily recognized the functional importance of this modality than have the practitioners of adult medicine, who more often prefer anatomic modalities, either traditional or new

  8. The Norwegian electricity industry: a deregulated market in a regulated Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesen, E

    1994-12-01

    According to the 1990 Energy Act, the hydro power based Norwegian electricity supply industry was deregulated. The main aim of the act was to promote efficient utilisation of resources through introduction of competition. The act introduced open access for everyone to the network and fair and non-discriminatory pricing for network services. The consumers have now a free choice of suppliers. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, NVE, has the responsibility for regulating the monopolized parts of the industry - the network - As well as supervising the competitive parts - production and trading. The Norwegian transmission grid has several connections with the neighbouring countries. Connections to Germany and the Netherlands are planned. The foreign power exchange is primarily based on exploiting the specific properties of the hydro based system by exporting peak power at high prices and import base load in off peak periods. (author).

  9. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  10. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Archibald, Alan L; Haley, Chris S; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M; Wiener, Pamela; Ogden, Rob

    2012-11-15

    The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR) > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  11. Children's self-regulation of eating provides no defense against television and online food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jennifer; Kelly, Bridget; McMahon, Anne-T; Boyland, Emma; Baur, Louise A; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hughes, Clare; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to unhealthy food marketing stimulates children's food consumption. A child's responsiveness is influenced by individual factors, resulting in an increased vulnerability to advertising effects among some children. Whether these differential responses may be altered by different parental feeding behaviours is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between parental feeding practices and children's food intake responses to food advertising exposure. A randomised, crossover, counterbalanced, within subject trial was conducted across four, six-day holiday camps in New South Wales, Australia between April 2016 and January 2017 with 160 children (7-12 years, n = 40/camp). Children were randomised to either a multiple media (TV and Internet) or single media (TV) condition and exposed to food (3 days) and non-food (3 days) advertising in an online game and/or a cartoon. Children's food consumption (kilojoules (kJ)) was measured at a snack immediately after advertising exposure and then at lunch later in the day. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and 'restriction' and 'pressure to eat' subscale scores were calculated. While food advertising affected all children in the multiple media condition, there was an increased effect on snack intake among children whose parents reported pressuring them to eat, with children consuming an additional 356 kJ after food advertising compared with non-food advertising. This was 209 kJ more than children whose parents did not pressure them to eat. In the single media condition, only children whose parents reported restrictive feeding practices ate more at lunch on food advertising days than non-food advertising days (240 kJ). These data highlight an increased susceptibility to food advertising among children whose parents report controlling feeding practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  13. Electricity regulation in Germany - in the context of the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1994-06-01

    Electric utilities (EU) in Germany are semi-public or private enterprises of a wide variety of size. The large producer utilities operate the high voltage grid on the basis of private contracts. Regional distribution companies mostly without a considerable share in production often in cooperation with local distributors deliver electricity (el) in the non-urban areas whereas mostly city owned EU supply the large cities often on the basis of considerable parts of autoproduction and often also with a considerable share of el produced in cogeneration plants. The equilibrium between the parts of this system in the past was ensured by a legal framework protecting local monopolies as well as long term contracts between producers and distributors. This equilibrium derived its stability from political more than from economic factors. Deregulation trends inherent in European legislation on competition have threatened this stability. - In the first phase resistance against a more competitive order seemed unanimous. In the meantime however the different actors had time to rethink their position. - The European Council has now proposed a more moderate regulation taking into account the large differences in the ESI in the different member countries. - The German Government has made a proposal for some important changes in the Energy Law and connected passages in the Competition Law, which would introduce some more competitive elements into the system without anticipating the results of a competitive process. - Wholesale producers and regional distributors as well as customer groups are in favour of this reform, whereas the local distributors fear to become the losers in the ongoing reform process. - Environmentalists express concern that a more competitive order could lead to a lowering of environmental standards. This paper gives a short survery of the ESI in Germany, its regulations and the ongoing reform. (orig.)

  14. Tensin3 is a negative regulator of cell migration and all four Tensin family members are downregulated in human kidney cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Martuszewska

    Full Text Available The Tensin family of intracellular proteins (Tensin1, -2, -3 and -4 are thought to act as links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, and thereby mediate signaling for cell shape and motility. Dysregulation of Tensin expression has previously been implicated in human cancer. Here, we have for the first time evaluated the significance of all four Tensins in a study of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC, as well as probed the biological function of Tensin3.Expression of Tensin2 and Tensin3 at mRNA and protein levels was largely absent in a panel of diverse human cancer cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression of all four Tensin genes to be significantly downregulated in human kidney tumors (50-100% reduction versus normal kidney cortex; P<0.001. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of Tensins mostly correlated positively with each other and negatively with tumor grade, but not tumor size. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed Tensin3 to be present in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelium in normal human kidney sections, whilst expression was weaker or absent in 41% of kidney tumors. A subset of tumor sections showed a preferential plasma membrane expression of Tensin3, which in clear cell RCC patients was correlated with longer survival. Stable expression of Tensin3 in HEK 293 cells markedly inhibited both cell migration and matrix invasion, a function independent of putative phosphatase activity in Tensin3. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of endogenous Tensin3 in human cancer cells significantly increased their migration.Our findings indicate that the Tensins may represent a novel group of metastasis suppressors in the kidney, the loss of which leads to greater tumor cell motility and consequent metastasis. Moreover, tumorigenesis in the human kidney may be facilitated by a general downregulation of Tensins. Therefore, anti-metastatic therapies may benefit from restoring or preserving Tensin expression in primary

  15. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] pfood advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  16. Factors affecting the entry of for-profit providers into a price regulated market for formal long-term care services: a case study from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    While the distinct behaviors of for-profit and non-profit providers in the healthcare market have been compared in the economic literature, their choices regarding market entry and exit have only recently been debated. Since 2000, when public Long-Term Care Insurance was introduced in Japan, for-profit providers have been able to provide formal long-term homecare services. The aim of this study is to determine which factors have affected market entry of for-profit providers under price regulation and in competition with existing non-profit providers. We used nation-wide panel data from 2002 to 2010, aggregated at the level of local public insurers (n = 1557), a basic area unit of service provision. The number of for-profit providers per elderly population in the area unit was regressed against factors related to local demand and service costs using first-difference linear regression, a fixed effects model, and Tobit regression for robustness checking. Results showed that demand (the number of eligible care recipients) and cost factors (population density and minimum wage) significantly influenced for-profit providers' choice of market entry. These findings indicate that for-profit providers will strategically choose a local market for maximizing profit. We believe that price regulation should be redesigned to incorporate quality of care and market conditions, regardless of the profit status of the providers, to ensure equal access to efficient delivery of long-term care across all regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  18. Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Modelling self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-directed learning and career processes of adult professionals and relations with learning outcomes and labour market success. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14

  19. Regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity by nitric oxide in the kidney and gill of the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S

    2003-01-01

    In teleost fish, successful osmoregulation involves controlled ion transport mechanisms in kidney and gill epithelia. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was investigated in vitro in these two tissues in brown trout (Salmo trutta) acclimated to freshwater...

  20. Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Macarena Gonzalez; Bucher, Heiner C; Nordmann, Alain J

    2008-12-31

    New legal regulations for the marketing of pharmaceutical products were introduced in 2002 in Switzerland. We investigated whether claims in drug advertisements citing published scientific studies were justified by these studies after the introduction of these new regulations. In this cross-sectional study, two independent reviewers screened all issues of six major Swiss medical journals published in the year 2005 to identify all drug advertisements for analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and evaluated all drug advertisements referring to at least one publication. The pharmaceutical claim was rated as being supported, being based on a potentially biased study or not to be supported by the cited study according to pre-specified criteria. We also explored factors likely to be associated with supported advertisement claims. Of 2068 advertisements 577 (28%) promoted analgesic, psychopharmacologic or gastrointestinal drugs. Among them were 323 (56%) advertisements citing at least one reference. After excluding multiple publications of the same drug advertisement and advertisements with non-informative references, there remained 29 unique advertisements with at least one reference to a scientific study. These 29 advertisements contained 78 distinct pairs of claims of analgesic, gastrointestinal and psychopharmacologic drugs and referenced studies. Thirty-seven (47%) claims were supported, 16 (21%) claims were not supported by the corresponding reference, and 25 (32%) claims were based on potentially biased evidence, with no relevant differences between drug groups. Studies with conflict of interest and studies stating industry funding were more likely to support the corresponding claim (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07-2.17 and RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.98-2.28) than studies without identified conflict of interest and studies without information on type of funding. Following the introduction of new regulations for drug advertisement in Switzerland, 53% of all assessed

  1. Localization and regulation of a facilitative urea transporter in the kidney of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Konno, Norifumi; Wakasugi, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2009-01-01

    Urea is the major excretory end product of nitrogen metabolism in most chelonian reptiles. In the present study, we report the isolation of a 1632 base pair cDNA from turtle kidney with one open reading frame putatively encoding a 403-residue protein, the turtle urea transporter (turtle UT). The first cloned reptilian UT has high homology with UTs (facilitated urea transporters) cloned from vertebrates, and most closely resembles the UT-A subfamily. Injection of turtle UT cRNA into Xenopus oocytes induced a 6-fold increase in [(14)C]urea uptake that was inhibited by phloretin. The turtle UT mRNA expression and tissue distribution were examined by RT-PCR with total RNA from various tissues. Expression of turtle UT mRNA was restricted to the kidney, and no signal was detected in the other tissues, such as brain, heart, alimentary tract and urinary bladder. An approximately 58 kDa protein band was detected in membrane fractions of the kidney by western blot using an affinity-purified antibody that recognized turtle UT expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In an immunohistochemical study using the anti-turtle UT antibody, UT-immunopositive cells were observed along the distal tubule but not in the collecting duct. In turtles under dry conditions, plasma osmolality and urea concentration increased, and using semi-quantitative RT-PCR the UT mRNA expression level in the kidney was found to increase 2-fold compared with control. The present results, taken together, suggest that the turtle UT probably contributes to urea transport in the distal tubule segments of the kidney in response to hyperosmotic stress under dry conditions.

  2. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel of...

  3. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... annual allotments after October 31 of each marketing year. As a result, the Committee has calculated that... pounds, the result is a total available supply of Scotch spearmint oil for the 2011-2012 marketing year...

  4. The role of legal regulation and place of international organisations in transport companies’ development at foreign market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Lyashuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the market of international trucking transport companies. The study is based on statistics and works of domestic and foreign scholars on the issue of current state and prospects of market development. Dedicated dynamics and structure of international trucking market, features of export, import and transit trucking. Identified the main priorities for the development and growth of the market.

  5. Changes in Policy and Market and Network Regulation to Increase Power Generation by Renewables and DG in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Van der Welle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance of 'Large scale DER integration' has increased as means to meet the ambitious 2020 EU policy objectives and targets for RES, emissions reductions and energy efficiency. Increasing the role of RES and DG (Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation or DER) in supply is also highly beneficial for reducing EU dependency on gas and oil imports. In this EU context, it is important to review the current barriers, support policies and network regulation for integration of more DG, RES and small scale CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the power systems. Several studies conducted for the EU and led by the ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) reveal that currently, in some, mainly new, Member States, the contribution of RES and DG is still very low. However, in coming decades the share of variable RES-E sources should become much larger in many EU countries. Note that 20% RES in a country in 2020 implies a share of electricity supply by RES of about 30% or more. Currently, countries like Denmark and Spain, already experience such a large contribution of (mostly intermittent type) renewables and this is already negatively impacting power system costs. Now the question arises whether or not we can increase the contribution of RES to the power supply beyond 20-30% without raising system inefficiency and what changes in system conditions and market and network regulation are necessary to efficiently absorb large volumes of so called intermittent RES supply resources. Based on findings from several large EU projects promoting the role of RES and DG in the power supply, the authors discuss and present the different barriers and solutions that should facilitate meeting the ambitious EU policy targets for RES in 2020

  6. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  8. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  9. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI removing any kidney stones Curing an Existing Urinary Tract Infection To treat a UTI , the health care provider ... UTIs and kidney stones. Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care providers may prescribe ...

  10. Collective Phenomena in Kidney Autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2004-01-01

    By controling the excretion of water and salts, the kidneys play all important role ill regulating the blood pressure and maintaining a proper environment for the cells of the body. This control depends to a large extent oil mechanisms that are associated with the individual functional unit...

  11. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development--managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success.

  12. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. PMID:25364229

  13. Benzidine-based dyes: effects of industrial practices, regulations, and world trade on the biological stains market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2009-06-01

    One of the most sweeping changes in the dye industry since the advent of synthetic dyes grew out of the health risks associated with benzidine. Dyes made from benzidine and its derivatives were used around the world until adverse health effects become incontrovertible. Workers and family members of workers involved in production and use of benzidine-based dyes had a high incidence of bladder cancer. Following publication of several reports documenting this health hazard, dye makers in the USA, Europe, and Japan phased these dyes out of production in the 1970s. Government regulations lent legal support for these voluntary initiatives. Two strategies subsequently evolved to compensate: developed nations brought alternative substances to market while emerging countries increased production of carcinogenic dyes and sold them at discount prices around the world. Nearly all dye manufacturing now has moved away from nations whose costs of production and compliance rendered them unable to compete. The purpose of this brief review is to publicize the health risks associated with dyes made from benzidine and its congeners, and to alert all companies and end users handling these dyes for biomedical applications that composition of the product and lot-to-lot variability may be problematic because of the manufacturing and distribution practices of the countries where they are produced.

  14. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekunen A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antti Jekunen Vaasa Oncology Clinic, Vaasa, Finland Abstract: Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. Keywords: decision-making, drug development, clinical oncology, product management, pipeline, portfolio, portfolio analysis, company organization

  15. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  16. The Analysis of Prospects for Derivatives Market Development in Ukraine in View of Solving the Problems of its Normative Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased uncertainty in the country’s economy, impossibility of raising capital only by standard financial instruments substantiated the need for such financial innovations as derivatives. The relevance of the suggested topic is justified by the lack of strong legislative framework regulating the market of derivative financial instruments, as well as by significant demand for them in Ukraine. The aim of the article is to analyze the development level of the normative and legal field of trade in the derivatives market as well as the quality of the formed system of main indicators for derivatives trading in Ukraine. The paper identifies the problem, which could be neutralized through the use of derivative financial instruments. The volume and structure of the world and domestic derivatives markets have been analyzed. Based on the analysis of the legal field of regulating the market of derivative financial instruments as well as statistical analysis of its volume and structure, the reasons for the low activity in the considered market have been justified and recommendations to improve the current situation proposed.

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death rates limited life expectancy. Some patients were lucky enough to get a kidney transplant, which greatly ... epidemic rates. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure nearly ...

  18. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  19. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  20. Financial Market Regulation-Security Scams In India with historical evidence and the role of corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Supreena Narayanan

    2005-01-01

    The financial system consists of specialized and non-specialized financial institutions, of organized and unorganized financial markets, of financial instruments and services, which facilitate transfer of funds. Procedures and practices adopted in the markets, and financial interrelationships are also parts of this system. In product or other service markets, purchasers part with their money in exchange for something now. In finance, money “now” is exchanged for a “promise to pay in the futur...