WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulated hours regime

  1. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of states' nurse work hour regulations on overtime practices and work hours among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-10-01

    To examine the degree to which states' work hour regulations for nurses-policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours-decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents. A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-se...

  4. From Minimum Wage to Standard Work Hour: HKSAR Labour Politics in Regime Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence K. K. Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the significance of labour issues – namely, the minimum wage (MW and standard working hours (SWH – in shaping candidates’ electoral platforms in the 2012 chief executive (CE election of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR under the sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. We first offer a brief review of labour politics regarding the MW case as a precursor to the SWH drafting and enactment process. We then provide an analytical delineation of some of the labour and socio-economic dimensions of the CE electoral contest by comparing the candidates’ campaign planks in relation to SWH. We then attempt to predict the likely course of the SWH debate under the leadership of Leung Chun-ying, who eventually won the CE election and assumed power on 1 July 2012. We conclude by examining Leung’s social engineering attempts to increase popular support amongst low- and middle-income (LMI households as part of his long-term strategy for the 2017 CE elections and his broader Beijing-entrusted political agenda.

  5. Circadian mechanisms of 24-hour blood pressure regulation and patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Hermida, Ramón C; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In most persons, blood pressure (BP) rises slowly during late sleep, increases rapidly upon morning awakening and commencement of diurnal activity, exhibits two - morning and afternoon/early evening - daytime peaks, shows a minor midday nadir, and undergoes a decline during nighttime sleep by 10-20% in systolic BP and somewhat lesser amount in diastolic BP relative to wake-time means. Nyctohemeral cycles of ambient temperature, light, noise and behaviorally driven temporal patterns in food, liquid, salt, and stimulant consumption, mental/emotional stress, posture, and physical activity intensity plus circadian rhythms of wake/sleep, pineal gland melatonin synthesis, autonomic and central nervous, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, renal hemodynamic, endothelial, vasoactive peptide, and opioid systems constitute the key regulators and determinants of the BP 24 h profile. Environmental and behavioral cycles are believed to be far more influential than circadian ones. However, the facts that the: i) BP 24 h pattern of secondary hypertension, e.g., diabetes and renal disease, is characterized by absence of BP fall during sleep, and ii) scheduling of conventional long-acting medications at bedtime, rather than morning, results in much better hypertension control and vascular risk reduction, presumably because highest drug concentration coincides closely with the peak of most key circadian determinants of the BP 24 h profile, indicate endogenous rhythmic influences are of greater importance than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatigue in Residency Education: Understanding the Influence of Work Hours Regulations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Taryn S; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-12-01

    Although one proposed solution to the problem of fatigued medical trainees is the implementation of work hours regulations, concerns about the effectiveness of these regulations are growing. Canada remains one of the few Western jurisdictions without legislated regulation. Recent research suggests that fatigue is a complex social construct, rather than simply a lack of sleep; thus, the authors explored how regulations and fatigue are understood in countries with established work hours frameworks to better inform other jurisdictions looking to address trainee fatigue. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the authors conducted individual, semistructured interviews in 2015-2016 with 13 postgraduate medical trainees from four European countries with established work hours regulations. Data collection and analysis proceeded iteratively, and the authors used a constant comparative approach to analysis. Trainees reported that they were commonly fatigued and that they violated the work hours restrictions for various reasons, including educational pursuits. Although they understood the regulations were legislated specifically to ensure safe patient care and optimize trainee well-being, they also described implicit meanings (e.g., monitoring for trainee efficiency) and unintended consequences (e.g., losing a sense of vocation). Work hours regulations carry multiple, conflicting meanings for trainees that are captured by three predominant rhetorics: the rhetoric of patient safety, of well-being, and of efficiency. Tensions within each of those rhetorics reveal that managing fatigue within clinical training environments is complex. These findings suggest that straightforward solutions are unlikely to solve the problem of fatigue, assure patient safety, and improve trainee well-being.

  7. Regulation of growth and nutrient uptake under different transpiration regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the extent to which air humidity affects the regulation of nutrient demand, an experiment with tomato plants was carried out under fully controlled climate conditions. Treatments consisted of three levels of relative air humidity (RH): 50%, 70% (control) and 95%, corresponding to 1.32,

  8. Protectionism or Legitimate Regulations: What can Trade Partners Expect from the New US Food Safety Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakuja, T.; Kerr, William A.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the US passed the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) which represents a major legislative initiative to revise and strengthen the regulatory regime pertaining to foodborne illness and contamination. The tightening of the regulatory regime was justified on the basis of a number of high-profile foodborne disease incidents, which are claimed to have undermined public confidence in the US food safety system. While tightening food safety regulations inevitably increase barriers ...

  9. Six Reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

    2008-01-01

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend to b...... independency ideal among truck drivers. The last reason is that the drivers and their employers share an interest in long work hours.......  ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend...... is that the regulation seems to be designed to long distance driving, and has some short-comings when applied to short distance drivers. The third reason is that the regulation deprives the drivers of means to control their tiredness. The fourth reason is that the regulation limits room for planning ahead generally...

  10. Paediatric cardiology fellowship training: effect of work-hour regulations on scholarly activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronai, Christina; Lang, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, work-hour regulations were implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Much has been published regarding resident rest and quality of life as well as patient safety. There has been no examination on the effect of work-hour restrictions on academic productivity of fellows in training. Paediatric subspecialty fellows have a scholarly requirement mandated by the American Board of Pediatrics. We have examined the impact of work-hour restrictions on the scholarly productivity of paediatric cardiology fellows during their fellowship. We conducted a literature search for all paediatric cardiology fellows between 1998 and 2007 at a single academic institution as first or senior authors on papers published during their 3-year fellowship and 3 years after completion of their categorical fellowship (n=63, 30 fellows before 2003 and 33 fellows after 2003). The numbers of first- or senior-author fellow publications before and after 2003 were compared. We also collected data on final paediatric cardiology subspecialty career choice. There was no difference in the number of fellow first-author publications before and after 2003. Before work-hour restrictions, the mean number of publications per fellow was 2.1 (±2.2), and after work-hour restrictions it was 2.0 (±1.8), (p=0.89). By subspecialty career choice, fellows who select electrophysiology, preventative cardiology, and heart failure always published within the 6-year time period. Since the implementation of work-hour regulations, total number of fellow first-authored publications has not changed. The role of subspecialty choice may play a role in academic productivity of fellows in training.

  11. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness: A mixed methods study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents.A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-sectional survey. We determined and compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the number of actual working hours before and after implementing the shift system. A follow-up focus-group interview with 4 residents was conducted to explore the factors that may trigger or prevent depression and burnout.Mean working hours significantly decreased from 75.2 hours to 64.9 hours per week. Prevalence of depressive symptoms remained similar before and after implementation of the shift system. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the burnout scale were markedly associated with depression. High workload, stress intolerance, interpersonal difficulties, and generation gaps regarding work-life balance could cause burnout. Stress tolerance, workload monitoring and balancing, appropriate supervision, and peer support could prevent burnout.Although the overnight call shift system was effective in reducing working hours, its effectiveness in managing mental health issues among pediatric residents remains unclear. Resident wellness programs represent an additional strategy and they should be aimed at fostering peer support and improvement of resident-faculty interactions. Such an approach could be beneficial to the relationship between physicians of different generations with conflicting belief structures.

  12. A dynamic model for firm-response to non-credible incentive regulation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Per J.; Grifell-Tatjé, Emili

    2016-01-01

    Economic network regulation increasingly use quantitative performance models (from econometrics and engineering) to set revenues. In theory, high-powered incentive regulation, such as revenue-caps, induces firms to cost-efficient behavior independent of underlying model. However, anecdotal evidence shows regulated firms occasionally maintaining cost-inefficiency under incentive regulation even under slumping profitability. We present a model for firm-level efficiency under a regime with a probability of failure explaining this phenomenon. The model is based on the hypothesis that the regulatory choice of method can be associated with intrinsic flaws leading to judicial repeal and replacement of it by a low-powered regime. The results show that the cost efficiency policy is proportional to the type of firm (cost of effort), value of time (discount factor) and the credibility of the method (risk of failure). A panel data set for 2000–2006 for 128 electricity distributors in Sweden is used to validate the model predictions (radical productivity slowdown, failing profitability and efficiency) at the launch and demise of a non-credible regulation method. The work highlights the fallacy of viewing incentive regulation as a method-independent instrument, a result applicable in any infrastructure regulation. - Highlights: • Incentive regulation relies on fixed revenue for operators. • In existing theory the efficiency-inducing effect is model-independent. • A dynamic game exposes the firm to a regulation that may fail. • One optimal policy is to pad cost and wait for the failure. • The Swedish DSOs show this policy 2003–2006, when the regime failed.

  13. The Role of Forests in Regulating the River Flow Regime of Large Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.; Mercado-Bettin, D. A.; Rodríguez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we explore potential linkages between the presence of forests and the capacity of river basins for regulating river flows. Regulation is defined here as the capacity of river basins to attenuate the amplitude of the river flow regime, that is to reduce the difference between high and low flows. We first use scaling theory to show how scaling properties of observed river flows can be used to classify river basins as regulated or unregulated. This parsimonious classification is based on a physical interpretation of the scaling properties (particularly the scaling exponents) that is novel (most previous studies have focused on the interpretation of the scaling exponents for floods only), and widely-applicable to different basins (the only assumption is that river flows in a given river basin exhibit scaling properties through well-known power laws). Then we show how this scaling framework can be used to explore global-change-induced temporal variations in the regulation capacity of river basins. Finally, we propose a conceptual hypothesis (the "Forest reservoir concept") to explain how large-scale forests can exert important effects on the long-term water balance partitioning and regulation capacity of large basins of the world. Our quantitative results are based on data analysis (river flows and land cover features) from 22 large basins of the world, with emphasis in the Amazon river and its main tributaries. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that forest cover enhances the capacity of large river basins to maintain relatively high mean river flows, as well as to regulate (ameliorate) extreme river flows. Advancing towards this quantitative understanding of the relation between forest cover and river flow regimes is

  14. Hourly metering for everybody. Benefits, regulations and economy; Timmaetning foer alla. Nytta, regelverk och ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badano, Andrea; Fritz, Peter; Goeransson, Anders; Linden, Magnus

    2007-12-15

    Today extensive investments in new modern electricity meters (AMR systems) are taking place in Sweden. The main reason for these investments is the new requirements on monthly meter readings, but these systems can generally do a lot more. Other Market Design projects have identified the need for more demand response in the electricity market and the important role of hourly settlement instead of profiling. With present rules and regulation there is an obvious risk that the new AMR technology will not be used to its full socio-economical potential. A survey made in this study implies that 90 % of the meters in which grid companies are investing today, make it possible to both register and store hourly meter values. A considerably lower share of the new systems will fully meet the demands of hourly settlement. Hourly settlement is both individually and collectively an advantage for the customer. Better tariffs and means of control should lead to a more cost-effective power system and in the long term also give lower electricity prices and higher security of supply. Customers can be well paid when decreasing electricity consumption when electricity price is high. Better statistics and follow-up will also lead to lower electricity consumption. Consequently, customers can make great use of hourly meter readings and management at hour-based level. At the same time, care must be taken how these possibilities are presented for the customers. They must be given information which is brought into line with each costumer's individual needs as far as possible. For power suppliers, hourly settlement would mean possibilities to offer new attractive tariffs to customers. It would give customers opportunities to reduce their electricity consumption and at the same time reduce risk exposure for the power supplier. With the power supplier and the customer having this knowledge about his electricity consumption, the power supplier is able to develop new services such as helping

  15. The effect of duty hour regulation on resident surgical case volume in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stuart H; Miller, Robert H; Weng, Cindy; Gurgel, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Evaluate the effect of duty hour regulation on graduating otolaryngology resident surgical case volume and analyze trends in surgical case volume for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) key indicator cases from 1996 to 2011. Time-trend analysis of surgical case volume. Nationwide sample of otolaryngology residency programs. Operative logs from the American Board of Otolaryngology and ACGME for otolaryngology residents graduating in the years 1996 to 2011. Key indicator volumes and grouped domain volumes before and after resident duty hour regulations (2003) were calculated and compared. Independent t test was performed to evaluate overall difference in operative volume. Wilcoxon rank sum test evaluated differences between procedures per time period. Linear regression evaluated trend. The average total number of key indicator cases per graduating resident was 440.8 in 1996-2003 compared to 500.4 cases in 2004-2011, and overall average per number of key indicators was 31.5 and 36.2, respectively (P = .067). Four key indicator cases showed statistically significant (P otolaryngology residents. The overall trend in operative volume is increasing for several specific key indicators. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. 77 FR 44059 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... receive more frequent payments than every two weeks. The Contractor shall substantiate vouchers (including...] RIN 9000-AM01 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... the authorization to use time-and-materials and labor-hour contract payment requirements. DATES...

  17. Sensitivity of Regulated Flow Regimes to Climate Change in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Leng, Guoyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2018-03-01

    Water management activities or flow regulations modify water fluxes at the land surface and affect water resources in space and time. We hypothesize that flow regulations change the sensitivity of river flow to climate change with respect to unmanaged water resources. Quantifying these changes in sensitivity could help elucidate the impacts of water management at different spatiotemporal scales and inform climate adaptation decisions. In this study, we compared the emergence of significant changes in natural and regulated river flow regimes across the Western United States from simulations driven by multiple climate models and scenarios. We find that significant climate change-induced alterations in natural flow do not cascade linearly through water management activities. At the annual time scale, 50% of the Hydrologic Unit Code 4 (HUC4) sub-basins over the Western U.S. regions tend to have regulated flow regime more sensitive to the climate change than natural flow regime. Seasonality analyses show that the sensitivity varies remarkably across the seasons. We also find that the sensitivity is related to the level of water management. For 35% of the HUC4 sub-basins with the highest level of water management, the summer and winter flows tend to show a heightened sensitivity to climate change due to the complexity of joint reservoir operations. We further demonstrate that the impacts of considering water management in models are comparable to those that arises from uncertainties across climate models and emission scenarios. This prompts further climate adaptation studies research about nonlinearity effects of climate change through water management activities.

  18. Tracing mobilities regimes: The regulation of drug smuggling and labour migration at two airports in the Netherlands and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis argues that we can no longer understand the regulation of international mobility by focusing exclusively on state borders. In our contemporary mobile world, movement is regulated by spatiotemporally extended mobilities regimes in which both state and non-state actors play a role. In

  19. Deregulating with no regulator: Is the German electricity transmission regime institutionally correct?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Ute; Perez, Yannick

    2008-01-01

    From 1998 to 2005, the German transmission grid has been put under a self-regulated arrangement. It seems hard to believe that transmission lines can be opened to 'third-party access' only with a 'negotiated access regime' and no regulator supervision. It seems contradictory with the notion of 'ex post contractual hazards' promoted by V. Goldberg and O. Williamson. If a weak institutional arrangement is implemented, one might assume that it has to be harmful to network and market access. If it is not to be inefficient, why and how could it work? When looking at rules and prices for accessing the transmission network and the corresponding wholesale markets in Germany, the 'club' arrangement for transmission opening does not appear so harmful. Accordingly, we have to reconsider the ex ante and ex post institutional mechanism of such a 'club' arrangement. Ex ante, we first reconsider skills and strengths of industrial consumers and German Business associations in defining and assessing rules of transmission access. We underline that incomplete vertical and horizontal integration of German electricity companies impeded extensive cartel collusion. Ex post, we first look at a strong Competition Authority backing. Then we discover that ex ante and ex post dimensions are much more mixed and reinforced in an open 'cumulative pro-competition process' framed by the Competition Authority

  20. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelnes, R.

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 μCi 133-Xenon in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive indicator. After reconstructive vascular surgery, the 24-hour blood flow pattern normalized although the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index did not come within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructuve hyperamia seems improper, at least in a long-term context, normalization of preoperative ischaemia is a more correct notation. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal SBF was calculated to 10%. The method thus seems apt as a monitor in medical therapy for occlusive arterial disease. Changes of λ has, however, to be considered in each study. 94 refs. (EG)

  1. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. The Role of Special Resolution Regimes in Post-crisis Financial Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    What is the best way to avoid that financial institutions become ‘too big to fail’? One approach particularly popular among policymakers is the building of special bank insolvency policies that aim to resolve any financial institutions without systemic consequences. Danish authorities are among the...... the first to have actually used the new resolution approach, and the Danish case thus offers a number of lessons about the problems and potentials of special bank resolution regimes.......What is the best way to avoid that financial institutions become ‘too big to fail’? One approach particularly popular among policymakers is the building of special bank insolvency policies that aim to resolve any financial institutions without systemic consequences. Danish authorities are among...

  3. Modeling thermal structure, ice cover regime and sensitivity to climate change of two regulated lakes - a Norwegian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Solomon; Boissy, Thibault; Alfredsen, Knut

    2013-04-01

    A great number of river and lakes in Norway and the Nordic region at large are regulated for water management such as hydropower production. Such regulations have the potential to alter the thermal and hydrological regimes in the lakes and rivers downstream impacting on river environment and ecology. Anticipated changes as a result of climate change in meteorological forcing data such as air temperature and precipitation cause changes in the water balance, water temperature and ice cover duration in the reservoirs. This may necessitate changes in operational rules as part of an adaptation strategy for the future. In this study, a one dimensional (1D) lake thermodynamic and ice cover model (MyLake) has been modified to take into account the effect of dynamic outflows in reservoirs and applied to two small but relatively deep regulated lakes (reservoirs) in Norway (Follsjøen and Tesse). The objective was to assess climate change impacts on the seasonal thermal characteristics, the withdrawal temperatures, and the reservoir ice cover dynamics with current operational regimes. The model solves the vertical energy balance on a daily time-step driven by meteorological and hydrological forcings: 2m air temperature, precipitation, 2m relative humidity, 10m wind speed, cloud cover, air pressure, solar insolation, inflow volume, inflow temperature and reservoir outflows. Model calibration with multi-seasonal data of temperature profiles showed that the model performed well in simulating the vertical water temperature profiles for the two study reservoirs. The withdrawal temperatures were also simulated reasonably well. The comparison between observed and simulated lake ice phenology (which were available only for one of the reservoirs - Tesse) was also reasonable taking into account the uncertainty in the observational data. After model testing and calibration, the model was then used to simulate expected changes in the future (2080s) due to climate change by considering

  4. The legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. II. International Regulations. Pt.1. Regulations on peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The first volume on atomic energy law published by CNEN reproduced national laws and regulations in that field. This book constitutes part one of the second volume and deals with international nuclear conventions and cooperation as at 30 June 1978. It reproduces the instruments and conventions which set up the international nuclear agencies, recommendations in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety, the nuclear third party liability conventions, the international instruments concerning technical and scientific cooperation and finally, the bilateral cooperation agreements between Italy and other nations and its agreements with international organizations (NEA) [fr

  5. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Bai

    Full Text Available Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta (YRD of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008 after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  6. Hydrological regulation drives regime shifts: evidence from paleolimnology and ecosystem modeling of a large shallow Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Janssen, Annette B G; Kuiper, Jan J; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Qin, Ning; Jiang, Yujiao; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Chen; Bai, Zelin; Zhang, Min; Kong, Fanxiang; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative evidence of sudden shifts in ecological structure and function in large shallow lakes is rare, even though they provide essential benefits to society. Such 'regime shifts' can be driven by human activities which degrade ecological stability including water level control (WLC) and nutrient loading. Interactions between WLC and nutrient loading on the long-term dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems are, however, often overlooked and largely underestimated, which has hampered the effectiveness of lake management. Here, we focus on a large shallow lake (Lake Chaohu) located in one of the most densely populated areas in China, the lower Yangtze River floodplain, which has undergone both WLC and increasing nutrient loading over the last several decades. We applied a novel methodology that combines consistent evidence from both paleolimnological records and ecosystem modeling to overcome the hurdle of data insufficiency and to unravel the drivers and underlying mechanisms in ecosystem dynamics. We identified the occurrence of two regime shifts: one in 1963, characterized by the abrupt disappearance of submerged vegetation, and another around 1980, with strong algal blooms being observed thereafter. Using model scenarios, we further disentangled the roles of WLC and nutrient loading, showing that the 1963 shift was predominantly triggered by WLC, whereas the shift ca. 1980 was attributed to aggravated nutrient loading. Our analysis also shows interactions between these two stressors. Compared to the dynamics driven by nutrient loading alone, WLC reduced the critical P loading and resulted in earlier disappearance of submerged vegetation and emergence of algal blooms by approximately 26 and 10 years, respectively. Overall, our study reveals the significant role of hydrological regulation in driving shallow lake ecosystem dynamics, and it highlights the urgency of using multi-objective management criteria that includes ecological sustainability perspectives when

  7. Glycolysis is governed by growth regime and simple enzyme regulation in adherent MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Ritter, Joachim B; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its vital importance in the supply of cellular pathways with energy and precursors, glycolysis has been studied for several decades regarding its capacity and regulation. For a systems-level understanding of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell metabolism, we couple a segregated cell growth model published earlier with a structured model of glycolysis, which is based on relatively simple kinetics for enzymatic reactions of glycolysis, to explain the pathway dynamics under various cultivation conditions. The structured model takes into account in vitro enzyme activities, and links glycolysis with pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Using a single parameterization, metabolite pool dynamics during cell cultivation, glucose limitation and glucose pulse experiments can be consistently reproduced by considering the cultivation history of the cells. Growth phase-dependent glucose uptake together with cell-specific volume changes generate high intracellular metabolite pools and flux rates to satisfy the cellular demand during growth. Under glucose limitation, the coordinated control of glycolytic enzymes re-adjusts the glycolytic flux to prevent the depletion of glycolytic intermediates. Finally, the model's predictive power supports the design of more efficient bioprocesses.

  8. Impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour regulations on neurosurgical resident education and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Jay; Vates, G Edward; Pouratian, Nader; Sheehan, Jason P; Patrie, James; Grady, M Sean; Jane, John A

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the Institute of Medicine examined resident duty hours and their impact on patient safety. Experts have suggested that reducing resident work hours to 56 hours per week would further decrease medical errors. Although some reports have indicated that cutbacks in resident duty hours reduce errors and make resident life safer, few authors have specifically analyzed the effect of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour limits on neurosurgical resident education and the perceived quality of training. The authors have evaluated multiple objective surrogate markers of resident performance and quality of training to determine the impact of the 80-hour workweek. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 data on neurosurgical applicants entering ACGME-accredited programs between 1998 and 2007 (before and after the implementation of the work-hour rules) were obtained from the Society of Neurological Surgeons. The American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) written examination scores for this group of residents were also acquired. Resident registration for and presentations at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) annual meetings between 2002 and 2007 were examined as a measure of resident academic productivity. As a case example, the authors analyzed the distribution of resident training hours in the University of Virginia (UVA) neurosurgical training program before and after the institution of the 80-hour workweek. Finally, program directors and chief residents in ACGME-accredited programs were surveyed regarding the effects of the 80-hour workweek on patient care, resident training, surgical experience, patient safety, and patient access to quality care. Respondents were also queried about their perceptions of a 56-hour workweek. Despite stable mean USMLE Step 1 scores for matched applicants to neurosurgery programs between 2000 and 2008, ABNS written examination scores for residents

  9. Physicians' attentional performance following a 24-hour observation period: do we need to regulate sleep prior to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Maximova, K; Jirsch, J D

    2017-08-01

    The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta. Among 70 physicians, 52 (74%) performed overnight call; 18 did not perform overnight call and were recruited to control for the learning effect of repetitive neuropsychological testing. Attentional Network Test (ANT) measured physicians' attention at the beginning and end of the 24-hour observation period. Participants self-reported ideal sleep needs, sleep duration in the 24 hours prior to (ie, baseline) and during the 24-hour observation period (ie, follow-up). Median regression models examined effects on ANT parameters. Sleep deprivation at follow-up was associated with reduced attentional accuracy following the 24-hour observation period, but only for physicians more sleep deprived at baseline. Other components of attention were not associated with sleep deprivation after adjusting for repetitive testing. Age, years since medical school and caffeine use did not impact changes in ANT parameters. Our study suggests that baseline sleep before 24 hours of observation impacts the accuracy of physicians' attentional testing at 24 hours. Further study is required to determine if optimising physician sleep prior to overnight call shifts is a sustainable strategy to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. 76 FR 44884 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... under revised Alternate I. (b) Completion Voucher. The Allowable Cost and Payment, FAR clause 52.216-7.... * * * * * Payments Under Time-and-Material and Labor-Hour Contracts (Date) * * * * * (a) * * * (5) Vouchers may be... final payment under this contract, the Contracting Officer may request audit of the vouchers and...

  11. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  12. Building regulatory enforcement regimes : Comparative analysis of private sector involvement in the enforcement of public building regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that traditional regulatory regimes centered on governmental action will benefit from greater private sector involvement. And, under the catchy phrase "from government to governance" globally a wide variety of hybrid forms of governance has emerged. However, little empirical

  13. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  14. Regulation and acclimation of leaf gas exchange in a piñon-juniper woodland exposed to three different precipitation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Bickford, Christopher P; Dickman, Lee T; Pangle, Robert E; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Osuna, Jessica L; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2013-10-01

    Leaf gas-exchange regulation plays a central role in the ability of trees to survive drought, but forecasting the future response of gas exchange to prolonged drought is hampered by our lack of knowledge regarding potential acclimation. To investigate whether leaf gas-exchange rates and sensitivity to drought acclimate to precipitation regimes, we measured the seasonal variations of leaf gas exchange in a mature piñon-juniper Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma woodland after 3 years of precipitation manipulation. We compared trees receiving ambient precipitation with those in an irrigated treatment (+30% of ambient precipitation) and a partial rainfall exclusion (-45%). Treatments significantly affected leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis for both isohydric piñon and anisohydric juniper. Leaf gas exchange acclimated to the precipitation regimes in both species. Maximum gas-exchange rates under well-watered conditions, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf water potential at zero photosynthetic assimilation all decreased with decreasing precipitation. Despite their distinct drought resistance and stomatal regulation strategies, both species experienced hydraulic limitation on leaf gas exchange when precipitation decreased, leading to an intraspecific trade-off between maximum photosynthetic assimilation and resistance of photosynthesis to drought. This response will be most detrimental to the carbon balance of piñon under predicted increases in aridity in the southwestern USA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  16. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  17. JURIDICAL REGIME OF THE INTEREST IN THE ROMANIAN LAW. PARTICULAR CASE. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE REGULATIONS OF THE REMUNERATORY INTEREST VERSUS THE PENALIZING INTEREST, IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia Cristea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a case where the rate of the conventional interest is not specified made me investigate what is the maximal limit that can be obtained in this case, under the regulation in force, in the Romanian law (sect.1!To formulate a solution, I considered as necessary to analyze : the provision on the moratory damages (according to the Roman Civil Code and the putting of the debtor in default, in order to know what is the date starting from which the moratory damages are calculated (according to the Roman Civil Code-sect.2; the juridical regime of the interest (according to the Roman Bankin Law-sect.3;comparison between the remuneratory interest and the penalizing interest (according to the Roman Banking Law-sect.4;solution for the case and conclusions-sect. 5.

  18. Acute Effect of Alcohol Intake on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation During the First Hours of Sleep in a Large Real-World Sample of Finnish Employees: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Julia; Helander, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Myllymäki, Tero; Kujala, Urho M; Lindholm, Harri

    2018-03-16

    Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees. From a larger cohort, this study included 4098 subjects (55.81%, 2287/4098 females; mean age 45.1 years) who had continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recordings of good quality for at least 1 day with and for at least 1 day without alcohol intake. The participants underwent continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recording during their normal everyday life and self-reported their alcohol intake as doses for each day. Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and HRV-derived indices of physiological state from the first 3 hours of sleep were used as outcomes. Within-subject analyses were conducted in a repeated measures manner by studying the differences in the outcomes between each participant's days with and without alcohol intake. For repeated measures two-way analysis of variance, the participants were divided into three groups: low (≤0.25 g/kg), moderate (>0.25-0.75 g/kg), and high (>0.75 g/kg) intake of pure alcohol. Moreover, linear models studied the differences in outcomes with respect to the amount of alcohol intake and the participant's background parameters (age; gender; body mass index, BMI; physical activity, PA; and baseline sleep HR). Alcohol intake was dose-dependently associated with increased sympathetic regulation, decreased parasympathetic regulation, and insufficient recovery. In addition to moderate and high alcohol doses, the

  19. Regime change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?

  20. Intraspecies variation in a widely distributed tree species regulates the responses of soil microbiome to different temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Jing; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Drake, John E; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Tissue, David T; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2018-04-01

    Plant characteristics in different provenances within a single species may vary in response to climate change, which might alter soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions. We conducted a glasshouse experiment and grew seedlings of three provenances (temperate, subtropical and tropical origins) of a tree species (i.e., Eucalyptus tereticornis) at different growth temperatures (18, 21.5, 25, 28.5, 32 and 35.5°C) for 54 days. At the end of the experiment, bacterial and fungal community composition, diversity and abundance were characterized. Measured soil functions included surrogates of microbial respiration, enzyme activities and nutrient cycling. Using Permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA) and network analysis, we found that the identity of tree provenances regulated both structure and function of soil microbiomes. In some cases, tree provenances substantially affected the response of microbial communities to the temperature treatments. For example, we found significant interactions of temperature and tree provenance on bacterial community and relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Zygomycota, and inorganic nitrogen. Microbial abundance was altered in response to increasing temperature, but was not affected by tree provenances. Our study provides novel evidence that even a small variation in biotic components (i.e., intraspecies tree variation) can significantly influence the response of soil microbial community composition and specific soil functions to global warming. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkun Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere microbiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the first-year planted (FP, second-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO, suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.

  2. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  3. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  4. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Proposed Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Federal Volatility Control Program in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice proposes establishing an applicable standard of 7.8 pounds (psi) Reid vapor pressure under the federal volatility control program, in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area.

  6. Effect of the 2011 vs 2003 duty hour regulation-compliant models on sleep duration, trainee education, and continuity of patient care among internal medicine house staff: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sanjay V; Feldman, Leonard; Brown, Lorrel; Dezube, Rebecca; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Punjabi, Naresh; Afshar, Kia; Grunwald, Michael R; Harrington, Colleen; Naik, Rakhi; Cofrancesco, Joseph

    2013-04-22

    On July 1, 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented further restrictions of its 2003 regulations on duty hours and supervision. It remains unclear if the 2003 regulations improved trainee well-being or patient safety. To determine the effects of the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour regulations compared with the 2003 regulations concerning sleep duration, trainee education, continuity of patient care, and perceived quality of care among internal medicine trainees. Crossover study design in an academic research setting. Medical house staff. General medical teams were randomly assigned using a sealed-envelope draw to an experimental model or a control model. We randomly assigned 4 medical house staff teams (43 interns) using a 3-month crossover design to a 2003-compliant model of every fourth night overnight call (control) with 30-hour duty limits or to one of two 2011-compliant models of every fifth night overnight call (Q5) or a night float schedule (NF), both with 16-hour duty limits. We measured sleep duration using actigraphy and used admission volumes, educational opportunities, the number of handoffs, and satisfaction surveys to assess trainee education, continuity of patient care, and perceived quality of care. RESULTS The study included 560 control, 420 Q5, and 140 NF days that interns worked and 834 hospital admissions. Compared with controls, interns on NF slept longer during the on call period (mean, 5.1 vs 8.3 hours; P = .003), and interns on Q5 slept longer during the postcall period (mean, 7.5 vs 10.2 hours; P = .05). However, both the Q5 and NF models increased handoffs, decreased availability for teaching conferences, and reduced intern presence during daytime work hours. Residents and nurses in both experimental models perceived reduced quality of care, so much so with NF that it was terminated early. Compared with a 2003-compliant model, two 2011 duty hour regulation

  7. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  8. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  9. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  10. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  11. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  12. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  13. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  14. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  15. Guest Editorial : New European Union plant health regime: A more stringent regulation that could impact trade from developing countries in the near future

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The new "Plant Health Law" provides more comprehensive and clearer rules for the prevention of entry into, and spread within, the EU territory of pests injurious to plant health but this regulation also includes regulating pests on the basis of pre-established criteria for risk assesment and prioritising of pests with the most serious consequences. Peer reviewed

  16. 48 CFR 552.236-74 - Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working Hours. 552.236-74... Hours. As prescribed in 536.570-5, insert the following clause: Working Hours (APR 1984) (a) It is contemplated that all work will be performed during the customary working hours of the trades involved unless...

  17. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  18. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2018-02-21

    In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS application to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in leaf and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.

  20. Mainstreaming solar : Stretching the regulatory regime through business model innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Podoynitsyna, K.S.

    This paper explores how the regulatory regime for Solar PV, defined as a combination of niche shielding and mainstream regulations, affects niche business models, using the Dutch and Flemish regulatory regimes as examples. The regulatory regime does not influence all components of the business

  1. Irrigation and Nitrogen Regimes Promote the Use of Soil Water and Nitrate Nitrogen from Deep Soil Layers by Regulating Root Growth in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixing; Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Wang, Jiarui; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Feng, Wei; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Kang, Guozhang

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonably high irrigation levels and excessive nitrogen (N) supplementation are common occurrences in the North China Plain that affect winter wheat production. Therefore, a 6-yr-long stationary field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation and N regimes on root development and their relationship with soil water and N use in different soil layers. Compared to the non-irrigated treatment (W0), a single irrigation at jointing (W1) significantly increased yield by 3.6-45.6%. With increases in water (W2, a second irrigation at flowering), grain yield was significantly improved by 14.1-45.3% compared to the W1 treatments during the drier growing seasons (2010-2011, 2012-2013, and 2015-2016). However, under sufficient pre-sowing soil moisture conditions, grain yield was not increased, and water use efficiency (WUE) decreased significantly in the W2 treatments during normal precipitation seasons (2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015). Irrigating the soil twice inhibited root growth into the deeper soil depth profiles and thus weakened the utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N from the deep soil layers. N applications increased yield by 19.1-64.5%, with a corresponding increase in WUE of 66.9-83.9% compared to the no-N treatment (N0). However, there was no further increase in grain yield and the WUE response when N rates exceeded 240 and 180 kg N ha -1 , respectively. A N application rate of 240 kg ha -1 facilitated root growth in the deep soil layers, which was conducive to utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N and also in reducing the residual NO 3 -N. Correlation analysis indicated that the grain yield was significantly positively correlated with soil water storage (SWS) and nitrate nitrogen accumulation (SNA) prior to sowing. Therefore, N rates of 180-240 kg ha -1 with two irrigations can reduce the risk of yield loss that occurs due to reduced precipitation during the wheat growing seasons, while under better soil moisture conditions, a

  2. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  3. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  4. 2011 Hours against hate

    OpenAIRE

    Cátedra Intercultural. UCO

    2011-01-01

    2011 Hours Against Hate is a campaign to stop bigotry and promote respect across lines of culture, religion, tradition, class, and gender. Launched by Special Representative to Muslim Communities Farah Pandith, and Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism Hannah Rosenthal, the State Department is asking young people around the world to pledge their time to stop hate—to do something for someone who doesn’t look like you, pray like you, or live like you. We are asking the next generati...

  5. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  6. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  7. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  8. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  9. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  10. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  11. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  12. Job search, hours restrictions, and desired hours of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    A structural empirical job search model is presented that incorporates the labor supply decision of individuals. The arrival of a job offer is modeled as a random draw from a wage-hours offer distribution. Subjective information is used on desired working hours to identify optimal hours from offered

  13. THE INFLUENCED FLOW REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenced flow regimes. The presence and activities ofhumanity influences the uniform environmental system, and in this context, therivers water resources. In concordance with this, the natural runoff regime suffersbigger and deeper changes. The nature of these changes depending on the type anddegree of water uses. The multitude of the use cause different types of influence,whit different quantitative aspects. In the same time, the influences havequalitative connotations, too, regarding to the modifications of the yearly watervolume runoff. So the natural runoff regime is modified. After analyzing thedistribution laws of the monthly runoff, there have been differenced four types ofinfluenced runoff regimes. In the excess type the influenced runoff is bigger thanthe natural, continuously in the whole year. The deficient type is characterized byinverse rapports like the first type, in the whole year. In the sinusoidal type, theinfluenced runoff is smaller than the natural in the period when the water isretained in the lake reservoirs, and in the depletion period the situation inverts. Atthe irregular type the ratio between influenced and natural runoff is changeable ina random meaner monthly. The recognition of the influenced regime and the gradeof influence are necessary in the evaluation and analysis of the usable hydrologicalriver resources, in the flood defence activities, in the complex scheme of thehydrographic basins, in the environment design and so on.

  14. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  15. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  16. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  17. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  18. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  19. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  20. The evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Attention to global health security governance is more important now than ever before. Scientists predict that a possible influenza pandemic could affect 1.5 billion people, cause up to 150 million deaths and leave US$3 trillion in economic damages. A public health emergency in one country is now only hours away from affecting many others. Using regime analysis from political science, the principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures by which states govern health security are examined in the historical context of their punctuated evolution. This methodology illuminates the catalytic agents of change, distributional consequences and possible future orders that can help to better inform progress in this area. Four periods of global health security governance are identified. The first is characterized by unilateral quarantine regulations (1377-1851), the second by multiple sanitary conferences (1851-92), the third by several international sanitary conventions and international health organizations (1892-1946) and the fourth by the hegemonic leadership of the World Health Organization (1946-????). This final regime, like others before it, is challenged by globalization (e.g. limitations of the new International Health Regulations), changing diplomacy (e.g. proliferation of global health security organizations), new tools (e.g. global health law, human rights and health diplomacy) and shock-activated vulnerabilities (e.g. bioterrorism and avian/swine influenza). This understanding, in turn, allows us to appreciate the impact of this evolving regime on class, race and gender, as well as to consider four possible future configurations of power, including greater authority for the World Health Organization, a concert of powers, developing countries and civil society organizations. This regime analysis allows us to understand the evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime, which is essential for national and international health

  1. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  2. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  3. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  4. Optimization of work and rest hours for navigation officers on the ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkuva H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the research as a whole is dedicated to studies of the work load of navigation officers and, consequently, is related to the current international research on the quality of working life. Issues of seafarers' working time are very topical because in recent years the load of navigation officers has significantly increased, either due to increase in shipping intensity, or in the context of the new international maritime law, for example, compliance with the requirements of the ISM CODE (International Management safety Code, THE ISPS (The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Irregularities are observed in practice of the seafarers' working hours and rest hours, and even the mismatch, as presented in the port of inspection materials. This article is intended to assess the 2nd and 3rd Officer's load compliance with the regulatory enactments for the work and rest regime to develop proposals to load optimization. Load analysis of Navigation officers is based on international maritime regulations that determine the work and rest regime on ships STCW (The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, MLC (Maritime Labour Convention. In the article, concrete data is used from the research, which was conducted 18 months on the Handy type of tanker from July, 2012 till December, 2013 in the real time mode. In the article is also concrete data used from 340 survey respondents, which reflects the views of the navigation officers on violations of the work and rest regime on the ship and the fatigue issue.

  5. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  6. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  7. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  8. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  9. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio (https://darksky.net/dev/docs/forecast) and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  10. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  11. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  12. Long working hours and health status among employees in Europe: between-country differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.

  13. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  14. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  15. Yukon's common oil and gas regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon's common oil and gas regime was developed in partnership with First Nations and it sets out the rules that will apply throughout the Yukon and on Yukon and First Nation lands. While separate and distinct, it conforms with and is compatible with other government systems and regimes. The major elements of the common regime include the Oil and Gas Act, regulations, policies, processes and agreements. The specific opportunities that are available in each phase of oil and gas development in the Yukon are described, with a map showing all basins, reserves and sites of current oil and gas activity. The Yukon has eight potential oil and gas basins: North Coast, Old Crow, Kandik, Eagle Plain, Peel Plateau, Bonnet Plume, Whitehorse Trough, and Liard Plateau. Only three of the eight, the Liard Plateau, Whitehorse Trough and Eagle Plain, have been explored. No wells have been drilled in several of Yukon's basins. Factors influencing economic opportunities in the Territory are also described, including: (1) international events and energy markets, (2) North American gas markets, (3) environmental factors, (4) competitiveness of the Yukon regime, and (5) the commitment of industry resources. 4 figs

  16. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  17. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  18. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  19. Characterizing effects of hydropower plants on sub-daily flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, María Dolores; Sordo-Ward, Álvaro; Alonso, Carlos; Nilsson, Christer

    2017-07-01

    A characterization of short-term changes in river flow is essential for understanding the ecological effects of hydropower plants, which operate by turning the turbines on or off to generate electricity following variations in the market demand (i.e., hydropeaking). The goal of our study was to develop an approach for characterizing the effects of hydropower plant operations on within-day flow regimes across multiple dams and rivers. For this aim we first defined ecologically meaningful metrics that provide a full representation of the flow regime at short time scales from free-flowing rivers and rivers exposed to hydropeaking. We then defined metrics that enable quantification of the deviation of the altered short-term flow regime variables from those of the unaltered state. The approach was successfully tested in two rivers in northern Sweden, one free-flowing and another regulated by cascades of hydropower plants, which were additionally classified based on their impact on short-term flows in sites of similar management. The largest differences between study sites corresponded to metrics describing sub-daily flow magnitudes such as amplitude (i.e., difference between the highest and the lowest hourly flows) and rates (i.e., rise and fall rates of hourly flows). They were closely followed by frequency-related metrics accounting for the numbers of within-day hourly flow patterns (i.e., rises, falls and periods of stability of hourly flows). In comparison, between-site differences for the duration-related metrics were smallest. In general, hydropeaking resulted in higher within-day flow amplitudes and rates and more but shorter periods of a similar hourly flow patterns per day. The impacted flow feature and the characteristics of the impact (i.e., intensity and whether the impact increases or decreases whatever is being described by the metric) varied with season. Our approach is useful for catchment management planning, defining environmental flow targets

  20. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and

  1. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2017-04-21

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H 2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively. The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events. The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293 ). Registered 15 January 2015.

  2. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  3. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  4. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  5. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  6. Cooling metals to the microkelvin regime, then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, G. R.

    2000-05-01

    Better understanding of the behaviour of materials and the techniques of nuclear cooling, gained in recent years, now allows us to cool metallic samples to the microkelvin regime, with hold times at the higher temperatures of tens of hours. In the early days of nuclear cooling when sources of heat leaks were hardly understood, such performance would have appeared an impossible dream. However, we are now at the point where solid state experiments can be realistically contemplated in the sub- 10 μK regime.

  7. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  8. Special Problems in Securing a Reduction in Working Hours: The Case of Security Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lundall

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the complex process of introducing a regime of shorter working hours in the private security sector in South Africa. While the process of reducing the working hours of security workers in 1999 was bold, there is potential for real gains and losses to be derived from the process and this depends on the system and levels of compensation that are negotiated for the period of transition to the new schedules in working hours. A reduction in normal working hours can affect the s...

  9. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  10. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  11. A regulação do uso de animais no Brasil do século XX e o processo de formação do atual regime aplicado à pesquisa biomédica Regulation of the use of animals in Brazil in the twentieth century and the process of forming the current regime applied to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Saldanha Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a política pública e regulatória do Brasil sobre o uso de animais no ensino e na pesquisa biomédica. Aborda o arcabouço institucional-legal e a situação jurídica da proteção dos animais no país, além do debate legislativo que resultou na promulgação da lei 11.794/2008, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Ressalta algumas características do atual regime regulatório e tece considerações de ordem teórico-metodológica, voltadas para a ampliação do entendimento do fenômeno investigado.The article analyzes Brazilian public policy and legislation concerning the use of animals in teaching and biomedical research. It examines the institutional and judicial framework and legal status of animal protection in Brazil, including the legislative debate that preceded enactment of Law 11.794/2008, which defined procedures to be employed in the scientific use of animals. It underscores certain features of current regulatory practice and also explores considerations of a theoretical and methodological nature, with a view to broadening our understanding of the question.

  12. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  13. Totalitäre Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    "The development of the term and the analytical concept of totalitarianism have gone through several stages since the 1920s. However, even in its most sophisticated form, the version seen in Friedrich/ Brzezinski, the concept exhibits substantial systematic classification problems and analytical weaknesses. This article attempts to frame the type of totalitarian regime within a general typology of political regimes. Special attention is dedicated to the problem of distinguishing autocra...

  14. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  15. Transition from weak wave turbulence regime to solitonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Roumaissa; Mordant, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The Weak Turbulence Theory (WTT) is a statistical theory describing the interaction of a large ensemble of random waves characterized by very different length scales. For both weak non-linearity and weak dispersion a different regime is predicted where solitons propagate while keeping their shape unchanged. The question under investigation here is which regime between weak turbulence or soliton gas does the system choose ? We report an experimental investigation of wave turbulence at the surface of finite depth water in the gravity-capillary range. We tune the wave dispersion and the level of nonlinearity by modifying the depth of water and the forcing respectively. We use space-time resolved profilometry to reconstruct the deformed surface of water. When decreasing the water depth, we observe a drastic transition between weak turbulence at the weakest forcing and a solitonic regime at stronger forcing. We characterize the transition between both states by studying their Fourier Spectra. We also study the efficiency of energy transfer in the weak turbulence regime. We report a loss of efficiency of angular transfer as the dispersion of the wave is reduced until the system bifurcates into the solitonic regime. This project has recieved funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No. 647018-WATU).

  16. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an 8-hour break between successive work periods when a break of less than 10 hours is necessary to...) Individuals who are working 8-hour shift schedules shall have at least 1 day off per week, averaged over the shift cycle; (ii) Individuals who are working 10-hour shift schedules shall have at least 2 days off per...

  17. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M

    2001-12-01

    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  18. Legal framework of the environmental regulatory regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.

    1992-01-01

    The growing concern regarding environmental issues has presented a number of new challenges to those exploring and developing the hydrocarbon reserves located on the Newfoundland continental shelf. Not the least of these challenges is the development of new technologies in the harsh environment of the North Atlantic; in addition, these new technologies must be implemented in an existing and ever-changing regulatory regime. The legal framework of the environmental regulatory regime relating to offshore development in Canada is reviewed along with some of the more important legislation involved in regulating environmental issues in the offshore area. The legal basis for exploration, development, and management of resources located on the Newfoundland continental shelf is the Canada-Newfoundland Accord on Joint Management of Offshore Oil and Gas Resources off Newfoundland and Labrador. Administration of the Accord is the responsibility of the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. To be able to apply Canadian laws to the continental shelf, legislation was passed including the Canadian Laws Offshore Application Act as well as the Act implementing the Accord. The latter gives the Offshore Petroleum Board authority to regulate all stages involved in bringing an oil pool to production, such as granting of licenses and work authorizations. Granting of such licenses and authorizations is subject to compliance with environmental requirements, and there are provisions against certain environmental offenses such as spills. Other federal legislation applicable to the offshore includes the Canada Shipping Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act

  19. 29 CFR 778.315 - Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Failure to Count Or Pay for Certain Working Hours § 778... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required. 778.315 Section 778.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  20. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  1. RÉGIMEN ESPECIAL DE RECONOCIMIENTO DE LA PERSONALIDAD JURÍDICA DE DERECHO PÚBLICO EN LA LEY N19.638: MARCO LEGAL APLICABLE A LAS IGLESIAS CATÓLICA Y ORTODOXA The 19,638 act special regime for the recognition of public law personality: Legal regulation applicable to chatolic and orthodox chruches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Picó Rubic

    2012-01-01

    general regime for churches and religious groups lacking this personality by the time the law went into effect and, on the other hand, a special regime for churches that already had this personality that consisted of recognizing this preexisting legal personality, namely, the Roman, Catholic Apostolic Church and the Orthodox Church linked to the Antioch Patriarchy. This article deals with this special regime by shedding light on the legal framework, the direct sources and material context that presided over the regime creation process, and the effects of this regime. it also anticipates a coherent solution for the emerging interpretative issues. Particularly, it analyzes the legal regulation of the Catholic Church from the perspective of the Ecclesiastic Law of the Chilean State, as well as it proposes an interpretation regarding the legal situation of this church that takes aim at solving one of the most debated issues during the legislative process, whose effects lasts up to this day.

  2. On the regimes of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, S.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    The conditions of the MAGICO-2000 experiment are extended to more broadly investigate the regimes of premixing, and the corresponding internal structures of mixing zones. With the help of the data and numerical simulations using the computer code PM-ALPHA, we can distinguish extremes of behavior dominated by inertia and thermal effects - we name these the inertia and thermal regimes, respectively. This is an important distinction that should guide future experiments aimed at code verification in this area. Interesting intermediate behaviors are also delineated and discussed. (author)

  3. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  4. Regime identification in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L; Sips, A C C; Kardaun, O; Spreitler, F; Suttrop, W

    2004-01-01

    The ability to recognize the transition from the L-mode to the H-mode or from the H-mode to the improved H-mode reliably from a conveniently small number of measurements in real time is of increasing importance for machine control. Discriminant analysis has been applied to regime identification of plasma discharges in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An observation consists of a set of plasma parameters averaged over a time slice in a discharge. The data set consists of all observations over different discharges and time slices. Discriminant analysis yields coefficients allowing the classification of a new observation. The results of a frequentist and a formal Bayesian approach to discriminant analysis are compared. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 1.3% for predicting the L-mode and the H-mode confinement regime was achieved. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 5.3% for predicting the H-mode and the improved H-mode confinement regime was achieved. The coefficients derived by discriminant analysis have been applied subsequently to discharges to illustrate the operation of regime identification in a real time control system

  5. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  6. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  7. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working hours fall in this category. The agreement of the parties to provide compensation for such hours... regular rate of an employee if the hours are compensated at the same rate as other working hours. The.... Activities of this type include eating meals between working hours. Where it appears from all the pertinent...

  8. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in labour supply preferences on actual working hours. The availability of subjective information on the individual’s preferred working hours gives direct measures on the degree of adjustment of working ho...

  9. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  10. Simulating the transient regime for main condensate system at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita, Iulian; Gheorghiu, Mihai; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to make a Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Main Condensate System for getting real-time answer of installation during regimes occurring during normal and abnormal operation. To obtain the analyses the MMS code was used. The boundaries of the systems analysis are extended to Main Feedwater System in order to get a realistic response of Deaerator equipment which are situated between those two systems and have entrances from both systems. In this way we made a complex analysis with main condenser and steam generators as boundaries. We obtained a model for the entire chain of condensate and feedwater preheater with interface just turbine bleed steam. From that we could reduce the number of assumptions necessary to make the analysis. The analyses consist in hydraulics and thermal hydraulics analyses, respectively. For the first case analysed are: - the nominal operation regime with main condensate pumps; - start-up regime with total circulate of condensate to condenser; - 25% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rate) regime (this regime was used in designing the condensate regulating valves at low flow; - 40% MCR regime (with circulate of some condensate flow to condenser); - operating regime of 60% MCR with one main condensate pump operating; - operating regime with auxiliary condensate pump; - operating regime with discharging a condensate flow to condensate storage tank. The thermal hydraulic analyses deal with normal and abnormal operating regimes, respectively. In the first case analysed are the following regimes: - nominal operating regime with main condensate pump operating 100% MCR; - transient regime, 100-80% MCR; - transient regime, 100-80-60% MCR with two pumps in operation and 60 % MCR with one main condensate pump in operation; - transient regime, 100-80-60-60-40 % MCR; - shut-down regime; - start-up regime from Hot zero power to rated power regime. Finally, for the abnormal operating regimes the analyses concerned: - transient regime 100

  11. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 15.710 Section 15.710 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U.S.C. 8104 sets limitations on the working hours of credentialed officers and crew members...

  12. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  13. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... flexibility would not increase safety risks or adversely impact driver health? 3. How many hours per day and... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  15. The Persistence of Long Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; David Black; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  16. Quality Regimes in Agro-Food Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the transformative potential of changing quality regimes in agro-food industries through the analysis of whether Fair Trade wine in Argentina provides a meaningful economic alternative that goes beyond the impact it has on direct beneficiaries. The wine sector has a long...... history in valorizing a variety of quality dimensions, and has developed one of the most complex and sophisticated quality infrastructures, making it an ideal terrain of analysis. Furthermore, it is going through a major process of restructuring in which the battle-lines are drawn along the application......, challenge and re-interpretation of different quality content. Through the lenses of a sector-adjusted version of regulation theory, we show that the Fair Trade wine sector does not substantially deviate from the conventional wine economy in Argentina. Instead of empowering the most vulnerable groups, those...

  17. Are Some Technologies Beyond Regulatory Regimes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Wendell B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kusnezov, Dimitri [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Regulatory frameworks are a common tool in governance to incent and coerce behaviors supporting national or strategic stability. This includes domestic regulations and international agreements. Though regulation is always a challenge, the domain of fast evolving threats, like cyber, are proving much more difficult to control. Many discussions are underway searching for approaches that can provide national security in these domains. We use game theoretic learning models to explore the question of strategic stability with respect to the democratization of certain technologies (such as cyber). We suggest that such many-player games could inherently be chaotic with no corresponding (Nash) equilibria. In the absence of such equilibria, traditional approaches, as measures to achieve levels of overall security, may not be suitable approaches to support strategic stability in these domains. Altogether new paradigms may be needed for these issues. At the very least, regulatory regimes that fail to address the basic nature of the technology domains should not be pursued as a default solution, regardless of success in other domains. In addition, the very chaotic nature of these domains may hold the promise of novel approaches to regulation.

  18. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  19. [Protective effect of melatonin and epithalon on hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in female rats in its premature aging model and on estrous cycles in senescent animals in various lighting regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevsky, A V; Milyutina, Yu P; Bukalyov, A V; Baranova, Yu P; Vinogradova, I A; Arutjunyan, A V

    2013-01-01

    Potential neuroprotective effects of the pineal gland hormone melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon on estrous cycles and the central regulation of reproduction in female rats exposed to unfavourable environmental factors have been studied. Estrous cycles of young, mature and aging rats exposed to light pollution were described. The diurnal dynamics and daily mean content of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic areas responsible for gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion in animals of different age groups were investigated. An effect of a chemical factor on the noradrenergic system of the medial preoptic area and on the dopaminergic system of the median eminence with arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus was studied in premature aging of reproduction model. Administration of the pineal gland peptide melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon was shown to be able to correct a number of impairments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that can be observed, when the experimental animals were exposed to permanent artificial lighting and a neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The data obtained testify to an important role of the pineal gland in the circadian signal formation needed for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in order to exert its preovulatory peak secretion and to the protective effect of melatonin and epitalon, which are able to reduce unfavourable environmental influences on reproduction of young and aging female rats.

  20. Regulatory regime and its influence in the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Main elements of nuclear regulatory regime in general is presented. These elements are: national rules and safety regulations, system of nuclear facility licensing, activities of regulatory body. Regulatory body is needed to specify the national safety regulations, review and assess the safety documentation presented to support license application, make inspections to verify fulfilment of safety regulations and license conditions, monitor the quality of work processes of user organization, and to assess whether these processes provide a high safety level, promote high safety culture, promote maintenance and development of national infrastructure relevant to nuclear safety, etc

  1. Eight- and twelve-hour shifts in Austrian rail traffic controllers: a psychophysiological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. WOLFGANG KALLUS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared a 12-hour and an 8-hour shift system in 18 Austrian rail traffic controllers. To gain objective indicators for arousal and fatigue induced by the whole workrest sequence, we recorded heart rate during the last night shift, in addition to subjective measures that included physical symptoms. A higher increase of monotony, fatigue and saturation emerged during the 8-hour compared to the 12-hour regime, together with a heart rate decrease during the last 8-hour night shift. In line with other researchers, we conclude that flexible working conditions in specific occupational groups may compensate for disadvantages of prolonged working periods, giving way to advantages of longer shifts such as longer pauses and extra days off for social and other personal activities.

  2. Safe working hours--doctors in training a best practice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Australian Medical Association launched its Safe Working Hours campaign. By 1998, this had been developed into a National Code of Conduct that continues to resonate in the Australian public health system. However, and particularly in respect of Doctors in Training (DITs) who continue to work long hours, there are levels of resistance to proposals that seek to re-organise work or change prevailing professional and cultural expectations. Long working hours have substantial impacts on a DIT's capacity to consistently deliver high quality patient care, dilute the effectiveness of their training regime and have negative consequences on their health, social life and family responsibilities. While public hospitals often maintain the view that minimal budget flexibility restricts their capacity to affect change in a positive way, in fact devisable productivity and efficiency gains can be achieved by reducing working hours. Further, the medical profession needs to consider whether long hours provide an optimal environment for quality learning and performance.

  3. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Eason, Tarsha; Nelson, R. John; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Gunderson, Lance; Knutson, Melinda; Nash, Kirsty L.; Spanbauer, Trisha; Stow, Craig A.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory-based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (U.S. Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps and multivariate analyses such as nMDS and cluster analysis. We successfully detected spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change.

  4. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Samuel; Hottovy, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes - open versus closed cells - fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells (POCs) as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. Similar viewpoints of deep convection and self-organized criticality will also be discussed. With these new conceptual viewpoints, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions. The research of S.N.S. is partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship, ONR Young Investigator Award N00014-12-1-0744, and ONR MURI Grant N00014-12-1-0912.

  5. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  7. Long Work Hours: Volunteers and Conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; Mark Wooden; David Black

    2006-01-01

    Panel data from Australia are used to study the prevalence of work hours mismatch among long hours workers and, more importantly, how that mismatch persists and changes over time, and what factors are associated with these changes. Particular attention is paid to the roles played by household debt, ideal worker characteristics and gender. Both static and dynamic multinomial logit models are estimated, with the dependent variable distinguishing long hours workers from other workers, and within...

  8. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  9. Working hours: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Working hours across the world are falling, but considerable variation remains. In some countries people work 70% more hours per year, on average, than in other countries. Much of this variation is due to differences in the prevalence of part-time work and patterns of female labor market participation. Looking ahead, the question of how reducing working hours will affect productivity is significant. In addition, how individuals divide up their leisure and work time and what the appropriate wo...

  10. Economic Analysis of Long Working Hours (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set out the economic grounds for restrictions on long working hours and conduct an empirical analysis using surveys from the perspective of behavioral economics. The results of the analysis indicate that, on a year-on-year basis, if state of health improves, the probability of working more than 60 hours per week increases significantly, but that even when state of health deteriorates there is no decrease in the probability of working long hours. Moreover, among male managemen...

  11. Regime-dependence of Impacts of Radar Rainfall Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G. C.; Keil, C.

    2009-04-01

    Experience from the first operational trials of assimilation of radar data in kilometre scale numerical weather prediction models (operating without cumulus parameterisation) shows that the positive impact of the radar data on convective precipitation forecasts typically decay within a few hours, although certain cases show much longer impacts. Here the impact time of radar data assimilation is related to characteristics of the meteorological environment. This QPF uncertainty is investigated using an ensemble of 10 forecasts at 2.8 km horizontal resolution based on different initial and boundary conditions from a global forecast ensemble. Control forecasts are compared with forecasts where radar reflectivity data is assimilated using latent heat nudging. Examination of different cases of convection in southern Germany suggests that the forecasts can be separated into two regimes using a convective timescale. Short impact times are associated with short convective timescales that are characteristic of equilibrium convection. In this regime the statistical properties of the convection are constrained by the large-scale forcing, and effects of the radar data are lost within a few hours as the convection rapidly returns to equilibrium. When the convective timescale is large (non-equilibrium conditions), the impact of the radar data is longer since convective systems are triggered by the latent heat nudging and are able to persist for many hours in the very unstable conditions present in these cases.

  12. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environmental regulation reduces technical inefficiency. For this purpose, we use a stochastic production frontier framework allowing for inclusion of policy variables to measure the effect of alternative environmental policy regimes on firms' performance. The main result is that stricter environmental policy regimes have indeed reduced technical inefficiencies in Dutch horticulture. The estimation results indicate amongst others that the 1997 agreement on energy, nutrient and pesticides use enhances technical efficiency. Firms under the strict environmental policy regime are found to be more technically efficient than those under a lax regime, thereby supporting the claims by Porter and Van der Linde (Porter, M., Van der Linde, C., 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review 73, pp. 120-137) concerning Dutch horticulture. (author)

  13. ANALYSING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC SERVICES: HOW USEFUL IS THE CONCEPT OF A PERFORMANCE REGIME?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve; Nutley, Sandra; Downe, James; Grace, Clive

    2016-03-01

    Approaches to performance assessment have been described as 'performance regimes', but there has been little analysis of what is meant by this concept and whether it has any real value. We draw on four perspectives on regimes - 'institutions and instruments', 'risk regulation regimes', 'internal logics and effects' and 'analytics of government' - to explore how the concept of a multi-dimensional regime can be applied to performance assessment in public services. We conclude that the concept is valuable. It helps to frame comparative and longitudinal analyses of approaches to performance assessment and draws attention to the ways in which public service performance regimes operate at different levels, how they change over time and what drives their development. Areas for future research include analysis of the impacts of performance regimes and interactions between their visible features (such as inspections, performance indicators and star ratings) and the veiled rationalities which underpin them.

  14. Stochastic dynamical models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....

  15. A path-theoretical investigation of the persistence of extra-long working hours in a management consulting firm

    OpenAIRE

    Blagoev, Blagoy

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the reasons for the persistence of the regime of long working hours and constant availability in professional service firms. Recently, this working time regime has become a central issue for many firms, as new generations of employees demand more work-life balance and flexibility provisions from their employers. However, empirical studies indicate that these firms’ efforts to implement various flexibility initiatives often fail or, in some cases, even seem to reinforce th...

  16. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  17. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  18. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  19. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in

  20. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  1. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  2. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  3. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  4. Effectiveness of the Twelve-Hour Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Although labor unions traditionally have fought for shorter working hours, there have been recent reversals in this trend. The Pulp and Paperboard Division of Temple-Eastex Incorporated converted to a 12-hour shift and found that safety improved, productivity increased, and overtime decreased. (JOW)

  5. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  6. "Hour of Code": A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the delivery of the "Hour of Code" tutorials to college students. The college students who participated in this study were surveyed about their opinion of the Hour of Code. First, the students' comments were discussed. Next, a content analysis of the offered tutorials highlights their reliance on visual…

  7. Experience With Flexible Hours of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jo

    1976-01-01

    A summary of an 80-page booklet called Hours of Work When Workers Can Choose is presented. The booklet reports a survey and focuses on the benefits of flexible hours of work. It was published by the Business and Professional Women's Foundation and is available from that organization. (EC)

  8. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  9. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  10. Living hours under pressure:flexibility loopholes in the Danish IR-model

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreement-based regulation of working time and wages. Theoretically, this analysis is inspired by the concept of living hours, which addresses the interaction between working hours and living wages, but adds...

  11. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Han, Boyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the p...

  12. International arbitration and its exclusion from the Brussels regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brussels regime, which regulates the matters of transnational litigation excludes arbitration from its scope. Upon formation of the Brussels regime the existing instruments concerning arbitration - the United Nations Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards and the 1961 European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration - were believed to be sufficient. The original Brussels Convention 1968 on recognition and enforcement of judgments delivered in the courts of the EU Member States expressly provided for the exclusion of arbitration. The following Brussels I Regulation followed the trend and reinforced the exclusion of arbitration from their material scopes. The rationale for doing so was primarily the prevention of parallel proceedings and irreconcilable judgments. The arbitration exclusion from the Brussels regime has caused a fair amount of confusion, especially regarding the extent and limits of the exclusion. That is, whether the arbitration agreement, the arbitral award and its consequences are covered by the exclusion or they may fall under the scope of the Brussels regulation if they constitute only an incidental question to the main cause of action? The confusion was illustrated in the ECJ judgment West Tankers, which generated negative feedback from the arbitration community and indicated the need for reform. The recently adopted Recast Regulation took it upon itself to clarify the relationship between arbitration and the EU regime of transnational litigation. The exclusion is reinforced ye again and its boundaries are specified in the Preamble. However, whether or not the concerns about the extent and objectives of arbitration exclusion have been at present eliminated, remains to be seen.

  13. Sensitivity to spatial and temporal scale and fire regime inputs in deriving fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Tedrow; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    The Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a composite departure measure that compares current vegetation structure and fire regime to historical reference conditions. FRCC is computed as the average of: 1) Vegetation departure (VDEP) and 2) Regime (frequency and severity) departure (RDEP). In addition to the FRCC rating, the Vegetation Condition Class (VCC) and Regime...

  14. 49 CFR 398.6 - Hours of service of drivers; maximum driving time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.6 Hours of service of drivers; maximum driving time. No person shall drive nor shall any motor carrier permit or require a driver employed or used by it to drive...

  15. Lower wages for less hours? A simultaneous wage-hours model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the impact of working hours on the gross hourly wage rate of West German women is analyzed. We use a simultaneous wage-hours model which takes into account the participation decision. First, our estimates show that the hourly wage rate is strongly a¤ected by the working hours. In order to avoid any assumptions about the functional form, we estimate linear spline functions. Second, we detect di¤erent wage-hours profiles for specific groups of individuals. Despite these di¤erences...

  16. Restricted working hours in Austrian residency programs : Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Aman, Martin; Podesser, Bruno K

    2018-04-27

    New regulations for working hours of medical doctors have been implemented in Austria based on the European directive 2003/88/EG, limiting on-duty working hours to 48 h per week. Clinical work is, therefore, substantially reduced compared to previous decades, and little is known on physician and students' opinions on this matter. We illustrate survey results concerning on-job training, its difficulties, and implications for restricted working hours. We conducted an internal survey among M.D. and Ph.D. students and medical staff members at the Medical University of Vienna using the MedCampus system (CAMPUSOnline, Graz, Austria) and SPSS (V.21, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Participants were 36.5% staff members and 63.5% students. Students rated continuous education of physicians high at 9.19 ± 1.76 and staff members at 8.90 ± 2.48 on a 1-10 (1 unimportant, 10 most important) scale. Students rated limited time resources, while staff considered financial resources as the greatest challenge for in-hospital education. Overall, 28.85% thought that restricted working hours can positively influence education, while 19.04% thought the opposite and 52.11% were undecided. Considering the limited available time and financial resources, education of tomorrow's medical doctors remains an important but difficult task. While participants of our survey rated education as very important despite its many challenges, the opinions towards limited working hours were not as clear. Given that over 50% are still undecided whether reduced work hours may also positively influence medical education, it clearly presents an opportunity to include the next generations of physicians in this undertaking.

  17. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  18. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  19. 78 FR 40651 - Regulated Navigation Area; Special Buzzards Bay Vessel Regulation, Buzzards Bay, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Carrier Program RNA Regulated Navigation Area RA Technical Risk Assessment VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting... avoid the fragmentation of regulatory regimes as a vessel transits across State [[Page 40652

  20. Neoclassical transport in ERS regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.; Lee, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The core ion thermal conductivity has been observed to fall below the standard neoclassical level in recent TFTR reversed magnetic shear discharges. Due to the combination of high central q and small local inverse aspect ratio, the ion poloidal gyroradius can be larger than the minor radius and comparable to the pressure gradient scale length in this ERS regime. It is then expected that finite orbit width effects play a key role in modifying the standard picture of neoclassical transport. Specifically, both the trapped particle fraction and the banana orbit width axe reduced by the finite minor radius and possibly by the pressure-gradient-driven radial electric field. In addition, the steep pressure gradient can generate neoclassical poloidal flows which, in turn, could reduce the particle and heat transports. Results from analytic estimates as well as those from full toroidal gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations will be presented

  1. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  2. Reassessing the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havinh Phuong

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage

  3. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  4. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  5. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  7. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  8. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  9. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  10. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  11. Monitoring, Accounting and Enforcement in Emissions Trading Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring, accounting and enforcement have been addressed in quite a number of presentations, papers and discussions in the past four CATEP workshops. Besides drawing conclusions from the experiences with existing trading regimes, different aspects of compliance have been analysed in more detail and finally there has been a special focus on standardised accounting systems. This paper tries to summarise the diverse findings to get a comprehensive picture of what is needed to assure high compliance in emissions trading regimes and identify any specific problems. The first section focuses on real trading regimes that are all local or at most national. It describes the monitoring, accounting and enforcement systems in existing and planned trading regimes to get an idea of what such systems include and to draw conclusions from experience. One focus is on enforcement mechanisms, as different from monitoring and accounting, which are basically a question of regulation and technology, penalties and compliance are a question of choices by participants and can be analysed with analytic tools. Section 3 deals with specific monitoring, accounting and enforcement problems in international emissions trading. It describes the development of internationally standardised systems and discusses the commitment period reserve as one instrument to avoid overselling of permits in international emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol. Section 5 provides a summary and conclusion

  12. Accommodating human values in the climate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Cook

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climate regime addresses one of the most important challenges facing humankind today. However, while the environmental and economic sides of the problem are well represented, it lacks the inclusion of social and human aspects. The human rights regime, in contrast, is a regime which has been established precisely to implement human values. This article ex-plains the problems of climate change in terms of human values and argues that some proce-dures from the human rights regime offer possibilities for improvement. It is submitted that through the inclusion of human rights instruments, such as individual communication, pro-gressive realisation and authoritative interpretation, the inclusion of human values into the climate regime will be facilitated. This article presents these instruments and discusses their potential for inclusion in the climate regime.

  13. Attitudes toward working conditions: are European Union workers satisfied with their working hours and work-life balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; González-Marrón, Adrián; Bunch, Kailey; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    2017-12-23

    To describe the satisfaction with working hours and satisfaction with work-life balance and their association in the European Union (EU-28). This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Flash Eurobarometer 398 among workers of the EU-28 from 2014 (n=13,683). We calculated percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We also applied a multi-level generalised linear model using the Poisson family, to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of satisfaction with work-life balance based on working hours. All analyses were stratified by individual, employment and welfare regime country classification. The satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance was 80.62% and 74.48%, respectively, and was significantly higher among women. The highest percentages of satisfaction were found in the Nordic welfare regime countries (90.2% and 85.3%, respectively). There was a statistically significant association between satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance (aPR: 2.63; 95%CI: 2.28-3.04), and the magnitude of the association differed in individual, employment and welfare regime country classifications. The main reasons declared for dissatisfaction were "excessive working hours" (48.7%), "shift work" (27.9%), and "inability to influence the work schedule" (28.3%). Differences were observed according to sex and type of welfare regime. The differences found in the association between satisfaction with work-life balance and working hours according to sociodemographic characteristics and welfare regime show that there are inequalities in the working conditions in the EU countries. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Essen, Jonte van

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the ...

  15. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Kerr, Paul; Bowman, Steve; Hildreth, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    .... national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications...

  16. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon; Bowman, Steve; Hildreth, Steven A

    2006-01-01

    .... national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications...

  17. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2014-01-01

    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  18. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  20. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  1. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  2. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    . In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  3. Resident perceptions of the impact of duty hour restrictions on resident-attending interactions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjevic, Kristen A; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Suneja, Manish

    2017-07-18

    The institution of duty hour reforms by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in 2003 has created a learning environment where residents are consistently looking for input from attending physicians with regards to balancing duty hour regulations and providing quality patient care. There is a paucity of literature regarding resident perceptions of attending physician actions or attitudes towards work hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to identify attending physician behaviors that residents perceived as supportive or unsupportive of their compliance with duty hour regulations. Focus group interviews were conducted with residents exploring their perceptions of how duty hour regulations impact their interactions with attending physicians. Qualitative analysis identified key themes in residents' experiences interacting with faculty in regard to duty hour regulations. Forty residents from five departments in two hospital systems participated. Discussion of these interactions highlighted that attending physicians demonstrate behaviors that explicitly or implicitly either lend their support and understanding of residents' need to comply with these regulations or imply a lack of support and understanding. Three major themes that contributed to the ease or difficulty in addressing duty hour regulations included attending physicians' explicit communication of expectations, implicit non-verbal and verbal cues and the program's organizational culture. Resident physicians' perception of attending physicians' explicit and implicit communication and residency programs organization culture has an impact on residents' experience with duty hour restrictions. Residency faculty and programs could benefit from explicitly addressing and supporting the challenges that residents perceive in complying with duty hour restrictions.

  4. Effect of Temperature Regimes on Seed Germination Asafoetida (Ferula Assafoetida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangoie M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Asafoetida is a medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. Gum obtained from the lower part of the stem and roots of this plant has many industrial and pharmaceutical applications. This plant is subject to extinction in its natural habitats due to over-utilization. Understanding the biology of seed germination can help to restore such degradation by implementing agricultural development programs. The present study is an attempt to determine the germination responses to two temperature regimes (constant and fluctuating during the course of the study. The experiment was planned based on a factorial-completely randomized design with two factors (constant and fluctuating temperature regimes at 3 levels each (15, 20 and 25°C with 4 replications. The results showed that the characteristics of germination in asafoetida were significantly improved under the fluctuating temperature as compared with the constant regime. It showed a mean germination time of 1.88 days for the fluctuating regime, while it was 4.88 days for the constant regime. The same results were found on germination rates in favor of fluctuating (0.62 per day in comparison with constant regime (0.33 per day. Under the fluctuating regime, the lowest level of imposed temperature (daily application of 10 and 20 degree during the first and the second 12 hours, respectively was the best for seed germination in this experiment.

  5. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  6. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  7. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  8. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  9. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  10. Financial management of insurance companies in the context of the new regime Solvency II

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate Costin; Badea Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring con...

  11. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  12. [Developing and testing of decompression regimes for caisson operations while constructing Moscow metro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodchenkov, S V; Syrovegin, A V; Shulagin, I A

    1996-01-01

    Decompression regimes for caisson operations at the pressures up to 5 ata exceeding duration of the regimes specified in the caisson regulations have been developed. The regimes were tested and validated in dry altitude chamber with participation of exercising human subjects. Seventeen test-subjects took part in 54 tests. No symptoms of decompression sickness were documented. Air embolism was observed in 28 +/- 6% of cases at rest and in 72 +/- 6% of cases following provocative leg movements. The air embolism expression tended to increase with exposure to pressure.

  13. Nuclear regulatory regime in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Law on Nuclear Energy establishes the legal basis for nuclear safety in the Republic of Lithuania. It assigns the responsibility for safety to the operating organization of a nuclear facility and outlines the tasks of the operator and the regulatory authority. According to this Law, the Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) shall implement state regulation of nuclear safety. Standards and rules, guides and regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection approved by the Government or by the institutions authorised. It is mandatory for all public and local authorities, enterprises, institutions, organisations, their associations, the officials and other persons whose activities are related to the operation of nuclear facilities, to the use and management of nuclear and radioactive materials therein. Safety guarantee in nuclear energy based on the requirements of the laws and regulations of the Republic of Lithuania, on the requirements of the international treaties to which the Republic of Lithuania is a party, also on the recommendations of the IAEA and other international organisations and authorities

  14. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid

  15. TARIFFS AND REGIMES OF POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Batsova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regimes of electro-consumption at RUP «BMZ» is carried out. It is shown that in conditions of rapid growth of prices for electric power one of the conditions of reduction of production expenses is to be the increase of efficiency of the electro-consumption regimes control.

  16. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  17. Synergies between nonproliferation regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, Trevor; Meier, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full text: With the recent progress in establishing international nonproliferation regimes, the question of synergies between different verification and monitoring regimes is becoming more acute. Three multilateral and universal nonproliferation organisations covering safeguards on civil nuclear materials, nuclear testing, and chemical weapons are up and running. A regime on biological weapons is under negotiation. Several regional organisations concerned with monitoring nonproliferation commitments in the nuclear field are in place; others are being established. Past discussions on synergies between these regimes have suffered from being too far-reaching. These discussions often have not reflected adequately the political difficulties of cooperation between regimes with different membership, scope and institutional set-up. This paper takes a pragmatic look at exploiting synergies and identifies some potential and real overlaps in the work between different verification regimes. It argues for a bottom-up approach and identifies building blocks for collaboration between verification regimes. By realising such, more limited potential for cooperation, the ground could be prepared for exploiting other synergies between these regimes. (author)

  18. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  19. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  20. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  1. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  2. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  3. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  4. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  5. The 24-hour economy not widespread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some 74% of workers in the Netherlands usually work standard hours, while 15% normally work at weekends, 14% in the evening and 4% at night. Weekend work is frequently carried out by younger people. The sectors most associated with weekend work are: policing, nursing and elder care, hotels and

  6. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  7. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  8. The safety regime concerning transboundary movement of radioactive waste and its compatibility with the trade regime of the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, L.

    2004-01-01

    There is now extensive international law which regulates or prohibits the transboundary movement of radioactive waste. It seems likely that the trade restrictive provisions of the safety regime could be justified under the scope of Article X XI or X X GATT(general agreement on tariffs and trade). If a legitimate non proliferation issue were involved it is likely that any WTO (world trade organization) dispute settlement organ would allow governments the use of exceptions. Thus, the emerging international radioactive waste regime seems reconcilable under the WTO system. However, further clarification by the political, not the dispute settlement, institutions of the WTO would remove any remaining uncertainty by reaffirming the requirements of current law. Achieving sustainable development requires a coherent framework of global environment and economic governance. (N.C.)

  9. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Service Users' and Caregivers' Perspectives on Continuity of Care in Out-of-Hours Primary Care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Niamh

    2012-12-20

    Modernization policies in primary care, such as the introduction of out-of-hours general practice cooperatives, signify a marked departure from many service users\\' traditional experiences of continuity of care. We report on a case study of accounts of service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers of continuity of care in an out-of-hours general practice cooperative in Ireland. Using Strauss and colleagues\\' Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework, we explored users\\' and caregivers\\' experiences of continuity in this context. Whereas those dealing with "routine trajectories" were largely satisfied with their experiences, those dealing with "problematic trajectories" (characterized by the presence of, for example, multimorbidity and complex care regimes) had considerable concerns about continuity of experiences in this service. Results highlight that modernization policies that have given rise to out-of-hours cooperatives have had a differential impact on service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers, with serious consequences for those who have "problematic" trajectories.

  11. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  12. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonte van Essen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the study into this problem and possible solutions is of great significance. The 2011 developments in Northern Africa underline the need of contemporary research into this area. This essay aims to clarify the position of de facto regimes in international law and the influence on their status by actions of international actors. The author first argues that de facto regimes have rights and obligations under international law, which provide them with (some form of international legal personality. He then pleads for a reconsideration of the contemporary legal treatment of these regimes. The author argues against the current system of government recognition and proposes a system that better addresses the needs of both de facto regimes and the international community. 

  13. Operational Constraints on Hydropeaking and its Effects on the Hydrologic and Thermal Regime of a River in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Guzman, C.; Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower accounts for about 44% of installed capacity in Chile's Central Interconnected System, which serves most of the Chilean population. Hydropower reservoir projects can affect ecosystems by changing the hydrologic regime and water quality. Given its volumen regulation capacity, low operation costs and fast response to demand fluctuations, reservoir hydropower plants commonly operate on a load-following or hydropeaking scheme. This short-term operational pattern produces alterations in the hydrologic regime downstream the reservoir. In the case of thermally stratified reservoirs, peaking operations can affect the thermal structure of the reservoir, as well as the thermal regime downstream. In this study, we assessed the subdaily hydrologic and thermal alteration donwstream of Rapel reservoir in Central Chile for alternative operational scenarios, including a base case and several scenarios involving minimum instream flow (Qmin) and maximum hourly ramping rates (ΔQmax). Scenarios were simulated for the stratification season of summer 2009-2012 in a grid-wide short-term economic dispatch model which prescribes hourly power production by every power plant on a weekly horizon. Power time series are then translated into time series of turbined flows at each hydropower plants. Indicators of subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) were computed for every scenario. Additionally, turbined flows were used as input data for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (CWR-ELCOM) of the reservoir which simulated the vertical temperature profile in the reservoir and the outflow temperature. For the time series of outflow temperatures we computed several indicators of subdaily thermal alteration (SDTA). Operational constraints reduce the values of both SDHA and SDTA indicators with respect to the base case. When constraints are applied separately, the indicators of SDHA decrease as each type of constraint (Qmin or ΔQmax) becomes more stringent. However, ramping rate

  14. Feasibility of a dual regime gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Ashwini; Jain, Prerit; Kartikeyan, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    The design concept of a 42/84 GHz, 500 kW, CW, dual-regime gyrotron for ECRH of plasma in an experimental Tokamak will be presented in this paper. Operation at 42 GHz is fundamental where as that in 84 GHz will be second harmonic so that a similar guidance system will be retained for dual regime operation. In this paper, the mode competition and mode selection procedures are presented for such a dual regime operation. Cold cavity design and self-consistent calculations will be carried out for power and efficiencies. (author)

  15. Can Old Regimes Handle New Wars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Troels

    Research on New Wars argues that since the 1980s states and regimes have become more vulnerable to violence from non-state actors. Two developments in the Sahel region support the New Wars thesis: an increase in Islamist radicalization and new access to the global black market, both of which......, the paper finds that regimes in the Sahel region are still able to cope with the rise in non-state threats. The paper first shortly compares the longevity of the present regimes in the Sahel region to all previous ones, second examines in-depth how Chad and Mali fight the insurgents. Findings are that since...

  16. Framing of regimes and transition strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that transition strategies are always formulated in the context of specific representations of the regime and the challenges it faces. It is argued that the framing of a regime affects the envisioning of transition strategies. An analysis of the current development agenda...... for the housing construction sector in Denmark reveals the relevance and impacts of different regime framings. It is proposed that the ability to cope with framing issues as situated and political processes is at the core of the governance of transitions....

  17. FEL in transverse optical klystron regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Baltateanu, N.

    1994-01-01

    Among all operational regimes of free electron laser (FEL), the transverse optical regime (TOK) requires the least stringent electron beam parameters. The device associated to this regime, also defined as FEL with two or more components, consists of two or more identical interaction sections separated by one or more drift distances among themselves. Starting from the motion equations which describe the interaction between an electron and the radiation inside the undulator, one can obtain some practical expressions for the calculation of the efficiency of the energy transfer from the electron to the radiation, and the gain of the external coherent radiation for a FEL in TOK with three cavities. (Author)

  18. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Working Hours on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Berniell, Maria Ines; Bietenbeck, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Does working time causally affect workers' health? We study this question in the context of a French reform which reduced the standard workweek from 39 to 35 hours, at constant earnings. Our empirical analysis exploits variation in the adoption of this shorter workweek across employers, which is mainly driven by institutional features of the reform and thus exogenous to workers' health. Difference-in-differences and lagged dependent variable regressions reveal a negative effect of working hou...

  20. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  1. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  2. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  3. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal

  4. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected

  5. Operator alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour work shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Campbell, S.S.; Dawson, D.; Moore-Ede, M.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the alertness and performance problems of rotational shiftworkers in the nuclear power industry. Growing awareness of higher rates of human errors and accidents on night shifts and reports of operations personnel falling asleep on the job have contributed to the heightened interest in this subject. The industry is now considering the effects of different shift rotation systems, including evaluation of the most recent of industry trends in shift scheduling-schedules that include 12 hour work shifts. Surveys show that within the past 5 years about 20% of commercially operational nuclear power plants have instituted schedules that use only 12 hour shifts, or schedules using a combination of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Many more plants routinely use 12-hour work shifts during plant outages and refueling operations. In response to this growing trend, the NRC has funded research which is a first attempt to compare alertness, operator performance, and sleep-wake patterns in subjects working simulated 8-hour and 12-hour shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC), located at the Institute of Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This paper will describe in greater detail the design of the study, measurement techniques for alertness and sleep, work routine, work task performance measures, and cognitive performance test protocols. It will review the role of circadian factors in human alertness and performance, and discuss previous research findings in this area. It will discuss other variables that are known to influence human alertness in the workplace, such as caffeine, alcohol, and working environment. The physiological basis for shift worker sleep problems will be explained in the context of the ongoing research project at HARC. Finally, the paper presents previous research on shift work and fatigue which may be relevant to a comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

  6. 7 CFR 160.204 - Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service. 160.204... STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Specific Fees Payable for Services Rendered § 160.204 Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service. The fees specified in §§ 160.201 and 160.202 apply to the...

  7. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... drivers to take breaks when needed and would reduce safety and health risks associated with long hours... long work hours, without significantly compromising their ability to do their jobs and earn a living... between hours 3.5 and 7 of an 11-hour driving period. Working beyond the 7th hour without a break is...

  8. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  9. The international climate regime: towards consolidation collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaud, P.; Cavard, D.; Criqui, P.

    2003-10-01

    This article deals with the different modalities that exist to manage a problem of collective action in the field of climate negotiation. It uses two concepts of the International Political Economy (IPE): the concept of International Regime (IR) and the concept of Hegemony and / or Leadership. The course the international negotiation has taken between 1992 (Rio Convention) and march 2001 (the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol of 1997) leads us, first, to question the conditions of existence as well as the viability of a non-hegemonic International Regime (Part One). Then, we discuss the perspectives for the 'post - Kyoto' era. After having examined the preferences of the three most active actors in the negotiation (USA, Europe, G77 + China) combined with the leadership capacities they possess, we identify three scenarios for the future: i) anarchy, ii) an international regime under the American hegemony, iii) an international regime under the European leadership (Part Two). (author)

  10. The CTBT regime, significance and potential benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong-Lae

    2002-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines the CTBT's background, describes the activities of the Preparatory Commission, the verification regime, the role of the National Data Centres and international coopereation. The objectives of the Nairobi workshop are listed

  11. Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis

  12. More hours, more jobs? The employment effects of longer working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Andrews; Hans-Dieter Gerner; Thorsten Schank; Richard Upward

    2015-01-01

    Increases in standard hours of work have been a contentious policy issue in Germany. Whilst this might directly lead to a substitution of workers by hours, there may also be a positive employment effect due to reduced costs. Moreover, the response of firms may differ between firms that offer overtime and those that do not. For a panel of German plants (2001–2006) drawn from the IAB Establishment Panel, we are the first to analyse the effect of increased standard hours on employment. Using dif...

  13. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  14. Brazil in the global anticorruption regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tourinho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian anticorruption law and institutions were significantly transformed in recent decades. This article traces those transformations and explains how the international anticorruption and money laundering regimes contributed to their development. It argues that those international regimes were internalised in the Brazilian system through three mechanisms: inspiration and legitimation, coercion, and implementation support, and were critical to the transformation of Brazilian institutions.

  15. Portfolio Selection with Jumps under Regime Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a continuous-time version of the mean-variance portfolio selection model with jumps under regime switching. The portfolio selection is proposed and analyzed for a market consisting of one bank account and multiple stocks. The random regime switching is assumed to be independent of the underlying Brownian motion and jump processes. A Markov chain modulated diffusion formulation is employed to model the problem.

  16. Do discriminatory pay regimes unleash antisocial behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how pay-regime procedures affect antisocial behavior at the workplace. In a real-effort experiment we vary two determinants of pay regimes: discrimination and justification of payments by performance. In our Discrimination treatment half of the workforce is randomly selected and promoted and participate in a tournament (high-income workers) whereas the other half receives no payment (lowincome workers). Afterwards, antisocial behavior is measured by a Joy-of-Destruct...

  17. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Kennedy, David; Williamson, Ann

    2004-12-01

    The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary) employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.

  18. State Structure and Political Regime Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul – Iulian Nedelcu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of forces between classes ofcitizens, organizations, between them and civil society and politics.Designates the concrete form ofgovernment formation and organization, of state bodies, in aspect of their characteristics and principles, therelations between them and other state bodies, and also as the relationship between them and otherinstitutionalized forms of political systems. Instead, the political regime is an explicit realization ofaxiological operations, a specific hierarchy of values, in general and political values, in particular. Even ifsome elements of the political regime overlap to some extent and in some respects, those of form orstructure of guvernamnt state, thus they dissolve his identity, distinct quality of being specific traits of thepolitical regime.

  19. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Six-Hours-Rule - A Dogma for Military Surgery?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerngross, Heinz; Kahle, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Today, the six-hours-rule is a delicate item for military logistics and it is a great challenge for medical services to provide an adequate treatment during the first hours after wounding. DEFINITION: Six-hour-rule...

  1. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit hours...

  2. Three Mile Island - The hour-by-hour account of what really happened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.

    1980-01-01

    An hour-by-hour account is given of the progression of events leading up to and during the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor. The emergency procedures followed, the evacuation of local residents and the decisions taken as the possibility of a meltdown became apparent are recorded in detail together with aspects of the media coverage and the problems of communication. (U.K.)

  3. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  4. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  5. Gate A: changes to opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Due to maintenance work, the opening hours of Gate A (near Reception) will be modified between Monday, 13 and Friday, 17 April 2015.   During this period, the gate will be open to vehicles between 7 a.m. and 9.30 a.m., then between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m. It will be completely closed to traffic between 9.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. Pedestrians and cyclists may continue to use the gate. We apologise for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

  6. New opening hours of the gates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  7. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  8. Atrial Fibrillation Detection During 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Comparison With 24-Hour Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos G; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a novel 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitor (Microlife WatchBP O3 Afib) with implemented algorithm for automated atrial fibrillation (AF) detection during each ABP measurement. One hundred subjects (mean age 70.6±8.2 [SD] years; men 53%; hypertensives 85%; 17 with permanent AF; 4 paroxysmal AF; and 79 non-AF) had simultaneous 24-hour ABP monitoring and 24-hour Holter monitoring. Among a total of 6410 valid ABP readings, 1091 (17%) were taken in ECG AF rhythm. In reading-to-reading ABP analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ABP monitoring in detecting AF were 93%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. In non-AF subjects, 12.8% of the 24-hour ABP readings indicated false-positive AF, of whom 27% were taken during supraventricular premature beats. There was a strong association between the proportion of false-positive AF readings and that of supraventricular premature beats ( r =0.67; P ABP monitoring had 100%/85% sensitivity/specificity (area under the curve 0.91; P ABP monitor with AF detector has high sensitivity and moderate specificity for AF screening during routine ABP monitoring. Thus, in elderly hypertensives, a 24-hour ABP recording with at least 26% of the readings suggesting AF indicates a high probability for AF diagnosis and should be regarded as an indication for performing 24-hour Holter monitoring. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Preferred vs Actual Working Hours in Couple Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Ping Tseng; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Working hours in Australia are quite widely distributed around the population mean. That is, there are relatively many people working both relatively short hours and relatively long hours each week. From a welfare perspective, however, it is not the actual number of hours worked that is of importance, but whether the hours being worked are consistent with individual preferences. In this paper the question of how closely hours preferences are being met is examined using data collected in the f...

  10. Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.

  11. Multiple growth regimes: Insights from unified growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Unified Growth Theory uncovers the forces that contributed to the existence of multiple growth regimes and the emergence of convergence clubs. It suggests that differential timing of take-offs from stagnation to growth segmented economies into three fundamental regimes: slow growing economies in a Malthusian regime, fast growing countries in a sustained growth regime, and economies in the transition between these regimes. In contrast to existing research that links regime switching thresholds...

  12. Causas estruturais e consequências dos regimes internacionais: regimes como variáveis intervenientes

    OpenAIRE

    Krasner, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Os regimes internacionais são definidos como princípios, normas, regras e procedimentos de tomada de decisões ao redor dos quais as expectativas dos atores convergem em uma dada área-tema. Como ponto de partida, os regimes são conceituados como variáveis intervenientes, estando entre fatores causais básicos e os resultados e comportamentos relacionados. Há três visões a respeito da importância dos regimes: as orientações estruturais convencionais desvalorizam os regimes como sendo, na melhor ...

  13. Make a movie in 48 hours

    CERN Document Server

    Brokk Toggerson

    2011-01-01

    This year, the 48-hour film project (48hfp) returns to Geneva after a one-year hiatus. Organized by Neal Hartman and the CERN film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films, the 48hfp challenges teams of film-makers to write, shoot, soundtrack and edit a 4 to 7 minute film in 48 hours from 4 to 6 November.   At the start of the festival, contestants picked their film genre from a hat. The films will be screened on 8 and 9 November, with the awards presentation on the 9th. The winner will receive a trip to the US to compete in the international version of the competition. “There are so many short films being made now," says Hartman, “I think, however, that the 48hfp allows a critical creative mass to form. The result is that these 20 teams make 20 better films than if each participant were making their own." Each team draws a genre from a hat and is given a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in their film. The genres run the gamut from &am...

  14. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  15. Changes in the number of resident publications after inception of the 80-hour work week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith D; Weinraub, Barbara; Mehta, Samir

    2010-08-01

    Since the inception of resident work-hour regulations, there has been considerable concern regarding the influence of decreased work hours on graduate medical education. In particular, it is unclear whether implementation of work-hour restrictions has influenced resident academic performance as defined by quantity of peer-reviewed publications while participating in graduate medical education. We determined the impact of work-hour changes on resident involvement in the number of published clinical studies, laboratory research, case reports, and review articles. We conducted a PubMed literature search of 139 consecutive orthopaedic surgery residents (789 total resident-years) at one institution from academic years 1995-1996 to 2008-2009. This represented a continuous timeline before and after implementation of work-hour restrictions. The number of resident publications before and after implementation of work-hour changes was compared. There was a greater probability of peer review authorship in any given resident-year after work-hour changes than before. Average publications per resident-year increased for total articles, clinical articles, case reports, and reviews. There was an increased rate of publications in which the resident was the first author. Since implementation of work-hour changes, total resident publications and publications per resident-year have increased.

  16. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Fai Lo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.

  17. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  18. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  19. Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Granger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface.

    The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced.

    Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore. The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values

  20. Official CERN holidays | Restaurant opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note that the CERN Restaurants will have the following opening hours during the upcoming holidays: Restaurant #1 will be open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. on Wednesday 1 May, Thursday 9 May (Ascension Thursday) and Monday 20 May (Pentecost) - on Friday 10 May the restaurant will be open at the usual times. Restaurant #2 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, but will be open on Friday 10 May at the usual times (brasserie will be closed). Restaurant #3 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, as well as Friday 10 May.

  1. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  2. Determination of the Hall Thruster Operating Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Dorf; V. Semenov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-04-01

    A quasi one-dimensional (1-D) steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For the same discharge voltage two operating regimes are possible -- with and without the anode sheath. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile and discharge voltage a unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the regimes. However, we show that for a given temperature profile the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime: for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. It is also shown that a good correlation between the quasi 1-D model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate electron mobility and temperature profile

  3. Causas estruturais e consequências dos regimes internacionais: regimes como variáveis intervenientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Krasner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os regimes internacionais são definidos como princípios, normas, regras e procedimentos de tomada de decisões ao redor dos quais as expectativas dos atores convergem em uma dada área-tema. Como ponto de partida, os regimes são conceituados como variáveis intervenientes, estando entre fatores causais básicos e os resultados e comportamentos relacionados. Há três visões a respeito da importância dos regimes: as orientações estruturais convencionais desvalorizam os regimes como sendo, na melhor das hipóteses, ineficazes; as orientações grocianas vêem os regimes como componentes íntimos do sistema internacional; as perspectivas estruturalistas modificadas vêem os regimes como significativos somente em certas condições restritas. Para os argumentos grociano e estruturalista modificado - que concordam com a visão de que os regimes podem influenciar resultados e comportamentos - , o desenvolvimento de regimes é visto como uma função de cinco variáveis causais básicas: auto-interesse egoísta; poder político; normas e princípios difusos; usos e costumes; conhecimento.

  4. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  5. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  6. Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, A; Kecklund, G; Axelsson, J; Akerstedt, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a change from a rotating 3-shift (8-hour) to a 2-shift shift (12 hour) schedule on sleep, sleepiness, performance, perceived health, and well-being. Thirty-two shift workers at a chemical plant (control room operators) responded to a questionnaire a few months before a change was made in their shift schedule and 10 months after the change. Fourteen workers also filled out a diary, carried activity loggers, and carried out reaction-time tests (beginning and end of shift). Fourteen day workers served as a reference group for the questionnaires and 9 were intensively studied during a week with workdays and a free weekend. The questionnaire data showed that the shift change increased satisfaction with workhours, sleep, and time for social activities. Health, perceived accident risk, and reaction-time performance were not negatively affected. Alertness improved and subjective recovery time after night work decreased. The quick changes in the 8-hour schedule greatly increased sleep problems and fatigue. Sleepiness integrated across the entire shift cycle showed that the shift workers were less alert than the day workers, across workdays and days off (although alertness increased with the 12-hour shift). The change from 8-hour to 12-hour shifts was positive in most respects, possibly due to the shorter sequences of the workdays, the longer sequences of consecutive days off, the fewer types of shifts (easier planning), and the elimination of quick changes. The results may differ in groups with a higher work load.

  7. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  8. Poorer Health – Shorter Hours? Health and Flexibility of Hours of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Johannes; Myck, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the role of health in determining the difference between desired and actual hours of work in a sample of German men using the Socio-Economic Panel Data for years 1996-2007. The effects of both self-assessed health and legal disability status are examined. About 60% of employees report working more than they would wish with the mean difference of -3.9 hours/week. We estimate static and dynamic model specifications allowing for auto-regressive nature of the dependent variable and tes...

  9. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...

  10. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...

  11. What is the New Chinese Currency Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ajay; Zeileis, Achim; Patnaik, Ila

    2005-01-01

    The revaluation of the yuan in July 2005 was described by the Chinese central bank as a change in the currency regime, rather than merely a changed level of the exchange rate. The reform was said to involve a shift away from the fixed exchange rate, a gradual movement towards greater flexibility, and a peg to a basket of currencies. This paper closely examines the post-July Chinese currency regime utilising contemporary ideas in the econometrics of structural change. We find that the yuan has...

  12. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  13. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  14. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...... particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator....

  15. Flocking regimes in a simple lattice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J R; Evans, M R

    2006-03-01

    We study a one-dimensional lattice flocking model incorporating all three of the flocking criteria proposed by Reynolds [Computer Graphics 21, 4 (1987)]: alignment, centering, and separation. The model generalizes that introduced by O. J. O'Loan and M. R. Evans [J. Phys. A. 32, L99 (1999)]. We motivate the dynamical rules by microscopic sampling considerations. The model exhibits various flocking regimes: the alternating flock, the homogeneous flock, and dipole structures. We investigate these regimes numerically and within a continuum mean-field theory.

  16. Optimizing Wellfield Operation in a Variable Power Price Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Schneider, Raphael; Davidsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Wellfield management is a multiobjective optimization problem. One important objective has been energy efficiency in terms of minimizing the energy footprint (EFP) of delivered water (MWh/m(3) ). However, power systems in most countries are moving in the direction of deregulated markets and price variability is increasing in many markets because of increased penetration of intermittent renewable power sources. In this context the relevant management objective becomes minimizing the cost of electric energy used for pumping and distribution of groundwater from wells rather than minimizing energy use itself. We estimated EFP of pumped water as a function of wellfield pumping rate (EFP-Q relationship) for a wellfield in Denmark using a coupled well and pipe network model. This EFP-Q relationship was subsequently used in a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) framework to minimize total cost of operating the combined wellfield-storage-demand system over the course of a 2-year planning period based on a time series of observed price on the Danish power market and a deterministic, time-varying hourly water demand. In the SDP setup, hourly pumping rates are the decision variables. Constraints include storage capacity and hourly water demand fulfilment. The SDP was solved for a baseline situation and for five scenario runs representing different EFP-Q relationships and different maximum wellfield pumping rates. Savings were quantified as differences in total cost between the scenario and a constant-rate pumping benchmark. Minor savings up to 10% were found in the baseline scenario, while the scenario with constant EFP and unlimited pumping rate resulted in savings up to 40%. Key factors determining potential cost savings obtained by flexible wellfield operation under a variable power price regime are the shape of the EFP-Q relationship, the maximum feasible pumping rate and the capacity of available storage facilities. © 2015 The Authors. Groundwater published by Wiley

  17. Capturing Neutrinos from a Star's Final Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    What happens on the last day of a massive stars life? In the hours before the star collapses and explodes as a supernova, the rapid evolution of material in its core creates swarms of neutrinos. Observing these neutrinos may help us understand the final stages of a massive stars life but theyve never been detected.A view of some of the 1,520 phototubes within the MiniBooNE neutrino detector. Observations from this and other detectors are helping to illuminate the nature of the mysterious neutrino. [Fred Ullrich/FNAL]Silent Signposts of Stellar EvolutionThe nuclear fusion that powers stars generates tremendous amounts of energy. Much of this energy is emitted as photons, but a curious and elusive particle the neutrino carries away most of the energy in the late stages of stellar evolution.Stellar neutrinos can be created through two processes: thermal processesand beta processes. Thermal processes e.g.,pair production, in which a particle/antiparticle pair are created depend on the temperature and pressure of the stellar core. Beta processes i.e.,when a proton converts to a neutron, or vice versa are instead linked to the isotopic makeup of the stars core. This means that, if we can observe them, beta-process neutrinos may be able to tell us about the last steps of stellar nucleosynthesis in a dying star.But observing these neutrinos is not so easilydone. Neutrinos arenearly massless, neutral particles that interact only feebly with matter; out of the whopping 1060neutrinos released in a supernova explosion, even the most sensitive detectors only record the passage of just a few. Do we have a chance of detectingthe beta-process neutrinos that are released in the final few hours of a stars life, beforethe collapse?Neutrino luminosities leading up to core collapse. Shortly before collapse, the luminosity of beta-process neutrinos outshines that of any other neutrino flavor or origin. [Adapted from Patton et al. 2017]Modeling Stellar CoresTo answer this question, Kelly

  18. Light Regimes Shape Utilization of Extracellular Organic C and N in a Cyanobacterial Biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Rhona K.; Mayali, Xavier; Boaro, Amy A.; Zemla, Adam; Everroad, R. Craig; Nilson, Daniel; Weber, Peter K.; Lipton, Mary; Bebout, Brad M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-06-28

    Although it is becoming clear that many microbial primary producers can also play a role as organic consumers, we know very little about the metabolic regulation of photoautotroph organic matter consumption. Cyanobacteria in phototrophic biofilms can reuse extracellular organic carbon, but the metabolic drivers of extracellular processes are surprisingly complex. We investigated the metabolic foundations of organic matter reuse by comparing exoproteome composition and incorporation of13C-labeled and15N-labeled cyanobacterial extracellular organic matter (EOM) in a unicyanobacterial biofilm incubated using different light regimes. In the light and the dark, cyanobacterial direct organic C assimilation accounted for 32% and 43%, respectively, of all organic C assimilation in the community. Under photosynthesis conditions, we measured increased excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and proteins involved in micronutrient transport, suggesting that requirements for micronutrients may drive EOM assimilation during daylight hours. This interpretation was supported by photosynthesis inhibition experiments, in which cyanobacteria incorporated N-rich EOM-derived material. In contrast, under dark, C-starved conditions, cyanobacteria incorporated C-rich EOM-derived organic matter, decreased excretion of EPS, and showed an increased abundance of degradative exoproteins, demonstrating the use of the extracellular domain for C storage. Sequence-structure modeling of one of these exoproteins predicted a specific hydrolytic activity that was subsequently detected, confirming increased EOM degradation in the dark. Associated heterotrophic bacteria increased in abundance and upregulated transport proteins under dark relative to light conditions. Taken together, our results indicate that biofilm cyanobacteria are successful competitors for organic C and N and that cyanobacterial nutrient and energy requirements control the use of EOM.

  19. Statistics of exchange rate regimes in Nigeria | Iwueze | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three distinct exchange rate regimes of Nigeria were subjected to Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modeling in order to compare them with respect to model structure. It was found that the three regimes admit different models. Regime one admits Moving average model of order 2, Regime two admits ...

  20. 78 FR 39057 - Hours of Service of Drivers; Renewal and Expansion of American Pyrotechnics Association Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... any traffic laws, or motor carrier safety regulations, and i. The total driving time and the total on... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2007... From the 14-Hour Rule During Independence Day Celebrations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  1. METABOLIC AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO ADRENOCEPTOR ANTAGONISTS IN 48-HOUR-STARVED EXERCISING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BENTHEM, L; VANDERLEEST, J; STEFFENS, AB; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    1995-01-01

    The influence of 48 hours of starvation on sympathoadrenal regulation of nutrient utilization was investigated in rats. To assess the role of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors, rats were studied during alpha- and beta-blockade. Energy metabolism was measured using indirect calorimetry before, during,

  2. 76 FR 30232 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for... American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has applied for a limited exemption from FMCSA's regulation that... exemption would apply solely to the operation of CMVs by 9 designated APA-member motor carriers in...

  3. Globalization and working time: Work-place hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how economic globalization affects work-place arrangements regulating working time in industrialized countries. Exposure to foreign direct investment and trade can have off-setting effects for work-place bargaining over standard hours and work-time flexibilization, and can be

  4. Does money or the law reduce doctors' working hours in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Adam; Collier, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    What can be learned from a 45-year journey to reduced junior doctors' working hours? The authors investigated the impact of financially punitive measures (the 2001 New Deal contract) and legislation (Working Time Regulations) on the average working week for doctors-in-training.

  5. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...

  6. Technological regimes and sources of entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsili, O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the technological determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour. By applying a typology of technological regimes, which describes the nature of the technological environment in which firms operate, this paper examines the sources and obstacles to entrepreneurial entry related to the

  7. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  8. Negotiating a regime to control global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebenius, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    For purposes of analysis, this paper has uncritically maintained that the prospect of a serious climate problem exists and has only lightly examined the broader advantages and drawbacks of various proposed policy and institutional responses. Crucial as they are to a full treatment of the issues, these underlying substantive and policy questions enter the analysis primarily insofar as they affect the likely outcomes of pending and potential negotiations. To an advocate of a new greenhouse control regime, the fundamental negotiating task is to craft and sustain a meaningful winning coalition of countries backing such a regime. Two centrally necessary conditions for the fundamental task are: (1) that each member of the coalition see enough gain in the regime relative to the alternatives to adhere and (2) the potential and actual blocking coalitions of interests opposed to the regime be prevented from forming and from being acceptably accommodated or otherwise neutralized. The analysis of this paper is organized around key questions whose answers will influence whether and how these two necessary conditions might (or might not) be met

  9. Technological regimes and sources of entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsili, O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the technological detenninants of entrepreneurial behaviour. By applying a typology of technological regimes, which describes the nature of the technological environment in which finns operate, this paper examines the sources and obstacle to entrepreneurial entry related to the

  10. Comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report presents a comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes and provides recommendations on how to improve the system. The results show a complex legal framework which generates a high amount of inspections and overlapping of inspection areas where no cross-recognition is

  11. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  12. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  13. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  14. Radiative effects of global MODIS cloud regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    We update previously published MODIS global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 dataset. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux datasets. Our results clearly show the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance datasets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR, and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations. PMID:29619289

  15. Radiative Effects of Global MODIS Cloud Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraiopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dong Min; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    We update previously published MODIS global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 dataset. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux datasets. Our results clearly show the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance datasets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR, and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations.

  16. The Forex Regime and EMU Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van Foreest; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence that, irrespective of the foreign exchange rate regime, countries with high monetary volatility have lower relative output growth rates. It is argued that due to the forward looking nature of the foreign exchange market, exchange rate stability

  17. Trust in regulatory regimes: scoping the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, F.E.; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume is the first endeavour to systematically investigate the role of trust in the different relations within regulatory regimes. Trust as a multifaceted concept is contested within public administration and political science in general and especially within the relation between

  18. Optimal dividend distribution under Markov regime switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Z.; Pistorius, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal dividend distribution for a company in the presence of regime shifts. We consider a company whose cumulative net revenues evolve as a Brownian motion with positive drift that is modulated by a finite state Markov chain, and model the discount rate as a

  19. A Comparative Typology of Pension Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjan Soede; Cok Vrooman

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an empirical typology of pension regimes in the European Union, the US, Canada, Australia and Norway. The categorisation is based on 34 quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the mandatory parts of the pension systems in these countries. The empirical analysis shows

  20. Regime Shifts and Resilience in Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chuan Zhong; Villasante, Sebastian; Zhu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of potential regime shifts in Argentinean hake fishery and the inter-linkage between ecological and economic resilience. We develop a theoretical model incorporated with the hazard function for resource management under alternative conditions, and derive the corrective

  1. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early

  2. EUROPEAN INFLUENCE ON ETHIOPIAN ANTITRUST REGIME:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Introduction. Despite a noticeable European influence on the Ethiopian competition legal regime, some aspects of Ethiopia's 2003 Trade Practice Proclamation are still inadequate to appropriately deal with certain competition problems. The limitations of the rules need to be put right since achievement of the very goals of ...

  3. [The "specific" liability regime for blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    Based on the system of liability for defective products as organized by the European Directive of 25 July 1985, responsibility for blood products does not therefore constitute a genuine specific regime. However, European law leaves States a margin of discretion in the implementation of the Directive with regard to health products. This is the case in particular with the exemption for development risk.

  4. Water regime of steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesz, Janos

    2011-01-01

    The water regime of water-steam thermal power plants (secondary side of pressurized water reactors (PWR); fossil-fired thermal power plants - referred to as steam power plants) has changed in the past 30 years, due to a shift from water chemistry to water regime approach. The article summarizes measures (that have been realised by chemists of NPP Paks) on which the secondary side of NPP Paks has become a high purity water-steam power plant and by which the water chemistry stress corrosion risk of heat transfer tubes in the VVER-440 steam generators was minimized. The measures can also be applied to the water regime of fossil-fired thermal power plants with super- and subcritical steam pressure. Based on the reliability analogue of PWR steam generators, water regime can be defined as the harmony of construction, material(s) and water chemistry, which needs to be provided in not only the steam generators (boiler) but in each heat exchanger of steam power plant: - Construction determines the processes of flow, heat and mass transfer and their local inequalities; - Material(s) determines the minimal rate of general corrosion and the sensitivity for local corrosion damage; - Water chemistry influences the general corrosion of material(s) and the corrosion products transport, as well as the formation of local corrosion environment. (orig.)

  5. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Results: The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. Conclusion: The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed. Keywords: employee, employer, Korea, self-employed, working hours

  6. The global safety regime - Setting the stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The existing global safety regime has arisen from the exercise of sovereign authority, with an overlay of voluntary international cooperation from a network of international and regional organizations and intergovernmental agreements. This system has, in the main, served us well. For several reasons, the time is ripe to consider the desired shape of a future global safety regime and to take steps to achieve it. First, every nation's reliance on nuclear power is hostage to some extent to safety performance elsewhere in the world because of the effects on public attitudes and hence there is an interest in ensuring achievement of common standards. Second, the world is increasingly interdependent and the vendors of nuclear power plants seek to market their products throughout the globe. Efficiency would arise from the avoidance of needless differences in approach that require custom modifications from country to country. Finally, we have much to learn from each other and a common effort would strengthen us all. Such an effort might also serve to enhance public confidence. Some possible characteristics of such a regime can be identified. The regime should reflect a global consensus on the level of safety that should be achieved. There should be sufficient standardization of approach so that expertise and equipment can be used everywhere without significant modification. There should be efforts to ensure a fundamental commitment to safety and the encouragement of a safety culture. And there should be efforts to adopt more widely the best regulatory practices, recognizing that some modifications in approach may be necessary to reflect each nation's legal and social culture. At the same type, the regime should have the characteristics of flexibility, transparency, stability, practicality, and encouragement of competence. (author)

  7. Dune growth under multidirectional wind regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadal, C.; Rozier, O.; Claudin, P.; Courrech Du Pont, S.; Narteau, C.

    2017-12-01

    Under unidirectional wind regimes, flat sand beds become unstable to produce periodic linear dunes, commonly called transverse dunes because their main ridges are oriented perpendicular to the air flow. In areas of low sediment availability, the same interactions between flow, transport and topography produce barchan dunes, isolated sand-pile migrating over long distances with a characteristic crescentic shape. For the last fifteen years, barchan dunes and the instability at the origin of transverse dunes have been the subject of numerous studies that have identified a set of characteristic length and time scales with respect to the physical properties of both grains and fluid. This is not the case for dunes developing under multidirectional wind regimes. Under these conditions, dune orientation is measured with respect to the direction of the resultant sand flux. Depending on the wind regime, dunes do not always line up perpendicularly to the resultant sand flux, but can also be at an oblique angle or even parallel to it. These oblique and longitudinal dunes are ubiquitous in all deserts on Earth and planetary bodies because of the seasonal variability of wind orientation. They are however poorly constrained by observations and there is still no complete theoretical framework providing a description of their orientation and initial wavelength. Here, we extend the linear stability analysis of a flat sand of bed done in two dimensions for a unidirectional flow to three dimensions and multidirectional flow regimes. We are able to recover transitions from transverse to oblique or longitudinal dune patterns according to changes in wind regimes. We besides give a prediction for the initial dune wavelength. Our results compare well to previous theory of dune orientation and to field, experimental and numerical data.

  8. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

  9. Regime shifts and panarchies in regional scale social ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article we summarize histories of nonlinear, complex interactions among societal, legal, and ecosystem dynamics in six North American water basins, as they respond to changing climate. These case studies were chosen to explore the conditions for emergence of adaptive governance in heavily regulated and developed social-ecological systems nested within a hierarchical governmental system. We summarize resilience assessments conducted in each system to provide a synthesis and reference by the other articles in this special feature. We also present a general framework used to evaluate the interactions between society and ecosystem regimes and the governance regimes chosen to mediate those interactions. The case studies show different ways that adaptive governance may be triggered, facilitated, or constrained by ecological and/or legal processes. The resilience assessments indicate that complex interactions among the governance and ecosystem components of these systems can produce different trajectories, which include patterns of (a) development and stabilization, (b) cycles of crisis and recovery, which includes lurches in adaptation and learning, and (3) periods of innovation, novelty, and transformation. Exploration of cross scale (Panarchy) interactions among levels and sectors of government and society illustrate that they may constrain development trajectories, but may also provide stability during crisis or innovation at smaller scales; create crises,

  10. Early Detection and Identification of Anomalies in Chemical Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, Stefan; Smiesko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief information about the basic features of a newly developed diagnostic system for early detection and identification of anomalies incoming in the water chemistry regime of the primary and secondary circuit of VVER-440 reactor. This system, called SACHER (System of Analysis of CHEmical Regime) is being installed within the major modernization project at the NPP-V2 Bohunice in the Slovak Republic. System SACHER has been developed fully in MATLAB environment. The availability of prompt information about the chemical conditions of the primary and secondary circuit is very important to prevent the undue corrosion and deposit build-up. The typical chemical information systems that exist and work at the NPPs give the user values of the measured quantities together with their time trends and other derived values. It is then the experienced user's role to recognize the situation the monitored process is in and make the subsequent decisions and take the measures. The SACHER system, based on the computational intelligence techniques, inserts the elements of intelligence into the overall chemical information system. It has the modular structure with the following most important modules: normality module- its aim is to recognize that the process starts to deviate from the normal one and serves as the early warning to the staff to take the adequate measures, fuzzy identification module- its aim is to identify the anomaly on the basis of a set of fuzzy rules, time-prediction module- its aim is to predict the behavior/trend of selected chemical quantities 8 hours ahead in 15 min step from the moment of request, validation module- its aim is to validate the measured quantities, trend module- this module serves for showing the trends of the acquired quantities

  11. Salix response to different flow regimes in controlled experiments: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Dams and water management for hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities alter the natural flow regime of rivers. The new river hydrograph components depend on the type of impoundment and the policy of regulation but such a different flow regime will likely affect the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define sustainable flow releases is to quantify hydrological effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem response. A considerable lack of knowledge still affects the link hydrology-ecology and inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) are consequently still widespread: further research in this direction is urgently required. We present an experiment, which aims to investigate the effects of different water stage regimes on riparian vegetation (salix Viminalis cuttings) development in a temperate region (Switzerland). This work describes the installation setup, together with the first results concerning the first of the two scheduled seasons of campaign. Sixty Salix cuttings were planted in non-cohesive sandy-gravel sediment within 1 meter tall plastic pots installed outside in the EPFL campus. After grouping them in three batteries, the water level within them has been varying following three river regimes simulated by adjusting the water level within the pots by means of an automatic hydraulic system. The three water level regimes reproduce a natural flow regime, a minimum residual flow policy, which only conserves peaks during flooding conditions, and an artificial regime conserving only low frequencies (e.g., seasonality) of the natural dynamic. The natural flow regime of the first battery has been applied for two months to the entire system; the three regimes above said started in June 2012. This triggered a plant response transitory regime, which we monitored by measuring plant growth, soil and atmospheric variables. Particularly, measures concern with branches development leaves photosynthesis and

  12. The Judicial Regime of Danube Navigation between 1856- 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The basics of the judicial regime of Danube navigation, in the moern sens of the term, were inserted in the Peace Treaty in Paris, March 30, 1856, concluded at the end of Crimeea War. This judicial act of international law ended a situation in the area of the large European river where the rules were imposed by the big empires of Austria, Turkey and Russia, according to their interests. The rights and interests of the riverains such as the Romanian states, Serbia, Bulgari etc. were ignored and brutally violated. Until 1919, the European Danube Commission, institution created by the Paris Treaty, has contributed to the modernization of the lower Danube and development of navigation in this sector. This paper aims at clarifying to a certain extent the circumstances of the regulation of navigation during the reference period of time in this naval sector.

  13. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  14. Monitoring of gas generation during the charge/discharge regime of miners' headlamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, Zs.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Svingor, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The miners' headlamp combines a battery pack for waistbelt mounting with a detachable headlamp/cable unit. The battery that incorporates the Ni/Cd 'gel-cells' and the KOH electrolyte (which acts only as an ion conductor and does not contribute significantly to the cell's reaction) is the most important piece of the lamp. The total reaction of the NiCd cell is: 2NiOOH + 2H 2 O + Cd ↔ 2Ni(OH) 2 + Cd(OH) 2 The preferred charging regime for caplamps is top-up charging with an occasional full discharge cycle. Nickel-cadmium cells are charged by applying direct current with the proper polarity to the cell. That means the charger will deliver a constant amount of current to the battery regardless of its voltage. During the first 70% of the charge cycle, a NiCd battery absorbs almost all of the energy and the battery remains cool. After the 70% charge threshold is reached, less and less energy is absorbed. The cells start to generate excess gases the pressure rises and the temperature increases. The charge acceptance drops further and once full charge is reached, the battery goes into overcharge. The higher the overcharge rate the higher the rate of gas generation. The battery made up of three NiCd cells has the potential for cell reversal problems when the discharge is deep enough to bring one or more of the cells in a battery to zero voltage. If discharge continues beyond this point, the voltage on the depleted cell will reverse polarity. The problem that occurs is the generation of hydrogen gas. As the electrodes change polarity they will generate hydrogen. Since the hydrogen will not recombine, the internal cell pressure will build up to a level that causes the cell to vent if the reverse charge current is maintained for a significant period of time. Due to the potential hazard during underground working gas emission generated into the cells and the amount of vented gas is strictly regulated 1. The three characteristics of cell

  15. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

  16. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajic, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock

  17. Regimes de espaço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Landowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Space Regimes - Based on a general model of interaction, the present analysis attempts to account for the diversity of the ways space may be apprehended in lived experience. It leads to the definition of four configurations that correspond to as many regimes of relation with the environing world. The conventional space of the circulation of values takes the archetypical shape of the net (incarnated today by Internet. The operational space is that of our dealing with objects within a material environment seen as a tissue of stable and intelligible relations. The experienced space of bodies’ movement, to which one may give as an emblem the spiral, expresses the dynamics of sensitive relationships between the self and the other. The existential space is that of our presence in a universe without boundaries, which no one can properly represent oneself but that nonetheless haunts art and thought: its figure is the abyss.

  18. Impact of Working Hours on Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Holly; Alwine Mohnen

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of working hours on employees' satisfaction, this article uses a large, representative set of panel data from German households (GSOEP). The results show that high working hours and overtime in general do not lead to decreased satisfaction. Rather, increasing working hours and overtime have positive effects on life and job satisfaction, whereas the desire to reduce working hours has a negative impact on satisfaction. In 2009, nearly 60% of employees wanted to reduce t...

  19. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supersonic free jet, molecular free regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, G.; Tomassetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the free jet emitted by a converging nozzle as obtained by the method of characteristics by Ashkenas and Sherman is described in details. In particular the dependence of the field variable by the distance from the nozzle is given. The transition from continuum to molecular free regime is then considered and the sudden freeze approximation is introduced. The processing of monoatomic and polyatomic gasses is also considered [it

  1. Dynamic Regime of Ignition of Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic regime of exposure of the radiant flux on the sample of gun-cotton. Obtained time the ignition of gun-cotton in the heating conditions of increasing heat flux in the range from 0.2 W/cm2 to 22 W/cm2. A comparison of the delay times of the ignition when heated variable and constant heat flux.

  2. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  3. Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)

  4. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    States has signed such agreements with Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands , Mongolia...Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), and the Australia Group. The informal Australia Group...biological agents or toxins “of types and in quantities that have no justification for peaceful purposes.” The missile nonproliferation regime is founded not

  5. A regime legitimacy explanation of African peacekeeping

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Matthew.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The American military needs to understand what incentivizes some African nations to participate in peacekeeping in order to strengthen the incentive structure so that high levels of peacekeeping will continue. The main argument advanced in this thesis is that regimes that are attempting to increase their structural legitimacy are more likely to volunteer for peacekeeping missions to gain international political legitimacy, as well as ...

  6. Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng

    2012-01-01

    In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...

  7. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  8. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...

  9. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  10. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., whatever their number, rather than for working 40 hours or some other fixed weekly work period, such a... compensation to the employee at a rate not less than the applicable minimum wage rate for every hour worked in..., in addition to such salary, for all overtime hours worked at a rate not less than one-half his...

  11. Hourly Electricity Prices in Day-Ahead Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); C. Huurman; R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the characteristics of hourly electricity prices in day-ahead markets. In these markets, quotes for day-ahead delivery of electricity are submitted simultaneously for all hours in the next day. The same information set is used for quoting all hours of the day. The

  12. "International regime for advancing lunar development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  13. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (US Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps, and multivariate analysis such as nMDS (non-metric Multidimensional Scaling) and cluster analysis. We successfully detect spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change. Use an information theory based method to identify ecological boundaries and compare our results to traditional early warning

  14. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  15. QCD in the δ-regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.

    2011-03-01

    The δ-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the δ-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M R π , which has been computed to the third order in the δ-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the δ-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M R π have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the δ-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l 3 . (orig.)

  16. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, D.

    2002-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  17. Private actor accountability on international regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs have emerged along with the growing role of corporations in global development. One of the largest forms of PPP today is the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact involves of companies, NGOs, IGOs and state governments. All of them are trying to realize globalization with a more humanist face with attention to the protection of human rights, environment, labor standards and anti-corruption. Engaging private actors in global governance, The UN Global Compact raises many issues such as power, authority, and legitimacy. The effort to tackle it all is to increase PPP accountability. This research seeks to describe what efforts can be made to enhance private accountability within the international regime. The research undertaken is a descriptive study, focuses on public-private partnerships in the UN Global Compact regime. The study found that there were two attempts that could be done. First, by involving the stakeholders in the development of procedures, mechanisms, reporting and monitoring associated with trying to improve the company’s reputation. Second, by looking at corporate relations as agent and UN Global Compact as principal in principal-agent relation in the international regime.

  18. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Han, Boyoung

    2017-12-01

    Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation) in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed.

  19. JT-60U high performance regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, S.

    1999-01-01

    High performance regimes of JT-60U plasmas are presented with an emphasis upon the results from the use of a semi-closed pumped divertor with W-shaped geometry. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved in reversed shear and high- βp regimes. The reversed shear regime elevated an equivalent Q DT eq transiently up to 1.25 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)=8.6x10 20 m-3·s·keV) in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime. Long sustainment of enhanced confinement with internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a fully non-inductive current drive in a reversed shear discharge was successfully demonstrated with LH wave injection. Performance sustainment has been extended in the high- bp regime with a high triangularity achieving a long sustainment of plasma conditions equivalent to Q DT eq ∼0.16 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)∼1.4x10 20 m -3 ·s·keV) for ∼4.5 s with a large non-inductive current drive fraction of 60-70% of the plasma current. Thermal and particle transport analyses show significant reduction of thermal and particle diffusivities around ITB resulting in a strong Er shear in the ITB region. The W-shaped divertor is effective for He ash exhaust demonstrating steady exhaust capability of τ He */τ E ∼3-10 in support of ITER. Suppression of neutral back flow and chemical sputtering effect have been observed while MARFE onset density is rather decreased. Negative-ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) experiments have created a clear H-mode transition. Enhanced ionization cross- section due to multi-step ionization processes was confirmed as theoretically predicted. A current density profile driven by N-NBI is measured in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. N-NBI induced TAE modes characterized as persistent and bursting oscillations have been observed from a low hot beta of h >∼0.1-0.2% without a significant loss of fast ions. (author)

  20. Autonomia e relevância dos regimes The autonomy and relevance of regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seignemartin de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Teorias institucionalistas na disciplina de relações internacionais usualmente definem regimes como um conjunto de normas e regras formais ou informais que permitem a convergência de expectativas ou a padronização do comportamento de seus participantes em uma determinada área de interesses com o objetivo de resolver problemas de coordenação que tenderiam a resultados não pareto-eficientes. Como estas definições baseadas meramente na "eficiência" dos regimes não parecem suficientes para explicar sua efetividade, o presente artigo propõe uma definição diferente para regimes: a de arranjos políticos que permitem a redistribuição dos ganhos da cooperação pelos participantes em uma determinada área de interesses em um contexto de interdependência. Regimes possuiriam efetividade pela sua autonomia e relevância, ou seja, por possuírem existência objetiva autônoma da de seus participantes e por influenciarem seu comportamento e expectativas de maneiras que não podem ser reduzidas à ação individual de nenhum deles. O artigo inicia-se com uma breve discussão sobre as dificuldades terminológicas associadas ao estudo de regimes e a definição dos conceitos de autonomia e relevância. Em seguida, classifica os diversos autores participantes do debate em duas perspectivas distintas, uma que nega (não-autonomistas e outra que atribui (autonomistas aos regimes autonomia e relevância, e faz uma breve análise dos autores e tradições mais significativos para o debate, aprofundando-se nos autonomistas e nos argumentos que reforçam a hipótese aqui apresentada. Ao final, o artigo propõe uma decomposição analítica dos regimes nos quatro elementos principais que lhes propiciam autonomia e relevância: normatividade, atores, especificidade da área de interesses e interdependência complexa com o contexto.Regimes are defined by institutionalist theories in the discipline of International Relations as formal or informal sets

  1. Construction-man hour estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study centers on a statistical analysis of the preliminary construction time, main construction time, and total construction man hours of nuclear power plants. The use of these econometric techniques allows the major man hour driving variables to be identified through multivariate analysis of time-series data on over 80 United States nuclear power plants. The analysis made in this study provides a clearer picture of the dynamic changes that have occurred in the man hours of these plants when compared to engineering estimates of man hours, and produces a tool that can be used to project nuclear power plant man hours

  2. The existence and persistence of long work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Robert William; Black, David; Wooden, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  3. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  4. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Spatial adjustments of mountain channels to changes in the sediment supply regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, M. A.; Hassan, M. A.; von Flotow, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment supply is a key controlling factor in bed morphology and sediment mobility. Under a low supply regime, bed structuring develops and reduces sediment mobility. Under high supply, structuring is suppressed and the bed exhibits patchiness. This study examines the spatial response of a mountain stream channel to changes in the sediment supply regime. To achieve this goal, a flume experiment was conducted in the Mountain Channel Hydraulic Experimental Laboratory at the University of British Columbia. An 18 meter long, one meter wide flume, with a slope of three percent was used. Seven continuous runs were conducted. Each of them lasted 40 hours, under constant flow and different sediment supply regimes, which included no feed, constant feed and episodic supply. In each run, bed elevation, bed grain size distribution, flow resistance, sediment mobility and degree of armoring were determined. Flume results were compared to field data from a 600 meter channel reach that exhibits rapid, riffle-pool and step-pool morphology in UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. The study gave the possibility to analyze in detail the spatial adjustment of a mountain channel to changes in the sediment supply regime, including episodic inputs.

  6. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  7. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  8. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lu, Zong; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003–2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  9. FISHER INFORMATION OF DYNAMIC REGIME TRANSITIONS IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems often exhibit transitions between multiple dynamic regimes (or steady states). As ecosystems experience perturbations of varying regularity and intensity, they may either remain within the state space neighborhood of the current regime, or ?flip? into the neighborhood ...

  10. IMPROVING WATER REGIME IN MLACA TĂTARILOR PEATLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Cristian Moale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the project Restoration strategies of the deteriorated peatland ecosystems from Romania (PeatRo, it has been shown that Romania has 32 peatlands that need hydrological restoration taking into account the increasing of human activities and changes in land use. These peatlands are distributed in the Alpine region (30 and in the Continental region (2. In this paper, we started from the assumption that the evapotranspiration process can be reduced by decreasing the spread of colonizing species Betula pendula and Rhamnus frangula, in order to reduce the evapotranspiration rate. To establish the conditions for hydrology restoration, we used a conceptual model applied to the peatland functioning in order to quantify the water inflows (from runoff and rainfall and outflows (overbank outflows, by evaporation, by colonizing species transpiration. To estimate the rate of evapotranspiration for these species, we used in the model as input data: height and diameter of the individuals, the number of individuals, the leaf area of individual, wind speed, temperature, humidity, the number of sun hours / day, the surface of the water table. Model results show that evapotranspiration process can be reduced after implementation of specific restoration activities, demonstrating a real improvement on water regime.

  11. Static converters power supply: transient regimes; Alimentation par convertisseurs statiques: regimes transitoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, G. [Ecole Superieure d`Electricite (France)

    1997-08-01

    Direct current motors, asynchronous and variable speed synchronous motors are generally supplied with static converters. Speed variation is obtained by voltage variation in DC motors and by frequency variation in AC motors. In these conditions, these motors are running continuously in transient regimes: the DC motors current is not direct and the AC motors current is not sinusoidal. This situation leads to pulsing couples in the shaft line and to an increase of Joule effect losses. The aim of this paper is to present the methods of study of the electric motors functioning using the shape of the power voltages given by converters and mathematical models of these machines. The synchronous machines are rapidly described while the asynchronous machines are studied using Ku`s transformation instead of Park`s transformation for simplification. For each type of machine, calculation methods allow to determine their current, additional losses and couple characteristics. The transient regimes considered are those remaining when the motor is running at a constant speed and defined regime (supply voltages are periodical functions of time). These transient regimes are identically reproducing with a frequency which is a multiple of the converters supply frequency. Transient regimes due to functioning changes of the motor, such as resisting couple or power supply frequency variations, are not considered in this study. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  12. Terms of trade and exchange rate regimes in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Broda

    2002-01-01

    Since Friedman (1953), an advantage often attributed to flexible exchange rate regimes over fixed regimes is their ability to insulate more effectively the economy against real shocks. I use a post-Bretton Woods sample (1973-96) of seventy-five developing countries to assess whether the responses of real GDP, real exchange rates, and prices to terms-of-trade shocks differ systematically across exchange rate regimes. I find that responses are significantly different across regimes in a way tha...

  13. Refrigeration. Two-Phase Flow. Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard

    2002-01-01

    The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature.......The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature....

  14. Level-ARCH Short Rate Models with Regime Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    This paper introduces regime switching volatility into level- ARCH models for the short rates of the US, the UK, and Germany. Once regime switching and level effects are included there are no gains from including ARCH effects. It is of secondary importance exactly how the regime switching is spec...

  15. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  16. Peaceful Protest, Political Regimes, and the Social Media Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    University, 2012 Randolph J. Fleming, II Major, United States Army B.A., Virginia Commonwealth University, 2004 Submitted in partial fulfillment of...intermediate regimes or transitioning regimes carrying the burden of instability and conflict.23 In a similar vein, Henderson identifies democracies, as...spreading infectious ideologies through ICT.25 Furthermore, Regan and Henderson indicate that intermediate, anocratic regimes tend to oppress

  17. The Tributary Regime in the oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The tributary regime of the oil sector, is framed by the fiscal crisis that the country, maxim if one keeps in mind the importance of the fiscal revenues originated in the exploitation of these resources in Colombia, so much for the tribute coming from the foreign investment of the sector, like for the utilities generated by ECOPETROL and its impact in the public finances. However in front of this focus, the strategic importance of maintaining the investment in hydrocarbons and the paper that the fiscal politics and the tributary politics for the sector should play in the future and they constitute the government's key pieces

  18. Electron acceleration in the bubble regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Oliver

    2014-02-03

    The bubble regime of laser-wakefield acceleration has been studied over the recent years as an important alternative to classical accelerators. Several models and theories have been published, in particular a theory which provides scaling laws for acceleration parameters such as energy gain and acceleration length. This thesis deals with numerical simulations within the bubble regime, their comparison to these scaling laws and data obtained from experiments, as well as some specific phenomenona. With a comparison of the scaling laws with numerical results a parameter scan was able to show a large parameter space in which simulation and theory agree. An investigation of the limits of this parameter space revealed boundaries to other regimes, especially at very high (a{sub 0} > 100) and very low laser amplitudes (a{sub 0} < 4). Comparing simulation data with data from experiments concerning laser pulse development and electron energies, it was found that experimental results can be adequately reproduced using the Virtual-Laser-Plasma-Laboratory code. In collaboration with the Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik at the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena synchrotron radiation emitted from the inside of the bubble was investigated. A simulation of the movement of the electrons inside the bubble together with time dependent histograms of the emitted radiation helped to prove that the majority of radiation created during a bubble acceleration originates from the inside of the bubble. This radiation can be used to diagnose the amplitude of oscillation of the trapped electrons. During a further study it was proven that the polarisation of synchrotron radiation from a bubble contains information about the exact oscillation direction. This oscillation was successfully controlled by using either a laser pulse with a tilted pulse front or an asymmetric laser pulse. First results of ongoing studies concerning injecting electrons into an existing bubble and a scheme called

  19. Operation regimes of a dielectric laser accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuka, Adi; Schächter, Levi

    2018-04-01

    We investigate three operation regimes in dielectric laser driven accelerators: maximum efficiency, maximum charge, and maximum loaded gradient. We demonstrate, using a self-consistent approach, that loaded gradients of the order of 1 to 6 [GV/m], efficiencies of 20% to 80%, and electrons flux of 1014 [el/s] are feasible, without significant concerns regarding damage threshold fluence. The latter imposes that the total charge per squared wavelength is constant (a total of 106 per μm2). We conceive this configuration as a zero-order design that should be considered for the road map of future accelerators.

  20. The trade regime and the climate regime. Institutional evolution and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses concerns that the multilateral trade regime centered in the WTO and the emerging climate regime may conflict in ways that could be damaging to either or both. The article discusses the institutional and diplomatic context of these concerns, and it identifies the kinds of issues that are in question. The analysis suggests that there are opportunities for win-win outcomes in the interactions of the two regimes, for instance in the possibility of reducing fossil fuel subsidies. However, there are also problematic areas where they intersect. A core issue-and as yet an unresolved one-is whether and how emission credit trading and other activities envisioned by the Kyoto Protocol would be subject to WTO rules. The resolution of this issue will affect many other issues as well. Additional specific issues about the interactions of particular provisions in WTO agreements and the Kyoto Protocol are analyzed in a subsequent companion article in Climate Policy

  1. Transient regimes in a heavy water reactor; Regimes transitoires dans un reacteur a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We studied the variations of power and reactivity of a reactor when we raise in a continuous way the starting plates. During the subcritical regime (negative reactivity), the power is determined by reactivity and by the intensity of the sources of photo neutrons, produced during the previous work of the reactor. When, during the rise of the plates, the reactor, pass by the critical regime (zero reactivity), one notes that the reached power is independent of the initial reactivity. During the sur-critical regime (positive reactivity), the elevation of temperature of the uranium bars slows down the growth of reactivity due to the movements of the plates. The power stretches then toward a value that depends only on the regime of cooling of the reactor and the excess of the available reactivity. This survey permits to choose such a rise speed, that reactivity remains constantly lower to a value beyond which the piloting of the reactor becomes difficult. This result is not more valid, if the intensity of the sources is insufficient, what takes place during the first divergences and after a stop of long length. (author) [French] On etudie les variations de puissance et de reactivite d'un reacteur quand on leve d'une facon continue les plaques de demarrage. Pendant le regime subcritique (reactivite negative), la puissance est determinee par la reactivite et par l'intensite des sources de photoneutrons, produites pendant la marche anterieure du reacteur. Quand, au cours de la montee des plaques, le reacteur passe par le regime critique (reactivite nulle), on constate que la puissance atteinte est independante de la reactivite initiale. Pendant le regime surcritique (reactivite positive), l'elevation de temperature des barres d'uranium ralentit l'accroissement de reactivite due aux mouvements des plaques. La puissance tend alors vers une valeur qui ne depend plus que du regime de refroidissement du reacteur et de l'exces de la reactivite disponible. Cette etude permet de

  2. Change of secondary water regime of Paks NPP. Change of secondary water regime at Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doma, A.; Patek, G.; Pinter, T.; Bajari, M.; Tilky, P.

    2001-01-01

    The installation of high pH water regime during the 17th cycle of Unit 2 aimed to decrease the amount of transportation inlet of erosion-corrosion products (magnitude) in feedwater to SGs. The resolution of OAH-NBI permitting the installation ordained to make an evaluation of the process. The main conclusions and results are discussed. The high pH water regime proved to be adequate in the case of Unit 2 as well, similarly to Units 3, 4 and 1. (R.P.)

  3. Teaching hospital financial status and patient outcomes following ACGME duty hour reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, Amol S; Silber, Jeffrey H; Small, Dylan S; Rosen, Amy K; Romano, Patrick S; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Wang, Yanli; Zhu, Jingsan; Halenar, Michael J; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether hospital financial health was associated with differential changes in outcomes after implementation of 2003 ACGME duty hour regulations. Observational study of 3,614,174 Medicare patients admitted to 869 teaching hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. Interrupted time series analysis using logistic regression to adjust for patient comorbidities, secular trends, and hospital site. Outcomes included 30-day mortality, AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), failure-to-rescue (FTR) rates, and prolonged length of stay (PLOS). All eight analyses measuring the impact of duty hour reform on mortality by hospital financial health quartile, in postreform year 1 ("Post 1") or year 2 ("Post 2") versus the prereform period, were insignificant: Post 1 OR range 1.00-1.02 and Post 2 OR range 0.99-1.02. For PSIs, all six tests showed clinically insignificant effect sizes. The FTR rate analysis demonstrated nonsignificance in both postreform years (OR 1.00 for both). The PLOS outcomes varied significantly only for the combined surgical sample in Post 2, but this effect was very small, OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.04). The impact of 2003 ACGME duty hour reform on patient outcomes did not differ by hospital financial health. This finding is somewhat reassuring, given additional financial pressure on teaching hospitals from 2011 duty hour regulations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  5. THREATS AND BENEFITS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES FOR UKRAINE IN TERMS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Glushchenko

    2016-11-01

    free-floating exchange rate and «currency board» regimes in the current recessionary economic and political conditions, and the declared Strategy on Sustainable Development «Ukraine–2020» in terms of European integration. Moreover, advantages and threats of the most favorable exchange rate regimes were identified to overcome the economic crisis, and accordingly create conditions for further economic growth and increase competitiveness of the country. This article provides an opportunity to identify the conditions for success of a new model of exchange rate policy to achieve economic stabilization and the beginning of economic growth. Value/originality. Despite the existing studies in the field of exchange regulation at present, there are no comprehensive concepts and a common approach to the uses of an exchange rate regime in Ukraine to stabilize the economy, create conditions for long-term economic growth and increase the competitiveness of the economy. It identifies the need to conduct this study, focuses the attention on the conceptual basis of freefloating exchange rate and «currency board» regimes, and deepen scientific and methodological research base of the studying exchange rate regimes particularly those that would help Ukraine to overcome the crisis. This paper reveals the authors’ views on the uses of the new model of exchange rate policy, the success of which depends primarily on the government.

  6. Pulse regime in formation of fractal fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The pulse regime of vaporization of a bulk metal located in a buffer gas is analyzed as a method of generation of metal atoms under the action of a plasma torch or a laser beam. Subsequently these atoms are transformed into solid nanoclusters, fractal aggregates and then into fractal fibers if the growth process proceeds in an external electric field. We are guided by metals in which transitions between s and d-electrons of their atoms are possible, since these metals are used as catalysts and filters in interaction with gas flows. The resistance of metal fractal structures to a gas flow is evaluated that allows one to find optimal parameters of a fractal structure for gas flow propagation through it. The thermal regime of interaction between a plasma pulse or a laser beam and a metal surface is analyzed. It is shown that the basic energy from an external source is consumed on a bulk metal heating, and the efficiency of atom evaporation from the metal surface, that is the ratio of energy fluxes for vaporization and heating, is 10{sup –3}–10{sup –4} for transient metals under consideration. A typical energy flux (~10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}), a typical surface temperature (~3000 K), and a typical pulse duration (~1 μs) provide a sufficient amount of evaporated atoms to generate fractal fibers such that each molecule of a gas flow collides with the skeleton of fractal fibers many times.

  7. Managing Disagreement: A Defense of "Regime Bias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabl, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Stein Ringen's theory of democratic purpose cannot do the work expected of it. Ringen's own criteria oscillate between being too vague to be useful (i.e. "freedom") or, when specified more fully, conflicting, so that almost all democracies will seem to be potentially at cross-purposes with themselves rather than their purposes or sub-purposes being mutually reinforcing. This reflects a bigger and more theoretical problem. Disagreement about the purpose of democracy is built into democracy itself. The whole point of many (perhaps all) of our democratic institutions is to arrive at conditionally legitimate decisions in spite of such disagreement. So-called regime bias, i.e. the tendency to assess democracies according to the form and stability of their institutions rather than their results or their ability to serve certain purposes, does not in fact arise from bias. It arises on the contrary from a determination to avoid the bias inherent in giving some-inevitably partisan-ideals of what democracies should do pride of place over others in a scheme of measurement or evaluation. And even a regime-based definition of democracy must itself make simplifying assumptions that elide possible normative controversies over how the democratic game is best played. Vindicating one's preferred set of democratic ideals against alternatives is a completely legitimate enterprise and lends richness to debates within and across democracies. But it is an inherently ideological and political enterprise, not a neutral or scholarly one.

  8. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  9. Three novel tokamak plasma regimes in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-10-01

    Aside from extending ''standard'' ohmic and neutral beam heating studies to advanced plasma parameters, TFTR has encountered a number of special plasma regimes that have the potential to shed new light on the physics of tokamak confinement and the optimal design of future D-T facilities: (1) High-powered, neutral beam heating at low plasma densities can maintain a highly reactive hot-ion population (with quasi-steady-state beam fueling and current drive) in a tokamak configuration of modest bulk-plasma confinement requirements. (2) Plasma displacement away from limiter contact lends itself to clarification of the role of edge-plasma recycling and radiation cooling within the overall pattern of tokamak heat flow. (3) Noncentral auxiliary heating (with a ''hollow'' power-deposition profile) should serve to raise the central tokamak plasma temperature without deterioration of central region confinement, thus facilitating the study of alpha-heating effects in TFTR. The experimental results of regime (3) support the theory that tokamak profile consistency is related to resistive kink stability and that the global energy confinement time is determined by transport properties of the plasma edge region

  10. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  11. Unified flow regime predictions at earth gravity and microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the mechanistic models developed to predict flow regime transitions at earth gravity for various pipe inclinations can be successfully applied to existing microgravity flow regime data from several experiments. There is a tendency in the literature for flow regime comparisons in several inclination ranges and at various gravity (acceleration) levels to be treated by separate models, resulting in a proliferation of models for the prediction of flow regimes. One set of mechanistic models can be used to model the transitions between stratified, slug, bubbly, and annular flow regimes in pipes for all acceleration vectors and magnitudes from earth gravity to microgravity

  12. Review of 12-hour shifts at nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, A.; Moray, N.P.

    1989-04-01

    This project reviewed the practice of 12-hour shift work schedules at nuclear power plants, and its relationship to safety. The current literature was examined for information on accidents, fatigue and personal preferences. Interviews with operators and maintainers showed that these groups had attitude and preference differences related to both 12 hour shift schedules and overtime work opportunities. Several factors related to 12-hour schedules were identified which could affect safety, but which have not been adequately considered. (24 refs.)

  13. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Less than 24-hour duty. 785.21 Section 785.21 Labor...

  14. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  15. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...

  16. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  17. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Giorgos; Kalush, Michael; O.'Flynn, Hugh; Rossiter, Jack; Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming ...

  18. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of...

  19. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  20. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  1. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. This is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). Men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. Both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  2. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as 60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  3. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility

  4. Do economic stresses influence child work hours on family farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.

  5. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." excerpt

  6. The declining demand for hospital care as a rationale for duty hour reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; DePasse, Jacqueline W; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of duty hours of physicians in training remains among the most hotly debated subjects in medical education. Although recent duty hour reforms have been chiefly motivated by concerns about resident well-being and medical errors attributable to resident fatigue, the debate surrounding duty hour reform has infrequently involved discussion of one of the most important secular changes in hospital care that has affected nearly all developed countries over the last 3 decades: the declining demand for hospital care. For example, in 1980, we show that resident physicians in US teaching hospitals provided, on average, 1,302 inpatient days of care per resident physician compared to 593 inpatient days in 2011, a decline of 54%. This decline in the demand for hospital care by residents provides an under-recognized economic rationale for reducing residency duty hours, a rationale based solely on supply and demand considerations. Work hour reductions and growing requirements for outpatient training can be seen as an appropriate response to the shrinking demand for hospital care across the health-care sector.

  7. Fire Regime Characteristics along Environmental Gradients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vanesa Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concern regarding global change has increased the need to understand the relationship between fire regime characteristics and the environment. Pyrogeographical theory suggests that fire regimes are constrained by climate, vegetation and fire ignition processes, but it is not obvious how fire regime characteristics are related to those factors. We used a three-matrix approach with a multivariate statistical methodology that combined an ordination method and fourth-corner analysis for hypothesis testing to investigate the relationship between fire regime characteristics and environmental gradients across Spain. Our results suggest that fire regime characteristics (i.e., density and seasonality of fire activity are constrained primarily by direct gradients based on climate, population, and resource gradients based on forest potential productivity. Our results can be used to establish a predictive model for how fire regimes emerge in order to support fire management, particularly as global environmental changes impact fire regime characteristics.

  8. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes......, and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...... regime in whichthe monetary authority optimises preferences which include an employment targetand an inflation target. As government spending affects the representativeindividual's utility, the choice of exchange rate regime has an impact on welfare.Keywords: exchange rate regimes; fiscal policy...

  9. The concept of regime values: Are revitalization and regime change possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, P.

    2015-01-01

    Among the plethora of public values, one special class is that of “regime values.” This notion plays a central role in the constitutional approach to public administration mainly developed by the late John A. Rohr. In this article, an attempt is made to assess the viability of Rohr’s concept of

  10. Do housing regimes matter? : Assessing the concept of housing regimes through configurations of housing outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a conceptualisation of de-commodification as the right to decent and affordable housing, we assessed to what extent this right is realised for low-to-moderate-income owners and renters across Western European housing regimes in 1995 and 2012. If differences in the social production of

  11. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  12. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  13. Proliferation studies for different radiotherapy fractionation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: This study was undertaken to investigate extended treatment schedules and compare the differences between schedules for highly proliferative tumours. Treatment schedules can be extended for various reasons e.g. public holidays, early side effects. For highly proliferative tumours this can dramatically reduce the effective dose delivered to the tumour. To deduce the most effective schedule fractionation regimes are compared to a common schedule so that the effects can be understood. Thus an equation to allow this to be done for the proliferative case has been derived. (i) The linear quadratic model with proliferation has been used to investigate the effect on biological effective dose (BED) when treatment schedules are extended. (ii) An equation was derived for comparison with a standard effective dose (SED) of 2Gy/fraction given daily 5 days per week, this is a common schedule in most radiotherapy centres. The SED equation derived for the proliferative case is where n 1 and n 2 are the number of fractions for the initial and equivalent schedules respectively, d 1 is the dose delivered per fraction for the initial schedules. T 1 is the time taken for the initial schedule (in days) and T p is the proliferation half life for the tumour involved. SEDs were calculated for the CHART regime of 36 fractions at 1.5 Gy in 12 days (Saunders et al. 1988, cited in Fowler J F, Brit. J. Radiol. 62: 679-694, 1989) and various other schedules. Late effects of these schedules and their standard equivalents were compared. The dose required to achieve the same BED when a treatment schedule is extended has been found to be quite large in some circumstances. For breast tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED to tumour occurs after ten days extension of treatment time (T p =12 days,T k =12 days). For head and neck tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED occurs after only three and a half days (T p =3 days). From these results it seems that an accelerated fractionation schedule would be advantageous

  14. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  15. Working 40 Hours or Not Working 39: Lessons from the 1981 Mandatory Reduction of Weekly Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Crépon, Bruno; Kramarz, Francis

    1999-01-01

    We use longitudinal individual wage, hours, and employment data to investigate the effect of the 1981 mandatory reduction of weekly working hours in France. A few months after François Mitterrand's election of May 1981, the government, applying its programme decided first to increase the minimum wage by 5% and, second, to reduce weekly working hours - from 40 to 39 - together with mandatory stability of monthly earnings of minimum wage workers and strong recommendation for stability of monthl...

  16. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  17. Heart Rate Variability in Obstetricians Working 14-Hour Call Compared to 24-Hour Call in Labour and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robin H; Yoon, Eugene; Murphy, Kellie E; Windrim, Rory; Farrugia, M Michéle

    2017-12-01

    Obstetricians have stressful and demanding jobs that may impact their health. A physiological measurement of cardiac function which varies with stress is heart rate variability (HRV). By measuring the cyclic variations in R-R intervals, or beat-to-beat differences, HRV reflects the continuous interplay of the controlling forces in the autonomic nervous system. Studies have shown HRV to be reduced during periods of work-induced stress, including 24-hour shifts. Our study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between length of shift worked and HRV. We hypothesised that working for a full 24-hour period is more stressful than a shorter, nighttime-only period, and HRV analyses were used to measure this objectively. Obstetricians wore an HRV monitor for 24 hours during both a regular day followed by a 14-hour night shift and a continuous 24-hour shift in labour and delivery. The 24-hour samples were analysed using standard HRV measurements. HRV measurements obtained from each physician were then compared according to shift type, with each physician acting as his or her own comparator. There were no statistically significant differences in the most important measures of HRV between 24-hour periods which included either a 14-hour overnight shift or a continuous 24-hour shift on labour and delivery. We found no significant differences in key HRV measures in obstetricians working 14 hours versus 24 hours in labour and delivery. An anecdotal increase in physician awareness of his/her own health related to working conditions was noted during the study. Future studies should attempt to control for the hours prior to a night shift, assess associated endocrine variations, and focus upon HRV in the post-shift period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Spies, Thomas A.; Peterson, David L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests. Subsequently, we focus on resilience as a powerful concept to quantify and address these changes and their impacts, and present an approach towards its operational application using established methods from disturbance ecology. 3. We suggest using the range of variability concept – characterizing and bounding the long-term behaviour of ecosystems – to locate and delineate the basins of attraction of a system. System recovery in relation to its range of variability can be used to measure resilience of ecosystems, allowing inferences on both engineering resilience (recovery rate) and monitoring for regime shifts (directionality of recovery trajectory). 4. It is important to consider the dynamic nature of these properties in ecosystem analysis and management decision-making, as both disturbance processes and mechanisms of resilience will be subject to changes in the future. Furthermore, because ecosystem services are at the interface between natural and human systems, the social dimension of resilience (social adaptive capacity and range of variability) requires consideration in responding to changing disturbance regimes in forests. 5. Synthesis and applications. Based on examples from temperate and boreal forests we synthesize principles and pathways for fostering resilience to changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. We

  19. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  20. Antecedents of Teachers Fostering Effort within Two Different Management Regimes: An Assessment-Based Accountability Regime and Regime without External Pressure on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of organizational antecedents of teachers' fostering of students' effort in two quite different accountability regimes: one management regime with an external-accountability system and one with no external accountability devices. The methodology involves cross-sectional surveys from two different management…

  1. Dynamic portfolio optimization across hidden market regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Regime-based asset allocation has been shown to add value over rebalancing to static weights and, in particular, reduce potential drawdowns by reacting to changes in market conditions. The predominant approach in previous studies has been to specify in advance a static decision rule for changing...... the allocation based on the state of financial markets or the economy. In this article, model predictive control (MPC) is used to dynamically optimize a portfolio based on forecasts of the mean and variance of financial returns from a hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters. There are computational...... than a buy-and-hold investment in various major stock market indices. This is after accounting for transaction costs, with a one-day delay in the implementation of allocation changes, and with zero-interest cash as the only alternative to the stock indices. Imposing a trading penalty that reduces...

  2. The metabolic regimes of flowing waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Emily S.; Heffernan, Jim B.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Stanley, Emily H.; Harvey, Judson; Arroita, M.; Appling, Alison; Cohen, M.J.; McDowell, William H.; Hall, R.O.; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, B.J.; Stets, Edward; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2018-01-01

    The processes and biomass that characterize any ecosystem are fundamentally constrained by the total amount of energy that is either fixed within or delivered across its boundaries. Ultimately, ecosystems may be understood and classified by their rates of total and net productivity and by the seasonal patterns of photosynthesis and respiration. Such understanding is well developed for terrestrial and lentic ecosystems but our understanding of ecosystem phenology has lagged well behind for rivers. The proliferation of reliable and inexpensive sensors for monitoring dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide is underpinning a revolution in our understanding of the ecosystem energetics of rivers. Here, we synthesize our current understanding of the drivers and constraints on river metabolism, and set out a research agenda aimed at characterizing, classifying and modeling the current and future metabolic regimes of flowing waters.

  3. Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, Michael D.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Kanel et al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. 'Failure' (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study we have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime

  4. Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Garcia, P. D.; Ek, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanoscale optical devices for classical and quantum photonics is affected by unavoidable fabrication imperfections that often impose performance limitations. However, disorder may also enable new functionalities, for example in random lasers, where lasing relies on random...... multiple scattering. The applicability of random lasers has been limited due to multidirectional emission, lack of tunability, and strong mode competition with chaotic fluctuations due to a weak mode confinement. The regime of Anderson localization of light has been proposed for obtaining stable multimode...... random lasing, and initial work concerned macroscopic one-dimensional layered media. Here, we demonstrate on-chip random nanolasers where the cavity feedback is provided by the intrinsic disorder. The strong confinement achieved by Anderson localization reduces the spatial overlap between lasing modes...

  5. Il futuro regime dei tassi di cambio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WILLIAMSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When the Committee of Twenty decided to rename the exchange-rate regime rather than reform it, some two weeks after the system had collapsed, it immediately became clear that the ambitious attempt to write a new monetary constitution for the world had failed. If future attempts to reform world monetary relations are not to be equally doomed to failure, a primary requirement is a more realistic approach to this central issue. Accordingly, this paper is devoted to a consideration of the type of approach that wold be required. The author considers what solutions are feasible, managed floating versus crawling par values, the reference rate proposal and reference rates as the basis for a reformed system. JEL: E42, F33

  6. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... and how frequently the 11th hour is used. It seeks data on how much of the 11th hour is used when a... soliciting information on patterns of work for night drivers: 2a. For drivers who always drive at night, what... Act restrictions which prohibit Agency officials from engaging in policy discussions about open...

  7. How a Reduction of Standard Working Hours Affects Employment Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    On December 1, 1996, a new law was implemented in Portugal to gradually reduce the stan- dard working week from 44 to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory reduction affected employment through job creation and job destruction. We find evidence that the working hours reduction had a positive effect

  8. The future of work hours--the European view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2005-01-01

    In Europe the way work hours are handled varies between different countries. However, there are some issues that dominate the discussion in Europe and seem representative for what is happening. One such is the reduction of working hours--which was attempted in several countries but which now seems to be backfiring--probably related to the competition from countries outside Europe. Another area is compressed work hours--the drive towards maximizing the hours per work day in order to increase the number of days off. The health effects are debated--some find clear positive effects. A third area is company oriented flexible work hours, permitting the employer to make moderate changes in work hours when needed. The health impacts have not been evaluated but the loss of individual influence at work is obvious. In some parts of Europe self-determined work hours have been tried with very positive effects. The EU work hour directive is intended to provide uniformity but permits a counterproductive "opting out", creating problems of imbalance.

  9. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are...

  10. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these...

  11. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the...

  12. Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mortality within the first 24 hours of admission was recorded among patients with malaria (89.0%) followed by protein energy malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Majority of deaths among emergency paediatric admission occur within the first 24 hours of admission and are associated with clinical conditions such as ...

  13. With long hours of work, might depression then lurk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Marott, Jacob Louis; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship.......The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship....

  14. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  15. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  16. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models.

  17. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3..., DC 20581. It is open each day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays, from 8:15 a.m...

  18. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1988-06-01

    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs

  19. Nonadiabatic effects in the Quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.A.; Brown, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors consider the effect of a finite electric field on the states of a Bloch electron in two dimensions, with a uniform magnetic field present. They make use of the concept of electric time translation symmetry and treat the electric and magnetic fields symmetrically in a time dependent formalism. In addition to a wave vector k, the states are characterized by a frequency specifying the behavior under electric time translations. An effective Hamiltonian is employed to obtain the splitting of an isolated Bloch band into open-quotes frequencyclose quotes subbands. The time-averaged velocity and energy of the states are expressed in terms of the frequency dispersion. The relationship to the Stark ladder eigenstates in a scalar potential representation of the electric field is examined. This is seen to justify the use of the averaged energy in determining occupation of the states. In the weak electric field (adiabatic) limit, an expression is recovered for the quantized Hall conductivity of a magnetic subband as a topological invariant. A numerical procedure is outlined and results obtained over a range of electric field strengths. A transition between strong and weak field regimes is seen, with level repulsions between the frequencies playing an important role. The numerical results show how the magnetic subband structure and quantized Hall conductivity emerge as the electric field becomes weaker. In this regime, the behavior can be understood by comparison to the predictions of the adiabatic approximation. The latter predicts crossings in the frequencies at certain locations in wave vector space. Nonadiabatic effects are seen to produce gaps in the frequency spectrum at these locations. 35 refs., 14 figs

  20. The role of the media in establishing international security regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan Naveh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses primarily on the media's impact on international security regimes. It explores the ways in which the media affect the lifecycles of international regimes, from the time they are first conceived of, through their establishment, consolidation and stabilization, up until their ultimate demise. Although this paper highlights the media's role in the evolution of security regimes, it is clear that, regardless of the regime in question, media play a role throughout the lifecycle of all international regimes, whatever their character. In order to analyze the relationships of the media with security regimes in general, and specifically their contribution to each stage in their development, the article utilizes methodologies from the field of communication studies. It examines the media's agenda, "news values" and various functions, and their ability to mobilize public support for the particular issue of the regime. To date, most studies have explored the interaction between media communication patterns and global developments at the state level, or in relation to the formulation of foreign policy, while largely ignoring the international dimension of the relationship. This article attempts to remedy this situation, and the relevant processes are analysed in a case study of the anti-Iraq international security regime. It should be noted that although the paper focuses on the specific anti-Iraqi regime, it is part of a more general Anti-Rogue actors regime which includes the war against global terrorism. The study of the development of the anti-Iraq press-security regime teaches us that during international crises the media mobilize and unanimously support the regime fighting the "bad guys." But, when the regime develops and enters disputed turfs and begins to lose its legitimacy, media support diminishes, and the media may even develop into an opposing force and may join the actors fighting against this regime. Moreover, the study of

  1. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  2. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    long hours (≤55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years...... of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0......Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...

  3. Factors influencing accruement of contact hours for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsch, Sylvia; Henniges, Amy; Lorenzoni, Nancy; Eckardt, Sally; Oleniczak, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    A decline in attendance at continuing education (CE) in nursing activities was observed in a Midwest state where CE attendance is not required. The purpose of this research study was to identify the effect of attitude, extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement, and deterrents on contact hour accrual. A convenience sample of 282 registered nurses was surveyed using a researcher-constructed instrument determined to be valid and reliable. Registered nurses earning 0 to 15 contact hours annually reported accruing fewer contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Registered nurses who earned 16 to 45+ contact hours annually reported earning more contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Intrinsic reinforcement was found to be a significant motivator (r [257] = .242; p Operant Conditioning Theory has use in explaining registered nurse attendance at CE activities. CE planners should consider placing more emphasis on intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement to encourage staff to attend CE activities.

  4. Duty hour reform in a shifting medical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Prasad, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The circumstances that led to the death of Libby Zion in 1984 prompted national discussions about the impact of resident fatigue on patient outcomes. Nearly 30 years later, national duty hour reforms largely motivated by patient safety concerns have demonstrated a negligible impact of duty hour reductions on patient mortality. We suggest that the lack of an impact of duty hour reforms on patient mortality is due to a different medical landscape today than existed in 1984. Improvements in quality of care made possible by computerized order entry, automated medication checks, inpatient pharmacists, and increased resident supervision have, among other systemic changes, diminished the adverse impact that resident fatigue is able to have on patient outcomes. Given this new medical landscape, advocacy towards current and future duty hour reforms may be best justified by evidence of the impact of duty hour reform on resident wellbeing, education, and burnout.

  5. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Randall, R

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD. We also collected socio- and occupational-demographic data. We defined long working hours as ≥49 h in a typical week in accordance with 48-h weekly limit specified in the 1993 European Directive on the Organisation of Working Time. We established associations between long working hours and self-reported CMDs using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounding variables. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 327/1226) of respondents reported long working hours. The ORs for psychological distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.68), emotional exhaustion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), and depersonalization (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.71) were significantly increased for long working hours after adjustment for socio- and occupational-demographic characteristics. More than one quarter of sampled police officers reported working long hours and were significantly more likely to report CMD. National and longitudinal research is required to confirm these findings, which suggest management of working hours may effectively promote psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long hours in paid and domestic work and subsequent sickness absence: does control over daily working hours matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mursula, L; Vahtera, J; Kouvonen, A; Väänänen, A; Linna, A; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2006-09-01

    To explore the associations of working hours (paid, domestic, commuting, and total) with sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations vary according to the level of employee control over daily working hours. Prospective cohort study among 25 703 full-time public sector employees in 10 towns in Finland. A survey of working hours and control over working hours was carried out in 2000-01. The survey responses were linked with register data on the number of self-certified (3 days) sickness absences until the end of 2003. Poisson regression analyses with generalised estimating equations were used to take into account the fact that the employees were nested within work units. Adjustments were made for work and family characteristics and health behaviour. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 (SD 8.1) months. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. In contrast, long paid working hours were associated with lower rates of subsequent self-certified sickness absences. Long commuting hours were related to increased rates of sickness absence of both types. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men and self-certified absences for the men. In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

  7. Altered stream-flow regimes and invasive plant species: The Tamarix case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J.C.; Lite, S.J.; Marler, R.; Paradzick, C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Shorrock, D.; White, J.M.; White, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that anthropogenic alteration of stream-flow regimes is a key driver of compositional shifts from native to introduced riparian plant species. Location: The arid south-western United States; 24 river reaches in the Gila and Lower Colorado drainage basins of Arizona. Methods: We compared the abundance of three dominant woody riparian taxa (native Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and introduced Tamarix) between river reaches that varied in stream-flow permanence (perennial vs. intermittent), presence or absence of an upstream flow-regulating dam, and presence or absence of municipal effluent as a stream water source. Results: Populus and Salix were the dominant pioneer trees along the reaches with perennial flow and a natural flood regime. In contrast, Tamarix had high abundance (patch area and basal area) along reaches with intermittent stream flows (caused by natural and cultural factors), as well as those with dam-regulated flows. Main conclusions: Stream-flow regimes are strong determinants of riparian vegetation structure, and hydrological alterations can drive dominance shifts to introduced species that have an adaptive suite of traits. Deep alluvial groundwater on intermittent rivers favours the deep-rooted, stress-adapted Tamarix over the shallower-rooted and more competitive Populus and Salix. On flow-regulated rivers, shifts in flood timing favour the reproductively opportunistic Tamarix over Populus and Salix, both of which have narrow germination windows. The prevailing hydrological conditions thus favour a new dominant pioneer species in the riparian corridors of the American Southwest. These results reaffirm the importance of reinstating stream-flow regimes (inclusive of groundwater flows) for re-establishing the native pioneer trees as the dominant forest type. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, N

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and "ikigai" (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox's multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an "ikigai" (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and "ikigai" are important factors for longevity in the elderly.

  9. Gender-specific dynamics in hours worked : Exploring the potential for increasing hours worked in an ageing society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, Jouke; Karlsson, Charlie; Andersson, Martin; Norman, Therese

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch labour market differs from that of other countries due to a unique combination of high employment rates and a low average number of hours worked. Dutch employment rates are among the highest in the world, at 77 per cent in 2011. At the same time, the average number of hours worked annually

  10. A Framework to Assess the Cumulative Hydrological Impacts of Dams on flow Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we proposed a framework to assess the cumulative impact of dams on hydrological regime, and the impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on flow regime in Yangtze River were investigated with the framework. We reconstructed the unregulated flow series to compare with the regulated flow series in the same period. Eco-surplus and eco-deficit and the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration parameters were used to examine the hydrological regime change. Among IHA parameters, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Principal Components Analysis identified the representative indicators of hydrological alterations. Eco-surplus and eco-deficit showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows in autumn and winter. Annual extreme flows and October flows changes lead to negative ecological implications downstream from the Three Gorges Dam. Ecological operation for the Three Gorges Dam is necessary to mitigate the negative effects on the river ecosystem in the middle reach of Yangtze River. The framework proposed here could be a robust method to assess the cumulative impacts of reservoir operation.

  11. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  12. Are long physician working hours harmful to patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Pediatricians of Japanese hospitals including not only residents but also attending physicians work long hours, and 8% work for >79 h per week. Most of them work consecutively for >or=32 h when they are on call. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long work hours on patient safety. The electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE to searched identify the English- and Japanese-language literature for studies on work hours, medical errors, patient safety, and malpractice for years 1966-2005. Studies that analyzed the relationship between physician work hours and outcomes directly related to patient safety were selected. Seven studies met the criteria. Four studies suggest that reduction of work hours has a favorable effect on patient safety indicators. In the other three studies no significant changes of the indicators were observed, but no report found that shorter work hours were harmful to patient safety. Decrease of physician work hours is not harmful but favorable to patient safety.

  13. A new approach for evaluating flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Ole; Janssen, Daniela; Schomann, Carsten; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on flexible working hours show at least some of these working time arrangements seem to be associated with impairing effects of health and well-being. According to available evidence, variability of working hours seems to play an important role. The question, however, is how this variability can be assessed and used to explain or predict impairments. Based on earlier methods used to assess shift-work effects, a time series analysis approach was applied to the matter of flexible working hours. Data on the working hours of 4 week's length of 137 respondents derived from a survey on flexible work hours involving 15 companies of different production and service sectors in Germany were converted to time series and analyzed by spectral analysis. A cluster analysis of the resulting power spectra yielded 5 clusters of flexible work hours. Analyzing these clusters for differences in reported impairments showed that workers who showed suppression of circadian and weekly rhythms experienced severest impairments, especially in circadian controlled functions like sleep and digestion. The results thus indicate that analyzing the periodicity of flexible working hours seems to be a promising approach for predicting impairments which should be investigated further in the future.

  14. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Bonning, Michael; Mitchell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work-life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors' working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices.

  15. [A systematic review of working hours and mental health burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi

    2006-07-01

    There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of

  16. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  17. Exchange-rate regimes and economic growth: An empirical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Sosvilla-Rivero; María del Carmen Ramos-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Based on a dataset of 123 economies, this paper empirically investigates the relation between exchange-rate regimes and economic growth. We find that growth performance is best under intermediate exchange rate regimes, while the smallest growth rates are associated with flexible exchange rates. Nevertheless, this conclusion is tempered when we analyze the countries by income level: even though countries that adopt intermediate exchange-rate regimes are characterized by higher economic growth,...

  18. Nova Scotia's new gas distribution regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, J.B. [Cox Hanson O' Reilly Matheson, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The most recent amendments to Nova Scotia's gas distribution regime were described in detail. The amended legislation includes: (1) elimination of mandatory service targets, (2) franchise terms of 25 years, (3) a 10 year prohibition on industrial by-pass, (4) gas sales licenses are now required to market gas in Nova Scotia, (5) distributors can offer bundled services, (6) the elimination of province wide uniform tolls for low volume customers, (7) public utilities are permitted to apply for a distribution franchise and to market natural gas, (8) ex-party filing of interim rates, (9) the Pipeline Act applies to the construction of gas distribution systems, (10) socio-economic studies are required for parties seeking a single-end user franchise outside a franchise area, and (11) regulations for underground gas storage have been removed from the legislation. It was noted that these significant changes to the statutory framework of Nova Scotia's delivery of natural gas are sending encouraging signals to parties considering investing in the distribution network in the province. It was also noted, that as in any industry, success of natural gas distribution in Nova Scotia will depend on economics and not on structural changes. 66 refs.

  19. Fisheries regulatory regimes and resilience to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Elena; Pearlman, Isaac; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i.e., the SES) to absorb change while avoiding transformation into a different undesirable state. We then evaluate the capacity of four fisheries regulatory systems that vary in their degree of property rights, including open access, limited entry, and two types of rights-based management, to increase or inhibit resilience. Our exploratory assessment of evidence in the literature suggests that these regulatory regimes vary widely in their ability to promote resilient fisheries, with rights-based approaches appearing to offer more resilience benefits in many cases, but detailed characteristics of the regulatory instruments are fundamental.

  20. Maturity of natural gas industry and viability of competitive regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1992-01-01

    The access of natural gas industries to maturity, which is characterized by the high density of the pipeline networks and the relative saturation of needs, would allow the introduction of the competitive regime and the questioning of the common organizational model of vertical quasi-integration and regulated territorial monopoly. In the new model, the industries could be organized around a wholesale market, with direct transactions between producers and distributors or buyers, such as the American experiment of deregulation of the access to the pipelines shows it. But the cost-benefit balance of this experiment is quite mitigated, by referring to efficiency and fiability criteria. Improvements in flexibility and in rationalized behaviour on the short run can be observed. But the agents being faced to the difficulty to appreciate the investment risk, nothing seems to guarantee the adaptation of the supply to the demand on the long run. In Europe, less favorable basic conditions (highly capital intensive supply sources, fewer producers, fragmented political space) in a context of a renewed growth of the market require to identify carefully the acceptable forms of competition. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  1. On the Measures to Strengthen the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental safety objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The intent and purpose of safety principles are to be applicable throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce radiation risks. Now as the nuclear option is being revisited in many places, a variety of stake holders will seek participation in such decisions. Nuclear and radiological accidents occurred wide world have served to arouse public concern. The development of here-and-now media capabilities have created an awareness that may not have previously existed. Improvement in educational systems and the development of the internet have made technical information and expertise available to individuals and locations that were previously without them. The core of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime (INSAG Series No.21) for nuclear installations are the activities undertaken by each state to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. National efforts can be strengthened by: intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, multinational networks among scientists, the international nuclear industry, and the stake holders (public, news media, NGO's) that are engaged in Nuclear Safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety

  2. Impact of new duty-hour rules on residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis

    2010-11-01

    On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.

  3. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  4. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. 76 FR 50359 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., with FAST requiring an effectiveness score greater than or equal to its threshold, and FAID requiring a... section 3 [49 U.S.C. 21105]) and hostlers.'' Other employees, such as food service providers or sleeping... evening that may affect one's fatigue and alertness. Because of natural circadian rhythms and...

  6. 76 FR 16199 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... hostlers.'' Other employees, such as food service providers or sleeping car attendants, who may work on... day. Because of natural circadian rhythms and environmental and social factors, most people are able... Effectiveness (SAFTE) model and Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool TM (FAST) that have been validated and...

  7. An Examination of Commercial Motor Vehicle Hours of Service Safety Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    moved to further expand the knowledge with respect to the incentives provided to truck drivers through the lens of perishable inventory theory and its...method utilizing the theoretical foundation of perishable inventory theory , and 3) a statistical analysis on accidents caused by or involving truck...truck driving industry. Perishable inventory theory is used to understand how companies and truck drivers operate within this regulatory

  8. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  9. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  10. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Dresen, Monique Frings; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious distinction is where the influence over the working hours lies, that is between the "company-based flexibility" and the "individual-oriented flexibility"; (b) The review of the Legislation in force in the 15 European countries shows that the regulation of working times is quite extensive and covers (Council Directive 93/104/EC) almost all the various arrangements of working hours (i.e., part-time, overtime, shift, and night work), but fails to provide for flexibility; (c) According to the data of the Third EU Survey on Working Conditions, longer and "irregular" working hours are in general linked to lower levels of health and well-being; moreover, low (individual) flexibility and high variability of working hours (i.e., company-based flexibility) were consistently associated with poor health and well-being, while low variability combined with high autonomy showed positive effects; (d) Six substudies from different countries demonstrated that flexible working hours vary according to country, economic sector, social status, and gender; overtime is the most frequent form of company-based flexibility but has negative effects on stress, sleep, and social and mental health; individual flexibility alleviates the negative effects of the company-based flexibility on subjective health, safety, and social well-being; (e) The literature review was able to list more than 1,000 references, but it was striking that most of these documents were mainly argumentative with very little empirical data. Thus, one may conclude that there is a large-scale intervention ongoing in our society with almost completely unknown and uncontrolled effects. Consequently, there is a strong need for systematic

  11. Experimental study of steam condensation regime map for simplified spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jun, H. K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to produce a condensation regime map for single-hole and 4-hole steam spargers using GIRLS facility. The regime map for a single-hole sparger was derived using parameters such as the frequency and magnitude of the dynamic pressure. For 4-hole sparager, the regime map was derived using the trends of sound and dynamic pressure. Using the single-hole and 4-hole data, a steam jet condensation regime map was suggested with respect to pool temperature and steam mass flux

  12. Institutional change to support regime transformation: Lessons from Australia's water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeloff, Lara; Brown, Rebekah; Cocklin, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Institutional change is fundamental to regime transformation, and a necessary part of moving toward integrated water management. However, insight into the role of institutional change processes in such transitions is currently limited. A more nuanced understanding of institutional frameworks is necessary, both to advance understanding of institutional change in the context of transitions toward improved water management and to inform strategies for guiding such processes. To this end, we examine two contemporary cases of transformative change in Australia's urban water sector, exploring the evolution of institutional change in each city. This paper offers insights into regime transformation, providing guidance on types of institutional structures and the ways structure-change initiatives can be sequenced to support a transition. The results reveal the importance of regulation in embedding regime change and suggest that engagement with structural frameworks should begin early in transition processes to ensure the timely introduction of supporting regulation. Our findings also highlight the inextricable link between culture-based and structure-based change initiatives, and the importance of using a diverse range of institutional change mechanisms in a mutually reinforcing way to provide a strong foundation for change. These findings provide a foundation for further scholarly examination of institutional change mechanisms, while also serving to inform the strategic activities of transition-oriented organizations and actors.

  13. Strengthening the Global Nuclear Safety Regime. INSAG-21. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of safety at nuclear installations. Its core is the activities undertaken by each country to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. But national efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate nuclear safety - intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, the international nuclear industry, multinational networks among scientists, international standards setting organizations and other stakeholders such as the public, news media and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are engaged in nuclear safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety. The existing Global Nuclear Safety Regime is functioning at an effective level today. But its impact on improving safety could be enhanced by pursuing some measured change. This report recommends action in the following areas: - Enhanced use of the review meetings of the Convention on Nuclear Safety as a vehicle for open and critical peer review and a source for learning about the best safety practices of others; - Enhanced utilization of IAEA Safety Standards for the harmonization of national safety regulations, to the extent feasible; - Enhanced exchange of operating experience for improving operating and regulatory practices; and - Multinational cooperation in the safety review of new nuclear power plant designs. These actions, which are described more fully in this report, should serve to enhance the effectiveness of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  14. Hospitalized Patients' Perceptions of Resident Fatigue, Duty Hours, and Continuity of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Brian C; Hyman, Charles H; Ghaderi, Kimeya F; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Joshua; Thompson, Jordan M; Fischer, Staci A

    2014-12-01

    Physicians' perceptions of duty hour regulations have been closely examined, yet patient opinions have been largely unstudied to date. We studied patient perceptions of residency duty hours, fatigue, and continuity of care following implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2011 Common Program Requirements. A cross-sectional survey was administered between June and August 2013 to inpatients at a large academic medical center and an affiliated community hospital. Adult inpatients on teaching medical and surgical services were eligible for inclusion in the study. Survey response rate was 71.3% (513 of 720). Most respondents (57.1%, 293 of 513) believed residents should not be assigned to shifts longer than 12 hours, and nearly half (49.7%, 255 of 513) wanted to be notified if a resident caring for them had worked longer than 12 hours. Most patients (63.2%, 324 of 513) believed medical errors commonly occurred because of fatigue, and fewer (37.4%, 192 of 513; odds ratio, 0.56; P care. Given the choice between a familiar physician who "may be tired from a long shift" or a "fresh" physician who had received sign-out, more patients chose the fresh but unfamiliar physician (57.1% [293 of 513] versus 42.7% [219 of 513], P care.

  15. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  16. Oil and gas fiscal regime review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Poor levels of oil and gas industry profitability, declining activity, and increasing provincial budgetary pressures led to formation of a joint government/industry committee to review fiscal systems in the oil and gas industry and identify areas for potential change. An overview is presented of the development of oil and gas resources in Saskatchewan, showing that reserves and production peaked in 1966. Although reserves and production declined steadily until the early 1980s, some growth has occurred in the past decade, largely due to the influence of horizontal drilling. The province's oil and gas royalty structure is then summarized, giving the classes of oil and gas production and the royalty applicable to each class, as well as incentives available to encourage exploration and development activity. Opportunities for increased exploration and development are identified in two categories (existing wells and new wells) and impacts of possible changes in the existing royalty and incentive regime are discussed. Recommendations are provided to promote new capital investment in the industry and to extend the economic life of existing wells which are at or near the point of abandonment or suspension. 40 figs., 16 tabs

  17. Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.

  18. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  19. Electricity transport regimes: their impact on cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, Erwan [COGEN, Europe (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    In many cases the main product of cogeneration is heat and the surplus electricity is sold to the grid. However, the economics of cogeneration can be influenced by transport networks (transmission and distribution): the structure of network pricing is relatively new. In a recent note from COGEN Europe it was recommended that cogenerators who use only the local distribution system should not pay for the transmission system and that tariffs should be structured in sufficient detail for the advantages of decentralisation to be realised. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) why is this important? (the omission of the transmission element reduces the overall price of cogeneration); (ii) the advantages of decentralised cogeneration; (iv) the theory - the different systems (the European Directive on electricity market liberalization); (v) the options for transport fees; (vi) current regimes in some EU states (vii) the case of transborder transport; impact of each system on cogeneration; recommendations to policymakers; (viii) the Netherlands and (ix) the UK.

  20. On the ontological emergence from quantum regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Damian [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    There are several views on the relation between quantum physics and theory of relativity (especially General Relativity, GR). A popular perspective is this: GR with its macroscopic gravitational effects will turn out to be a limit of a more fundamental theory which should consider discrete physics and not deal with continuity (like theory of relativity). Thus, GR will emerge from a more basic theory, which should be quantum-like. One could call this an epistemic emergence view towards fundamental theories. The question is, given that scientific realism is valid: should emergence be a fundamental notion in our ontological view about the evolving, physical Universe? Is there an ontological emergence fully compatible with the notion of fundamentality? I argue that if we want to defend ontological emergence (from quantum to macroscopic regime) as something fundamental, we will arrive at the position of metaphysics of dispositions (and I argue, why this is undesirable), or conclude, that we cannot square fully fundamental ontology with the notion of emergence, and that we have to accept an ontological pluralism relativised to a certain scale. I defend the latter proposition, showing, that epistemic emergence doesn't entail (logically) ontological emergence.

  1. Revamp urged for Norway's offshore regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Norwegian government has come under renewed pressure from offshore operators to fine tune its licensing procedures and tax regime. The need for change was emphasized at the Advanced Petroleum Conference in Stavanger attended by senior personnel from companies active in the Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. Companies have had some success in the tax front, winning changes in proposals from Norway's Ministry of Finance for offshore tax reform. The changes were required to offset a general reduction in the corporate tax to 28% from 50.8%. Norsk Shell has told the government that in view of uncertainty about taxes it will not take part in the normal industry-government discussions about what acreage should be included in the 14th licensing round to be announced next year. This action does not bar Shell from participating in the licensing round when it gets under way. Shell has the if the tax package is not changed sharply in its passage through Storting it is unlikely to bid for new licenses

  2. On spinfoam models in large spin regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Muxin

    2014-01-01

    We study the semiclassical behavior of Lorentzian Engle–Pereira–Rovelli–Livine (EPRL) spinfoam model, by taking into account the sum over spins in the large spin regime. We also employ the method of stationary phase analysis with parameters and the so-called, almost analytic machinery, in order to find the asymptotic behavior of the contributions from all possible large spin configurations in the spinfoam model. The spins contributing the sum are written as J f = λj f , where λ is a large parameter resulting in an asymptotic expansion via stationary phase approximation. The analysis shows that at least for the simplicial Lorentzian geometries (as spinfoam critical configurations), they contribute the leading order approximation of spinfoam amplitude only when their deficit angles satisfy γ Θ-ring f ≤λ −1/2 mod 4πZ. Our analysis results in a curvature expansion of the semiclassical low energy effective action from the spinfoam model, where the UV modifications of Einstein gravity appear as subleading high-curvature corrections. (paper)

  3. busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    *Corresponding author tel: + 234 – 803 – 054 – 7650. BUSY HOUR ... demand, radio frequency (RF) optimization teams use the KPIs to ... In practice, the performance can be monitored at ..... [8] I. Kennedy, Lost Call Theory, Lecture Notes,.

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  5. effect of daylight hours on performance of growing grasscutters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    DNA.Many animals use the daily variation in the duration and quantity of melatonin ... such as reproduction, behavior, coat growth and ... behavioral processes in the biological system. The ... spends the daylight hours sleeping or resting. The.

  6. correlation between sunshine hours and climatic parameters at four

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    A multiple regression technique was used to assess the correlation between sunshine hours and maximum and ... solar radiation depends on the model and the climatic parameter used. ..... A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind ...

  7. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  8. U.S. Hourly Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Hourly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  9. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  10. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  11. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker’s marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  12. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic...

  13. Planning Annuaulised hours when spike in demand exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sureshkumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Manpower planning using annualised hours is an effective tool where seasonal demand for staff in industry exists. In annualised hours (AH workers are contracted to work for a certain number of hours per year. The workers are associated with relative efficiency for different types of tasks. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer linear Programming (MILP model to solve an annualised working hours planning problem when spike in demand exists. The holiday weeks for the workers are considered as partially individualised. If a worker has been assigned with more than one type of working week in a week, this will be compensated with one or more holiday week. The performance of the model is demonstrated with an example. It can be seen that this type of modelling helps to meet the spikes in demand with less capacity shortage compared with one working week in a week.

  14. Implementation and Evaluation of Flexible Work Hours; a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The flexible work hours program described is favorably received by both management and nonmanagement employees and positively influences the employees' perceived quality of life without causing a productivity loss. (Author/IRT)

  15. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ahmed, Kazi Ishtiak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods: The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970......–1971 and 1985–1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970–1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years......). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0...

  16. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  17. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes for women physicians who work reduced hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Gareis, Karen C; Barnett, Rosalind C

    2003-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of women physicians who work reduced hours in dual-earner couples and how such work schedules affect the quality of the marital role, parental role, and job role, as well as indicators of psychological distress, burnout, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age, working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Registry of Board Certification in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face close-ended interview after a 20-minute mailed questionnaire had been completed. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced-hours physicians completed the study, for a completion rate of 49.5%. There was no difference in age, number of years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, or presence of an infant in the home between reduced-hours and full-time physicians. Reduced-hours physicians, however, were more likely to be in a generalist specialty (40% vs. 12%, p = 0.001) and to spend a greater portion of their time in patient care (64.5% vs. 50.1%, p = 0.003) and less time in research (4.9% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.002) than full-time physicians. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the perception of work interfering with family life (1.8 vs. 1.7, p = 0.17; scale 1-7 with 7 high) or family life interfering with work (1.4 vs. 1.5, p = 0.62). Physicians who worked their preferred number of hours (25% of full-time and 57% of reduced-hours physicians), regardless of full-time (self-reported hours 35-90 hours per week) or reduced-hours (20-60 hours per week) status, reported better job role quality (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), schedule fit (r = 0.41, p Women physicians who work their preferred number of hours achieve the best balance of work and family outcomes.

  19. The Good, the Bad, and the 30 Hour Work Week

    OpenAIRE

    Sneberg, Ann Kristin; Andersen, Amalie Elizabeth Thune

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates why it is that an initiative such as 30 hour work weeks has not been morewidely implemented in organisations. The topic of stress and imbalance between work life andpersonal life seems to be growing more and more. Furthermore, the effects of the traditionalbusiness approach are being seen more and more on the environment. Therefore, there wouldappear to be a need for change. Yet, why is it, that when a suggestion such as reducing standardworking weeks to 30 hours, in...

  20. Appropriate working hours for surgical training according to Australasian trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (work practices were then correlated with sufficiency of training time, time for study, fatigue and its impacts, and work-life balance preferences. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 55.3% with responders representative of the total trainee body. Trainees who worked median 60 h/week (interquartile range: 55-65) considered their work hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.