WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulated electric utilities

  1. A NOx control regulation for electric utility boilers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions is becoming an increasingly important part of ozone attainment plans. As a part of its ozone attainment plan, the Ventura County (California) Air Pollution Control Board adopted in June, 1991, a regulation (Rule 59) to limit oxides of nitrogen emissions from four electrical utility boilers in the county. Rule development took two years and involved considerable public input. The emission limit for each of two 750 megawatt units is set at 0.10 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour net after June, 1994. The emission limit for each of two 215 megawatt units is 0.20 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour after June, 1996. Additional limitations are included for fuel oil operation. The rule does not specify an emission control technology. Conventional selective catalytic reduction, urea injection and combustion modifications are considered the technologies most likely to be used to comply. At $17,613 per ton of NO x reduced for the two large boilers and $8.992 per ton of NO x reduced for the small boilers, the rule is considered cost effective. The capital cost for conventional selective catalytic reduction systems on all four boilers is expected to be in excess of $210,000,000

  2. Incentive Regulation and Utility Benchmarking for Electricity Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Nepal, R.

    2014-01-01

    The incentive regulation of costs related to physical and cyber security in electricity networks is an important but relatively unexplored and ambiguous issue. These costs can be part of cost efficiency benchmarking or, alternatively, dealt with separately. This paper discusses the issues and proposes options for incorporating network security costs within incentive regulation in a benchmarking framework. The relevant concerns and limitations associated with the accounting and classification ...

  3. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  4. Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

  5. Utility regulation-The scope and structure of electrical safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Malcolm; Cohen, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition in the utilities sector, regulatory agencies have been created in each state to provide independent and authorative advice on matters such as electricity pricing, access to infrastructure, service quality and security of supply. In addition arrangements have been established to maintain safety standards in the industry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major issues that have arisen in the creation of regulatory agencies responsible for electrical safety standards in Australia and New Zealand, and how they have impacted on liberalised electricity markets. - Highlights: → Policies in Australia and New Zealand to increase competition have led to the creation of electrical safety agencies. → These agencies have been created in response to perceived market failures. → There is a variance in agencies in terms of their independence and industry coverage. → These agencies have been created at a time of falling fatalities.

  6. X - FACTOR EVALUATION UNDER RPI-X REGULATION FOR INDIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVAN KHETRAPAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With regulators’ growing interest in improving operational efficiency and quality supply, the time is nearing when performance based regulation will become norm for regulating the distribution tariff in Indian electricity distribution sector. In this context, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions proposed replacing rate-of-return regulation with most commonly used performance based regulatory regime, i.e., Price Cap regulation also known as RPI-X (Retail Price Index - Productivity Offset regulatory framework. However, the potential problem associated with applying price cap regulation scheme in practice is the determination of productivity offset or X factor used in price caps setting. This paper proposed an approach to calculate the X-factor for 58 government-owned and privately-owned electricity distribution utilities in India during a five year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. A Stochastic Frontier model through an input distance function is first applied to compute the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the estimated TFP is then used to calculate the utility-specific X-factor. With rely on calculated X-factor, the distribution utilities would be able to cap either on prices or revenues thus accounting the inflation in the tariff determination. This will be more realistic approach as compared to cost plus approach.

  7. Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Marie, S.M.

    1999-11-01

    As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete.

  8. Why electric utilities and affiliates are handicapped in a partly regulated and partly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Marie, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete

  9. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  10. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  11. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  12. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  13. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  14. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  15. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  16. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  17. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  19. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  20. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  1. Recycling of electric appliances. Utilization of the new EU regulation; Recycling von Elektrogeraeten. Nutzen der neuen EU-Richtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friege, Henning [Awista GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In the light of a shortage of resources the recycling of secondary raw materials and especially of metals from electric appliances is increasingly gaining importance. If one is to believe the announcements, everything is regulated in the best way. But when one considers closer the data from the recycling of resources and especially the non-ferric (NF) metals from electric and electronic appliances, this still is not a success story - we ought to write it.

  2. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  3. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  4. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  5. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  6. Markets for utility electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Every analysis of energy use, no matter what the sector or the country, has shown enormous opportunities for cost-effective conservation. Such opportunities should be identified and pursued wherever they appear. Because of its capital intensity and balance-of-payments implications on the supply side, and its potential to improve industrial efficiency and quality of life on the demand side, nowhere are such opportunities more critical than with electricity. Indeed, given the large and unsatisfied demand for electricity in those markets where it can be used efficiently, to ignore those opportunities is to invite ever more serious energy supply and demand problems. (author). 34 refs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix

  7. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  8. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  9. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  10. La regulación de los servicios de electricidad en Argentina y Brasil (1890-1962 Electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil (1890-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la regulación del sector eléctrico en Argentina y Brasil entre 1890 y 1960. Desde la instalación de las primeras usinas eléctricas a fines del siglo diecinueve hasta los años treinta, el control de las empresas concesionarias estuvo a cargo de las autoridades municipales en ambos países. No obstante, la similar estructura de los sistemas eléctricos en Argentina y en Brasil, la participación del estado en la regulación de este sector estratégico para el desarrollo económico, se produjo en diferentes coyunturas. Como resultado de la crisis de 1930, el gobierno brasileño transformó los principios jurídicos que reglamentaban la gestión de la electricidad aplicando un criterio de regulación discrecional; mientras que el estado argentino intervino una década más tarde, nacionalizando las empresas. Mediante la comparación de las trayectorias regulatorias en ambos países, se identifican las divergencias en las políticas eléctricas y su impacto en los sistemas eléctricos en los años de la segunda posguerra.This article compares the evolution of electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1960. From the installation of electrical systems in the 19th century until the 1930s, electrical utility companies were controlled by the local authorities in both countries. The structure of electrical systems was similar in Argentina and Brazil, however the state regulation of electric utilities took place at different times. As a result of the 1930's crisis, the Brazilian government introduced a new legal approach by applying a discretionary regulation. On the other hand, the Argentinean government intervened one decade later, nationalizing the companies. By comparing both regulatory trajectories, the divergences as well as the effects of each policy on the electrical utility systems in the second postward period, are identified.

  11. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  12. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  13. Economical electricity supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K

    1980-05-01

    During the first oil crisis in 1973, hundreds of millions of D-marks have been wasted by medium-sized businesses in the FRG due to avoidable losses and increased electricity costs. Serious attempts towards excluding such losses have to be initiated by an analysis of the individual technical conditions of an enterprise and by consultations 'on site'. Problems relating to an economical electricity supply and utilization in medium-sized industrial enterprises are discussed in this article from the point of view of an industrial consultant being an expert in this field. Practical examples are also given.

  14. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  15. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMella, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The implications of electric deregulation are and will continue to be pervasive and significant. Not only will the fundamental monopoly regulatory concepts of managing electric utilities change but deregulation will have a profound and dramatic impact on the way electric generating plants are managed and operated. In the past, under the various approaches to financial regulation, the economic benefits normally attributed to competition or that would have otherwise been derived from competitive or open market forces, were assumed to be embodied in and inherent to the various processes, methods and principles of financial oversight of utility companies by regional, state and municipal regulatory authorities. Traditionally, under the various forms of regulated monopolies, a utility company, in exchange for an exclusive franchise to produce and sell electricity in a particular region, was obligated to provide an adequate supply to all consumers wanting it, at a price that was 'just and reasonable'. The determination of adequate supply and reasonable price was a matter of interpretation by utility companies and their regulators. In essence, the ultimate economic benefits, normally attributed to price equilibrium, in balance with supply, demand and other market forces, were expected to be achieved through a complex, political process of financial regulatory oversight, in which utility companies were usually reimbursed for all annual expenses or their 'cost of service' and additionally allowed to earn a 'reasonable' rate of return on plant investments. The result was often escalating electric prices, over supplies of electric capacity, by justifying unnecessarily high reserve margins based on long planning horizons (typically 20 years or greater) with extrapolated demand requirements that were generally in excess of what actually occurred over time. Although the regulatory process varied from country or country and region-to-region, the fundamental principles, which

  16. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  17. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  18. Electric utilities look back on 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A review of activities in the electric power industry in Canada during 1998 is presented. In general, the principal preoccupation of Canadian electric utilities in 1998 was preparation for competition in a deregulated energy market. Utilities worked with provincial and national legislatures to redraw the rules of power supply. US FERC order 888 was central to many debates. FERC order 888 stipulates the unbundling of the retail aspects of operations from those that will remain regulated. Electric utilities also continued to prepare for the Y2K phenomenon and to work towards achieving ISO 14001 environmental management accreditation. They also explored alternative means of power generation. The year began with utilities across Canada sharing expertise and manpower to mitigate the impact of the ice storm which devastated parts of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick. It is believed that as a result of the ice storm of 1998, the Canadian utility industry is much better prepared to deal with weather-related emergencies than ever before. 1 fig

  19. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  20. The impact of economic regulation on attempts to curb expense preference behavior: a micro-data analysis of CEO compensation schemes for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixon, F.G.; Upadhyaya, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study uses a large, micro data set to present evidence which suggests that owners of regulated electric utilities have little incentive to structure CEO compensation packages in an effort to curb potential expense preference behavior. Because such potential behavior occurs, or would occur, at no cost to the firm (or the firm's owners), little incentive exists to structure compensation schemes in a way that would curb such behavior (e.g. by compensating them with incentive bonus plans and stock options). The results presented here augment those which examine other industries (e.g. banking) in an effort to point out the relationships between ownership organization, political involvement and expense preference behavior. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  2. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  3. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  4. The electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the financial performance of electric utilities during the 1970s and 1980s and the factors which have affected their performance. Topics include the effects of the energy crisis in 1973, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, the widespread use of imprudence disallowances by regulators after 1984, and the gradual extension of the nation's deregulation movement to the electric utilities

  5. Legal bases of safety regulations in electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeiter, W

    1981-12-01

    Apart from the governmental regulations the rule for the prevention of accidents 'Electric plants and equipment' must be observed in order to protect the insurants. Actually, all these regulations do not contain any independent instructions. They rather utilize the VDE regulations and refer to them. The laws of electrical safety engineering are strongly influenced by harmonization efforts particularly within the European Communitties.

  6. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  7. Variables contributing to an excellent customer service management profile within the regulated electric utility industry: A comparison of self-concept with customer satisfaction for customer service management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This research sought to address the relationship between self-concept and customer satisfaction: can customer satisfaction with a major electric utility be explained in terms of the self-reported, self-concept of the utility's managers The population to which the results of this study were generalized consisted of customer service managers in public electric utilities across the United States. In order to represent this population, a sample was selected consisting of customer service managers at a midwestern electric utility based in a large metropolitan area. Participants in this study were managers of four direct customer contact service organizations within six geographic division organizations. The methodology included comparisons of these four customer contact service organizations on twelve independent, self-concept variables and six customer satisfaction dependent variables using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe' tests, Chi-Square, and Stepwise multiple regression. The groups were found not to be significantly different and knowledge of the self-concept scores for managers will not increase the ability to predict customer satisfaction over no knowledge of self-concept scores.

  8. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  9. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  10. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  11. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  12. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  13. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  14. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  15. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  16. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  17. Utility service quality - telecommincations, electricity, water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Public Utility Research Center

    2005-09-01

    This survey of quality-of-service issues raised by regulation identifies 12 steps for promoting efficient sector performance. First, regulators must identify objectives and prioritize them. Inter-agency coordination is often required to establish targets. Regulators must also determine a process for selecting measures and an appropriate method for evaluating them. Finally, performance incentives must be established and outcomes periodically reviewed. Telecommunications, electricity, and water all have multiple dimensions of quality that warrant careful attention. (Author)

  18. Competition in the electric utility sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Skytte, K.

    2000-01-01

    The book analyses some important problems for the liberaliaction of the electricity market in Denmark and its neighbouring countries. Will the competition and its potential for a more cost-effective electric supply be prevented by the electric companies' many possibilities to utilize market power? Can competition be combined with ambitious energy policy aims about reducing the environmental impacts of the electric supply? Does the Danish tradition for consumer ownership constitute an important supplement to the protection of the smaller consumers in a world of international competition? The intention with the book is not to take concrete position to the many topical problems in the Danish political discussion of restructurns of the electric sector, but to give a theoretical analysis to understand and analyse the development. On this basis the conclusion is, that the competition will work even in combination with ambitious environmental aims. (EHS)

  19. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  20. Electric utility resource expansion planning using environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience of San Diego Gas ampersand Electric Company using environmental externalities in the expansion planning of its electrical system. This is the first time that this method of planning has been used in the electric utility industry in California. The paper reviews the conceptual development of the monetary values for environmental externalities and shows how the application of these values modifies the resource selection process. This paper should be of interest to professionals involved in policy issues relating to the use of environmental externalities as a means to improve the environment. The experience gained through this analyses should also benefit electric utility personnel involved in planning, and regulators interested in planning

  1. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  2. Three essays on utility regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  3. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  4. The electric utilities in 1989 - A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the performance of electric utilities financially and in the stock market. The performance of the utility stocks compared with industrial stocks and long term government bonds is addressed as well as an analysis of the reasons for the differences. The effect of rate increases granted versus the rate of inflation on per share earnings is examined. A concern was expressed that increases in demand substantially larger than those projected by the industry for 1989 may result in excess capacity disappearing much sooner than predicted by industry managements

  5. Waste utilization in electric energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parate, N.S.; Harris, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electric energy is an integral element of today's economy and the standard quality of life. The availability of energy at an affordable cost has always been of basic concern because of the intimate relationship of energy to our societal development and progress. Coal and Uranium are the primary alternative energy sources for large electric power plants. Coal remains the dominant fuel for electric generation. The pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology has the potential of utilizing all types of coal, including coal with high ash, high sulphur, and high moisture content. Fluidized bed combustion is a firing technique which fulfills today's pollution control requirements without downstream flue gas cleaning plants like scrubbers, baghouses, and precipitators

  6. Effect of demand management on regulated and deregulated electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrioglu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. The society relies on having a continuous supply of electrical energy. Some customers may willingly risk this continuous supply and participate in demand management programs for electrical power. If the power system grid is in trouble, electric utilities need to have demand relief. Customers willing to reduce their demand to help the system can receive an incentive fee for helping the utilities. Demand relief can be system wide or location specific. Sometimes it can be more effective to fix the electrical demand vs. supply imbalance from the demand side. The value of demand management contracts is greatly affected by customer location. Inclusion of locational attributes into the contract design procedure increases the effectiveness of the contracts by helping a utility get more value from its demand management programs. Independent System Operators and regulators, among others, can also benefit from effective demand management. This paper will investigate how this type of demand management contracts can help the electricity sector both in regulated and deregulated environments. - Highlights: • Demand management can help prevent forced electricity outages. • Both electric utilities and ISOs can use demand management. • Regulated and deregulated electricity sectors can benefit from demand management. • Demand management contracts can be effectively used in power system grids.

  7. The future of the electric utility industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlkeld, R.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of future changes in the electric power utility industry in Canada was presented. The impacts of deregulation were considered, including increased competition, and reduced profits resulting from it. Restructuring measures taken by BC Hydro to prepare for industry changes were described. Competition was not only expected to result from new electric utilities, but also gas utilities that are establishing themselves in the home heating business. Emphasis was placed on making the utilities' priorities, the same as their customers'. Flexibility of rate scheduling and increased dependence on customer-owned generation were needed to remain competitive. Exportation of surplus electricity and development of power utilities in developing nations was considered as a potentially lucrative development strategy. It was suggested that making use of strategic alliances within Canada and worldwide, will help to keep utilities ahead of the competition. A warning was issued to the effect that environmental concerns must always be considered well in advance of regulations since they are continually becoming more stringent. Making common cause with customers, and continuous improvement were considered to be the most important keys to future success for the industry

  8. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2000-01-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  9. Determining the Cost of Capital for Turkish Electricity Distribution Utilities: Analysis and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Gözen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has been transforming her electricity market to a competitive one since the electricity market law was approved by the parliament in 2001. As part of the new regime, electricity distribution activities are subject to incentive-based regulation by the energy regulator - EMRA. At the beginning of each implementation period, initial revenue is allowed by EMRA for a distribution utility in which a rate of return for investments in the utility is added. Setting a fair rate is relatively eas...

  10. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  11. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  12. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  13. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  14. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  15. Financial statistics of major investor-owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues

  16. IT use in electric utilities - today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Maria

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the present and future use of IT-systems in British electric utilities is presented. Systems for Asset Management, Reliability Centered Maintenance, Customer Databases etc are discussed. A few utilities are studied more closely (Eastern Electricity, London Electricity, Scottish Power and Yorkshire Electricity)

  17. Efficiency and regulation of the Slovenian electricity distribution companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hrovatin, Nevenka; Zoric, Jelena

    2004-01-01

    The Slovenian Energy Law, adopted in 1999, has opened the internal market to competition up to 64% of the final consumption. The opening of the internal market to foreign competition is envisaged for 2003. With regard to the methodology of price regulation, the Energy Law introduces the 'price-cap' regulation, which aims to give firms incentive for cost reduction. To provide information for effective price regulation, we estimated a cost frontier function on a sample of Slovenian electricity distribution utilities over the 1991-2000 period. The estimated efficient frontier could be used by Slovenian regulatory agency as a benchmark to regulate network access prices. Our results show that Slovenian distribution companies are cost inefficient. We have also proved the presence of increasing returns to scale with most utilities not achieving the minimum efficient scale. Thus, the Slovenian regulatory authority should consider how to induce mergers of small electricity distribution utilities into larger units

  18. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  19. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7.0: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  20. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  1. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data

  2. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  3. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  4. 10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307... Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.307 Option for Electric Utilities. (a) A covered person or its... selling, at wholesale or retail, electricity has the option of delaying the vehicle acquisition mandate...

  5. Demand-controlling marketing of electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffee, H; Fritz, W

    1980-01-01

    In situations like the shortage of energy resources the particular autonomy of the users concerning energy demand raises more and more aggravating problems for the electric utilities (EU) and, last not least, for society (i.e. the peak-load problem, threatening bottlenecks in the supply situation). Thus the requirement for a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU with the help of which the individual demand should be influenced in the following manner is legitimate. The article discusses the targets, strategies, and instruments of marketing performed by the EU under the aspect of their efficiency concerning demand control. The discussion leads to e.g. the following results: that a marketing strategy for the sensible, responsible, and efficent use of energy, in the long-term, serves both the interests of the users and the interests of the EU; that such a marketing programme can have the required controlling effects especially with the help of strategies like market segmentation and cooperation. The discussion makes also clear that a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU can hardly be realized without a considerable change within the organization of the EU on one hand and, on the other, without expanding the marketing programme toward a marketing strategy of balance.

  6. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  7. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  8. The Ursern electricity utility - Positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview with Markus Russi, head of an electricity utility in the Swiss Alps, recent Swiss legislation such as the Energy law and the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable energy sources is discussed. The production of the power generation facilities belonging to the utility - hydropower and wind energy - is discussed and future refurbishment and expansion work noted. The situation in the electricity market and co-operation with other local electricity utilities are also discussed and various disadvantages of the new Swiss electricity market legislation are noted. Future partnerships with other utilities with similar business strategies are discussed.

  9. Regulator preferences and utility prices: evidence from natural gas distribution utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.C.; Sweeney, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of regulators' relative weighting of the social welfare of customer groups and utilities using panel data on natural gas distribution utilities in the US state of Tennessee. In contrast to previous empirical work on cross-sections of electric utilities, our results are statistically robust and consistent with the interest group theory of regulation. Intervention in rate cases, settlement vs. litigation of cases, and prices of alternative energy sources, as well as the size characteristics of customer groups and the firm, are significant determinants of the elasticity-weighted price-cost margin (Ramsey number) for each group. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Integrating gas and electric markets and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The issues determining what energy companies must do to compete in an increasingly competitive energy market and what regulators must do to ensure fairness in competition were discussed. The similarities of gas and electric markets, and the factors driving their integration were highlighted. The importance of communications and customer service in the energy market and the nature of market power in the gas and electric industries was described. Three reasons were given why gas/electric mergers will be beneficial: (1) operating efficiency, (2) applying gas experience to electric markets, and (3) opportunity to exercise market power. Potential regulatory problems were also reviewed

  11. The effect of costs and regulation on electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaf, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct econometric tests were performed to determine if state price regulation of public utilities has had a measurable impact on retail electricity prices. The results of both tests agree that, during the 1971-1985 period, average national electricity prices in each of the three major consuming sectors and the four Census regions were below the level which would have been preferred by profit-maximizing monopolists. Electricity consumers received price benefits during the sample period as a result of regulation. The first test of the effectiveness of state price regulation used a 'revealed preference' approach by comparing the actual prices set by regulatory commissioners with prices and outcomes predicted by three competing theories of regulatory motivation. The second test of the effectiveness of price regulation combined traditional cost function inputs with regulatory variables in reduced-form price equations to determine whether the amount of regulatory intensity, as measured by the number of staff members per regulated utility, is associated with declining electricity prices and whether appointed commissioners allow higher prices than elected commissioners

  12. Practical uses of galvanized steel in electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueche, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Steel corrosion has been shown to be a major problem for the electric utility industry. Galvanizing has been shown to prevent or substantially slow steel corrosion. This paper describes the galvanizing process, discusses the properties associated with the galvanized coating, and demonstrates galvanizing's durability in specific, real world applications in the electric utility industry

  13. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  14. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  15. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  16. Understanding utility regulation : a participants' guide to the British Columbia Utilities Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Information regarding British Columbia's regulated energy industries is presented with particular emphasis on the regulatory functions of the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The objective of providing the information is to make the regulatory process as transparent as possible and to make it easy for ratepayers to effectively and economically participate in the regulation of energy utilities. The issue of why electricity and natural gas utilities are regulated is addressed, but the greater part of the report is devoted to describing opportunities for public participation at the BCUC, explaining how to get involved in the Commission's proceedings and the nature of the hearings used by the Commission. An introduction to rate making is also presented, along with an overview of other institutions involved in energy regulation. Appendices contain the text of the Utilities Commission Act (App. A), the Negotiated Settlement Process Policy, Procedures and Guidelines (App. B), Participant Funding and Cost Awards (App. C), and the Integrated Resource Planning Guide (App. D). tabs., figs., 4 appendices

  17. The role of utilities in developing low carbon, electric megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris; Stewart, Iain D.; Facchini, Angelo; Mele, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of electric cities, with low carbon power supply, is a key strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions. We analyze the role of electric utilities as important actors to catalyze the transition to electric cites, drawing upon data for the world's 27 megacities. Progress towards the ideal electric city is most advanced for Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires for low carbon electricity, while Indian megacities have relatively high use of carbon-intensive electricity as a percentage of total energy use. There is wide variety in the structure of markets for electricity provision in megacities, with a dominant, public utility being the most common model. We review literature on electricity sector business models and broadly propose future models dependent on the predominance of locally dispersed generation and the nature of the ownership of the electric grid within the city. Where a high proportion of electricity can be provided by locally distributed supply within a city, the role of utilities could predominantly become that of enabler of exchange with the grid, but new pricing structures are required. A further challenge for utilities in enabling the electric city is to provide a higher level of resilience to events that disrupt power supply. - Highlights: • Amongst 27 megacities, Paris, Rio, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires are most progressed low carbon electric cities. • Indian megacities have relatively high use of electricity as a percentage of total energy use. • Wide variety in electricity market structure in megacities; dominant, public utility the most common model. • Utilities could become enablers of exchange with the grid, but new pricing models required.

  18. Regulators debate support of natural gas in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    State regulators recently tabled a controversial proposal to encourage natural gas use in electricity generation. Proponents of natural gas support such an endorsement since state regulators can influence utility fuel-supply choices through planning incentives and disincentives. Members of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners vowed to take up the matter at their Winter Committee Meetings, February 28 to March 4 in Washington, DC. NARUC's Gas Committee offered the resolution at the NARUC Annual Convention in Los Angeles in November. Presentations and debate covered the merits and drawbacks of formal support for natural gas. Natural gas generation has fast construction and low capital-cost benefits, air quality and fuel handling advantages over other fossil fuels. Still, regulators and utility representatives expressed concern over long-term availability, over reliance on one resource and price

  19. Electricity regulation and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity industry of China has been in a process of reforms since the 1980s. This paper gives a review on the three main stages of reforms in China so as to trace out key features of various reform measures including those for power investment financing, the separation between government and power enterprises, and the division between power generation firms and power grids. The findings suggest that further regulatory change in China's electricity market reform is necessary when integration of the electricity markets and increased competition are paving the way ahead for a market-oriented structure. Prospective electricity regulation in the form of a strong legal system and effective institutions that protect market competition and promote appropriate incentives for efficiency are suggested in the paper. (author)

  20. Final argument on regulation of electricity exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro addresses the request of the National Energy Board review that parties comment on the broader question of the need for federal regulation in electricity exports and the objectives which underlie the view expressed. Electricity exports benefit Canadian sellers and U.S. purchasers as well the Canadian economy in general. There is a clear consensus that these benefits exist and should be realized, but the evidence indicates that there is no consensus on how the benefits can best be distributed within Canada. The divergent views expressed by interested parties from across Canada clearly demonstrate the complexity associated with determining the overall Canadian interest and that there is a need for a balancing of these interests by a federal body. The regulation of electricity exports is clearly a matter of international commerce and Ontario Hydro submitted that the Constitution Act deems the province incompetent to regulate the export of electricity from Canada. Ontario Hydro submitted that a federal body is required in the regulation of electricity exports to protect the broader Canadian interest.

  1. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ''Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management'', presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Growth strategies of electric utilities in context of deregulation and liberalization of electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Đogić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the growth strategies adopted by the electric utilities sector in the context of changes resulting from the deregulation and liberalization of the electricity market. Strategies pursued by the electric utilities sector were rarely the subject of research in the field of strategic management despite the fact that electricity is an indispensable element of everyday life and the economy as a whole. Therefore, a case study of the largest incumbent electric utilities in the Republic of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia has been conducted, and differences in the degree of market liberalization and core features of these companies have been noted. Research findings have shown that the degree of deregulation can affect the growth strategies of electric utilities. In those countries where the degree of deregulation is lower, electric utilities focus on the domestic market. On the other hand, a higher level of deregulation enables electric utilities to achieve their growth through diversification or innovation. Given the fact that the analyzed electric utilities are operating within relatively small economies, they cannot compete with electric utilities in developed countries, and, apart from international electricity trading, are mostly focused on their domestic markets.

  3. New England electric utility takes the lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New England Electric System has taken several steps to reduce dependence on foreign oil, save its customers money, and encourage the development of energy resources tailored to meet the region's energy needs. The heart of the plan is a stated objective of reducing annual peaking demand for electrical growth from a projected 3.1% to 1.9%. Other activities initiated are: a solar hot water demonstration project; the NEPCO's burning of a mixture of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil in one of its boilers at Salem Harbor Station in Salem, Massachusetts; purchasing and trading electricity with industrial and private small power producers; and participating in an effort to develop a plan to convert the Brayton Point power plant in Somerset, Massachusetts from oil to coal.

  4. Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

    2006-09-01

    Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

  5. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  6. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  7. Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future

  8. The impacts of regulation via the allowed rate of return constraint on social welfare, input choices, and level of output in the privately-owned electric utilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phongam, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of change in price elasticity of demand for electricity on social welfare, allowed rate of return, and marginal revenue product of each input used to produce electricity. Price elasticities of demand for electricity in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are compared as well as total demand in 1987. Also compared are these price elasticities between 1982 and 1987. Several conclusions are: (1) There is an overcapitalization in privately-owned electric utilities because at the chosen level of output, marginal revenue product of capital is less than its price. (2) Elastic demand for electricity will improve values of social welfare and marginal revenue product of inputs. (3) Tightening allowed rate of return will increase the amount of capital and labor usages, but decrease fuel, output, and social welfare. (4) Both residential and industrial demand for electricity are elastic, but commercial demand is inelastic. (5) By making comparison of price elasticity of demand between 1982 and 1987, it shows that price elasticity of demand for electricity in residential, industrial, and total demand are increasing. However, for the commercial sector, the price elasticity is decreasing somewhat

  9. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  10. Network governance in electricity distribution: Public utility or commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, Rolf; Fens, Theo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether the operation and management of electricity distribution networks in a liberalized market environment evolves into a market driven commodity business or might be perceived as a genuine public utility task. A framework is developed to classify and compare different institutional arrangements according to the public utility model and the commodity model. These models are exemplified for the case of the Dutch electricity sector. It appears that the institutional organization of electricity distribution networks is at the crossroads of two very different institutional development paths. They develop towards commercial business if the system characteristics of the electricity sector remain basically unchanged to the traditional situation. If however innovative technological developments allow for a decentralization and decomposition of the electricity system, distribution networks might be operated as public utilities while other energy services are exploited commercially. (Author)

  11. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  12. Opportunities for electric utilities in telecommunications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities for utility participation in the telecommunications market on private microwave systems and hybrid microwave and fiber systems. The topics of the article include entering the market, national information infrastructure, business opportunities and considerations, levels of participation in telecommunications market, and regulatory objectives

  13. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  14. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  15. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  16. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  17. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  18. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  19. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  20. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  1. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  2. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  3. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Comparing welfare effects of different regulation schemes: An application to the electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2010-01-01

    We compare the welfare effects of different regulation schemes of electricity distribution utilities. The compared regulation schemes are Fixed Price regulation, Cost of Service regulation, Menu of Cost-Contingent Contracts and Simple Menu of Contracts. In our calculations we utilize the information of a firm's potential to improve cost efficiency. The firm-specific cost information of Finnish electricity distribution utilities is obtained by using various Stochastic Frontier models. Our basic result is that welfare can be improved by changing the Cost of Service regulation scheme to the Menu of Contracts regulation. Welfare also increases in the case of Fixed Price regulation and Simple Menu of Contract regulation. There is however, a significant difference among regulation regimes on how this improved welfare is distributed to consumers and producers.

  5. The case for indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Indexed price caps are a promising alternative to traditional, cost-of-service utility rate regulation. In just a decade, they have sprung from the drawing boards of economists to use by major utilities in a number of industries. Several authors have discussed the merits of indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities. Despite their efforts, many parties to electric utility policy making are unfamiliar with the subject. This is unsurprising given the policy controversies that already embroil the industry. It is also unfortunate, since indexed price caps may help solve some of the problems that prompt these controversies. Indexed price caps can improve electric utility rate regulation in two ways. Utilities would have strong incentives to improve performance without the micromanagement that increasingly characterizes state-level regulation. Utilities could also be granted more extensive marketing freedoms, since indexes can protect customers from cross-subsidization. Two areas of concern about indexed price cap plans have emerged in recent discussions that the author has held with officials of electric utilities, intervenor groups, and regulatory agencies. Officials are often unclear on plan details, and therefore may not appreciate the degree of flexibility that is possible in plan design. Confusion over the available options in price cap adjustment indexes and the logic behind them is especially widespread. Officials also desire a clearer expression of how indexed price caps can coexist with current regulatory initiatives. This article details the major attributes of index plans, provides a brief history of indexing, discusses index design options in depth, and concludes with a vision of how indexed price caps can be made operational in today's electric utility industry

  6. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price

  7. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  8. Dealing with the paradox of energy efficiency promotion by electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José Luís; Martins, António Gomes; Jorge, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Utility-based Demand-Side Management (DSM) programmes started after the oil crises of the 70's and were adopted by utilities as a standard practice. However, deregulation of the electricity industry threatened DSM. More recent concerns regarding energy dependence and environmental impact of energy use caused renewed attention on the utilities role in energy efficiency fostering. EE is presently a cross-cutting issue, influencing energy policy definition and regulatory activity worldwide. Some instruments for influencing the behaviour of electric utilities in the market are used by regulators, corresponding to both impositions and stimuli, such as defining savings targets or decoupling profits from energy sales. The paper addresses categories of regulatory instruments and refers to examples of countries and regions using these identified categories of instruments. Although some cases show voluntary involvement of utilities in EE promotion on the grounds of customer retention strategies, there is a clear prevalence of regulatory constrained markets where utilities rationally engage in energy efficiency promotion

  9. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

  10. Favourability towards electric utilities jumps 10 per cent in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey of public opinion has shown that 85 per cent of the public view their electric utility company favourably. This represents a 10 per cent increase over last year. A survey of 4,090 Canadians was conducted which looked at the perceptions of the value of electricity services compared to telephone, natural gas, banking, and home insurance services. The study showed that Canadian electric utility companies are viewed as positively as the telephone companies and almost as favourably as the banks. Some 71 per cent of respondents reported that the value they receive from their electric utility is excellent or good. Lower prices, better customer services and increased research into alternative power sources were among the benefits that Canadians perceive would result from a more competitive electricity sector. Some misgivings about deregulation included a belief that there would be less attention to environmental concerns and more outages. Four per cent of the respondents said they would 'definitely' switch to an alternative supplier of electricity, while 25 per cent said they would 'probably' switch to an alternative supplier of electricity. 2 tabs

  11. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, ''Monthly Power Plant Report.'' These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990

  12. Review of inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, Canada's National Energy Board released two discussion papers on inter-utility trade. Responses to the papers were received from utilities, government agencies, and other interested parties with regard to questions concerning measures that could be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. The Board's review had estimated long-term net benefits from enhanced inter-utility cooperation at $23-32.5 billion by the year 2000 from such types of transactions as seasonal diversity exchanges and long-term firm sales. Seven types of options to achieve enhanced inter-utility trade were identified. Most of the respondent utilities and provinces that have direct access to external markets tended to prefer the status quo, opposing mandated solutions but supporting (or at least not opposing) federal monitoring of progress on enhanced inter-utility cooperation. Provinces and utilities without direct access to external markets tended to support (as a last resort) mandated solutions to disputes concerning electricity trade. Since the Board review, important events in the North American electricity supply industry have occurred; these are described, focusing on the US Energy Policy Act that gives powers to order transmission access. The formation by US utilities of regional transmission groups (RTGs) with federal encouragement is discussed, along with the implications for Canadian utilities that may want to become members of particular RTGs. The advantages and drawbacks of selecting the various options for enhancing inter-utility trade are then summarized. 1 tab

  13. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  14. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  15. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  16. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  17. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  18. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility's ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term 'DSM' is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility's system. Depending on one's perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility's ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy

  19. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  20. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  1. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  2. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2011-06-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  3. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.

  4. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  5. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  6. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  7. Electric utilities and the demand for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, N D; Atkinson, S

    1976-03-01

    The scarcity of natural gas has given rise to a series of priorities of deliveries based on end use and drafted by the Federal Power Commission. The U.S. Supreme Court, on June 7, 1972, held that the Commission has jurisdiction over curtailments in the service of gas in interstate commerce to both resale and direct industrial customers. This decision reversed a Fifth Circuit Court ruling that protected direct industrial customers from curtailments. The FPC priority curtailments are classed from 1 to 9, for which electric utilities are concentrated in classes 4 to 9. As weather conditions become more severe, not only do the residential and commercial consumers demand more electrical energy, they also demand more natural gas. The result is that there is less natural gas available for electric utilities to use for generation so they change to an alternative fuel. A demand model for the short term for natural gas for electric utilities is given; primary factors involve the price of natural gas, the prices of substitute fuels, and the demand for electrical energy by the various consumer classes. (MCW)

  8. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  9. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  10. Deregulation and competition in the electric utility marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of deregulation and competition in the electric utility marketplace as an extension of the deregulation of the airlines, and natural gas, telephone and trucking industries. The topics of the paper include the events and circumstances leading to deregulation, those involved in the competition, and a scenario for how the industry will develop over the next 20 years

  11. Maximizing your ability to compete as a municipal electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacOdrum, B.

    1996-01-01

    The implications of the MacDonald Committee's recommendations on introducing competition to Ontario's electricity industry were reviewed from the point of view of Toronto Hydro, the largest municipal utility and Ontario Hydro's largest customer. Issues examined included (1) the consequences of unbundling Ontario Hydro's generating, transmission and distribution functions, (2) the structural change option of phasing-in competition among Ontario Hydro and municipal and other private generators, (3) enhancing the efficiency of the distribution sector, and (4) the relative benefits and consequences of private equity as a means of enhancing competition through the sale of Ontario Hydro's generating assets, or the sale of non-essential business operations. Recommendations to the Committee included the need for the transmission grid to remain under public control, for electricity pricing to take into account the variable environmental impact of different generating types, and the need for transferring regulatory authority over municipal electric utilities from Ontario Hydro to the Ontario Energy Board

  12. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  13. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  14. Electric rate shock and the future of utility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogee, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    How state regulators spread the costs of overbudget and, in some cases, unneeded new power plants looms as a major political and economic issue directly affecting more than a third of the nation's households and businesses. Today's local battles over rate shock have an even greater national significance because they will shape investment incentives for decades to come. In addition to mismanaged nuclear projects, most nuclear and coal plants being finished today represent excess generating capacity. Utility reserve margins averaged 34% last year instead of the 15-20% above peak demand that analysts agree is desirable. State regulators are increasingly refusing to allow utilities to include new plants in the rate base, and utilities are responding with warnings about future shortages. They may also try to reform or repeal the Holding Company Act. Utility critics point to alternatives to central plant construction with cogeneration and small power generation. 2 figures

  15. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  16. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  17. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  18. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  19. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  20. Efficiency evaluation of the state owned electric utilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Tripta; Deshmukh, S.G.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for accessing comparative efficiencies of Indian State Owned Electric Utilities (SOEU), which have been mainly responsible for the generation, distribution and transmission of electricity in India. Performance of 26 utilities was evaluated using the non-parametric technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and the impact of scale on the efficiency scores was also evaluated. The results indicate that the performance of several SOEUs is sub-optimal, suggesting the potential for significant cost reductions. Separate benchmarks were derived for possible reductions in employees' number, and the results indicate that several utilities deploy a much larger number of employees than that required by a best practice utility, and significant savings are possible on this account. It was also found that the bigger utilities display greater inefficiencies and have distinct scale inefficiencies. Exploiting scale efficiencies by suitable restructuring and unbundling of SOEUs are therefore crucial measures that may foster efficiencies in the SOEUs. The paper discusses these results in the context of related policy issues

  1. Rent dissipation through electricity prices of publicly owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J-T.; Roland, M.

    1997-01-01

    Pricing policies of Canadian public utilities were examined. It was shown that under the existing set of rules the prices established are frequently below the marginal cost. This appears to be particularly true in the case of provinces that rely principally on hydroelectric resources. Study recommendations to bring electricity prices in line with marginal costs have had little success to date despite overwhelming evidence of large economic losses associated with the current institutional arrangements. This situation remains at the same time that governments apply high tax rates on incomes. By putting together two strands of economic literature, public choice and the theory of public utility pricing, this paper develops a simple model that explains why the median consumer prefers a low electricity price and a high tax rate. Hydro-Quebec survey data is used to confirm that these conditions are satisfied in Quebec. 17 refs., 1 tab

  2. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Arsalan Nisar; Palacios, Miguel; Ruiz, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  3. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  4. Assessing Residential Customer Satisfaction for Large Electric Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Kosnik; L. Douglas Smith; Satish Nayak; Maureen Karig; Mark Konya; Kristy Lovett; Zhennan Liu; Harrison Luvai

    2015-01-01

    Electric utilities, like other service organizations, rely on customer surveys to assess the quality of their services and customer relations. With responses to an in-depth survey of 2,216 residential customers, complementary data from geo-coded public sources, aggregate assessments of performance by J.D. Power & Associates from their independent surveys, historical records of individual customer usage and bill payments, streams of published media content and records of actual service deliver...

  5. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  6. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  7. Liberalisation and green patent registrations of electric utilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens; Nesta, Lionel

    2010-10-01

    The authors report a study of the influence of reforms which introduce a liberalisation of energy markets on the innovation behaviour of electric utilities in some countries. Within a context of concentration of this sector, the hypothesis of a negative impact on patent registration by electric utilities is tested by the authors. They first define the notion of environmental innovation and its evolution in the electric energy sector as the climate and environment issues are nowadays extremely important for the energy sector. R and D here addresses micro-generation, fuel cells, tidal turbine systems, energy production by using solar energy, and biomass gasification. They discuss numbers of pattern registrations by European utilities before and after laws on energy market reform. They present an econometric model and data used to test the hypothesis and comment the obtained results. The model comprises a knowledge production function, and various explicative variables (firm size and R and D, reforms, technological opportunities, energy mix, and influence of demand)

  8. Power Struggle: Changing Momentum in the Restructured American Electric Utility System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsh, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970's, producing and distributing electricity were considered as a natural monopoly. They were subjected to state regulation meant to defend the consumers' interest but which in reality enhanced the power of utility managers. The changes that happened since questioned the managers' control over the system. Following the technological stasis that occurred in the production of electricity, the oil crisis, and the awakening of the environmental movement, the Government adopted the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act in 1978, favoring the coming of cogeneration technologies benefiting the small producers. Market economy tended to replace natural monopoly. Deregulation became a valuable option and was stimulated by the 1992 Energy Policy Act. However, the electrical crisis in California and the recent blackout over part of the continent slowed down the pace of the change

  9. Climate change adaptation in regulated water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Harou, J. J.; Characklis, G. W.; Ricalde, I.

    2017-12-01

    Concern about climate change impacts on water supply systems has grown in recent years. However, there are still few examples of pro-active interventions (e.g. infrastructure investment or policy changes) meant to address plausible future changes. Deep uncertainty associated with climate impacts, future demands, and regulatory constraints might explain why utility planning in a range of contexts doesn't explicitly consider climate change scenarios and potential adaptive responses. Given the importance of water supplies for economic development and the cost and longevity of many water infrastructure investments, large urban water supply systems could suffer from lack of pro-active climate change adaptation. Water utilities need to balance the potential for high regret stranded assets on the one side, with insufficient supplies leading to potentially severe socio-economic, political and environmental failures on the other, and need to deal with a range of interests and constraints. This work presents initial findings from a project looking at how cities in Chile, the US and the UK are developing regulatory frameworks that incorporate utility planning under uncertainty. Considering for example the city of Santiago, Chile, recent studies have shown that although high scarcity cost scenarios are plausible, pre-emptive investment to guard from possible water supply failures is still remote and not accommodated by current planning practice. A first goal of the project is to compare and contrast regulatory approaches to utility risks considering climate change adaptation measures. Subsequently we plan to develop and propose a custom approach for the city of Santiago based on lessons learned from other contexts. The methodological approach combines institutional assessment of water supply regulatory frameworks with simulation-based decision-making under uncertainty approaches. Here we present initial work comparing the regulatory frameworks in Chile, UK and USA evaluating

  10. How integrated resource planning for US electric utilities affects shareholder interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) seeks to identify the mix of resources that can best meet the future energy-service needs of customers. These resources include new sources, types, and owners of power plants plus demand-side management (DSM) programs. However, little explicit attention is given to utility shareholders in the typical resource-planning proceeding. Because of the complexity of state regulatory practices and tax policies, it seems unlikely that different resources that provide comparable services to customers will yield comparable returns to shareholders. This study examines a typical US investor-owned utility's financial operations and performance using a spreadsheet model we developed for this project. The model simulates an electric utility's financial operations, and produces an annual income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statement. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility's operating environment. Given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we examined shareholder returns for these resources in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price. (author)

  11. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  12. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, J.E.; Takala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  13. Parametric utility comparison of coal and nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, K.M.

    1977-02-01

    The advantages and limitations of an explicit quantitative model for decision making are discussed. Several different quantitative models are presented, noting that the use of an expected utility maximization decision rule allows both the direct incorporation of multidimensional descriptions of the possible outcomes, and considerations of risk averse behavior. A broad class of utility functions, characterized by linear risk tolerance, was considered and extended to a multidimensional form. Choosing a multivariate risk neutral extension, using constant absolute risk aversion utility functions for monetary effects and for increased mortality, the author indicated how the parameters of this utility function can be selected to represent the decision maker's preferences, and suggest a reasonable range of values for the parameters. After describing an illustrative set of data on the risks inherent in coal burning and nuclear electricity generation facilities, the author used the chosen utility model to compare the overall risks associated with each technology, observing the effect of variations in the utility parameters and in the risk distributions on the implied preferences

  14. Electrical equipment distributors assuming greater role as suppliers to electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of Canada's largest distributors of electrical equipment to the utility market. Summaries are presented of the views of the major respondents concerning market trends and future challenges. Distributors have emerged as a supply source to utilities over the past two decades. Before then, electric utilities did virtually all their business directly with the manufacturers and rarely with distributors. One reason for this situation was that direct dealing with manufacturers was perceived by the utilites as providing better access to technical advice. Distributors have grown significantly since then and many have their own expert technical staff and provide full support for their products. Various advantages for utilities in dealing with distributors are noted: ability to supply most needs relatively rapidly from stock, simplification of ordering, improved inventory management, and savings in brokerage and other costs associated with imported equipment

  15. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  16. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  17. All Electric Passenger Vehicle Sales in India by 2030: Value proposition to Electric Utilities, Government, and Vehicle Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    In India, there is growing interest among policymakers, planners, and regulators for aggressive electrification of passenger vehicles. For example, Piyush Goyal, the Minister of State for India’s Ministry of Coal, Power, New and Renewable Energy, announced an aspirational goal of converting all vehicle sales in India to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by 2030 (Economic Times, 2016). In 2012, India has already announced the National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020 (DHI, 2012). A major policy motivation for transport electrification is to reduce India’s oil import dependency. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of full electrification of vehicle sales in India by 2030 on the key stakeholders such as BEV owners, electric utilities, and the government. Specifically, we attempt to answer the following questions: (a) How does the total vehicle ownership cost of BEVs compare with the conventional vehicles? (b) What is the additional load due BEV charging? (c) What is the impact on the power sector investments, costs, and utility revenue? (d) How can smart BEV charging help renewable energy grid integration? (e) What is the impact on the crude oil imports? (f) What is the impact on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions?

  18. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Remi

    2011-01-01

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  19. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  20. Thermal burn and electrical injuries among electric utility workers, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Kelsh, Michael; Lu, Elizabeth T; Sahl, Jack D; Yager, Janice W

    2007-03-01

    This study describes the occurrence of work-related injuries from thermal-, electrical- and chemical-burns among electric utility workers. We describe injury trends by occupation, body part injured, age, sex, and circumstances surrounding the injury. This analysis includes all thermal, electric, and chemical injuries included in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD). There were a total of 872 thermal burn and electric shock injuries representing 3.7% of all injuries, but accounting for nearly 13% of all medical claim costs, second only to the medical costs associated with sprain- and strain-related injuries (38% of all injuries). The majority of burns involved less than 1 day off of work. The head, hands, and other upper extremities were the body parts most frequently injured by burns or electric shocks. For this industry, electric-related burns accounted for the largest percentage of burn injuries, 399 injuries (45.8%), followed by thermal/heat burns, 345 injuries (39.6%), and chemical burns, 51 injuries (5.8%). These injuries also represented a disproportionate number of fatalities; of the 24 deaths recorded in the database, contact with electric current or with temperature extremes was the source of seven of the fatalities. High-risk occupations included welders, line workers, electricians, meter readers, mechanics, maintenance workers, and plant and equipment operators.

  1. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  2. How energy derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplen, B.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges that municipal electric utilities (MEUs) face in the new deregulated power market in North America were discussed. This presentation also highlighted the factors that affected the risk that companies in the U.S. Mid-West were exposed to in June 1998. During that time, MEUs had to deal with financial fallouts and price spikes as a result of very high temperatures, generation outages, and transmission line relief. The focus is on price risk and credit risk and how a strong risk management team can be instrumental in avoiding price spikes like those that occurred in June 1998

  3. Environmental exposures in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.; Henderson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of 47 US investor-owned electric utilities' environmental exposures to impending air quality and climate policies shows potentially material and highly differentiated financial impacts. For many companies the minimized compliance costs of a four-pollutant cap-and-trade regulatory regime would be less than those of a three-pollutant regime that omitted controls on carbon dioxide emissions. Fragmented regulatory requirements would have the highest compliance costs. The companies studied vary considerably in the adequacy of their financial reporting of these potential impacts. Greater transparency would benefit investors and the most favorably positioned companies. (author)

  4. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  5. Citizen Advisory Council use in the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElfresh, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Many electric utility companies have come to realize the Importance of seeking public input before launching corporate resources into major construction projects. One way to organize this input is to establish a Citizen Advisory Council (CAC). This paper describes the purpose of such a group, its advantages and limitations, and how it might be organized. This paper also describes the results of a survey of CAC use for facility siting purposes. Fifty large utility companies were contacted, eleven of which use CACs for siting purposes. Six of these were questioned in greater detail as to their success in using CACs on specific projects. All companies were positive about the use of CACs for public participation because the groups were able to bring valuable information to light and company credibility was enhanced. Most importantly, the responding companies believed they were able to save time in the siting and licensing process

  6. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  7. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  8. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  9. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, M.; Lobban, S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the fist edition of OXERA's Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry in the UK. It is primarily intended as a work of reference, summarising the key statutory controls of the industry and the most important features of the companies' licences. The main features of the guide are as follows. It provides comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the industry. The roles of the key players are explained and a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents is given. It aims to bring the reader up to date with current regulatory issues and possible developments in the industry. It presents the information in a clear and concise form. The emphasis is on identifying and highlighting the key points in each area so that readers can rapidly familiarise themselves with the subject matter. It does not examine the process by which businesses are valued and the various price caps are set. These are issues which are best approached within the context of utility regulation in general. (author)

  10. Effectively utilizing NYMEX contracts for natural gas electricity futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange) is one of the United States' largest commodity exchanges. The primary role of commodity exchanges were summarized as well as the characteristics of an effective exchange. The concept of commoditization, price risk and price volatility were explained. The evolution of world and domestic regulated energy markets, the characteristics of the futures market, NYMEX electricity futures contract specifications, natural gas and crude futures contract development, and the nature of hedging were reviewed. Differences of risk management practices in cash markets and futures markets were illustrated. tabs., figs

  11. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  12. Overview of U.S. electric utilities: Transmission and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    I hope this brief description of the US electric utility industry has been interesting and informative. No doubt many characteristics, concerns, and research efforts mirror those of the electric utility industry in South Korea. It is hoped that through workshops such as this that electric utilities, manufacturers and consultants may learn from each other for the mutual benefit of all

  13. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  14. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  15. Guide to the economic regulation of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Guide to the Economic Regulation of the Electricity Industry, part of the series of OXERA Guides to Regulation, is designed as an essential work of reference for those who work in regulation and for practitioners who need to understand the needs and mechanics of regulation. The 154-page document provides: comprehensive coverage of the institutional and legal framework which defines the regulation of the electricity industry; an examination of current regulatory issues and developments in the industry; explanations of the roles of the key players; a condensed account of all the relevant legal documents; coverage of the industry in Scotland and Northern Ireland. (Author)

  16. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  17. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  18. The effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on stock prices of electric power utilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Takeda, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, which is owned by Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), on the stock prices of the other electric power utilities in Japan. Because the other utilities were not directly damaged by the Fukushima nuclear accident, their stock price responses should reflect the change in investor perceptions on risk and return associated with nuclear power generation. Our first finding is that the stock prices of utilities that own nuclear power plants declined more sharply after the accident than did the stock prices of other electric power utilities. In contrast, investors did not seem to care about the risk that may arise from the use of the same type of nuclear power reactors as those at the Fukushima Daiichi station. We also observe an increase of both systematic and total risks in the post-Fukushima period, indicating that negative market reactions are not merely caused by one-time losses but by structural changes in society and regulation that could increase the costs of operating a nuclear power plant.

  19. Inefficiency persistence and heterogeneity in Colombian electricity utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galán, Jorge E.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity reform in Colombia has exhibited gains in terms of reliability but its effects on firm efficiency and service quality have not been clear. Previous studies evaluating the performance of distribution companies after the reform have not found evidence of improvements, although large differences in efficiency have been found among firms. This suggests high inefficiency persistence and heterogeneity in the Colombian distribution sector. In this paper, we propose an extension of dynamic stochastic frontier models that accounts for unobserved heterogeneity in the inefficiency persistence and in the technology. The model incorporates total expenses, service quality and energy losses in an efficiency analysis of Colombian distributors over fifteen years after the reform. We identify the presence of high inefficiency persistence in the sector, and important differences between firms. In particular, rural companies and firms with small customers present low persistence and evidence the largest gains in efficiency during the period. However, increases in efficiency are only manifested during thelast five years when the main improvements in service quality and energy losses are presented. Overall, inefficiency persistence, customer density and consumption density are found to be important criteria to be considered for regulatory purposes. - Highlights: • We evaluate efficiency of Colombian electricity distributors after the reform. • We use a stochastic frontier model with dynamic effects and heterogeneity. • We find high inefficiency persistence but important differences among firms. • High persistent and low efficient firms should draw the attention of the regulator. • Recent regulation in quality has increased not only efficiency but also tariffs

  20. Outsourcing decision factors in publicly owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, James Edward

    Purpose. The outsourcing of services in publicly owned electric utilities has generated some controversy. The purpose of this study was to explore this controversy by investigating the relationships between eight key independent variables and a dependent variable, "manager perceptions of overall value of outsourced services." The intent was to provide data so that utilities could make better decisions regarding outsourcing efforts. Theoretical framework. Decision theory was used as the framework for analyzing variables and alternatives used to support the outsourcing decision-making process. By reviewing these eight variables and the projected outputs and outcomes, a more predictive and potentially successful outsourcing effort can be realized. Methodology. A survey was distributed to a sample of 323 publicly owned electric utilities randomly selected from a population of 2,020 in the United States. Analysis of the data was made using statistical techniques including the Chi-Square, Lambda, Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, as well as the Hypothesis Test, Rank Correlation, to test for relationships among the variables. Findings. Relationships among the eight key variables and perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services were generally weak. The notable exception was with the driving force (reason) for outsourcing decisions where the relationship was strongly positive. Conclusions and recommendations. The data in support of the research questions suggest that seven of the eight key variables may be weakly predictive of perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services. However, the primary driving force for outsourcing was strongly predictive. The data also suggest that many of the sampled utilities did not formally address these variables and alternatives, and therefore may not be achieving maximal results. Further studies utilizing customer perceptions rather than those of outsourcing service managers are recommended. In addition, it is

  1. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  2. Initial state regulation of investor-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitski, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines state initiation of public service (or utility) commission regulation of investor-owned utilities (IOUs) using an economic theory of regulation. The decision to regulate IOUs is assumed to have depended on the strength of competing interest groups, e.g. consumers and producers, and on institutional factors, e.g. whether commissioners were appointed or elected. Regulators, which then had jurisdiction over IOU rates, are assumed to have been optimizing agents. The potential benefits of regulation, in turn, translated into pressure to initiate regulation. To test this, a hazard model is applied to state-level data. On the demand side of the regulation market, the distribution of federal power and population density were unrelated, while a set of time dummies was positively related to the probability that a state initiated regulation. On the supply side, the fraction of the population that was urban and whether the governor was Republican or not were positively and negatively related to this probability

  3. The regulation of the Polynesian electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challan Belval, Olivier; Janes, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This mission report aims at providing an opinion and recommendations regarding the methodology adopted for the calculation of the compensation paid to EDT (Electricite de Tahiti) for mandatory purchase of photovoltaic electricity, the institutional evolution and operating modes for the promotion of competition in the field of electricity production, adaptations of the pricing formula to improve transparency in sale prices to consumers, and institutional organisation modalities required to build up a Polynesian structure as Independent Administrative Authority (AAI) for the energy sector. In its first part, the report proposes an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Polynesia in terms of organisation, of production, of electricity demand, of photovoltaic production, of hydraulic production, of distribution, of tariff level, and of investments. In the second part, the authors report their analysis and give their recommendations, notably regarding sector control and transparency, financial balance, the compensation of EDT's losses due to the development of photovoltaic production, electricity demand management and reduction of production costs

  4. Political institutions of electricity regulation: The case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Durakoglu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has been going through a liberalization process in its electricity market over the last decade. So far, the regulatory content of the market reforms has been in the center of attention in the literature, to the negligence of regulatory governance. However, recent studies, which applied the theoretical insights of new institutional economics to utilities regulation, have demonstrated that political endowments of the country draw the boundaries to which extent such regulatory content can be effectively implemented. In line with these studies, this paper adopts an institutional approach and attempts to identify the political endowments of Turkey in order to further analyze whether the market reforms succeeded in bringing about sufficient checks to cure the institutional problems. In other words, the paper takes a picture of the overall regulatory arena. The results show that the current regulatory structure, especially government-regulator relations, yet fails to meet good regulatory governance criteria. The paper also provides some policy suggestions. - Highlights: → Regulatory governance matters as much as regulatory content. → Political institutions draw boundaries to the implementation of regulatory content. → Market reforms have been insufficient to bring about a true institutional change. → Institutional checks must be devised to limit government interference to the market.

  5. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  6. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Höning, Nicolas; La Poutré, Han; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys electricity on an ahead market and offers downward regulation on the balancing market. Bidding in two- set...

  7. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, M.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  8. A new international role for large electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Population pressures leading to changes in India, China, and South America during the next twenty-five years and the resulting revolutionary shifts in the world's major economic axes, such as growth in populations, in demand for consumer goods, in production capacities, and in energy demand, will demand greater international cooperation according to a former premier of the province of Quebec. He stressed in particular, the contributions that large electrical utilities can play in this world-wide transformation. He predicted the possibility of privatization and an extended role in international energy activities for Hydro-Quebec as a result of these major demographic and economic changes in Asia and South America, and the consequent decline in the economies of the G7 countries. Major capital investments abroad, and the formation of networks of domestic and foreign partnerships in the developing world were predicted to be the key to the survival and continuing success not only of Hydro-Quebec, but all major utility companies

  9. A quantitative model of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yulong; Fu, Shijun [Economy and Business Administration School of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper explores quantification of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. Based on social welfare economics, we articulately depict RPF's qualitative concept and its economic meaning. Then, applying abstract functions (i.e., abstract social welfare function, abstract utility function, and abstract production function), we deduce the partial-social-welfare elasticity, and build the mathematics model of maximizing social welfare. We nest this elasticity into the model's Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and obtain RPF's definition formula. By solving the Kuhn-Tucker conditions, we get RPF's quantitative formula, which solves the problem of hard to quantify regulator's preference in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. The result shows that RPF only has relationship to subsystems' production function, and is independent of social welfare function and subsystems' utility function. Finally, we provide an empirical research based on the western region of China from year 1995 to 2004. It reveals that regulator has relative stability preference to mitigating pollutants. And validity test confirms that the empirical result is fit well to the practice. The RPF is truly a more general and valid instrument to measure regulator's preference in its regulated field. (author)

  10. Regulation and competition issues in Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisuttisak, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the issues related to regulatory reform and liberalisation leading toward competition in the Thai electricity sector, which is still under the monopoly control of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Following an overview of the current market structure of the Thai electricity sector, the process of liberalisation and deregulation that contributes to the uncompetitive market structure under SOEs’ control is examined. The author asserts that there are problems within the Energy Commission and the Energy Industry Act BE 2550 (2007) that contribute to the continuance of an uncompetitive electricity supply. Possible reforms to the Thai electricity regulation are proposed with the aim of creating market competition and efficiency in the Thai electricity sector. - Highlights: ► Author studies on the regulatory reform and a development of liberalisation plans on Thai electricity sector. ► The paper presents that the liberalisation plan was affected by the government implementation on electricity corporatisation. ► The paper asserts that the current energy regulation will not lead to market reform and competition in electricity. ► The paper also discusses on the current monopoly structure of Thai electricity sector under state owned enterprises. ► The paper concludes that Thailand needs an appropriate regulatory reform for building competition in electricity sector.

  11. Electrical energy industry regulation: trend in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the electric power industry is presently experiencing significative changes world-wide at an unprecedented pace. In these circumstances it is useless to attempt the preparation of a static snapshot of the current situation, because of the difficulties in capturing the exact position of each player and also because the picture would become obsolete in a very short time. This paper presents the specific features characterising power organisation, the regulatory approaches to the several services involved in supplying electricity, and alternative schemes for introduction of different levels of competition in traditionally regulated electric systems. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  13. Electric power transmission pricing regulations and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient-price mechanism for electricity transmission is very hard to find, essentially because of the natural monopoly condition of the grid and its peculiar interactions with generation. The use of Optimal Power Flow Models is difficult to implement and could be easily distorted by strategical behaviour of generators. These models, however, could became a valuable efficiency-test for actual transmission charges and codes [it

  14. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  15. Regulation and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, V.P.; Wenting, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution the authors provide an overview of regulatory issues and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors between the Netherlands and its neighbours. The Electricity Act 1998 has assigned management of the Dutch part of the interconnectors to exclusively TenneT, the national transmission system operator in the Netherlands. The authors conclude that the dust of many regulatory problems and conflicts concerning existing interconnectors has settled down. The preliminary proceedings regarding the long Sep priority which are pending with the EU Court of Justice must still produce an answer as to the compatibility of this priority with community law. Regarding construction and management of new interconnectors many regulatory and commercial challenges lie ahead. As regards congestion management on existing interconnectors the authors raise the question whether concentration on increasing physical interconnector capacity is the right approach. Interconnector capacity, even if substantially expanded, will continue to be liable to falling short of demand due to price differences and volatility of prices in the various national markets. Perhaps more effort should be put into attaining conditions for non-transaction based congestion management. The combined UCTE (Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity) grid is, technically speaking, a 'copper plate'. If it were only managed as such by the various national transmission system operators through co-ordinated control of production and load, almost all transports on this copper plate could be secured, irrespective of underlying commercial flows [nl

  16. Service to the Electric Utility Industry by the Ford Nuclear Reactor, University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, R.R.; Simpson, P.A.; Cook, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1977, the staff of the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear Reactor has been providing irradiation, testing, analytical, and training services to electric utilities and to suppliers of the nuclear electric utility industry. This paper discusses the reactor's irradiation facilities; reactor programs and utilization; materials testing programs; neutron activation analysis activities; and training programs conducted

  17. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  18. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  19. Statistical benchmarking in utility regulation: Role, standards and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton Lowry, Mark; Getachew, Lullit

    2009-01-01

    Statistical benchmarking is being used with increasing frequency around the world in utility rate regulation. We discuss how and where benchmarking is in use for this purpose and the pros and cons of regulatory benchmarking. We then discuss alternative performance standards and benchmarking methods in regulatory applications. We use these to propose guidelines for the appropriate use of benchmarking in the rate setting process. The standards, which we term the competitive market and frontier paradigms, have a bearing on method selection. These along with regulatory experience suggest that benchmarking can either be used for prudence review in regulation or to establish rates or rate setting mechanisms directly

  20. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates

  1. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  2. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  3. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  4. Russian electricity market reform: Deregulation or re-regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Olga; Viljainen, Satu; Makkonen, Mari; Kuleshov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Russia commenced liberalization of electricity prices in 2007 increasing the liberalization rate by 10–25% every six months. It was planned to reach full liberalization by 2011. Currently, the degree of liberalization is uncertain because of intense price regulation and a highly concentrated market in the hands of four large generating companies. Increased regulation and further consolidation may drive the market towards its pre-reform state. This paper analyses the competitive landscape of the Russian electricity market by assessing the ownership structure of electricity generation, price drivers, and government involvement in the electricity wholesale market in Russia. The main research question is why the targeted level of market liberalization has not been fully achieved in the Russian electricity market. - Highlights: ► Congested grid; deficit of capacity and market concentration hinder competition. ► Investment needs of the power sector led to price shocks. ► Price increase and poor competition force the government to regulate prices. ► Low liberalization rate and non-cost-reflective pricing is a result of price regulation. ► Increased regulation and consolidation drive the market toward its pre-reform state.

  5. Why do electricity utilities cooperate with coal suppliers? A theoretical and empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Lyon, Thomas P.; Wang Feng; Song Cui

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetry of Chinese coal and electricity pricing reforms leads to serious conflict between coal suppliers and electricity utilities. Electricity utilities experience significant losses as a result of conflict: severe coal price fluctuations, and uncertainty in the quantity and quality of coal supplies. This paper explores whether establishing cooperative relationships between coal suppliers and electricity utilities can resolve conflicts. We begin with a discussion of the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms, and then conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting to provide a new perspective on the drivers behind the establishment of cooperative relationships between the two parties. Finally, we empirically investigate the role of cooperative relationships and the establishment of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of electricity utilities. The results show that relational contracting between electricity utilities and coal suppliers improves the market performance of electricity utilities; meanwhile, the transportation cost savings derived from mine-mouth power plants are of importance in improving the performance of electricity utilities. - Highlights: ► We discuss the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms. ► The roots of conflicts between electricity and coal firms are presented. ► We conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting. ► The role of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of power firms is examined.

  6. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  7. Analysis of electric vehicle impacts in New Mexico urban utility distribution infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, B. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sena, Santiago [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stratton, S. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdollahy, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, J. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-06-16

    Modeling is going to play a crucial role for utilities as Electric Vehicle (EV) ownership percentage increases. Utilities anticipate new demand peaks due to EV charging loads, particularly at high penetration levels.

  8. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  9. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  10. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-12-03

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries.

  11. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries

  12. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  13. Overlapping Nuclear Safety Control Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and Electric Utility Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Won; Koh, Jae-Dong; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Bum

    2007-01-01

    Before May 17, 2005, Korea's nuclear power plant (hereinafter referred to as 'NNP') regulation system was two-pronged. Every NPP system consists of primary or secondary system, and each type was respectively regulated by the Atomic Energy Act(hereinafter referred to as 'AEA') and the Electric Utility Act(hereinafter referred to as 'EUA'). This unusual regulatory regime gave rise to a number of problems with respect to operation and safety. For this reason, the Enforcement Regulation of AEA and applicable Notice were revised on May 17, 2005 to the effect that all regulation on NPPs subject to EUA was brought under the purview of AEA, except regulation on business license for nuclear power generation under Article 7 of EUA and approval of plan of works for setting up electric installations (hereinafter referred to as 'construction plan') (including approval of any changes; the same shall apply hereinafter) under Article 61 thereof. From the point of view of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the regulation of NPPs by a single law has enhanced their safety. However, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy retains regulatory authority regarding NPPs. It reviews and approves construction plans for secondary system pursuant to Article 61 of EUA and Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation thereof. This situation arose because Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA continues to provide for matters related with nuclear power. Therefore, continued control of NPPs under EUA ignores the relationship and respective nature of AEA and EUA. There is also possibility of violation of a superseding law. Even if said provision is not in violation of a superseding law, Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA poses the possibility of overlapping regulation, which may violate the principle of prohibiting excessive regulation, one of the principles of the Korean Constitution. Assessment of the dual regulatory system for review of secondary system requires (i

  14. Regulated Electric Drainage and its Interference with Track Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Kolar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric drainage is a power electronic device used to protect underground metal devices (such as piping from the corrosive effects of stray currents. Stray currents are usually caused by DC electric traction, such as trams or railways. In places where stray currents leave the underground device and return into rails, they cause significant electrochemical corrosion of buried devices. The principle of electric drainage is based on electrical connection between the underground device and electric traction rails, which ensures that current flows through this connection, instead of flowing into the ground. Nowadays, the most widely used type is regulated electric drainage, where current is regulated by means of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM. Because of this modulation, current flowing through the drainage contains harmonic components with different frequencies. In modern railways, track circuits are often used as an important part of the track security system. For safe operation, it is necessary to ensure that frequencies generated by the drainage do not interfere with track circuits. This paper describes the design of a regulated drainage control system, with regard to its compatibility with track circuits and this paper contains related computer simulations and discussion of the results

  15. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  16. Report on electricity sales regulated tariffs - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context of regulated tariffs for electricity sale, this report aims at assessing the level of tariff stacking for 2015 while taking some factors (EDF commercial costs, tariff for the use of electricity public network or TURPE) into account, at calculating the rate of EDF cost coverage by sales regulated tariffs, at assessing price adjustments made between November 2014 and July 2015. The first part proposes a detailed analysis of tariffing by cost stacking, and the second part a detailed analysis of EDF production costs

  17. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries

  18. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries.

  19. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  20. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago (United States); Jamasb, Tooraj [Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, Sidgwick Avenue, Austin Robinson Building, Cambridge, CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tooraj.jamasb@econ.cam.ac.uk; Pollitt, Michael [Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches.

  1. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches

  2. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  3. Security Vulnerability and Patch Management in Electric Utilities: A Data-Driven Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Zhang, Fengli [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2018-01-18

    This paper explores a real security vulnerability and patch management dataset from an electric utility in order to shed light on characteristics of the vulnerabilities that electric utility assets have and how they are remediated in practice. Specifically, it first analyzes the distribution of vulnerabilities over software, assets, and other metric. Then it analyzes how vulnerability features affect remediate actions.

  4. Proposal from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from September 26, 2002 relative to the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003; Proposition de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite en date du 26 septembre 2002 relative au montant previsionnel des charges du service public de la production d'electricite pour 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003. This estimation is based on the detailed data supplied by the operators, like Electricite de France (EdF), who bear the charges and by the managers of the public networks. The calculation method used for the estimation is detailed in the appendix: production cost overruns in non-interconnected areas, cost overruns due to the obligation of electricity purchase and to the contracts of purchase anterior to the law from February 10, 2000, estimated amount of the charges to be compensated and of the treasury management costs, estimated number of kWh submitted to contribution in 2003 and unit estimated contribution. (J.S.)

  5. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  7. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Electric Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for theelectric utilitiesr industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  8. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  9. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ''Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities'' publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ''Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.'' Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs

  10. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  11. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  12. Optimal utilization of electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.; Gjelsvik, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is attempted to address the questions of which advantages the equilibrium solution would have for the energy market under free trade conditions, how Nordic electric power can be used optimally and what the trading pattern looks like, which kind of competition the transmission of electricity via cables to Iceland and other Nordic countries will meet in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Continent, how high the option values are of trading with electric power via cables from, for example, Iceland to the UK and how great the profit could be from a more effective use of electricity for aluminium production in Norway and Iceland. Data are given on consumer prices for 1990 in Scandinavia, Germany and the UK, and a few graphs and a map illustrate the text. (AB)

  13. Utilization of waste heat from electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1977-06-01

    Historically the nuclear power station has been designed solely as an electricity producer. But in Canada today only 15 percent of our energy consumption is as electricity. The non-electrical needs today are supplied almost entirely by natural gas and oil. There is an incentive to see whether a nuclear station could supply energy for some of these non-electrical needs, thus freeing gas and oil for uses for which they may be more valuable and suitable, especially in transportation. A group located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment undertook a series of studies to examine this problem. These studies were done in sufficient depth to provide technological and economic answers, and as a result several reports have been published on various topics. In this report, the findings from these studies are drawn together in an assessment of the potential in Canada for using waste heat. (author)

  14. Does electricity (and heat) network regulation have anything to learn from fixed line telecoms regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the lessons from the recent history of telecoms deregulation for electricity (and by implication heat) network regulation. We do this in the context of Ofgem's RPI-X rate at 20 review of energy regulation in the UK, which considers whether RPI-X-based price regulation is fit for purpose after over 20 years of operation in energy networks. We examine the deregulation of fixed line telecoms in the UK and the lessons which it seems to suggest. We then apply the lessons to electricity networks in the context of a possible increase in distributed generation directly connected to local distribution networks. We conclude that there is the possibility of more parallels over time and suggest several implications of this for the regulation of electricity and heat networks. (author)

  15. Ex Post Regulation as the Method of Sectoral Regulation in Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Nagaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The aim of the article is to present the essence of ex post approach to sectoral regulation, to show the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and to answer the question whether it is worth using in the electricity sector. Design/methodology/approach - For this purpose, a critical analysis of expert literature was made and an empirical analysis of countries that have applied ex post regulation in the electricity sector in the European Union. Two research methods were used: a case study and a comparison of changes in price and quality of services. The research period covered the period 2000-2016. Findings - It was found that ex post regulation reduces regulatory costs, does not adversely affect the quality of service and long-term rates, gives businesses the freedom of decision-making and the ability to react quickly to changes in the economy. The main disadvantages of ex post regulation are the tendency for companies to over-estimate bills for consumers, the difficulty of pursuing claims by consumers and the need to shift regulatory risk to consumers. Research implications/limitations - In the paper there was identified a research gap, i.e. the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector in European Union countries where such regulation was applied. Identifying the research gap will help us understand what are the advantages and disadvantages of ex post regulation and will create a model for when it is good moment to implement this in the economy. Besides identifying the research gap, further studies will be required over ex post regulation. Originality/value/contribution - The additional value of the paper is the study of ex post regulation, its essence and types. The article analyzed the effects of ex post regulation in the electricity sector and provided valuable insights into the potential risks associated with this approach to economic regulation.

  16. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  18. Investment incentives: regulation of the Finnish electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Kaisa

    2006-01-01

    Investments into the electricity distribution network are needed to support competition and to guarantee the security of supply as well as a good quality of electricity. The aim of this paper is to study the ex post regulatory system in Finland in context of investment incentives. The second objective is to study how the investments in the sector have developed after the liberalisation and what seem to be the most important factors influencing investments in light of empirical information and how regulation affects them. The investment volumes vary much between years but on average, no drastic developments have taken place

  19. Third-quarter 1989 electric utility financial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Utility earnings per share before write-offs fell 6.9% in the third quarter of 1989 from the year-earlier level. Write-offs reduced third-quarter earnings of a sample of 83 utilities that account for 95% of investor-owned utility revenue by $792 million, compared with $183 million in the year-earlier quarter. With larger write-offs in 1989 than in 1988, third-quarter earnings per share after write-offs plunged 16.9% from the year-earlier level

  20. The consumers' role in a de-regulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Doehl, Oeystein; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Larsson, Jan; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The electricity market is market characterized by large price variations. This may have many causes, such as large variation of demand, large differences in the operating costs of the utilities or large variation in precipitation. Price variations caused by the supply side of the market may be counterbalanced by reducing consumption when the price is high, for example by using other energy sources, or by increasing consumption when the price is low

  1. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  2. Response strategies for electric utilities to an uncertain climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcambre, J.; Wilson, O.

    1995-01-01

    The precautionary principle is being applied by legislators in formulating policy responses to the predictions of an enhanced greenhouse effect. Global commitments have been made under the Framework Convention on Climate Change to take measures aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Electricity production from fossil fuels is a significant global source of carbon dioxide and a focus for emission reduction efforts. The decisions of policy-makers will impact on the electricity sector. However, the size and structure of this sector imply that substantial impositions cannot be placed on it in the short term without severe economic and social consequences. What is required of policy-makers is a pragmatic approach, since there are no simple or unique solutions. A rational attitude to energy use must be fostered which recognizes the special role of electricity in a modern economy

  3. Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.N.; Baughman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing non-utility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal non-utility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point of view. Firm capacity purchase, and hence an optimal price for purchasing firm capacity, are an integral part of this pricing policy. A case study shows that real-time pricing without firm capacity purchase results in improper investment decisions and higher costs for the system as a whole. Without explicit firm capacity purchase, the utility makes greater investment in capacity addition in order to meet its reliability criteria than is socially optimal. It is concluded that the non-utility generated power pricing policy presented in this paper and implied by reliability differentiated pricing policy results in social welfare-maximizing investment and operation decisions

  4. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  5. Regulation of electricity distribution: Issues for implementing a norm model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette; Bjoernenak, Trond; Johnsen, Thore

    2005-01-01

    The Norwegian regulation of transmission and distribution of electricity is currently under revision, and several proposals, including price caps, various norm models and adjustments to the present revenue cap model, have been considered by the Norwegian regulator, NVE. Our starting point is that a successful and sustainable income-regulation-model for electricity distribution should be in accordance with the way of thinking, and the managerial tools of modern businesses. In the regulation it is assumed that decisions regarding operations and investments are made by independent, business oriented entities. The ambition of a dynamically efficient industry therefore requires that the regulatory model and its implementation support best practice business performance. This will influence how the cost base is determined and the way investments are dealt with. We will investigate a possible implementation of a regulatory model based on cost norms. In this we will distinguish between on the one hand, customer driven costs, and on the other hand, costs related to the network itself. The network related costs, which account for approximately 80% of the total cost of electricity distribution, include the costs of operating and maintaining the network, as well as capital costs. These are the ''difficult'' costs, as their levels depend on structural and climatic factors, as well as the number of customers and the load that is served. Additionally, the costs are not separable, since for instance maintenance and investments can be substitutable activities. The work concentrates on verifying the cost model, and evaluating implications for the use of the present efficiency model (DEA) in the regulation. Moreover, we consider how network related costs can be managed in a norm model. Finally, it is highlighted that an important part of a regulatory model based on cost norms is to devise quality measures and how to use them in the economic regulation. (Author)

  6. Financing the electric power utilities, especially the nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-04-01

    Electric power demands in Japan have shown a remarkable growth at an annual rate of 12% since 1965. Nine electric power companies have invested large amounts of money so far, amounting to over 1 trillion yen every year since 1972. A survey of the electric power supply system and an estimation of the electric power demands in 1980 and in 1985 are given. It is expected that the main portion of electric power in the future will gradually be generated by nuclear plants. Financial features of the electrical power utilities, the credit risk of the electric power utilities, and the raising of funds by electric power utilities are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary (1) to expand the capital market, (2) to enable the electric power companies to issue a sufficient amount of bonds, (3) to make the Government financing institutions, such as the Japan Development Bank, provide the electric power companies with larger funds on a long-term and low-interest rate basis, and (4) even to take such drastic steps as subsidizing interest on private loans to the electric power companies. (B.P.)

  7. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  8. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  9. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The main goals of this research were to use E. aerogenes ADH-43 for fermentation in order to decide the best carbon sources and ... by converting to electricity using fuel cells in 50 ml vial bottle, 2% total ... evolution compared with other biological hydrogen .... Erlenmeyer containing a solution of Ca (OH) 2.

  10. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  11. The fast reactor and electricity supply, a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.; Hall, R.S.; Kemmish, W.B.; Thorne, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The significance of the fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board. The need for the fast reactor and a possible timescale for its introduction are examined. It is emphasised that demonstration of the commercial and environmental acceptability of the fuel cycle will be needed before any commitment can be made to fast reactors. (U.K.)

  12. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardana, P.; Herman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  13. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  14. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  15. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  16. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric demand has been steadily increasing in accordance with the economic growth. However, Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems; increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing electric tariff options of specific contracts for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. Japanese electric utilities have been carrying out R and D for the future, in particular, energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of load factor. In this paper, I would like to outline the R and D options for DSM in Japan. (author)

  17. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry: Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.302 - Electric utilization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... connect the installations to a supply of electricity; and (viii) Other outside conductors on the premises...)—Arcing parts § 1910.303(e)—Marking § 1910.303(f), except (f)(4) and (f)(5)—Disconnecting means and...)(4)—Disconnecting means and circuits—Capable of accepting a lock § 1910.303(f)(5)—Disconnecting means...

  19. How reliably can climate change and mitigation policy impacts on electric utilities be assessed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kopp, R.J.; Palmer, K.; De Witt, D.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms link climate change and electric utilities. Electricity generation releases radiatively active trace substances (RATS). Significant changes in atmospheric concentration of RATS can lead to a change in regional and global climate regimes. Mitigation action designed to prevent or limit climate change is possible through curbing emissions. Climate change and related mitigation actions impact on electric utilities. Foresight in electric utility planning requires reliable predictions of how the utilities may be affected in the decades ahead. In this paper the impacts of climate change and mitigation policies are noted, and our ability to assess these is reviewed. To this end a suite of models exploring supply and demand questions have been developed. The overall conclusion of the study is that the demand-side uncertainties dominate other unknowns and need to be better characterized and understood. (author)

  20. Value-Added Electricity Services: New Roles for Utilities and Third-Party Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blansfield, J. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, L. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Katofsky, R. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Stafford, B. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Waggoner, D. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwartz, L. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    New energy generation, storage, delivery, and end-use technologies support a broad range of value-added electricity services for retail electricity customers. Sophisticated energy management services, distributed generation coupled with storage, and electric vehicle charging are just a few examples of emerging offerings. Who should provide value-added services — utilities or third parties, or both, and under what conditions? What policy and regulatory changes may be needed to promote competition and innovation, to account for utility costs to enable these services, and to protect consumers? The report approaches the issues from three perspectives: utilities, third-party service providers, and consumers: -Jonathan Blansfield and Lisa Wood, Institute for Electric Innovation -Ryan Katofsky, Benjamin Stafford and Danny Waggoner, Advanced Energy Economy -National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates

  1. 77 FR 47060 - Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Municipal Electric Utility Commission filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply service under... Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the web site that enables subscribers to...

  2. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  3. Cost functions and the electric utility industry. A contribution to the debate on deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the main articles that estimate cost functions in the electricity utility industry with a view to studying of the initial arguments for proposing competition and vertical disintegration. The works reviewed here, in general terms, confirm the initial arguments in favour of the deregulation process, mainly, the exhaustion of scale economies for moderate size firms in generation and the condition of natural monopoly for transmission and distribution. However, the savings obtained from undertaking different activities together should be kept in mind when restructuring the sector. On the other hand, the improvements in productivity deriving from the reforms have not translated into reductions in the price of electricity in many countries. These last two results suggest the need for appropriate market regulation for the deregulation process to translate into an improvement in how the sector works and into benefits for consumers. There is still insufficient empirical literature on these issues due to the fact that the process is still ongoing in many countries and more time will have to transpire before sufficient data is available

  4. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Tamer; Oguz, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly

  5. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, T.

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly. (author)

  6. Who cares about a financially healthy electric utility industry. Finding future answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Forecasts on the rate of growth of electricity supply and demand were given. Emphasis was placed on the economic stability of electric utilities and their ability to raise necessary capital. The role of nuclear power in America's future was also discussed

  7. Electric utility mergers and acquisitions seen in a larger perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawes, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    Merger negotiations are intricate and sensitive dances which, far more often than not, may end in failure. The famed prediction of {open_quotes}50 in five{close_quotes} may prove correct - though it may be 50 utilities in 2005. Still, mergers are only a partial hedge against what may, after all, be 10 years of better prices for customers and tougher times for shareholders.

  8. Regional differences in electricity distribution costs and their consequences for yardstick regulation of access prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wild, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 59 Swiss local and regional electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Shleifer (1985) proposed yardstick competition in terms of price to regulate local monopolies producing a homogeneous good. The regulated price for the individual firms depends on the average costs of identical firms. The yardstick competition concept can also be applied to firms that produce heterogeneous goods if these goods differ only in observable characteristics. To correct the yardstick for heterogeneity the regulator can use a multivariate estimation of an average-cost function. In the case of electricity distribution, the heterogeneity of output consists mainly of different characteristics of the distribution service areas. In this paper we follow Shleifer's suggestion to estimate a multivariate average-cost function that can be employed by the regulatory commission to benchmark network access prices at the distribution level. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the cost model specification. We find that the regional differences of the service areas - e.g. area shares of forests, agricultural areas or unproductive land and population density - significantly influence electricity distribution costs

  9. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  10. Another year of change for Canadian electric utilities as they continue to meet new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The activities of Canadian electric utilities in the past year were highlighted. The companies reviewed were: B.C. Hydro, Edmonton Power, TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Manitoba Hydro, Ontario Hydro, Hydro-Quebec, New Brunswick Power Corporation, Nova Scotia Power Inc., and Newfoundland Power. Reviews of the industry, economic growth, market trends and forecasts were discussed

  11. Electric system reliability considerations in a changing utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility industry is presently experiencing a number of diverse factors which may alter the way that it operates and in many cases the way in which it is configured. These factors reflect a variety of circumstances including increased competitive pressures and political perception. While many of these changes may result in long term economic and service benefits to the industry and customer alike, it is important to recognize the desirability of orderly change. There is need to implement change in a reasoned manner. In this paper technical as well as economic and political considerations are addressed

  12. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    the benefits of using mixtures compared to pure fluids as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In order to do so, thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out, first on an overall cycle level, and next on component level including detailed modelling of heat exchangers, pumps and expanders involving...... project collaborators with expertise in these areas. In addition to this, novel innovative cycle layouts are developed with the aim of increasing the economic feasibility of utilizing low temperature heat. As an example, this can be achieved by implementing separators in the power cycle to create optimal...

  13. Data warehousing for electric utilities; Data Warehousing fuer Stromerzeuger im Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappenecker, G.; Wolff, G.; Gross, P.

    2000-07-01

    Deregulation of the electricity market has changed the business processes of electric utilities profoundly. The paradigm of availability was replaced by economic efficiency. Four requirements are decisive: Implementation of unbundling as required by law - cost reduction to enhance competitive strength - marketing of the utilities' own products - positioning in the new electricity market. [German] Die Deregulierung des Strommarktes hat die Geschaeftsprozesse der Stromerzeuger grundlegend gewandelt. Das Paradigma der Versorgungssicherheit wurde ersetzt durch das der Wirtschaftlichkeit. Die Veraenderung der Geschaeftsprozesse der Stromerzeuger sind massiv gepraegt von vier Anforderungen: - Umsetzung des gesetzlich vorgeschriebenen 'Unbundling' - Erhalt der Konkurrenzfaehigkeit durch Kostensenkung - Vermarktung der eigenen Produkte - Positionierung im neu entstehenden Strommarkt. (orig.)

  14. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  15. A ''New Generation'' of Nuclear Power Plants- Electric Utility Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouani, D.; Reznik, L.; Tavron, B.

    1999-01-01

    A 50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in the next 20 years is anticipated, due to the global population growth and to higher standards of living. Meeting these energy demands with the fossil energy sources such as coal. gas and oil may lead to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, resulting in global warming of several degrees with catastrophic climatic consequences. Implementation of various energy conservation measures may bring only insignificant reduction in demand levels. Hopes that the renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectric, solar, wind power, biomass and geothermal) may supply the growth in the demand - are unrealistic. Only nuclear power (providing already 16% of world electricity) may meet all the energy demand growth with negligible greenhouse emission

  16. Computer model for estimating electric utility environmental noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplitzky, A.M.; Hahn, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a computer code for estimating environmental noise emissions from the operation and the construction of electric power plants that was developed based on algorithms. The computer code (Model) is used to predict octave band sound power levels for power plant operation and construction activities on the basis of the equipment operating characteristics and calculates off-site sound levels for each noise source and for an entire plant. Estimated noise levels are presented either as A-weighted sound level contours around the power plant or as octave band levels at user defined receptor locations. Calculated sound levels can be compared with user designated noise criteria, and the program can assist the user in analyzing alternative noise control strategies

  17. Electric-utility returns and risk in the light of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.D.; D'Souza, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of the Three Mile Island nuclear-generating-unit failure on the performance of nuclear-dependent electric utilities is examined in this article. A comparative examination of the time series of abnormal returns and risk measures on nuclear-dependent utilities and nondependent utilities prior to the TMI incident, at the time of the incident, and subsequent to it was performed by the authors. The results are consistent with a hypothesis that investors associate a decline in future profitability or increased risk with nuclear-associated utilities. However, the more-objective measures indicate a clear reduction in risk for nuclear-associated utilities since the TMI incident, both in relation to the market as a whole and in relation to electric utilities which are not nuclear-associated. 4 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  18. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we will present a descriptive and organizational framework for incremental and fundamental changes to regulatory and utility business models in the context of clean energy public policy goals. We will also discuss the regulated utility's role in providing value-added services that relate to distributed energy resources, identify the "openness" of customer information and utility networks necessary to facilitate change, and discuss the relative risks, and the shifting of risks, for utilities and customers.

  19. Review of inter-utility trade in electricity: Analyses of submissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    In November 1992, Canada's National Energy Board released two discussion papers describing its review of inter-utility trade in electricity. The review was undertaken to report on measures that could be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity by encouraging greater cooperation among utilities in systems planning and development, and by enabling buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. Interested parties were invited to comment on the papers and 42 responses were received from Canadian utilities, provincial governments, regulatory agencies, and others. These responses are summarized and analyzed, providing an indication of how future policy initiatives on electricity trade might be received. Most submitters agreed that there is a need to enable commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. Of the seven options described in the discussion papers that would enable buyers and sellers of electricity to gain commercial access to transmission grids, the status quo was preferred by those utilities and provinces that have direct access to export markets by virtue of their geographic location. Those utilities and provinces that do not have such direct access tend to support, as a last resort, mandated solutions to disputes concerning electricity trade. 78 figs

  20. Willingness to Pay for Renewable Electricity: A Review of Utility Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    1999-09-09

    As competition in the electric utility industry has become more widespread and federal legislation deregulating the utility industry more likely, utilities have become more concerned about actions they can take to help ensure the loyalty of their customers. National polls have, for 20 years, found majority preferences for renewable energy over other energy sources. This issue brief compiles and analyzes recent market research conducted by utility companies on customer interest in and willingness to pay for renewable electricity. Findings in the areas examined in this review are: Customers are favorable toward renewable sources of electricity, although they know little about them; Solar and wind are the most favored sources of electricity generation; Majorities of 52% to nearly 100% of residential customers said they were willing to pay at least a modest amount more per month on their electric bills for green power; their responses follow a predictable curve showing that percentages willing to pay more decline as cost increases. The residential market for green pricing is approximately 2% near program rollout at a $5/month price increment, and should increase slowly but steadily over time; Customers may view with favor, and be more willing to purchase electricity from, utilities that provide green power.

  1. Blending of electricity pricing with time flavour - an analysis of net system benefit to an electric utility in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Demand-side Management is a powerful strategy for modifying electric energy consumption patterns for the mutual benefit of consumers, the supplier and the economy as a whole Time-of-use pricing of electricity suggest a policy where the price is time-differentiated so as to reduce contribution to the system-peak which determines the capacity and investments of a power-system. This paper describes a case-study of net system benefit to an electric utility in India by offering time-of-use tariff to high voltage (HV) industrial consumers. The study shows that there is a potential of shifting about 19% H.V. Industrial loads from peak to off-peak hours thereby benefitting both, the consumers and the utility. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  3. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs

  4. Do acquisitions by electric utility companies create value? Evidence from deregulated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Jo; Goto, Mika; Inoue, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the United Kingdom (the UK) initiated widespread reforms in the electricity industry through a series of market liberalization policies. Several other countries have subsequently followed the lead and restructured their electricity industry. A major outcome of the deregulation effort is the spate of takeovers, both domestic and global, by electric utility companies. With the entry of new players and increasing competition, the business environment of the electricity industry has changed dramatically. This study analyzes the economic impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the electric utility industry after deregulation. We have examined acquisitions that took place between 1998 and 2013 in the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany, and France. Although previous studies showed no evidence of a positive effect on acquiring firms through M&As, we find that acquisitions by electric utility companies increased the acquiring firms’ share value and improved their operating performance, primarily through efficiency gains after the deregulation. These results are consistent with the empirical evidence and implications presented by Andrade et al. (2001) that M&A created value for the shareholders of the acquiring and target combined firms. - Highlights: • This study examined mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in electric utility industry. • The sample covered M&A between 1998 and 2013 in North America and Europe. • We found M&A significantly increased acquiring firms’ share value and operating performance. • Deregulation policy realized gains for shareholders without incurring costs for consumers.

  5. Environmental assessment for the electric utility system distribution, replacements and upgrades at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental effects resulting from the distribution of new electrical service, replacement of inadequate or aging equipment, and upgrade of the existing electrical utility system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The projects assessed herein do not impact cultural or historic resources, sensitive habitats or wetlands and are not a source of air emissions. The potential environmental effects that do result from the action are fugitive dust and noise from construction and the disposal of potentially contaminated soil removed from certain limited areas of the LLNL site as a result of trenching for underground transmission lines. The actions described in this assessment represent an improved safety and reliability to the existing utility system. Inherent in the increased reliability and upgrades is a net increase in electrical capacity, with future expansion reserve. As with any electrical device, the electrical utility system has associated electric and magnetic fields that present a potential source of personnel exposure. The potential is not increased, however, beyond that which already exists for the present electrical utility system

  6. Exploring the relationship between planning and procurement in Western U.S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Sanstad, Alan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division

    2017-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an important regulatory process used in many U.S. states to formulate and evaluate least-cost and risk-assessed portfolios to meet future load requirements for electric utilities. In principle, effective implementation of IRP seeks to assure regulators and the public that utility investment decisions, given uncertainty, are as cost-effective as possible. However, to date, there is no empirical assessment on the effectiveness of IRP implementation. In this analysis, we compare planning, procurement processes and actual decisions for a sample of twelve load serving entities (LSEs) across the Western U. S. from 2003-2014. The 2008/2009 recession provides a unique “stress test” to the planning process and offers an excellent opportunity to trace how procurement decisions responded to this largely unforeseen event. In aggregate, there is a general alignment between planned and procured supply-side capacity. However, there are significant differences in the choice of supply-side resources and type of ownership for individual LSEs. We develop case studies for three LSEs and find that subsequent plans differ significantly due to changes in the planning environment and that procurement decisions in some cases are impacted by factors that are not accounted for in the planning process. Our results reveal that a limited amount of information produced during the long-term planning process (e.g., forecasts, methods, and least cost/risk portfolios) are ultimately used during the procurement process, and that the latter process relies extensively on the most recent information available for decision making. These findings suggest that states' IRP rules and regulations mandating long-term planning horizons with the same analytical complexity throughout the planning period may not create useful information for the procurement process. The social value of a long-term planning process that departs from procurement and the balance between

  7. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  8. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  9. FACTS controllers and the deregulated electric utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, B. T.; Galiana, F. D.; McGillis, D.; Joos, G.; Marceau, R.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is explored and the potential of power electronic converters to increase flexibility and reliability of modern power systems is explored. Power electronic controllers can reduce the required safety margin in electric power generation capacity through the use of faster controllers based on exploiting the high-power solid-state switches with gate-turn-off capabilities. The FACTS concept makes it possible to postpone the financial investment needed to build more power lines, and also offers a solution to securing the right-of-way to build new lines. Currently available FACTS controllers such as the Static var Compensator (STATCOM) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) are described, including their function, structure and relevant implementation issues. Since they can produce the required amount of reactive power independently of line voltage or current, and if equipped with energy storing devices they can supply real power as required, they are a necessary element for the control of power systems in a deregulated environment. 15 refs., 3 figs

  10. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  11. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Distributed resources and re-regulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly defines distributed resources (DR) and discusses the current status of DR. The main focus is on discussing the value DR can provide to re-regulated electricity markets. DR can, under certain circumstances, help to significantly reduce the main problem of re-regulation, i.e. market power. Distributed generation and demand-side resources may, even if only small quantities in terms of size of the entire market are utilised, be able to help to significantly reduce market power. This results in a significantly more efficient market. To achieve such benefits, however, DR must be in operation during times when market power issues are likely to arise. To a certain extent this is the case as demand-side resources are usually independent of established generation companies. In addition, many business cases for DG require DG to actually operate to capture the second revenue. (author)

  13. Trends and prospects for the energy industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Bupp notes that income redistribution is the major issue in the energy problem, with energy producers the current winners and consumers the big losers as money in the US flows from the northeast to the south and southwest. Also, the relative political success of allocating gas and oil income is offset by disappointment in the synthetic-fuels, nuclear, and fossil-fuels industries. He feels that some compromise is needed between the free-market advocates and the regulators so that cooperation between the private and public sectors can replace the current stalemate that is creating unacceptable financial burdens. Finally, he observes that serious thought and planning is particularly called for to overcome the inertia in nuclear power policy and to reorder energy budget priorities

  14. Wind integration in self-regulating electric load distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Simon; Wang, Dan; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, STN CSC, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and assess an alternative method of mitigating short-term wind energy production variability through the control of electric loads. In particular, co-located populations of electric vehicles and heat pumps are targeted to provide regulation-based ancillary services, as the inherent operational flexibility and autonomous device-level control strategy associated with these load-types provide an ideal platform to mitigate enhanced variability within the power system. An optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing these grid-side objectives with those typically expected on the demand-side is introduced. End-use digital communication hardware is used to track and control population dynamics through the development of online aggregate load models equivalent to conventional dispatchable generation. The viability of the proposed load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased online regulation reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently. (orig.)

  15. Investigation into the risk perceptions of investors in the securities of nuclear-dependent electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudeck, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks prior to the Three Mile Island accident, March 15, 1979, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered five operating nuclear plants shut down in order to reexamine safety standards in these plants. Reports in the popular and trade press during this time suggested that these events, particularly the accident at Three Mile Island, caused investors in the securities of electric utilities that had nuclear-generation facilities to revise their risk perceptions. This study was designed to examine the impact of both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission order and the accident at Three Mile Island on investor risk perceptions. Selected categories of electric utilities were chosen to examine any differential risk effects resulting from these events. An asset pricing model devoid of many of the restrictive assumptions of more familiar models was used to model investor behavior. The findings suggest that the events described did cause investors to revise upward their perceptions of systematic risk regarding different categories of electric utilities. More specifically, those electric utilities that were operating nuclear plants in 1979 experienced the largest and most sustained increase in systematic risk. However, electric utilities that in 1979 had no operating nuclear plants, but had planned and committed funds for nuclear plants in the future, also experienced increases in systematic risk

  16. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.D.; Elliot, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, including states with new programs, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program

  17. Aiming for market leadership - from electricity utility to pellets manufacturer; Die Marktfuehrerschaft im Visier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2003-07-01

    This short article describes the plans of a small Swiss electricity utility to break out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and go into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are to be made from waste wood available from a wood processing facility in the utility's own region, are to be produced on a scale which can be described as being quite large for Switzerland. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and has diversified into other areas such as electrical house installations and overland power lines. The markets being aimed for are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects.

  18. Comparisons of recent growth in actual demand, planned demand, and planned generating capacity at U. S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, A.E. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    During the winter of 1993, a number of U.S. electric utilities and some regional power pools discovered that current load exceeded generating capacity. Load restrictions followed, as entire regions-not just isolated utilities or even states-cut back. Was 1993 a typical, or simply a preview of the future If a preview, how did this shortage occur For a number of years, utilities, regulatory agencies, and power pools have been planning to add capacity at a much lower rate than the rate at which load has been growing. The National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) has projected that eight of it's nine regions will have demand growth exceed capacity growth. The only region where capacity is growing faster is in the Texas Region. There are four reasons behind this shortage: excess capacity in the 1980's, disbelief in current forecasts, passage of the Clean Air act bringing stricter regulation on power plants, and the herd mentality where utilities have all delayed new plant construction.

  19. Efficiency Analysis of German Electricity Distribution Utilities : Non-Parametric and Parametric Tests

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Cullmann, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper applies parametric and non-parametric and parametric tests to assess the efficiency of electricity distribution companies in Germany. We address traditional issues in electricity sector benchmarking, such as the role of scale effects and optimal utility size, as well as new evidence specific to the situation in Germany. We use labour, capital, and peak load capacity as inputs, and units sold and the number of customers as output. The data cover 307 (out of 553) ...

  20. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  1. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  2. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

  3. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  4. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems: increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing tariff options for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. R and D works have been carried out on various fields such as energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of the load factor. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  6. Reducing operating costs: A collaborative approach between industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyers, B.; Sibbald, L.

    1993-01-01

    The unit cost of electricity to industrial consumers is expected to increase at a rate of 5% annually in the 1990s. The partnership that has been created between Amoco Canada Petroleum Company and TransAlta Utilities to control the cost of electricity is described. To allow the company to receive lower rates for interruptible power, a number of measures have been taken. The Amoco Whitecourt plant has standby generators in reserve that can be used when utility power is not available. A Pembina compressor can be turned off for up to 12 hours, at 30 minutes notice, without affecting field pressure. At the East Crossfield plant sales gas can be compressed using electricity or a gas-driven engine. Spot market energy is used in a number of plants allowing electric drive alternatives to plant operators and offering short term energy markets. TransAlta invests in electrical equipment such as switchgear as well as transmission lines and transformers. New rate alternatives offered by TransAlta Utilities include review of the need for a demand ratchet, additional time of use rates, unbundling of rates allowing power purchase from alternative sources, rates that follow product costs, reduced rates for conversion of gas to electric drives certain circumstances, energy audits, and power factor credits. 5 figs

  7. A technology-assessment methodology for electric utility planning: With application to nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric utilities and public service commissions have not taken full advantage of the many proven methodologies and techniques available for evaluating complex technological issues. In addition, evaluations performed are deficient in their use of (1) methods for evaluating public attitudes and (2) formal methods of analysis for decision making. These oversight are substantiated through an examination of the literature relevant to electric utility planning. The assessment process known as technology assessment or TA is proposed, and a TA model is developed for route in use in utility planning by electric utilities and state regulatory commissions. Techniques to facilitate public participation and techniques to aid decision making are integral to the proposed model and are described in detail. Criteria are provided for selecting an appropriate technique on a case-by-case basis. The TA model proved to be an effective methodology for evaluating technological issues associated with electric utility planning such as decommissioning nuclear power plants. Through the use of the nominal group technique, the attitudes of a group of residential ratepayers were successfully identified and included in the decision-making process

  8. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  9. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  10. On the economics of PURPA auctions. [Contracts between utilities and electricity producers in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel (Energiewirtschaftliches Inst. an der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany))

    1991-04-01

    It is shown that, under certain conditions, Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) auctions in the USA theoretically lead to efficient contracts between utilities and producers of electricity. In contrast to normal auctions bidders compete with (potentially non-linear) revenue functions and with non-price attributes. In practice, there are tremendous difficulties in the evaluation of bids which result from the long duration of contracts and from the necessity to evaluate risks and non-price attributes. (author).

  11. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  12. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  13. Periphytic biofilms: A promising nutrient utilization regulator in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Rene, Eldon R

    2018-01-01

    Low nutrient utilization efficiency in agricultural ecosystems is the main cause of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Therefore, novel approaches should be explored to improve nutrient utilization in these ecosystems. Periphytic biofilms composed of microalgae, bacteria and other microbial organisms are ubiquitous and form a 'third phase' in artificial wetlands such as paddy fields. Periphytic biofilms play critical roles in nutrient transformation between the overlying water and soil/sediment, however, their contributions to nutrient utilization improvement and NPS pollution control have been largely underestimated. This mini review summarizes the contributions of periphytic biofilms to nutrient transformation processes, including assimilating and storing bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus, fixing nitrogen, and activating occluded phosphorus. Future research should focus on augmenting the nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and phosphatase producing microorganisms in periphytic biofilms to improve nutrient utilization and thereby reduce NPS pollution production in artificial and natural wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond Emotion Regulation: Emotion Utilization and Adaptive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of...

  15. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  16. Resolution 29/003. It approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service with annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This decree approve the Regulation of quality electricity distribution service. It establishes that the public electricity service should be provided with an appropriate level of quality for the users

  17. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  18. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  19. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  20. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  1. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  2. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  3. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  4. Implications of the Ontario government's white paper and competition strategies for Ontario's municipal electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The strategies that Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU) should follow to deal with competition were discussed. North Bay Hydro is the 34th largest MEU out of 300 in Ontario but it serves only 23,000 out of 4 million electrical customers in Ontario. Therefore, the main strategy for municipal utilities to ensure their future would be to become part of an alliance and association like the MEA and the SAC - the Strategic Alliance for Competition and Customer Choice. Strong criticism was voiced regarding the contents of the recent Ontario Government White Paper for being vague with regard to electrical distribution and the role of MEUs in Ontario. It was suggested that it is vitally important that MEUs ally themselves with other stakeholders, to resist an Ontario Hydro monopoly, to make sure that prices stay low, to avoid excessive debt and bureaucratic inefficiency, be innovative, and consumer oriented and be prepared to anticipate events and conditions. 3 figs

  5. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 1. Categories 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes, represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 1 through 5. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  6. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 2. Categories 6-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D Support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 6 through 13. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  7. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  8. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  9. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirarattananon, Surapong [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)]. E-mail: surapong@ait.ac.th; Nirukkanaporn, Supattana [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in early the1990 s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system) rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  10. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  11. Electric portfolio modeling with stochastic water - climate interactions: Implications for co-management of water and electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyesus, Tibebe Argaw

    Water supply constraints can significantly restrict electric power generation, and such constraints are expected to worsen with future climate change. The overarching goal of this thesis is to incorporate stochastic water-climate interactions into electricity portfolio models and evaluate various pathways for water savings in co-managed water-electric utilities. Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is used as a case study to explore the above issues. The thesis consists of three objectives: Characterize seasonality of water withdrawal intensity factors (WWIF) for electric power generation and develop a risk assessment framework due to water shortages; Incorporate water constraints into electricity portfolio models and evaluate the impact of varying capital investments (both power generation and cooling technologies) on water use and greenhouse gas emissions; Compare the unit cost and overall water savings from both water and electric sectors in co-managed utilities to facilitate overall water management. This thesis provided the first discovery and characterization of seasonality of WWIF with distinct summertime and wintertime variations of +/-17% compared to the power plant average (0.64gal/kwh) which itself is found to be significantly higher than the literature average (0.53gal/kwh). Both the streamflow and WWIF are found to be highly correlated with monthly average temperature (r-sq = 89%) and monthly precipitation (r-sq of 38%) enabling stochastic simulation of future WWIF under moderate climate change scenario. Future risk to electric power generation also showed the risk to be underestimated significantly when using either the literature average or the power plant average WWIF. Seasonal variation in WWIF along with seasonality in streamflow, electricity demand and other municipal water demands along with storage are shown to be important factors for more realistic risk estimation. The unlimited investment in power generation and/or cooling technologies is also

  12. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  13. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  14. Quality of electric service in utility distribution networks under electromagnetic compatibility principles. [ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizzolini, P.; Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Sani, G. (ENEL, Rome Milan (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    The development of electromagnetic compatibility criteria, being worked out in international standardization activities, requires the establishment of the characteristics of public utility distribution networks as a reference ambient. This is necessary for gauging the immunity levels towards users and for defining the disturbance emission limits. Therefore, it is a new way to look at the quality of electric service. Consequently, it is necessary to check and specify, in an homogeneous manner, the phenomena that affect electric service. Use must be made of experimental tests and of the collection and elaboration of operation data. In addition to testing techniques, this paper describes the checking procedures for the quality of electric service as they are implemented in the information system developed by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) for distribution activities. The first reference data obtained from the national and international fields about voltage shape and supply continuity are also indicated.

  15. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J M; Villasenor, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  16. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: a case of legislative and regulatory capture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 328 (2007), s. 1-22 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : electricity markets * regulation * vertical integration Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp328.pdf

  18. Trends in transmission, distribution, and administration costs for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; King, Carey W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost of transmission, distribution, and administration for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities. We analyze data reported to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) from 1994 to 2014 using linear regression to understand how the number of customers in a utility's territory, annual peak demand, and annual energy sales affect annual TD&A spending. Then, we use Edison Electric Institute data for 1960 to 1992 to show trends in TD&A spending between 1960 and 2014. We find that the number of customers in a utility's territory is the single best predictor for annual TD&A costs. Between 1994 and 2014, the average cost per customer was $119/Customer-Year for transmission, $291/Customer-Year for distribution, and $333/Customer-Year for utility administration. Total TD&A costs per customer have been approximately $700–$800/Customer-Year since 1960, but the cost per kWh of energy sold was significantly higher in the 1960s because the average customer used less than half as much energy annually versus 2014. Thus, TD&A costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh energy sales decline in the future unless cost recovery is transitioned to a mechanism not based solely on kWh sales. - Highlights: • U.S. investor-owned electric utility delivery costs from 1960? 2014 are investigated. • Transmission, distribution, and utility administrative costs are analyzed separately. • The number of utility customers is the best predictor for annual delivery costs. • Delivery costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh sales decrease in the future.

  19. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  20. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  1. Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangwengwende, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

  2. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  3. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Weyant, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO 2 , NOx and CO 2 . This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Spot markets vs. long-term contracts - modelling tools for regional electricity generating utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    A properly organised market for electricity requires that some information will be available for all market participants. Also a range of generally available modelling tools are necessary. This paper describes a set of simple models based on published data for analyses of the long-term revenues of regional utilities with combined heat and power generation (CHP), who will operate a competitive international electricity market and a local heat market. The future revenues from trade on the spot market is analysed using a load curve model, in which marginal costs are calculated on the basis of short-term costs of the available units and chronological hourly variations in the demands for electricity and heat. Assumptions on prices, marginal costs and electricity generation by the different types of generating units are studied for selected types of local electricity generators. The long-term revenue requirements to be met by long-term contracts are analysed using a traditional techno-economic optimisation model focusing on technology choice and competition among technologies over 20.30 years. A possible conclusion from this discussion is that it is important for the economic and environmental efficiency of the electricity market that local or regional generators of CHP, who are able to react on price signals, do not conclude long-term contracts that include fixed time-of-day tariff for sale of electricity. Optimisation results for a CHP region (represented by the structure of the Danish electricity and CHP market in 1995) also indicates that a market for CO 2 tradable permits is unlikely to attract major non-fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation, e.g. wind power. (au)

  7. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the reporting...

  8. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription...

  9. A Comparative Case Study of Electric Utility Companies’ Use of Energy Democracy in Strategic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan McKasy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial increase in distributed renewable energy resources is changing the face of the energy environment, leading to strategic communication efforts by key stakeholders. The energy democracy movement supports this transformation from fossil fuels to distributed renewable energy and aims for equitable involvement of publics in energy decision making. These tenets challenge utility company earnings as they are directly related to energy sales and infrastructure returns on investment. Proposals by electric utility companies to restructure net-metering policies as a solution to financial issues have been criticized as prohibitive to the success of renewable energy advancement. To address these disagreements, the Edison Electric Institute and a communication firm, Maslansky & Partners, created The Future of Energy: A Working Communication Guide for Discussion. This handbook provides utility companies with strategic communication guidelines to portray themselves as supportive of renewables within a dynamic energy industry. We posit that aspects of the energy democracy movement have been employed by electric utility companies, as shown through the use of the handbook, as a strategy for communicating with customers in discussions around net metering. We examine two case studies in states with recent controversial net-metering policy changes by analyzing utility company websites and press releases for the use of the communication handbook terminology. We found that, in both cases, the suggested language was used to position their companies as pro-renewable energy and their utility-scale projects as more equitable for their customers. In addition, we found differences between each company’s use of key terms from the handbook. We posit that this is due to the temporal context of each net-metering debate at the time of the handbook release. Conclusions and future directions for research in the growing area of energy democracy are discussed.

  10. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  11. Electric utilities deregulation and its impact on nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehan, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Under restructuring and deregulation, it is not clear as to who would have the responsibility, and what obligations the market participants would have to ensure that the electrical system reliability (stability) is maintained. Due to the dynamic nature of the electrical grid, especially with the implementation of restructuring and deregulation, vulnerabilities exist which may impact the reliability (stability) of the offsite electrical power system. In a nuclear power generating unit, an offsite electric power system and an onsite electric power system are required to permit the functioning of structures, systems, and components which are important to safety. The safety function for each system is to provide sufficient capacity and capability to assure that the containment integrity is maintained during power operation or in the event of a postulated accident. Analyses performed by the applicants must verify that the electrical grid remains stable in the event of a loss of the nuclear unit generator, the largest other unit on the grid or the most critical transmission line. The stability of the electric grid is assumed in the safety analyses and a change in it would impact those analyses. However, it may impact the availability of a stable electric power to the safety buses because of the limited number of available transmission lines. This paper discusses electrical power generation and demand, reserve margins, power transfer capability, development of new innovative technologies to compensate for lack of the construction of transmission lines, legislation for the formulation of a self regulation organization (SRO), grid disturbances that may lead to a voltage collapse, and the vulnerabilities which may impact the availability of a stable power to the nuclear power generating stations

  12. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  13. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  14. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  15. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  16. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  17. Hydro and After: The Canadian Experience with the Organization, Nationalization and Deregulation of Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Henry Vivian

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys the process of nationalization and some recent steps towards denationalization in a distinctive Canadian institutional setting, the provincial hydro-electric power utilities. The richest, most industrialized central province, Ontario, established a dynamic publicly owned electric generation and distribution system before World War I. Most other provinces developed variations of the regulatory model to govern private monopolies until the post World War II period when widespread nationalization at the provincial level created a near universal pattern of state owned electric companies. Recently, the process of dismantling state monopolies in this sector has begun in two provinces, one where public ownership was weakest, and the other where the concept of 'provincial hydro' was born

  18. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  19. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... gas grid was examined in this study. Furthermore the material and energy flows of in the methanation process, were evaluated to provide expression for the quantities of excess electrical energy which could be potentially stored using the biogas integrated systems. The study results showed...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  20. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  1. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  2. New approach in electricity network regulation: an issue on effective integration of distributed generation in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, Martin J.J.; Wals, Adrian F.

    2003-11-01

    Technological developments and EU targets for penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction are decentralising the electricity infrastructure and services. Although, the liberalisation and internationalisation of the European electricity market has resulted in efforts to harmonise transmission pricing and regulation, hardly any initiative exists to consider the opening up and regulation of distribution networks to ensure effective participation of RES and distributed generation (DG) in the internal market. The SUSTELNET project has been created in order to close this policy gap. Its main objective is to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to an electricity market and network structure that creates a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and that facilitates the integration of RES, within the framework of the liberalisation of the EU electricity market. By analysing the technical, socio-economic and institutional dynamics of the European electricity system and markets, the project identifies the underlying patterns that provide the boundary conditions and levers for policy development to reach long term RES and GHG targets (2020-2030 time frame). This paper presents results of this analytical phase of the SUSTELNET project. Furthermore, preliminary results of the current work in progress are presented. Principles and criteria for a regulatory framework for sustainable electricity systems are discussed, as well as the development of medium to long-term transition strategies/roadmaps for network regulation and market transformation to facilitate the integration of RES and decentralised electricity generating systems.

  3. Electricity regulation in Germany - in the context of the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1994-06-01

    Electric utilities (EU) in Germany are semi-public or private enterprises of a wide variety of size. The large producer utilities operate the high voltage grid on the basis of private contracts. Regional distribution companies mostly without a considerable share in production often in cooperation with local distributors deliver electricity (el) in the non-urban areas whereas mostly city owned EU supply the large cities often on the basis of considerable parts of autoproduction and often also with a considerable share of el produced in cogeneration plants. The equilibrium between the parts of this system in the past was ensured by a legal framework protecting local monopolies as well as long term contracts between producers and distributors. This equilibrium derived its stability from political more than from economic factors. Deregulation trends inherent in European legislation on competition have threatened this stability. - In the first phase resistance against a more competitive order seemed unanimous. In the meantime however the different actors had time to rethink their position. - The European Council has now proposed a more moderate regulation taking into account the large differences in the ESI in the different member countries. - The German Government has made a proposal for some important changes in the Energy Law and connected passages in the Competition Law, which would introduce some more competitive elements into the system without anticipating the results of a competitive process. - Wholesale producers and regional distributors as well as customer groups are in favour of this reform, whereas the local distributors fear to become the losers in the ongoing reform process. - Environmentalists express concern that a more competitive order could lead to a lowering of environmental standards. This paper gives a short survery of the ESI in Germany, its regulations and the ongoing reform. (orig.)

  4. International benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators: A contrast between theory and practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking of electricity networks has a key role in sharing the benefits of efficiency improvements with consumers and ensuring regulated companies earn a fair return on their investments. This paper analyses and contrasts the theory and practice of international benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators. We examine the literature relevant to electricity transmission benchmarking and discuss the results of a survey of 25 national electricity regulators. While new panel data techniques aimed at dealing with unobserved heterogeneity and the validity of the comparator group look intellectually promising, our survey suggests that they are in their infancy for regulatory purposes. In electricity transmission, relative to electricity distribution, choosing variables is particularly difficult, because of the large number of potential variables to choose from. Failure to apply benchmarking appropriately may negatively affect investors’ willingness to invest in the future. While few of our surveyed regulators acknowledge that regulatory risk is currently an issue in transmission benchmarking, many more concede it might be. In the meantime new regulatory approaches – such as those based on tendering, negotiated settlements, a wider range of outputs or longer term grid planning – are emerging and will necessarily involve a reduced role for benchmarking. -- Highlights: •We discuss how to benchmark electricity transmission. •We report survey results from 25 national energy regulators. •Electricity transmission benchmarking is more challenging than benchmarking distribution. •Many regulators concede benchmarking may raise capital costs. •Many regulators are considering new regulatory approaches

  5. Guide to federal regulation of sales of imported electricity in Canada, Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Guide to Federal Regulation of Sales of Imported Electricity in Canada, Mexico, and the United States promotes cross-border electricity trade. It provides information on federal regulation of cross-border electricity trade and is intended to be used together with a companion guide called the North American Regulation of International Electricity Trade which outlines regulations for the construction and operation of cross-border power lines and the permitting requirements for electricity exports and imports between Canada, Mexico and the United States. The guide outlines the basic elements of the general federal regulatory process that applies to a given North American cross-border electricity trade. It offers an improved understanding of the applicable country's federal regulatory regime. Different federal government agencies within each country may regulate different aspects of a particular cross-border electricity trade. This guide does not examine the requirements that may apply at the state or provincial government levels. Rather, it is a collaborative effort of the 3 national energy departments and energy regulators that support the Experts Group on Electricity Regulatory Issues, a specialized unit assembled by the North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG). It was noted that the energy policies and regulations of each nation can change periodically

  6. The evolution of the status of local electric and gas utilities in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivault, S.

    2004-06-01

    With the establishment of a common gas and electricity market, the early 21. century is marked by important transformations in the public energy service. Directives 96/92 and 98/30, and directives 2003/54 and 2003/55, make important changes in the regulations concerning gas and electricity activates. In France, the Electricity Act 2000 (10/02/2000) and the Gas Act 2003 (03/01/2003) partially opened the public sector power distribution system to competition. These new rules will drastically modify all operators situations, including that of french local distributors (such as the 'regies', the 'SEML', or the 'SICAE or other cooperatives') who have always been, since being left out of the nationalization process, in a monopolistic situation. In order to succeed in the transition towards a free market economy, french local distributors will have to evolve from their network operator status to that of market operator by renewing their structural organisation and diversifying their activities. (author)

  7. DC microgrids providing frequency regulation in electrical power system - imperfect communication issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bašić, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model of multiple DC microgrids with battery energy storage systems and demand response capability, taking part in primary frequency regulation of electrical power system. Although DC microgrids can contribute to stability and efficiency of frequency regulation, these complex...... systems may cause serious stability issues due to the imperfect communication. This work presents possible scenarios of unstable primary frequency regulation in a simplified model of electrical power system with DC microgrids, which are controlled through communication network....

  8. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  9. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  10. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  11. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  12. Identifying options for regulating the coordination of network investments with investments in distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisten, E.

    2010-02-01

    The increase in the distributed generation of electricity, with wind turbines and solar panels, necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments and the frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the DSOs to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulation, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generators.

  13. Context analysis for a new regulatory model for electric utilities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hage, Fabio S.; Rufín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines what would have to change in the Brazilian regulatory framework in order to make utilities profit from energy efficiency and the integration of resources, instead of doing so from traditional consumption growth, as it happens at present. We argue that the Brazilian integrated electric sector resembles a common-pool resources problem, and as such it should incorporate, in addition to the centralized operation for power dispatch already in place, demand side management, behavioral strategies, and smart grids, attained through a new business and regulatory model for utilities. The paper proposes several measures to attain a more sustainable and productive electricity distribution industry: decoupling revenues from volumetric sales through a fixed maximum load fee, which would completely offset current disincentives for energy efficiency; the creation of a market for negawatts (saved megawatts) using the current Brazilian mechanism of public auctions for the acquisition of wholesale energy; and the integration of technologies, especially through the growth of unregulated products and services. Through these measures, we believe that Brazil could improve both energy security and overall sustainability of its power sector in the long run. - Highlights: • Necessary changes in the Brazilian regulatory framework towards energy efficiency. • How to incorporate demand side management, behavioral strategies, and smart grids. • Proposition of a market for negawatts at public auctions. • Measures to attain a more sustainable electricity distribution industry in Brazil.

  14. A comparison of hydrogen-fueled fuel cells and combustion engines for electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-fueled systems have been proposed for a number of stationary electric generation applications including remote power generation, load management, distribution system peak shaving, and reliability or power quality enhancement. Hydrogen fueling permits clean, low pollution operation. This is particularly true for systems that use hydrogen produced from electrolysis, rather than the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. Both fuel cells and combustion engines are suitable technologies for using hydrogen in many electric utility applications. This paper presents results from several studies performed for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program. A comparison between the two technologies shows that, whereas fuel cells are somewhat more energy efficient, combustion engine technology is less expensive. In this paper, a comparison of the two technologies is presented, with an emphasis on distributed power and power quality applications. The special case of a combined distributed generation I hydrogen refueling station is also addressed. The comparison is made on the basis of system costs and benefits, but also includes a comparison of technology status: power ratings and response time. A discussion of pollutant emissions and pollutant control strategies is included. The results show those electric utility applications for which each technology is best suited. (author)

  15. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.

  16. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  17. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  18. How satisfied are the major customers of electric utilities?; Wie zufrieden sind die grossen Stromkunden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, H. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Marktforschung und Volkswirtschaft

    1998-07-27

    In the liberalised electric power market, satisfying customers is a very important objective of utilities, as customers are free to enter into supply contracts with competitors in the market. Satisfaction of customers enhances customer loyalty, as many electric utilities know by now, but only few utilities have a clear picture of the level of satisfaction of their customers, and of their standing in their customers` opinion in comparison with other marketers. The article explains approaches and methods for a systematic and well-founded survey of customers and assessment of customer satisfaction. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In einem liberalisierten Elektrizitaetsmarkt kommt der Kundenzufriedenheit eine zentrale Bedeutung zu. Diese ist massgebend dafuer, ob ein Kunde zu einem anderen Anbieter wechselt oder nicht. Hohe Kundenzufriedenheit bedeutet hohe Kundenbindung. Viele Stromversorger haben das bereits erkannt, doch nur bei wenigen existiert ein klares Bild darueber, wie zufrieden ihre Kunden tatsaechlich mit ihnen sind und wie sie im Vergleich zu anderen Stromversorgern stehen. Wie dargestellt wird, laesst sich ein solches Bild nur ueber eine systematische und fundierte Messung der Kundenzufriedenheit gewinnen. (orig./RHM)

  19. Business case for implementing two ergonomic interventions at an electric power utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Patricia A; Marklin, Richard W

    2003-09-01

    Ergonomics analysis of line workers in the electric power industry who work overhead on utility poles revealed some tasks for which less than 1% of the general population had sufficient strength to perform. During a 2-year study, a large Midwestern US electric utility provided a university with a team of represented workers and management. They evaluated, recommended, and monitored interventions for 32 common line worker tasks that were rated at medium to high magnitude of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Two of the recommended ergonomic interventions-the battery-operated press and cutter-were selected by the team as having the greatest potential for reducing risk factors of MSDs. Only overhead distribution line worker tasks were evaluated. A business case was formulated that took into account medical injury and illness statistics, workers' compensation, replacement worker and retraining costs. An outline of a business case formulation and a sample intervention payback calculation is shown. Based on the business case, the utility committed over US dollars 300000 to purchase battery-operated presses and cutters for their overhead distribution line crews.

  20. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  1. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  2. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  3. Conference Proceedings: Effectively utilizing energy derivatives in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference was devoted to a discussion about the likely impacts of deregulation on electricity markets in North America. Many of the presentations emphasized price risk in a competitive open access energy market. It was noted that deregulation is frequently associated with the creation of larger companies, higher risks and lower costs. Some of the individual topics addressed by the speakers included discussion of : (1) how underlying physical markets will work in Ontario, (2) experiences in derivative trading in the natural gas industry, (3) how to create value through multiple commodity risk management products, (4) trading with energy derivatives in the U.S. (5) how derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities, and (6) risk management mechanisms for energy derivative trading. refs., tabs., figs

  4. The comparative costs of nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants in an American electricity utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter compares the current and historic operating performances of twelve large nuclear and coal-fired units now operated by Commonwealth Edison Company, and provides specific comparison of bus-bar costs of electricity generated by those units in recent years. It also provides cost comparisons for future nuclear and coal-fired units and attempts to deal realistically with the effect of future inflation upon these comparisons. The chapter attempts to deal responsibly with the problem of uncertainty - how present-day comparisons may be affected by future developments and how my own published comparisons have varied over the past four or five years. The conclusion is reached that, given the uncertain world in which we live, no electric power supplier can afford to put all its eggs in one basket. Utility managers have a strong incentive to diversify their sources of power generation, and society as a whole would do well to encourage such diversification. (author)

  5. The Nuclear option for U.S. electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, T.F.; Wilkins, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The technology status of the Advanced Boiling Water (ABWR) and Simplified Boiling Water (SBWR) reactors are presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Extensive data sets detailing each NERC region's specific generation and load characteristics, and capital and fuel cost parameters are utilized in the economic analysis of the optimal generation additions to meet this need by use of an expansion planning model. In addition to a reference case, several sensitivity cases are performed with regard to capital costs and fuel price escalation

  6. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  7. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  8. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  9. Investment and revenue cap under incentive regulation: The case study of the Norwegian electricity distributors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dengjun; Xie, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2017.1400900 Electricity distribution operators are regulated as monopolies around the world. Incentive regulation is further applied to relate their allowed revenues (revenue cap) to cost efficiency and investment. Incentive regulation varies cross countries and has evolved over time for individual countries. Norway is one of the first countries reforming the network distributors by incentive regulation. Using the long time series data, we eval...

  10. Design fractures and commercial potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, energy storage in the United States has been provided by a few pumped hydroelectric plants, but siting constraints and high cost severely limit the use of this option. Two other options which will soon be in use are batteries and compressed air energy storage. A fourth option, currently being developed for load leveling is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). This paper reports the design features and estimated costs of utility scale SMES plants. For moderate discharge duration, SMES is projected to have substantially lower revenue requirements and better availability than other load leveling options. The Electric Power Research Institute has prepared a plan for commercialization which could, if aggressively pursued, lead to a demonstrated SMES technology that is available for utility commitment by the late 1990's

  11. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  12. Major electric utilities, licensees, and others. Annual report (Form 1), 1990 (field definition of record layout). Data tape documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Data are tabulated from annual reports filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by 182 major electric utilities. Major electric utilities are defined as those utilities which have had, in the last three consecutive calendar years, sales or transmission services that exceeded one of the following: one million megawatthours of total annual sales, 100 megawatthours of annual sales for resales, 600 megawatthours of gross interchange out, or 500 megawatthours of wheeling for others. Data included: financial and operational balance sheets; income and retained earnings statements; statements of changes in financial position; capital stock and long-term debt; electric operating revenues, customers, and sales by classes of service; electric operation and maintenance expenses; data per type of utility rate base and rates of return on common equity; research, development, and demonstration; and environmental protection facilities and expenses

  13. Electrical system regulations of the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2013-01-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), is a research reactor open pool type, designed and built by the U.S. firm Babcock and Wilcox, having, as coolant and moderator, deionized light water and beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. Until about 1988, the reactor safety systems received power from only one source of energy. As an example, it may be cited the control desk that was powered only by the vital electrical system 220V, which, in case the electricity fails, is powered by the generator group: no-break 220V. In the years 1989 and 1990, a reform of the electrical system upgrading to increase the reactor power and, also, to meet the technical standards of the ABNT (Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas) was carried out. This work has the objective of showing the relationship between the electric power system and the IEA-R1 reactor security. Also, it demonstrates that, should some electrical power interruption occur, during the reactor operation, this occurrence would not start an accident event. (author)

  14. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  15. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  16. Incorporation of environmental costs in electric utility planning and resource selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Generation of electricity is pervasively regulated for economic, environmental and other governmental objectives at both the state and federal levels. A panoply of legislative and regulatory devices implicitly or explicitly influence the acquisition of generation and fuel resources seeking to achieve environmentally sound selections. Effective implementation or enforcement of these laws and policies may be impeded by the regional or global character of the environmental impacts; jurisdictional conflicts and limitations; and the division of regulatory authority between economic regulatory agencies and their environmental or energy policy counterparts. This chapter reviews the state and federal statutory and regulatory treatment of environmental externalities and discusses alternatives for their consideration

  17. 77 FR 28872 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory... is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky...

  18. Regulation of Electric Power Generation while Improving TTP Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking integrated power system of theRepublicofBelarusas an example the paper considers a possibility of heat accumulator use for TPP operation in accordance with the schedule of electric power consumption while maintaining daily supply of heat energy from turbine power takes-off and without involvement of peak-loader boilers used for covering energy loads.

  19. Nuclear regulation on the electrical sector's deregulation horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical sector is generally tending towards a deregulated system which will exert greater pressure on production costs. The author uses this article to reflect on the consequences this new conception will bring for nuclear energy and, particularly, for the activity of regulatory agencies and safety requirements. (Author)

  20. Comfort and performance of power line maintainers' gloves during electrical utility work in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Boyle, C; Wells, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical utility workers wear thick rubber gloves and often work in the cold. To document the challenge of working in the cold and the effectiveness of different glove/liner combinations in keeping workers' hands warm. Ten experienced male electrical utility employees worked in a controlled temperature walk-in chamber at -20 °C for 45 minutes for each of five glove conditions: standard five-finger rubber gloves with cotton liners and gauntlets, mitten style gloves, a prototype wool liner, and two heating options; glove or torso. Dependent measures were maximum grip force, skin temperatures, finger dexterity and sensitivity to touch, ratings of perceived effort and a rating of thermal sensation. Participants' hand skin temperatures decreased, they perceived their hands to be much colder, their finger sensitivity decreased and their ratings of perceived exertion increased, however their performance did not degrade over the 45 minute trials. The mitten-style gloves showed a smaller drop in skin temperature for the 3rd and 5th digits (pglove conditions. Mitten style gloves kept workers' hands warmer than the standard five finger glove.

  1. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated open-quotes cost-of-serviceclose quotes pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices

  2. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  3. Negative Effects of Antimonopoly Regulation on the Russian Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena NEPRINTSEVA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the antimonopoly regulation in the domestic economy getting more stringent an analysis of the current measures of antimonopoly regulation in terms of their efficiency is now becoming ever more relevant. The aim of the study - analyze how the measures of antimonopoly regulation affect competitive relationships in the electric power industry. The following methods have been used in this work: empirical method, cause-effect method and scientific abstraction method. The article sets out an analysis of the antimonopoly regulation measures that the antimonopoly authority applies. It also provides an assessment of consequences that follow from such methods being applied for the promotion of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. A conclusion has been reached that the antimonopoly regulation measures being applied impede the progress of competitive relationships on the market of electric power and capacity. The continuing process of reformation in electric power industry aims to liberalize relationships in the area of electric power production. Yet, as a result of this process, generating capacities are becoming increasingly more concentrated mainly around state companies. This is mainly caused by the lack of certainty regarding the results of the industry reformation and a more stringent state regulation over the last years of the reforms. At the same time, for the purposes of limiting the market force, measures of antimonopoly regulation are being applied to generating companies. Such measures have an adverse effect on competitive relationships and stimulate further concentration.

  4. DIAMOND: A model of incremental decision making for resource acquisition by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.; Hirst, E.; Yourstone, E.

    1991-02-01

    Uncertainty is a major issue facing electric utilities in planning and decision making. Substantial uncertainties exist concerning future load growth; the lifetimes and performances of existing power plants; the construction times, costs, and performances of new resources being brought online; and the regulatory and economic environment in which utilities operate. This report describes a utility planning model that focuses on frequent and incremental decisions. The key features of this model are its explicit treatment of uncertainty, frequent user interaction with the model, and the ability to change prior decisions. The primary strength of this model is its representation of the planning and decision-making environment that utility planners and executives face. Users interact with the model after every year or two of simulation, which provides an opportunity to modify past decisions as well as to make new decisions. For example, construction of a power plant can be started one year, and if circumstances change, the plant can be accelerated, mothballed, canceled, or continued as originally planned. Similarly, the marketing and financial incentives for demand-side management programs can be changed from year to year, reflecting the short lead time and small unit size of these resources. This frequent user interaction with the model, an operational game, should build greater understanding and insights among utility planners about the risks associated with different types of resources. The model is called DIAMOND, Decision Impact Assessment Model. In consists of four submodels: FUTURES, FORECAST, SIMULATION, and DECISION. It runs on any IBM-compatible PC and requires no special software or hardware. 19 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Operating and impact of the compensation mechanism of the electric utility charges on the energy offer in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levratto, N.

    2005-01-01

    Since the law of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electric utility, the France adopted a mechanism aiming to compensate the costs subjected by EDF and other suppliers providing a public utility mission in the domain of the electricity production and distribution. This document takes stock on the organization, the evaluation and the economical and environmental consequences of the implementing of a compensation system of costs bond to the electricity production in non connected areas. (A.L.B.)

  6. Europe of electricity and gas - Actors, markets, regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Emmanuelle; Veyrenc, Thomas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In about 20 years, radical transformations have deeply changed the electricity and natural gas sectors in Europe. Liberalization, deregulation and Europeanization have been the key words of a flood of change which is still going on today. With time, new issues have appeared: climate change, security of supplies, fossil fuels exhaustion, promotion of renewable energy sources have become part of energy policies. This book tackles this reconfiguration face on and offers some tools to understand the present day complexity of the electricity and gas sector in Europe. Using several schemes and taking into consideration the most recent data, it combines theory and practice to explain the evolutions in progress. It put them into perspective in a synthetic and pedagogical way with several concrete examples

  7. The comparative advantages of public ownership : evidence from U.S. electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoka, J.E.Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper challenged the conventional economic theory that private enterprises result in higher cost and price performance by indicating that several empirical studies have shown equal or better performance by public enterprises. These divergent findings have prompted renewed theoretical attention to the public-private debate. Recent theory has identified possible benefits of public enterprise in certain circumstances. It has been argued that public owners can better secure the information needed to monitor business behaviour for consistency with social objectives. This study tested the relative benefits of public versus private companies in producing outputs with more specifiable and less specifiable quality. The empirical tests were conducted on the electric power industry in the United States because it has structural characteristics that make it ideal for the study. Also, both ownership types perform the similar tasks of electricity generation, transmission and distribution. In addition, all segments of the electric power industry have at some point been regulated and have been non competitive. The study showed that while privately owned systems achieve lower costs in generation, public systems typically have the advantage in the end-user-oriented distribution function with more non-contractible disposition. The study emphasized the importance of identifying product, market and provider characteristics best suited to each ownership type. It cautioned that the search for better performance is not simply a matter of prescribing privatization. Rather, there are identifiable circumstances in which public enterprise is appropriate. 26 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  9. 77 FR 30368 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... arrangement, the Government would take title to the devices during contract performance or at the conclusion... rule will promote utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices, even when the Government does not take... Devices (DFARS Case 2011-D046) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD...

  10. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  11. The diversity of regulation and public financing of IVF in Europe and its impact on utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, K; Cadier, B; Chevreul, K

    2013-03-01

    How do the different forms of regulation and public financing of IVF affect utilization in otherwise similar European welfare state systems? Countries with more liberal social eligibility regulations had higher levels of IVF utilization, which diminished as the countries' policies became more restrictive. Europe is a world leader in the development and utilization of IVF, yet surveillance reveals significant differences in uptake among countries which have adopted different approaches to the regulation and and public financing of IVF. A descriptive and comparative analysis of legal restrictions on access to IVF in 13 of the EU15 countries that affirmatively regulate and publicly finance IVF. Using 2009 data from the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology study of regulatory frameworks in Europe and additional legislative research, we examined and described restrictions on access to IVF in terms of general eligibility, public financing and the scope of available services. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify patterns of regulation and groups of countries with similar regulatory patterns and to explore the effects on utilization of IVF, using data from the most recent European and international IVF monitoring reports. Regulations based on social characteristics of treatment seekers who are not applicable to other medical treatments, including relationship status and sexual orientation, appear to have the greatest impact on utilization. Countries with the most generous public financing schemes tend to restrict access to covered IVF to a greater degree. However, no link could be established between IVF utilization and the manner in which coverage was regulated or the level of public financing. Owing to the lack of data regarding the actual level of public versus private financing of IVF it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding equity of access. Moreover, the regulatory and utilization data were not completely temporally matched in

  12. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  13. State-of-the-art assessment of requirements for attachments of WiFi equipments to electric utility facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities are receiving a growing number of requests to attach WiFi equipment to their systems. However, many utilities are not prepared to meet these requests because they have not had enough time to formally review and comment on the particular issues associated with Wi-Fi attachments. Although electric utilities are required to allow the attachments, there is no uniform standard to govern those attachments. This paper discussed the state-of-the-art philosophies and requirements of electric utilities who have allowed WiFi equipment on their systems. The advantages and limitations of each philosophy or practice were also discussed. The requirements for codes and standards in the United States and Canada for high voltage construction were also evaluated.

  14. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han); K. Strunz

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work

  15. Stochastic Optimal Regulation Service Strategy for a Wind Farm Participating in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    in the stochastic optimization to deal with the uncertainty of the up regulation price and the up regulation activation of the power system.The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen to evaluate the effect of the proposed strategy. Simulation results showthe proposed......As modern wind farmshave the ability to provideregulation service for the power system, wind power plant operators may be motivated to participate in the regulating market to maximize their profit.In this paper, anoptimal regulation servicestrategy for a wind farm to participate...... strategy can increase the revenue of wind farms by leavinga certain amount of wind powerfor regulation service....

  16. Evaluating the Financial Vulnerability of a Major Electric Utility in the Southeastern U.S. to Drought under Climate Change and an Evolving Generation Mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Characklis, Gregory W

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing recognition of the vulnerability of electric power systems to drought and the potential for both climate change and a shifting generation mix to alter this vulnerability. Nonetheless, the considerable research in this area has not been synthesized to inform electric utilities with respect to a key factor that influences their decisions about critical infrastructure: financial risk for shareholders. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by developing a systems framework for assessing the financial exposure of utilities to drought, with further consideration of the effects of climate change and a shifting generation mix. We then apply this framework to a major utility in the Southeastern U.S. Results suggest that extreme drought could cause profit shortfalls of more than $100 million if water temperature regulations are strictly enforced. However, even losses of this magnitude would not significantly impact returns for shareholders. This may inadvertently reduce pressure internally at utilities to incorporate drought vulnerability into long-term strategic planning, potentially leaving utilities and their customers at greater risk in the future.

  17. Competition policy and regulation in hydro-dominated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Luiz Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the main competition issues that arise in electricity systems dominated by hydro generation, arguing that technological differences between hydro and thermal plants may allow hydropower producers to exert market power in different and subtler ways compared to thermal generators. The key for market power in hydro-based systems is the strategic allocation of a given amount of output across periods, rather than a straightforward reduction of total output. The paper examines the interaction between strategic hydro reservoir operation and transmission capacity constraints, and summarizes the implications of market power for system reliability. A review of recent relevant literature is included. Finally, possible interventions to mitigate market power are analysed

  18. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  19. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  20. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  1. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state Public Utility Commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Olson, J.; Hendrickson, P.

    1989-12-01

    Economic performance incentives established by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs) currently are applicable to the construction or operation of approximately 73 nuclear power reactors owned by 27 utilities with investment greater than 10% in 18 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its headquarters and regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state PUCs presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  2. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  3. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  4. Issues for the electric utilities posed by DT tokamak fusion powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The DT tokamak is the mainline approach to magnetic fusion energy in all industrialized countries with a major commitment to fusion research. It achieved this status largely through historical accident and not as the result of considered choice among alternatives. After twenty-five years of intensive tokamak research, it is appropriate to ask whether the path down which the tokamak concept is leading the fusion community is the way to an acceptable powerplant for the electric utilities, or an aberration which should be replaced with an approach more promising in the long term. Issues surrounding the DT tokamak can be grouped in three broad areas: physics; safety/environmental; and engineering/economic. In addition to these problems, detailed engineering design studies of DT tokamak fusion powerplants over a twenty year period have revealed a number of additional problems. Most of thee are related to the presence of tritium and energetic neutron fluxes, which tend to make the cost of electricity of DT tokamaks higher than that of fossil or fission powerplants. These safety and economic issues of the DT tokamak powerplant also appear to be intractable, and have not been made to go away by twenty years of progressively more detailed and extensive engineering design studies

  5. The liberalization of the electric market from the view of a public utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.

    1999-01-01

    The competition associated with the liberalization of the electric power-supply markets and the altered customers behavior will require a fundamental reorientation in all commercial areas of the energy supply companies (ESC).The companies will only master these new challenges if they react promptly and in an appropriate flexible manner as well as with the demanded orientation attached to the market and to the customers. The strategy of reorientation of the ESC will be determined more and more by the customers and by demand less by supply and technology. The competition on the power-supply market will take predominately place in production and in commercialization. Thereby the commercialization of demand oriented products will be of increasing importance. On the partial markets of 'Industrial' and 'Contract'-customers and electric power trade the energy-suppliers must operate with different strategies. For the power-supplier the following results as consequences of the environment's change: trend to competition is irreversible, areas of creation of economic values are more important than supply stages, the net remains monopoly, new market participants will appear, the competition in the production will increase. The management-orientated way of the Grazer StadtwerkeAG as a public utility is to read as follows: increase the competence for competition, focus on the customer. (author)

  6. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  7. Electric melting furnace of solidifying radioactive waste by utilizing magnetic field and melting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    An electric melting furnace for solidification of radioactive wastes utilizing magnetic fields in accordance with the present invention comprises a plurality of electrodes supplying AC current to molten glass in a glass melting furnace and a plurality of magnetic poles for generating AC magnetic fields. Interactions between the current and the magnetic field, generated forces in the identical direction in view of time in the molten glass. That is, forces for promoting the flow of molten glass in the melting furnace are resulted due to the Fleming's left-hand rule. As a result, the following effects can be obtained. (1) The amount of heat ransferred from the molten glass to the starting material layer on the molten surface is increased to improve the melting performance. (2) For an identical melting performance, the size and the weight of the melting furnace can be reduced to decrease the amount of secondary wastes when the apparatus-life is exhausted. (3) Bottom deposits can be suppressed and prevented from settling and depositing to the reactor bottom by the promoted flow in the layer. (4) Further, the size of auxiliary electrodes for directly supplying electric current to heat the molten glass near the reactor bottom can be decreased. (I.S.)

  8. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  9. Future developments of diversification of electric utilities. Denki jigyo no keiei takakuka no hokosei; Takakuka senshin kigyo ni taisuru jirei bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariu, Toshio; Iguchi, Norio; (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan)

    1989-10-01

    Electric utilities positively wrestle now with business diversification such as telecomunication, thermal supplying, urban planning to intensify the administrative foundation under relaxation for regulations. These businesses are yet small scale ones but are supposed to enlarge to the scale equivalent to the main business for a long period. Since the electric industry is a public utility enterprise and has fewer experiences to develop concrete diversifying strategy, this research was proceeded to determine the directions of diversification by analyzing management data or making hearing for well-diversified corporations such as fiber industry, private railway industry, and leasing industry. It was found from this study that diversification would have the possibility of plus for multiple managerial indeces such as profitability, growability and stability and that the diversification would be developed by using effectively the managerial resources. Then, the conditions on which electric utilities must consider when they enter into new businesses were arranged on the basis of this survey. 46 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  11. Measuring the costs of photovoltaics in an electric utility planning framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awerbuch, Shimon

    1993-01-01

    Utility planning models evaluate alternative generating options using the revenue requirements method-an engineering-oriented, discounted cash-flow (DCF) methodology that has been widely used for over three decades. Discounted cash-flow techniques were conceived in the context of active expense-intensive technologies, such as conventional, fuel-intensive power generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology, by contrast, is passive and capital intensive-attributes that are similar to those of other new process technologies, such as computer-integrated manufacturing. Discounted cash-flow techniques have a dismal record for correctly valuing new technologies with these attributes, in part because their benefits cannot be easily measured using traditional accounting concepts. This paper examines how these issues affect cost measurement in both conventional and PV-based electricity, and presents kWh-cost estimates for three technologies (coal, gas and PV) using risk-adjusted approaches, which suggest that PV costs are generally equivalent to the gas/combined cycle and about twice the cost of base-load coal (environmental externalities are ignored). Finally, the paper evaluates independent power purchases for a typical US utility and finds that in such a setting the cost of PV-based power is comparable to the firm's published avoided costs. (author)

  12. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  13. What is the most energy efficient route for biogas utilization: Heat, electricity or transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakawati, Rawan; Smyth, Beatrice M.; McCullough, Geoffrey; De Rosa, Fabio; Rooney, David

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The paper developed an assessment tool for analyzing biogas utilization routes. •The LCA methodology was used to allow a uniform assessment of the biogas system. •“% energy efficiency” was used as the functional unit for assessment. •49 biogas-to-energy routes were assessed based on their final useful energy form. •The framework aids policy makers in the decision process for biogas exploitation. -- Abstract: Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used either directly or through various pathways (e.g. upgrading to bio-methane, use in a fuel cell or conversion to liquid fuels) for heat, electricity generation or mechanical energy for transport. However, although there are various options for biogas utilization, there is limited guidance in the literature on the selection of the optimum route, and comparison between studies is difficult due to the use of different analytical frameworks. The aim of this paper was to fill that knowledge gap and to develop a consistent framework for analysing biogas-to-energy exploitation routes. The paper evaluated 49 biogas-to-energy routes using a consistent life cycle analysis method focusing on energy efficiency as the chosen crtierion. Energy efficiencies varied between 8% and 54% for electricity generation; 16% and 83% for heat; 18% and 90% for electricity and heat; and 4% and 18% for transport. Direct use of biogas has the highest efficiencies, but the use of this fuel is typically limited to sites co-located with the anaerobic digestion facility, limiting available markets and applications. Liquid fuels have the advantage of versatility, but the results show consistently low efficiencies across all routes and applications. The energy efficiency of bio-methane routes competes well with biogas and comes with the advantage that it is more easily transported and used in a wide variety of applications. The results were also compared with fossil fuels and discussed in the context of national

  14. Not So Fast: How Slower Utilities Regulation Can Reduce Prices and Increase Profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumers are facing cost pressures from multiple directions. Wholesale natural gas prices have been climbing substantially from their record lows. Oil prices have only recently cooled slightly after reaching nearly $100 a barrel (WTI earlier this year. That makes it that much more important to minimize costs to wholesale consumers of energy, and ultimately, retail buyers, wherever possible. There is little room in the energy network for unnecessary costs. But in a regulated system, profits for utilities must remain healthy, too, if we expect them to stay active in the market. But the way that government agencies regulate oil and gas pipelines in Canada, and elsewhere, appears to be increasing costs beyond where they need to be in order to fairly serve both utilities and customers. By relying on traditional rate-of-return regulation models — which calculate price-rates based on the regulated firm’s cost of capital (that is, how much it costs the company to finance its operations — regulators, including the National Energy Board and the Alberta Utilities Commission, reward firms for over-investing in their operations, rather than reducing costs. Utilities are motivated to prolong the period in which they can earn a return on their capital, since it is one of the few opportunities they have to increase profits under the widely used rateof-return regulatory model. That results in utilities keeping assets on the books — and paying for them — longer than they might otherwise need to be. The end result is a distortion of the decisions made by regulated firms and higher prices for consumers than might occur under a different regulatory model. Regulators that take a more passive role in setting the rate of return for their client industries, however, are likely to see their idleness pay off. Firms with a freer hand to do so will seek to accelerate the depreciation of capital assets, reducing costs more quickly. The result may see end

  15. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  16. Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector for the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Newbery, D.; Tjin, T.; Verdonkschot, I.; Buitelaar, T.; Van Gent, C.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in this report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector

  17. Investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. Movements in the regulation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeuwen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an overview is given of the regulation framework for investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. The overview describes which options regulations and regulation practice offer to grid operators for recovering the cost of investing in grids. Attention is paid to possible discrepancies between the European and the Dutch regulation framework. The article illustrates that grid operators currently lack any clarity and hence certainty about the options for recovering their investment costs. At the same time the fact that investments are needed to secure quality and capacity is not under debate. [nl

  18. The Efficiency of the Regulation for Horizontal Mergers Among Electricity Distribution Operators in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Gammeltvedt, Thor Erik

    2015-01-01

    the attractiveness of mergers. Norway is one country having implemented an ex ante regulation for mergers among electricity distribution operators (DSOs). We investigate whether the actual mergers of Norwegian DSOs in the period 1995-2004 can be rationalized as cost saving exercises or whether they should...... to identify plausible pre-merger motivations. We also discuss the possibility to gain from strategic gaming in the regulation. We compare the regulated revenues and the regulated efficiency improvement requirements before and after the mergers. We find limited potential cost gains ex ante but some improvement...

  19. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  20. RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS: Three States' Experiences in Adding Generating Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...., restructured electricity markets by shifting from service provided through a regulated monopoly-the local electric utility-to service provided through open competition among the local utility and its competitors...

  1. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  2. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  3. Increasing penetration of renewable and distributed electricity generation and the need for different network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joode, J. de; Jansen, J.C.; Welle, A.J. van der; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of decentralised electricity generation (DG) connected to distribution networks increases across EU member states. This increasing penetration of DG units poses potential costs and benefits for distribution system operators (DSOs). These DSOs are regulated since the business of electricity distribution is considered to be a natural monopoly. This paper identifies the impact of increasing DG penetration on the DSO business under varying parameters (network characteristics, DG technologies, network management type) and argues that current distribution network regulation needs to be improved in order for DSOs to continue to facilitate the integration of DG in the network. Several possible adaptations are analysed.

  4. Regulation of electricity distribution in Spain. Principles and mechanisms for distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez San Roman, T.

    2007-01-01

    First, a conceptual framework for electricity network regulation is presented. In the second part, this paper reviews the current situation of electricity distribution regulation in Spain highlighting its main shortcomings. Finally, some guidelines for the design of a new remuneration model for each distribution company are proposed. This new regulatory model will increase efficiency, promoting the required investment for improving quality of supply and reducing energy losses. This model is based on two new regulatory tools: regulatory accounting and network reference models. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  6. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  7. Regulation for the accomplishment of public purposes: the case of public utilities in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Luis Ferney

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several countries in Latin America liberalized and privatized the public utilities business. As a consequence, there was a transit from the Entrepreneur State to the Regulatory State, the latter being traditionally understood as a model of regulation for competition, with a mayor concern only on economic objectives. Notwithstanding, the socioeconomic reality of Latin American countries, in particular Colombia, presented the fact that competition cannot be the only priority, a...

  8. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameter...... on Windows CE handheld computers which are presented in this paper. The calculations shown in the paper are based on this tool, and the software system is today available and used by Danish electric utilities....

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  10. The application of financial options theory to electric utility decision making in integrated resource planning and maintenance shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, F.

    1995-01-01

    Increased competition in wholesale power generation will allow electric utilities to use financial models to improve their decision making. This competition will result in the creation of electricity spot, futures, and forward markets, which will provide necessary information for utility executives to used advance financial tools, such as random walk models and options theory. These models will allow executives to place a value on risk. Once this value is known, executives can determine how best to manage that risk, whether by entering into financial transactions, adjusting their operational and planning decisions, or both

  11. A critical assessment of the Hong Kong Government's proposed post-2008 regulatory regime for local electricity utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Chi-Keung; Horowitz, Ira; Tishler, Asher

    2006-01-01

    In December 2005, the Hong Kong Government issued a 'Consultation Paper on Future Development of the Electricity Markets in Hong Kong: Stage II Consultation,' proposing a post-2008 regulatory regime upon the expiration of the existing regulatory contract between the Hong Kong Government and each of the two local electricity utilities. We assess the proposal using the criteria of safe, reliable, and environmentally friendly service at the lowest rates that will allow the utilities reasonable returns on their investments. We caution that if fully adopted, the highly risky proposal may lead to less-reliable service without the compensating benefits to the environment

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  14. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  15. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  16. Differences in regulation and efficiency on the electricity market. A preliminary study in the Market Design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, Goeran; Lindblom, Ted; Olsson, Sven-Olof; Sandoff, Anders

    2001-05-01

    should be applied to solve this problem? A marginal cost based pricing may lead to substantial profits ('excess profits') for power companies that possess older hydro power plants. How likely are these producers to set electricity prices below marginal costs in order to prevent new actors from entering the market? Companies that have a jointly production of electricity and district heating may be tempted to subsidise the electricity business by utilising the (local monopoly) profits from the district heating. What measures can be taken to uphold an efficient electricity pricing based on marginal costs, while still allowing the companies to benefit from economies of scope? There are substantial economic benefits from horizontal as well as vertical integration. Is it possible to obtain these benefits in combination with efficient electricity pricing? After the deregulation of the electricity industry investments in production and transmission facilities are associated with different risks. How does this risk difference influence the cost of capital and the willingness to invest in new capacity? How are the risks managed in practice? A few large actors dominate most electricity markets. To what extent do they exercise their market power? Is it possible to analyse their conduct in terms of game theory? In the second part of this preliminary study the historic review shows that the development of electricity markets may be separated into several stages, where a common denominator is a transition from a highly regulated environment into an open and free market. However, to a certain extent this transition has been carried through differently in each market. This raises further questions and a need for conducting comparative studies concerning the market conditions in different countries and time periods: What cultural differences exist between electricity companies in different countries? Does it matter whether the companies are private firms, municipal utilities or state

  17. [Regulations of sickness certification as a factor for increased health care utilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Bærheim, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, utilization of ambulatory health care is high compared to other countries. Classical models of health care utilization cannot sufficiently explain these differences. The aim of this study was to explore relevant factors which can explain the higher health care utilization in Germany. In this article, we focus on regulations regarding sickness certification as a potential factor. An explorative qualitative study design. We conducted episodic interviews with 20 patients in Germany and 20 patients in Norway and participant observation in four primary care practices each. Additionally, we conducted a context analysis of relevant health care system related factors which emerged during the study. Qualitative data analysis was done by thematic coding in the framework of grounded theory. The need for a sickness certificate was an important reason for encounter in Germany, especially regarding minor illnesses. Sickness certification is a societal topic. GPs play a double role regarding sickness certification, both as the patients' advocate and as an expert witness for social security services. In Norway, longer periods of self-administered sickness certification and more differentiated possibilities of sickness certification have been introduced successfully. Our results point to regulations regarding sickness certification as a relevant factor for higher health care utilization in Germany. In pilot studies, the effect of extended self-certification of sickness and part-time sickness certification should be further assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  19. Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

  20. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  1. Exploring the determinants of “best practice” benchmarking in electricity network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brophy Haney, Aoife; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a best practice index constructed from the survey responses of regulators in 40 countries to explore the determinants of the methods used in electricity network regulation. Drawing from the incentive regulation and institutional economics literature, we construct an empirical model to investigate the impact of industry size, political and economic institutions on the degree of best practice regulation. Our results suggest that the existence and experience of an independent regulator is the most important institutional determinant of best practice regulation. In addition, small numbers of network companies act as a constraint on the use of advanced benchmarking methods. Finally, regional effects are also important. These findings lead us to question whether one “best practice” model is in fact applicable to countries with very different political and economic contexts. - Highlights: ► Political institutions are strong determinants of best practice electricity regulation. ► Behavior of neighboring regulators may shape regulatory outcomes. ► One “best practice” model may not be appropriate.

  2. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition

  3. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  4. Does employee safety influence customer satisfaction? Evidence from the electric utility industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P Geoffrey; Brown, Karen A; Prussia, Gregory E

    2012-12-01

    Research on workplace safety has not examined implications for business performance outcomes such as customer satisfaction. In a U.S. electric utility company, we surveyed 821 employees in 20 work groups, and also had access to archival safety data and the results of a customer satisfaction survey (n=341). In geographically-based work units where there were more employee injuries (based on archival records), customers were less satisfied with the service they received. Safety climate, mediated by safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs), added to the predictive power of the group-level model, but these two constructs exerted their influence independently from actual injuries. In combination, two safety-related predictor paths (injuries and climate/SCB) explained 53% of the variance in customer satisfaction. Results offer preliminary evidence that workplace safety influences customer satisfaction, suggesting that there are likely spillover effects between the safety environment and the service environment. Additional research will be needed to assess the specific mechanisms that convert employee injuries into palpable results for customers. Better safety climate and reductions in employee injuries have the potential to offer payoffs in terms of what customers experience. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible? The case of the electricity utility industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept that is often measured using diverse indicators. Composite indices can aggregate these single indicators into one measurement. This article aims to identify the key challenges in constructing a composite index for measuring corporate social responsibility. The process is illustrated by the construction of a composite index for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry. The sample consisted of seventy-four companies from twenty-three different countries, and one special administrative region operating in the industry in 2011. The findings show that (1 the unavailability of information about corporate social responsibility, (2 the particular characteristics of this information and (3 the weighting of indicators are the main obstacles when constructing the composite index. We highlight than an effective composite index should has a clear objective, a solid theoretical background and a robust structure. In a practical sense, it should be reconsidered how researchers use composite indexes to measure corporate social responsibility, as more transparency and stringency is needed when constructing these tools.

  6. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of the Finnish electricity distribution utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli [Department of Economics, University of Oulu (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of Finnish electricity distribution utilities. We estimate several panel data stochastic frontier specifications using both Cobb-Douglas and Translog model specifications. The conventional models are extended in order to model observed heterogeneity explicitly in the cost frontier models. The true fixed effects model has been used as a representative of the models which account for unobserved heterogeneity and extended conventional random effect models have been used in analysing the impact of observed heterogeneity. A comparison between the conventional random effects model and models where heterogeneity component is entered either into the mean or into the variance of the inefficiency term shows that relative efficiency scores diminish when heterogeneity is added to the analysis. The true fixed effects model on the other hand gives clearly smaller inefficiency scores than random effects models. In the paper we also show that the relative inefficiency scores and rankings are not sensitive to the cost function specification. Our analysis points out the importance of the efficient use of the existing distribution network. The economies of scale results suggest that firms could reduce their operating costs by using networks more efficiently. According to our results average size firms which have high load factors are the most efficient ones. All firms have unused capacities so that they can improve cost-effectiveness rather by increasing the average distributed volumes than by mergers. (author)

  7. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of the Finnish electricity distribution utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Svento, Rauli

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of Finnish electricity distribution utilities. We estimate several panel data stochastic frontier specifications using both Cobb-Douglas and Translog model specifications. The conventional models are extended in order to model observed heterogeneity explicitly in the cost frontier models. The true fixed effects model has been used as a representative of the models which account for unobserved heterogeneity and extended conventional random effect models have been used in analysing the impact of observed heterogeneity. A comparison between the conventional random effects model and models where heterogeneity component is entered either into the mean or into the variance of the inefficiency term shows that relative efficiency scores diminish when heterogeneity is added to the analysis. The true fixed effects model on the other hand gives clearly smaller inefficiency scores than random effects models. In the paper we also show that the relative inefficiency scores and rankings are not sensitive to the cost function specification. Our analysis points out the importance of the efficient use of the existing distribution network. The economies of scale results suggest that firms could reduce their operating costs by using networks more efficiently. According to our results average size firms which have high load factors are the most efficient ones. All firms have unused capacities so that they can improve cost-effectiveness rather by increasing the average distributed volumes than by mergers

  8. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  9. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances. To achieve this objective, we will make use of the reversible fair scheduling algorithm originally developed for telecommunication networks. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregati...

  10. Control and distribution of electrical energy as mirrored by the relevant VDE regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E [Metzenauer und Jung G.m.b.H., Wuppertal (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with the regulations issued by the VDE in the fields of electrical energy distribution and control on national and international level. Starting from an interesting historical survey the author deals with VDE stipulations, introduces new control systems and explains the latest switching units.

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators and their interaction with electric current on winter wheat development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Koscielniak, J.; Filek, M.; Marcinska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Kubon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2010), s. 987-995 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : In vitro culture * Plant growth regulators * Electric current Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  12. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...

  13. Presence and generation of AC and DC electric fields and small ions in closed rooms as a function of building materials, utilization, and electrical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the discussion on possible biological effects of natural atmospheric electric fields or electromagnetic radiation it is frequently overlooked that man, under normal living and working conditions in closed rooms, is also exposed to considerable fields of various types and strengths. Therefore an extensive ''inventory'' has been made of such ac and dc fields as they occur in rooms of different construction, utilization, and electrical equipment. Results are presented and discussed, also with respect to biological conditions, including some typical examples from the relevant literature

  14. Decree no. 2004-90 from January 28, 2004 relative to the compensation of electric public utility charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This decree defines the charges imputable to the missions of electric public utility, the procedure of determination of their amount, the contribution to these charges by end-users and the operations of recovery and transfer, the processing of declaration defects and payment failures and some other various dispositions. (J.S.)

  15. Incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: Lessons of experience from Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent experience of the UK electricity distribution sector under incentive regulation. The UK has a significant and transparent history in implementing incentive regulation in the period since 1990. We demonstrate the successes of this period in reducing costs, prices, and energy losses while maintaining quality of service. We also draw out the lessons for other countries in implementing distribution sector reform. We conclude by discussing the place of incentive regulation of networks within the wider reform context, the required legislative framework, the need for appropriate unbundling, the importance of quality of service incentives, the regulatory information requirements, and the role of sector rationalisation. (author)

  16. PpNAC1, a main regulator of phenylalanine biosynthesis and utilization in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María Belén; Llebrés, María-Teresa; Craven-Bartle, Blanca; Cañas, Rafael A; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2018-05-01

    The transcriptional regulation of phenylalanine metabolism is particularly important in conifers, long-lived species that use large amounts of carbon in wood. Here, we show that the Pinus pinaster transcription factor, PpNAC1, is a main regulator of phenylalanine biosynthesis and utilization. A phylogenetic analysis classified PpNAC1 in the NST proteins group and was selected for functional characterization. PpNAC1 is predominantly expressed in the secondary xylem and compression wood of adult trees. Silencing of PpNAC1 in P. pinaster results in the alteration of stem vascular radial patterning and the down-regulation of several genes associated with cell wall biogenesis and secondary metabolism. Furthermore, transactivation and EMSA analyses showed that PpNAC1 is able to activate its own expression and PpMyb4 promoter, while PpMyb4 is able to activate PpMyb8, a transcriptional regulator of phenylalanine and lignin biosynthesis in maritime pine. Together, these results suggest that PpNAC1 is a functional ortholog of the ArabidopsisSND1 and NST1 genes and support the idea that key regulators governing secondary cell wall formation could be conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. Understanding the molecular switches controlling wood formation is of paramount importance for fundamental tree biology and paves the way for applications in conifer biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  18. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  19. The Philippine electricity sector reform and the urban question: How metro Manila's utility is tackling urban poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Philippine government reformed its electricity sector following neoliberal principles: unbundling of the power industry, privatisation of assets and commodification of electricity. This paper shows that the reform was primarily driven by the need to secure electricity supply and cut down tariffs. These national objectives ousted other issues, and notably those that find their expression at the urban level, among which the question of access to electricity in Metro Manila's urban poor communities. The central state withdrew its attention from the issue of electrification, and local actors had to react as they were confronted to social tensions and practices of pilferage. As a consequence, city governments and local administrations are getting involved in this issue, which opens the way to participation of civil society. This paper shows how the “rolling back” of the central state led to new partnerships and arrangements between the distribution utility, local governments and community organisations. This movement points to an urbanisation of energy issues, which could bring positive results for end-users provided that it is accompanied by a clearer regulatory framework. - Highlights: • The electricity reform did not take the urban poor into consideration. • The state retreated from issues of electrification. • Decentralisation favoured the emergence of new, local actors for this aspect of energy policy. • The distribution utility is left with an increased power over issues of access to electricity. • Territorially and qualitatively, electrification programs are more diverse

  20. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.