Rubak, Peter; Villadsen, Kirsten; Hvas, Anne-Mette
Abstract Introduction Analyses of platelet aggregation in hirudin whole blood using Multiplate® was validated. Reference intervals for the most commonly used agonists were established, and the association between platelet aggregation, age, gender and haematological values was analysed. Material...... and methods We included 121 healthy individuals to establish reference intervals and six healthy individuals for evaluation of the day-to-day variation. Platelet aggregation was evaluated on hirudin whole blood employing Multiplate® induced by arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and ristocetin (RISTOlow...... after adjusting for age and gender except for RISTOhigh. A positive significant association was found between platelet count and platelet aggregation (p
Konopatskaya, Olga; Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Zhao, Yan; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Steve P; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W
Platelets are central players in atherothrombosis development in coronary artery disease. The PKC family provides important intracellular mechanisms for regulating platelet activity, and platelets express several members of this family, including the classical isoforms PKCalpha and PKCbeta and novel isoforms PKCdelta and PKCtheta. Here, we used a genetic approach to definitively demonstrate the role played by PKCalpha in regulating thrombus formation and platelet function. Thrombus formation in vivo was attenuated in Prkca-/- mice, and PKCalpha was required for thrombus formation in vitro, although this PKC isoform did not regulate platelet adhesion to collagen. The ablation of in vitro thrombus formation in Prkca-/- platelets was rescued by the addition of ADP, consistent with the key mechanistic finding that dense-granule biogenesis and secretion depend upon PKCalpha expression. Furthermore, defective platelet aggregation in response to either collagen-related peptide or thrombin could be overcome by an increase in agonist concentration. Evidence of overt bleeding, including gastrointestinal and tail bleeding, was not seen in Prkca-/- mice. In summary, the effects of PKCalpha ablation on thrombus formation and granule secretion may implicate PKCalpha as a drug target for antithrombotic therapy.
Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J
Platelets are critical for haemostasis, however inappropriate activation can lead to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke. ADP is a key platelet agonist that exerts its actions via stimulation of two surface GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). Similar to most GPCRs, P2Y receptor activity is tightly regulated by a number of complex mechanisms including receptor desensitization, internalization and recycling. In the present article, we review the molecular mechanisms that underlie P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor regulation, with particular emphasis on the structural motifs within the P2Y(12) receptor, which are required to maintain regulatory protein interaction. The implications of these findings for platelet responsiveness are also discussed.
Vassbotn, F S; Havnen, O K; Heldin, C H; Holmsen, H
Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in their alpha-granules which is released during platelet exocytosis. We show by immunoprecipitation and 125I-PDGF binding experiments that human platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, but not beta-receptors. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) was identified as a 170-kDa glycosylated protein-tyrosine kinase as found in other cell types. Stimulation of platelets with 0.1 unit/ml thrombin resulted in a significant increase (2-5-fold) of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha, as determined by immunoprecipitation with phosphotyrosine antiserum as well as with PDGFR-alpha antiserum. The observed thrombin-induced autophosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing monoclonal PDGF antibody. Thus, our results suggest that the platelet PDGFR-alpha is stimulated in an autocrine manner by PDGF secreted during platelet activation. Preincubation of platelets with PDGF inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and secretion of ATP + ADP and beta-hexosaminidase. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was also reversed when PDGF was added 30 s after thrombin stimulation. Inhibition of the autocrine PDGF pathway during platelet activation by the PDGF antibody led to a potentiation of thrombin-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Thus, the PDGFR-alpha takes part in a negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Our demonstration of PDGF alpha-receptors on human platelets and its inhibitory function during platelet activation identifies a new possible role of PDGF in the regulation of thrombosis.
Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta
formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...
Singh, Anirudh K.; Woodiga, Shireen A.; Grau, Margaret A.
ABSTRACT Adherence to host surfaces is often mediated by bacterial binding to surface carbohydrates. Although it is widely appreciated that some bacterial species express glycosidases, previous studies have not considered whether bacteria bind to multiple carbohydrates within host glycans as they are modified by bacterial glycosidases. Streptococcus oralis is a leading cause of subacute infective endocarditis. Binding to platelets is a critical step in disease; however, the mechanisms utilized by S. oralis remain largely undefined. Studies revealed that S. oralis, like Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis, binds platelets via terminal sialic acid. However, unlike those organisms, S. oralis produces a neuraminidase, NanA, which cleaves terminal sialic acid. Further studies revealed that following NanA-dependent removal of terminal sialic acid, S. oralis bound exposed β-1,4-linked galactose. Adherence to both these carbohydrates required Fap1, the S. oralis member of the serine-rich repeat protein (SRRP) family of adhesins. Mutation of a conserved residue required for sialic acid binding by other SRRPs significantly reduced platelet binding, supporting the hypothesis that Fap1 binds this carbohydrate. The mechanism by which Fap1 contributes to β-1,4-linked galactose binding remains to be defined; however, binding may occur via additional domains of unknown function within the nonrepeat region, one of which shares some similarity with a carbohydrate binding module. This study is the first demonstration that an SRRP is required to bind β-1,4-linked galactose and the first time that one of these adhesins has been shown to be required for binding of multiple glycan receptors. PMID:27993975
Singh, Anirudh K; Woodiga, Shireen A; Grau, Margaret A; King, Samantha J
Adherence to host surfaces is often mediated by bacterial binding to surface carbohydrates. Although it is widely appreciated that some bacterial species express glycosidases, previous studies have not considered whether bacteria bind to multiple carbohydrates within host glycans as they are modified by bacterial glycosidases. Streptococcus oralis is a leading cause of subacute infective endocarditis. Binding to platelets is a critical step in disease; however, the mechanisms utilized by S. oralis remain largely undefined. Studies revealed that S. oralis , like Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis , binds platelets via terminal sialic acid. However, unlike those organisms, S. oralis produces a neuraminidase, NanA, which cleaves terminal sialic acid. Further studies revealed that following NanA-dependent removal of terminal sialic acid, S. oralis bound exposed β-1,4-linked galactose. Adherence to both these carbohydrates required Fap1, the S. oralis member of the serine-rich repeat protein (SRRP) family of adhesins. Mutation of a conserved residue required for sialic acid binding by other SRRPs significantly reduced platelet binding, supporting the hypothesis that Fap1 binds this carbohydrate. The mechanism by which Fap1 contributes to β-1,4-linked galactose binding remains to be defined; however, binding may occur via additional domains of unknown function within the nonrepeat region, one of which shares some similarity with a carbohydrate binding module. This study is the first demonstration that an SRRP is required to bind β-1,4-linked galactose and the first time that one of these adhesins has been shown to be required for binding of multiple glycan receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin
Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
The use of regression analysis in determining reference intervals for low hematocrit and thrombocyte count in multiple electrode aggregometry and platelet function analyzer 100 testing of platelet function.
Kuiper, Gerhardus J A J M; Houben, Rik; Wetzels, Rick J H; Verhezen, Paul W M; Oerle, Rene van; Ten Cate, Hugo; Henskens, Yvonne M C; Lancé, Marcus D
Low platelet counts and hematocrit levels hinder whole blood point-of-care testing of platelet function. Thus far, no reference ranges for MEA (multiple electrode aggregometry) and PFA-100 (platelet function analyzer 100) devices exist for low ranges. Through dilution methods of volunteer whole blood, platelet function at low ranges of platelet count and hematocrit levels was assessed on MEA for four agonists and for PFA-100 in two cartridges. Using (multiple) regression analysis, 95% reference intervals were computed for these low ranges. Low platelet counts affected MEA in a positive correlation (all agonists showed r 2 ≥ 0.75) and PFA-100 in an inverse correlation (closure times were prolonged with lower platelet counts). Lowered hematocrit did not affect MEA testing, except for arachidonic acid activation (ASPI), which showed a weak positive correlation (r 2 = 0.14). Closure time on PFA-100 testing was inversely correlated with hematocrit for both cartridges. Regression analysis revealed different 95% reference intervals in comparison with originally established intervals for both MEA and PFA-100 in low platelet or hematocrit conditions. Multiple regression analysis of ASPI and both tests on the PFA-100 for combined low platelet and hematocrit conditions revealed that only PFA-100 testing should be adjusted for both thrombocytopenia and anemia. 95% reference intervals were calculated using multiple regression analysis. However, coefficients of determination of PFA-100 were poor, and some variance remained unexplained. Thus, in this pilot study using (multiple) regression analysis, we could establish reference intervals of platelet function in anemia and thrombocytopenia conditions on PFA-100 and in thrombocytopenia conditions on MEA.
Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Jung, Bo Kyeung; Nam, Jeonghun; Seo, Hong Seog; Shin, Sehyun; Lim, Chae Seung
The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate three commercial whole-blood platelet function analyzer systems: Platelet Function Analyzer-200 (PFA; Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PLW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX, USA). Venipuncture was performed on 160 patients who visited a department of cardiology. Pairwise agreement among the three platelet function assays was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient and percent agreement within the reference limit. Kappa values with the same agonists were poor between PFA-collagen (COL; agonist)/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and MP-ADP (-0.147), PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-ADP (0.089), MP-ADP and PLW-ADP (0.039), PFA-COL/ADP and MP-COL (-0.039), and between PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-COL (-0.067). Nonetheless, kappa values for the same assay principle with a different agonist were slightly higher between PFA-COL/ADP and PFA-COL/EPI (0.352), MP-ADP and MP-COL (0.235), and between PLW-ADP and PLW-COL (0.247). The range of percent agreement values was 38.7% to 73.8%. Therefore, various measurements of platelet function by more than one method were needed to obtain a reliable interpretation of platelet function considering low kappa coefficient and modest percent agreement rates among 3 different platelet function tests.
Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Castellone, Donna D.; Stroobants, A. K.; Francis, John
To develop reference ranges for platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate (Na-citrate), lithium heparin (Li-heparin), or hirudin. The study was performed at three sites on consented, healthy adults (n = 193)
Saeed, S.A.; Waqar, M.A.
This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of platelet aggregation induced by the synergistic action of dopamine (DA) and a Ca/sup +2/-ionophore, A23187. DA showed non significant effect on platelet aggregation over a wide range of concentrations (up to 500 micro M), but did potentiate the aggregation response of A23187. Aggregation induced by A23187 was inhibited by calcium channel blockers (diltiazem and verpamil), receptor blockers (chlorpromazine and haloperidol) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin). However, the inhibitory effect of these blockers was more pronounced (with a selectivity ratio of 1.5-28) in the aggregation induced by synergistic effect of A23187 and DA. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P1 3-Kinase) inhibitor, wortmanin (1C/sub 50/. 25-30 nM), inhibited aggregation induced by either A23187 or DA and act synergistically. This synergistic effect on platelet aggregation is mediated through multiple signaling pathways. (author)
Full Text Available RGS18 is a myeloerythroid lineage-specific regulator of G-protein signaling, highly expressed in megakaryocytes (MKs and platelets. In the present study, we describe the first generation of a RGS18 knockout mouse model (RGS18-/-. Interesting phenotypic differences between RGS18-/- and wild-type (WT mice were identified, and show that RGS18 plays a significant role in both platelet generation and function. RGS18 deficiency produced a gain of function phenotype in platelets. In resting platelets, the level of CD62P expression was increased in RGS18-/- mice. This increase correlated with a higher level of plasmatic serotonin concentration. RGS18-/- platelets displayed a higher sensitivity to activation in vitro. RGS18 deficiency markedly increased thrombus formation in vivo. In addition, RGS18-/- mice presented a mild thrombocytopenia, accompanied with a marked deficit in MK number in the bone marrow. Analysis of MK maturation in vitro and in vivo revealed a defective megakaryopoiesis in RGS18-/- mice, with a lower bone marrow content of only the most committed MK precursors. Finally, RGS18 deficiency was correlated to a defect of platelet recovery in vivo under acute conditions of thrombocytopenia. Thus, we highlight a role for RGS18 in platelet generation and function, and provide additional insights into the physiology of RGS18.
Huang, Jiqing; Kast, Juergen
Physiological stimuli, such as thrombin, or pathological stimuli, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), activate platelets circulating in blood. Once activated, platelets bind to monocytes via P-selectin-PSGL-1 interactions but also release the stored contents of their granules. These platelet releasates, in addition to direct platelet binding, activate monocytes and facilitate their recruitment to atherosclerotic sites. Consequently, understanding the changes platelet releasates induce in monocyte membrane proteins is critical. We studied the glyco-proteome changes of THP-1 monocytic cells affected by LPA- or thrombin-induced platelet releasates. We employed lectin affinity chromatography combined with filter aided sample preparation to achieve high glyco- and membrane protein and protein sequence coverage. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we quantified 1715 proteins, including 852 membrane and 500 glycoproteins, identifying the up-regulation of multiple proteins involved in monocyte extracellular matrix binding and transendothelial migration. Flow cytometry indicated expression changes of integrin α5, integrin β1, PECAM-1, and PSGL-1. The observed increase in monocyte adhesion to fibronectin was determined to be mediated by the up-regulation of very late antigen 5 via a P-selectin-PSGL-1 independent mechanism. This novel aspect could be validated on CD14+ human primary monocytes, highlighting the benefits of the improved enrichment method regarding high membrane protein coverage and reliable quantification.
Trevor P. Fidler
Full Text Available Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO] specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased. Thrombosis and platelet activation were decreased through impairment at multiple activation nodes, including Ca2+ signaling, degranulation, and integrin activation. DKO mice developed thrombocytopenia, secondary to impaired pro-platelet formation from megakaryocytes, and increased platelet clearance resulting from cytosolic calcium overload and calpain activation. Systemic treatment with oligomycin, inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, induced rapid clearance of platelets, with circulating counts dropping to zero in DKO mice, but not wild-type mice, demonstrating an essential role for energy metabolism in platelet viability. Thus, substrate metabolism is essential for platelet production, activation, and survival.
The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. [ 3 H]PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 μM. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRPγS and GDPβS, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)
Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J; Mundell, Stuart J
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.
Full Text Available Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6 in the internalization and function of P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1 or P2Y(12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.
Adam Z. Blatt
Full Text Available Platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs increase thromboinflammation in the vasculature, and PGA formation is tightly controlled by the complement alternative pathway (AP negative regulator, Factor H (FH. Mutations in FH are associated with the prothrombotic disease atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, yet it is unknown whether increased PGA formation contributes to the thrombosis seen in patients with aHUS. Here, flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate the effects of aHUS-related mutations on FH regulation of PGA formation and characterize the mechanism. Utilizing recombinant fragments of FH spanning the entire length of the protein, we mapped the regions of FH most critical for limiting AP activity on the surface of isolated human platelets and neutrophils, as well as the regions most critical for regulating PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP. FH domains 19–20 were the most critical for limiting AP activity on platelets, neutrophils, and at the platelet/granulocyte interface. The role of FH in PGA formation was attributed to its ability to regulate AP-mediated C5a generation. AHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 caused differential effects on control of PGA formation and AP activity on platelets and neutrophils. Our data indicate FH C-terminal domains are key for regulating PGA formation, thus increased FH protection may have a beneficial impact on diseases characterized by increased PGA formation, such as cardiovascular disease. Additionally, aHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 have varying effects on control of TRAP-mediated PGA formation, suggesting that some, but not all, aHUS-related mutations may cause increased PGA formation that contributes to excessive thrombosis in patients with aHUS.
Maheswaraiah, Anikisetty; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender
Curcuminoids are active principle of turmeric with plethora of health beneficial properties. In this study, we have evaluated for the first time the effect of water dispersible curcuminoids on rat platelet aggregation. Curcuminoids (10-30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists viz., collagen, ADP and arachidonic acid. Curcuminoids were found to be two-fold more potent than curcumin in inhibiting platelet aggregation. Intracellular curcuminoid concentration was relatively higher than curcumin in rat platelets. Curcuminoids significantly attenuated thromboxane A2 , serotonin levels in rat platelets which play an important role in platelet aggregation. Curcuminoid treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) levels in platelets treated with agonists. Curcuminoids inhibited free radicals such as superoxide anion released from activated platelets, which ultimately inhibits platelet aggregation. Further, curcuminoids inhibited 12-lipoxygenase activity and formation of 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE) in activated rat platelets which regulates platelet aggregation. The results suggest that curcuminoids have remarkable anti-platelet activity by modulating multiple mechanisms involved in platelet aggregation. Thus curcuminoids may have a therapeutic potential to prevent platelet activation related disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Morel, Agnieszka; Rywaniak, Joanna; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna
The epidemiological studies confirm an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in multiple sclerosis, especially prothrombotic events directly associated with abnormal platelet activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of blood platelet activation in the circulation of patients with chronic phase of multiple sclerosis (SP MS) and their reactivity in response to typical platelets' physiological agonists. We examined 85 SP MS patients diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group. The platelet activation and reactivity were assessed using flow cytometry analysis of the following: P-selectin expression (CD62P), activation of GP IIb/IIIa complex (PAC-1 binding), and formation of platelet microparticles (PMPs) and platelet aggregates (PA) in agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) and unstimulated whole blood samples. Furthermore, we measured the level of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in plasma using ELISA method, to evaluate the in vivo level of platelet activation, both in healthy and SP MS subjects. We found a statistically significant increase in P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation, and formation of PMPs and PA, as well as in unstimulated and agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) platelets in whole blood samples from patients with SP MS in comparison to the control group. We also determined the higher sP-selectin level in plasma of SP MS subjects than in the control group. Based on the obtained results, we might conclude that during the course of SP MS platelets are chronically activated and display hyperreactivity to physiological agonists, such as ADP or collagen.
Full Text Available Stanniocalcin 2 (STC2 is a fish protein that controls body Ca2+ and phosphate metabolism. STC2 has also been described in mammals, and as platelet function highly depends on both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+, we have explored its expression and function in these cells. STC2−/− mice exhibit shorter tail bleeding time than WT mice. Platelets from STC2-deficient mice showed enhanced aggregation, as well as enhanced Ca2+ mobilization in response to the physiological agonist thrombin (Thr and the diacylglycerol analog, OAG, a selective activator of the non-capacitative Ca2+ entry channels. Interestingly, platelets from STC2−/− mice exhibit attenuated interaction between STIM1 and Orai1 in response to Thr, thus suggesting that STC2 is required for Thr-evoked STIM1-Orai1 interaction and the subsequent store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. We have further assessed possible changes in the expression of the most relevant channels involved in non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in platelets. Then, protein expression of Orai3, TRPC3 and TRPC6 were evaluated by Western blotting, and the results revealed that while the expression of Orai3 was enhanced in the STC2-deficient mice, others like TRPC3 and TRPC6 remains almost unaltered. Summarizing, our results provide for the first time evidence for a role of STC2 in platelet physiology through the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ entry, which might be mediated by the regulation of Orai3 channel expression.
Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.
Grüner, Sabine; Prostredna, Miroslava; Schulte, Valerie
by intravital fluorescence microscopy that platelet adhesion and thrombus growth on the exposed ECM of the injured carotid artery is not significantly altered in alpha2-null mice and even in mice with a Cre/loxP-mediated loss of all beta1 integrins on their platelets. In contrast, inhibition of alphaIIbbeta3...... integrin on platelets in wild-type mice blocked aggregate formation and reduced platelet adhesion by 60.0%. Strikingly, alphaIIbbeta3 inhibition had a comparable effect in alpha2-null mice, demonstrating that other receptors mediate shear-resistant adhesion in the absence of functional alpha2beta1...... and alphaIIbbeta3. These were identified to be alpha5beta1 and/or alpha6beta1 as alphaIIbbeta3 inhibition abrogated platelet adhesion in beta1-null mice. We conclude that shear-resistant platelet adhesion on the injured vessel wall in vivo is a highly integrated process involving multiple integrin...
Stissing, Trine; Dridi, Nadia P; Ostrowski, Sisse R
in an artificial matrix, platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Heparinized and citrated blood was diluted with autologous plasma to platelet concentrations 200 to 25 × 10(9)/L in WB samples (n = 10) and 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L in PRP samples (n = 7). The platelet aggregation was investigated by the ADP-, ASPI-, COL-, and TRAP...
Stissing, Trine; Dridi, Nadia P; Ostrowski, Sisse R
in an artificial matrix, platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Heparinized and citrated blood was diluted with autologous plasma to platelet concentrations 200 to 25 × 10(9)/L in WB samples (n = 10) and 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L in PRP samples (n = 7). The platelet aggregation was investigated by the ADP-, ASPI-, COL-, and TRAP......-test. The WB responses decreased at platelet concentration of ≤100 × 10(9)/L (all P PRP samples at platelet concentrations 200 to 100 × 10(9)/L (P
Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A
Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.
Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Pluthero, Fred G; Suphamungmee, Worawit; Giannini, Silvia; Christensen, Hilary; Leung, Richard; Lo, Richard W; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lehman, William; Plomann, Markus; Hoffmeister, Karin M; Kahr, Walter H A; Hartwig, John H; Falet, Hervé
Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) and Fes-CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) proteins generate tubular membrane invaginations reminiscent of the megakaryocyte (MK) demarcation membrane system (DMS), which provides membranes necessary for future platelets. The F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is one of the most abundant BAR/F-BAR proteins in platelets and the only one reported to interact with the cytoskeletal and scaffold protein filamin A (FlnA), an essential regulator of platelet formation and function. The FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction was therefore investigated in MKs and platelets. PACSIN2 associated with FlnA in human platelets. The interaction required FlnA immunoglobulin-like repeat 20 and the tip of PACSIN2 F-BAR domain and enhanced PACSIN2 F-BAR domain membrane tubulation in vitro. Most human and wild-type mouse platelets had 1 to 2 distinct PACSIN2 foci associated with cell membrane GPIbα, whereas Flna-null platelets had 0 to 4 or more foci. Endogenous PACSIN2 and transfected enhanced green fluorescent protein-PACSIN2 were concentrated in midstage wild-type mouse MKs in a well-defined invagination of the plasma membrane reminiscent of the initiating DMS and dispersed in the absence of FlnA binding. The DMS appeared less well defined, and platelet territories were not readily visualized in Flna-null MKs. We conclude that the FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction regulates membrane tubulation in MKs and platelets and likely contributes to DMS formation. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Dubey, G.P.; Srivastava, V.K.; Agrawal, A.; Udupa, K.N.
Platelet monoamine oxidase is a mitochondrial enzyme taking part in the deamination reaction of total catecholamine. Recent studies of monoamine oxidase inhibitors have gained its importance in the control of variety of psychosomatic disorders like mental depression, arterial hypertension and anxiety neurosis. 30 apparently normal individuals and 42 diagnosed cases of essential hypertension were selected for the present study. The platelet monoamine oxidase activity was measured by using 14 C-tryptamine bisuccinate. Comparatively low activity of platelet monoamine oxidase was noticed in hypertension cases than in the normal. After oral administration of an indigenous drug 'Geriforte' for three months, a significant rise in platelet monoamine oxidase activity was noticed in hypertension cases. It can be concluded that this indigenous formulation has the capacity to regulate the monoamine oxidase activity, as such, it may provide an alternative remedy in the management of psychosomatic disorders. (author). 11 refs
Katie L Lannan
Full Text Available Platelets are small anucleate blood cells derived from megakaryocytes. In addition to their pivotal roles in hemostasis, platelets are the smallest, yet most abundant, immune cell and regulate inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Although platelets lack DNA, and thus no functional transcriptional activities, they are nonetheless rich sources of RNAs, possess an intact spliceosome, and are thus capable of synthesizing proteins. Previously, it was thought that platelet RNAs and translational machinery were remnants from the megakaryocyte. We now know that the initial description of platelets as cellular fragments is an antiquated notion, as mounting evidence suggests otherwise. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that platelet transcription factors are not vestigial remnants from megakaryoctes, but have important, if only partly understood functions. Proteins play multiple cellular roles to minimize energy expenditure for maximum cellular function; thus, the same can be expected for transcription factors. In fact, numerous transcription factors have non-genomic roles, both in platelets and in nucleated cells. Our lab and others have discovered the presence and nongenomic roles of transcription factors in platelets, such as the nuclear factor kappa β (NFκB family of proteins and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. In addition to numerous roles in regulating platelet activation, functional transcription factors can be transferred to vascular and immune cells through platelet microparticles. This method of transcellular delivery of key immune molecules may be a vital mechanism by which platelet transcription factors regulate inflammation and immunity. At the very least, platelets are an ideal model cell to dissect out the nongenomic roles of transcription factors in nucleated cells. There is abundant evidence to suggest that transcription factors in platelets play key roles in regulating inflammatory and
Alexander E Urban
Full Text Available Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, the absence of Pdlim7 prevents platelets from bundling actin fibers into a concentric ring that defines the round spread shape of activated platelets. Similarly, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of Pdlim7 abolishes the formation of stress fibers needed to adopt the typical elongated fibroblast shape. In addition to revealing a fundamental cell biological role in actin cytoskeletal organization, we also demonstrate a function of Pdlim7 in regulating the cycling between the GTP/GDP-bound states of Arf6. The small GTPase Arf6 is an essential factor required for actin dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and platelet activation. Consistent with our findings of significantly elevated initial F-actin ratios and subsequent morphological aberrations, loss of Pdlim7 causes a shift in balance towards an increased Arf6-GTP level in resting platelets. These findings identify a new Pdlim7-Arf6 axis controlling actin dynamics and implicate Pdlim7 as a primary endogenous regulator of platelet-dependent hemostasis.
Hugo C Castro Faria Neto
Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.
Goggs, Robert; Harper, Matthew T; Pope, Robert J; Savage, Joshua S; Williams, Christopher M; Mundell, Stuart J; Heesom, Kate J; Bass, Mark; Mellor, Harry; Poole, Alastair W
Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG(-/-) mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG(-/-) platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG(-/-) platelets was reduced secretion from α-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG(-/-) platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG(-/-) mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders.
Asai, Jun; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Jun-ichi; Kishida, Tsunao; Wada, Makoto; Nakamura, Naomi; Takenaka, Hideya; Mazda, Osam; Urano, Tetsumei; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Tokura, Yoshiki; Katoh, Norito
Podoplanin is an endogenous ligand for C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), which is expressed on platelets. Recent evidence indicates that this specific marker of lymphatic endothelial cells is also expressed by keratinocytes at the edge of wounds. However, whether podoplanin or platelets play a role in keratinocyte activity during wound healing remains unknown. We evaluated the effect of podoplanin expression levels on keratinocyte motility using cultured primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Down-regulation of podoplanin in NHEKs via transfection with podoplanin siRNA inhibited their migration, indicating that podoplanin plays a mandatory role in this process. In addition, down-regulation of podoplanin was correlated with up-regulation of E-cadherin, suggesting that podoplanin-mediated stimulation of keratinocyte migration is associated with a loss of E-cadherin. Both the addition of platelets and treatment with CLEC-2 inhibited the migration of NHEKs. The down-regulation of RhoA activity and the up-regulation of E-cadherin in keratinocytes were also induced by CLEC-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that podoplanin/CLEC-2 signaling regulates keratinocyte migration via modulating E-cadherin expression through RhoA signaling. Altering the regulation of keratinocyte migration by podoplanin might be a novel therapeutic approach to improve wound healing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Iezzi, Ennio; Marfia, Girolama A; Simonelli, Ilaria; Musella, Alessandra; Mandolesi, Georgia; Fresegna, Diego; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Furlan, Roberto; Finardi, Annamaria; Mataluni, Giorgia; Landi, Doriana; Gilio, Luana; Centonze, Diego; Buttari, Fabio
In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS. In addition, immune cells may promote brain repair during the post-acute phases, by secreting different growth factors involved in neuronal and oligodendroglial cell survival. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a neurotrophic factor that could be particularly involved in clinical recovery. Indeed, PDGF promotes long-term potentiation of synaptic activity in vitro and in MS and could therefore represent a key factor improving the clinical compensation of new brain lesions. The aim of the present study is to explore whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PDGF concentrations at the time of diagnosis may influence the clinical course of RR-MS. At the time of diagnosis, we measured in 100 consecutive early MS patients the CSF concentrations of PDGF, of the main pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of reliable markers of neuronal damage. Clinical and radiological parameters of disease activity were prospectively collected during follow-up. CSF PDGF levels were positively correlated with prolonged relapse-free survival. Radiological markers of disease activity, biochemical markers of neuronal damage, and clinical parameters of disease progression were instead not influenced by PDGF concentrations. Higher CSF PDGF levels were associated with an anti-inflammatory milieu within the central nervous system. Our results suggest that PDGF could promote a
Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP
Suginami, Koh; Sato, Yukiyasu; Horie, Akihito; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Kyo, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi
The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study showed numerous extravasated platelets in the subluminar stroma during the menstrual phase. The platelets promoted the cell-to-matrigel attachment of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells concomitantly with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. They also promoted cell-to-cell contact among EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells in parallel with E-cadherin expression. These results indicate the possible involvement of platelets in the endometrial epithelial re-epithelialization process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent serum mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), plays an important role in membrane transport regulation and in atherosclerosis. K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT/KCC), the coupled-movement of K and Cl, is involved in ion homeostasis. VSMCs possess K-Cl COT activity and the KCC1 and KCC3 isoforms. Here, we report on the effect of PDGF on K-Cl COT activity and mRNA expression in primary cultures of rat VSMCs. K-Cl COT was determined as the Cl-dependent Rb influx and mRNA expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Twenty four-hour serum deprivation inhibited basal K-Cl COT activity. Addition of PDGF increased total protein content and K-Cl COT activity in a time-dependent manner. PDGF activated K-Cl COT in a dose-dependent manner, both acutely (10 min) and chronically (12 h). AG-1296, a selective inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase, abolished these effects. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide had no effect on the acute PDGF activation of K-Cl COT, suggesting posttranslational regulation by the drug. Furthermore, PDGF increased KCC1 and decreased KCC3 mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that chronic activation of K-Cl COT activity by PDGF may involve regulation of the two KCC mRNA isoforms, with KCC1 playing a dominant role in the mechanism of PDGF-mediated activation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation, especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2-∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets.
Barton, J F; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W; Mundell, S J
Thromboxane A(2) and ADP are two major platelet agonists that stimulate two sets of G protein-coupled receptors to activate platelets. Although aggregation responses to ADP and thromboxane desensitize, there are no reports currently addressing whether activation by one agonist may heterologously desensitize responses to the other. To demonstrate whether responses to ADP or U46619 may be modulated by prior treatment of platelets with the alternate agonist, revealing a level of cross-desensitization between receptor systems. Here we show that pretreatment of platelets with either agonist substantially desensitizes aggregation responses to the other agonist. Calcium responses to thromboxane receptor activation are desensitized by preactivation of P2Y(1) but not P2Y(12) receptors. This heterologous desensitization is mediated by a protein kinase C (PKC)-independent mechanism. Reciprocally, calcium responses to ADP are desensitized by pretreatment of platelets with the thromboxane analogue, U46619, and P2Y(12)-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also desensitized by pretreatment with U46619. In this direction, desensitization is comprised of two components, a true heterologous component that is PKC-independent, and a homologous component that is mediated through stimulated release of dense granule ADP. This study reveals cross-desensitization between ADP and thromboxane receptor signaling in human platelets. Cross-desensitization is mediated by protein kinases, involving PKC-dependent and independent pathways, and indicates that alterations in the activation state of one receptor may have effects upon the sensitivity of the other receptor system.
Wang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Norström, Eva; Braun, Oscar Ö; Mörgelin, Matthias; Thorlacius, Henrik
Sepsis is associated with dysfunctional coagulation. Recent data suggest that platelets play a role in sepsis by promoting neutrophil accumulation. Herein, we show that cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) triggered systemic inflammation, which is characterized by formation of IL-6 and CXC chemokines as well as neutrophil accumulation in the lung. Platelet depletion decreased neutrophil accumulation, IL-6, and CXC chemokines formation in septic lungs. Depletion of platelets increased peak thrombin formation and total thrombin generation (TG) in plasma from septic animals. CLP elevated circulating levels of platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs). In vitro generated PMPs were a potent inducer of TG. Interestingly, in vitro wild-type recombinant annexin V abolished PMP-induced thrombin formation whereas a mutant annexin V protein, which does not bind to phosphatidylserine (PS), had no effect. Administration of wild-type, but not mutant annexin V, significantly inhibited thrombin formation in septic animals. Moreover, CLP-induced formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes were reduced in platelet-depleted mice and in animals pretreated with annexin V. PMP-induced TG attenuated in FXII- and FVII-deficient plasma. These findings suggest that sepsis-induced TG is dependent on platelets. Moreover, PMPs formed in sepsis are a potent inducer of TG via PS exposure, and activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of coagulation. In conclusion, these observations suggest that PMPs and PS play an important role in dysfunctional coagulation in abdominal sepsis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A
T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227
Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya
Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process.
Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.
Initial interest in developing techniques to radiolabel platelets was spurred by the lack of an accurate method for measuring platelet life span in both normals and in thrombocytopenic patients. Early investigators could obtain only rough estimates of platelet life spans by monitoring the platelet counts of thrombocytopenic patients undergoing platelet transfusions. Labels were also sought that would allow imaging of platelets in vivo in order to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases. Two types of platelet labels were investigated: cohort (pulse) labels and random labels. Cohort labels are taken up by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and incorporated in the DNA and other components of the forming platelet. In theory, only freshly released platelets of a uniform age are labeled. Random labels, on the other hand, tag platelets in the peripheral blood, labeling platelets of all ages
Perry Trinity L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate signaling by a variety of growth factors. The mammalian proteoglycan Perlecan binds and regulates signaling by Sonic Hedgehog, Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, among others, in contexts ranging from angiogenesis and cardiovascular development to cancer progression. The Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol has been shown to regulate the activity of Hedgehog and Branchless (an FGF homolog to control the onset of stem cell proliferation in the developing brain during first instar. Here we extend analysis of trol mutant phenotypes to show that trol is required for a variety of developmental events and modulates signaling by multiple growth factors in different situations. Results Different mutations in trol allow developmental progression to varying extents, suggesting that trol is involved in multiple cell-fate and patterning decisions. Analysis of the initiation of neuroblast proliferation at second instar demonstrated that trol regulates this event by modulating signaling by Hedgehog and Branchless, as it does during first instar. Trol protein is distributed over the surface of the larval brain, near the regulated neuroblasts that reside on the cortical surface. Mutations in trol also decrease the number of circulating plasmatocytes. This is likely to be due to decreased expression of pointed, the response gene for VEGF/PDGF signaling that is required for plasmatocyte proliferation. Trol is found on plasmatocytes, where it could regulate VEGF/PDGF signaling. Finally, we show that in second instar brains but not third instar brain lobes and eye discs, mutations in trol affect signaling by Decapentaplegic (a Transforming Growth Factor family member, Wingless (a Wnt growth factor and Hedgehog. Conclusion These studies extend the known functions of the Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol in both developmental and
Huang, Nick; Lou, Mabel; Liu, Hua; Avila, Cecilia; Ma, Yupo
Megakaryocytic cell maturation involves polyploidization, and megakaryocyte (MK) ploidy correlates with their maturation and platelet production. Retardation of MK maturation is closely associated with poor MK engraftment after cord blood transplantation and neonatal thrombocytopenia. Despite the high prevalence of thrombocytopenia in a range of setting that affect infants to adults, there are still very limited modalities of treatment. Human CD34 + cells were isolated from cord blood or bone marrow samples acquired from consenting patients. Cells were cultured and induced using 616452 and compared to current drugs on the market such as rominplostim or TPO. Ploidy analysis was completed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analysis. Animal studies consisted of transplanting human CD34 + cells into NOD.Cg-Prkdc scid Il2rg tm1Wjl /SzJ mice followed by daily injections of 15 mg/kg of 616452. Within one week of culture, the chemical was able to induce polyploidization, the process required for megakaryocyte maturation with the accumulation of DNA content, to 64 N or greater to achieve a relative adult size. We observed fold increases as high as 200-fold in cells of 16 N or greater compared to un-induced cells with a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MK differentiated in the presence of 616452 demonstrated a more robust capacity of MK differentiation than that of MKs cultured with rominplostim used for adult idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. In mice transplanted with human cord blood, 616452 strikingly enhanced MK reconstitution in the marrow and human peripheral platelet production. The molecular therapeutic actions for this chemical may be through TPO-independent pathways. Our studies may have an important impact on our fundamental understanding of fetal MK biology, the clinical management of thrombocytopenic neonates and leukemic differentiation therapy.
Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan
Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities...
Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Song, Sang Heon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Bae, Sun Sik
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs
Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun [Medical Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Heon [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa Kyoung [Department of Anatomy, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik, E-mail: email@example.com [Medical Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.
Van Leeuwen, Anouschka; Janssen, Jeroen; Erkens, Gijsbert; Brekelmans, Mieke
Teachers regulating groups of students during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) face the challenge of orchestrating their guidance at student, group, and class level. During CSCL, teachers can monitor all student activity and interact with multiple groups at the same time. Not much is
De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were
Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nedic, Gordana; Nikolac, Matea; Mustapic, Maja; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela
Insomnia is a common sleep disorder frequently occurring in chronic alcoholic patients. Neurobiological basis of insomnia, as well as of alcoholism, is associated with disrupted functions of the main neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Blood platelets are considered a limited peripheral model for the central 5-HT neurons, since both platelets and central 5-HT synaptosomes have similar dynamics of 5-HT. Platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) are assumed to represent biomarkers for particular symptoms and behaviors in psychiatric disorders. The hypothesis of this study was that platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity will be altered in chronic alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to comparable values in patients without insomnia. The study included 498 subjects: 395 male and 103 female medication-free patients with alcohol dependence and 502 healthy control subjects: 325 men and 177 women. The effects of early, middle and late insomnia (evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), as well as sex, age and smoking on platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method. Platelet 5-HT concentration, but not platelet MAO-B activity, was significantly reduced in alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to patients without insomnia. Multiple regression analysis revealed that platelet 5-HT concentration was affected by middle insomnia, smoking and sex, while platelet MAO activity was affected only by sex and age. The present and previous data suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used, after controlling for sex and smoking, as a biomarker for insomnia in alcoholism, PTSD and in rotating shift workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Prabhjeet; Shukla, Sagrika; Singh, Kuldeep
A patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presented with multiple recession defects in maxillary anterior region. After thorough clinical examination and assessment, measurements were recorded. Maxillary anterior teeth with recession defects of 3-4 mm were treated with coronally advanced flap and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane. Regular follow-up was maintained for the patient at 3, 6 , 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months. After 36 months, significant root coverage of 100 percent was observed in four defects and 50% coverage in one defect. This shows that PRF membrane along with coronally advanced provides a predictable and significant result for management of recession defects.
Selheim, F; Fukami, M H; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S
Human platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from alpha-granules during platelet activation. We have previously shown that platelets have PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that takes part in negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Here we have described a study of PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet substrates and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. By immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine antibodies of collagen-activated platelets we found that PDGF increased the phosphorylation of several platelet substrates, e.g. pp140, pp120 and pp85. PDGF inhibited collagen-induced platelet activation in the presence of inhibitors of autocrine stimulation, thus blocking the pure collagen-induced signal transduction. PDGF enhanced the collagen-induced formation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) as measured by HPLC. Wortmannin and LY294002, two unrelated inhibitors of PI-3K, were used to investigate the role of PI-3K in PDGF-induced platelet signalling. Incubation of platelets with wortmannin and LY294002 blocked the formation of three phosphorylated inositides as well as the inhibitory effect of PDGF on collagen-induced platelet activation. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of PDGF on platelet activation is PI-3K dependent. This is the first demonstration of a negative regulatory function of 3-phosphorylated inositides in platelets.
Full Text Available Platelets play crucial roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastases. Because they are anucleated blood cells, platelets lack nuclear DNA, but they do contain mitochondrial DNA, which plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs are also involved in regulating gene expression and apoptosis in platelets. Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-326 increased visibly when apheresis platelets were stored in vitro. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family regulator Bcl-xL has been identified as a putative target of miR-326. In the present study, dual reporter luciferase assays were used to characterize the function of miR-326 in the regulation of the apoptosis of platelet cells. These assays demonstrated that miR-326 bound to the 3'-translated region of Bcl-xL. To directly assess the functional effects of miR-326 expression, levels of Bcl-xL and the apoptotic status of stored apheresis platelets were measured after transfection of miR-326 mimic or inhibitor. Results indicated that miR-326 inhibited Bcl-xL expression and induced apoptosis in stored platelets. Additionally, miR-326 inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression and enhanced Bak expression, possibly through an indirect mechanism, though there was no effect on the expression of Bax. The effect of miR-326 appeared to be limited to apoptosis, with no significant effect on platelet activation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms affecting differential platelet gene regulation, which may increase understanding of the role of platelet apoptosis in multiple diseases.
The normal number of platelets in the blood is 150,000 to 400,000 platelets per microliter (mcL) or 150 to 400 × 10 9 /L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly. Some lab use different measurements or ...
Andlauer, Till F M; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis.
Jin, S.; Hansson, E.M.; Tikka, S.; Lanner, F.; Sahlgren, C.; Farnebo, F.; Baumann, M.; Kalimo, H.; Lendahl, U.
Notch signaling is critically important for proper architecture of the vascular system, and mutations in NOTCH3 are associated with CADASIL, a stroke and dementia syndrome with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction. In this report, we link Notch signaling to platelet-derived growth factor
... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...
Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)
Andlauer, Till F. M.; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A.; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G.; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M.; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M.; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562
... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...
This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...
Norman, Jane E; Lee, Kurtis R; Walker, Mary E; Murden, Sherina L; Harris, Jessica; Mundell, Stuart; J Murphy, Gavin; Mumford, Andrew D
Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) improves prediction of thrombosis and bleeding in cardiac patients. However, the causes of inter-individual variation in MEA results are incompletely understood. We explore whether low MEA results are associated with platelet G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) gene variants. The effects of P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12), thromboxane A2 receptor (TPα) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) dysfunction on the MEA ADP-test, ASPI-test and TRAP-test were determined using receptor antagonists. Cardiac surgery patients with pre-operative MEA results suggesting GPCR dysfunction were selected for P2Y12 (P2RY12), TPα (TBXA2R) and PAR1 (F2R) sequencing. In control blood samples, P2Y12, TPα or PAR1 antagonists markedly reduced ADP-test, ASPI-test and TRAP-test results respectively. In the 636 patients from a cohort of 2388 cardiac surgery patients who were not receiving aspirin or a P2Y12 blocker, the median ADP-test result was 75.1 U (range 4.8-153.2), ASPI-test 83.7 U (1.4-157.3) and TRAP-test 117.7 U (2.4-194.1), indicating a broad range of results unexplained by anti-platelet drugs. In 238 consenting patients with unexplained low MEA results, three P2RY12 variants occurred in 70/107 (65%) with suspected P2Y12 dysfunction and four TBXA2R variants occurred in 19/22 (86%) with suspected TPα dysfunction although the later group was too small to draw meaningful conclusions about variant frequency. All the variants were synonymous and unlikely to cause GPCR dysfunction. There were no F2R variants in the 109 cases with suspected PAR1 dysfunction. MEA results suggesting isolated platelet GPCR dysfunction were common in cardiac surgery patients, but were not associated with non-synonymous variants in P2RY12 or F2R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selheim, Frode; Holmsen, Holm; Vassbotn, Flemming S
Platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon stimulation. We have demonstrated that platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase involved in negative feedback regulation. Here we demonstrate the presence of the related VEGF receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and kinase-insert domain region on human platelets. VEGF itself did not cause platelet aggregation. However, addition of exogenous VEGF to SFRLLN or thrombin-stimulated platelets potentiated platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity were enhanced in the presence of VEGF.
Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri
concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myf5 is one member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, and it functions as a myogenic factor that is important for the specification and differentiation of muscle cells. The expression of myf5 is somite- and stage-dependent during embryogenesis through a delicate regulation. However, this complex regulatory mechanism of myf5 is not clearly understood. Results We isolated a 156-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone that includes an upstream 80-kb region and a downstream 70-kb region of zebrafish myf5 and generated a transgenic line carrying this 156-kb segment fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene. We find strong GFP expression in the most rostral somite and in the presomitic mesoderm during segmentation stages, similar to endogenous myf5 expression. Later, the GFP signals persist in caudal somites near the tail bud but are down-regulated in the older, rostral somites. During the pharyngula period, we detect GFP signals in pectoral fin buds, dorsal rostral myotomes, hypaxial myotomes, and inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles, a pattern that also corresponds well with endogenous myf5 transcripts. To characterize the specific upstream cis-elements that regulate this complex and dynamic expression pattern, we also generated several transgenic lines that harbor various lengths within the upstream 80-kb segment. We find that (1 the -80 kb/-9977 segment contains a fin and cranial muscle element and a notochord repressor; (2 the -9977/-6213 segment contains a strong repressive element that does not include the notochord-specific repressor; (3 the -6212/-2938 segment contains tissue-specific elements for bone and spinal cord; (4 the -2937/-291 segment contains an eye enhancer, and the -2937/-2457 segment is required for notochord and myocyte expression; and (5 the -290/-1 segment is responsible for basal transcription in somites and the presomitic mesoderm. Conclusion We suggest
Full Text Available In previous studies on the mechanism underlying megakaryocyte-specific gene expression, several ETS motifs were found in each megakaryocyte-specific gene promoter. Although these studies suggested that several ETS family proteins regulate megakaryocyte-specific gene expression, only a few ETS family proteins have been identified. Platelet factor 4 (PF4 is a megakaryocyte-specific gene and its promoter includes multiple ETS motifs. We had previously shown that ETS-1 binds to an ETS motif in the PF4 promoter. However, the functions of the other ETS motifs are still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate a novel functional ETS motif in the PF4 promoter and identify proteins binding to the motif. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, FLI-1, ELF-1, and GABP bound to the -51 ETS site. Expression of FLI-1, ELF-1, and GABP activated the PF4 promoter in HepG2 cells. Mutation of a -51 ETS site attenuated FLI-1-, ELF-1-, and GABP-mediated transactivation of the promoter. siRNA analysis demonstrated that FLI-1, ELF-1, and GABP regulate PF4 gene expression in HEL cells. Among these three proteins, only FLI-1 synergistically activated the promoter with GATA-1. In addition, only FLI-1 expression was increased during megakaryocytic differentiation. Finally, the importance of the -51 ETS site for the activation of the PF4 promoter during physiological megakaryocytic differentiation was confirmed by a novel reporter gene assay using in vitro ES cell differentiation system. Together, these data suggest that FLI-1, ELF-1, and GABP regulate PF4 gene expression through the -51 ETS site in megakaryocytes and implicate the differentiation stage-specific regulation of PF4 gene expression by multiple ETS factors.
... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...
Stratton, J.R.; Ballem, P.J.; Gernsheimer, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Slichter, S.J.
Using autologous 111 In-labeled platelets, platelet kinetics and the sites of platelet destruction were assessed in 16 normal subjects (13 with and three without spleens), in 17 studies of patients with primary autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), in six studies of patients with secondary AITP, in ten studies of patients with AITP following splenectomy, and in five thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In normal subjects, the spleen accounted for 24 +/- 4% of platelet destruction and the liver for 15 +/- 2%. Untreated patients with primary AITP had increased splenic destruction (40 +/- 14%, p less than 0.001) but not hepatic destruction (13 +/- 5%). Compared with untreated patients, prednisone treated patients did not have significantly different spleen and liver platelet sequestration. Patients with secondary AITP had similar platelet counts, platelet survivals, and increases in splenic destruction of platelets as did patients with primary AITP. In contrast, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes had a normal pattern of platelet destruction. In AITP patients following splenectomy, the five nonresponders all had a marked increase (greater than 45%) in liver destruction compared to five responders (all less than 40%). Among all patients with primary or secondary AITP, there was an inverse relationship between the percent of platelets destroyed in the liver plus spleen and both the platelet count (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the platelet survival (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001). In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, total liver plus spleen platelet destruction, the platelet survival and the platelet turnover were all significant independent predictors of the platelet count. Thus platelet destruction is shifted to the spleen in primary and secondary AITP. Failure of splenectomy is associated with a marked elevation in liver destruction
Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie
The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and...
Isermann, Berend; Nawroth, Peter P
The availability of mice with defined defects within the hemostatic system enabled researchers to identify a role the coagulation system for embryonic and placental development. However, the role of platelets during development has only recently been experimentally addressed, giving some insight into potential functions of platelets during development. Thus, a quantitative embryonic platelet defect (severe thrombopenia secondary to NF-E2 deficiency) is associated with an embryonic growth retardation and reduced vascularisation of the placenta. Maternal platelet deficiency is associated with placental hemorrhage, which, however, does not impair embryonic or maternal survival. In vitro studies established that platelets or platelet conditioned medium regulate the invasive properties of human extravillous trophoblast cells and induce a phenotypical switch of trophoblast cells. These data imply that platelets are of relevance during placentation. Conversely, platelets and the formation of platelet-fibrin aggregates are dispensable for the development of the embryo proper, establishing that the lethal phenotypes observed in some embryo slacking coagulation regulators does not result from an inability to form platelet-fibrin aggregates, but likely reflects altered protease dependent signaling during vascular development.
Andriolo, Luca; Altamura, Sante Alessandro; Reale, Davide; Candrian, Christian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Filardo, Giuseppe
Patellar tendinopathy is a condition characterized by anterior knee activity-related pain. It has a high incidence among athletes engaged in jumping sports and may become a chronic condition. Nonoperative management is the first choice in these patients, and several nonsurgical treatment options have been proposed. Nonetheless, clear indications on the most effective approach to address patellar tendinopathy are still lacking. To analyze the evidence on nonoperative options to treat chronic patellar tendinopathy through a systematic review of the literature and to perform a meta-analysis to identify the most effective nonsurgical option. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The search was conducted with the PubMed and Cochrane databases on January 4, 2017. All clinical English-language reports of any level of evidence on nonsurgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy were included. The quality of each article was assessed by use of the Coleman score. A meta-analysis was performed on all articles reporting the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment scale for patellar tendinopathy to evaluate the results of the most described treatments. A total of 70 studies involving 2530 patients were included in the qualitative data synthesis. The Coleman score showed an overall poor study quality. The most described treatment groups that could be included in the meta-analysis were reported in 22 studies on eccentric exercise, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Single and multiple PRP injections were evaluated separately. Eccentric exercise therapies obtained the best results ( P patellar tendinopathy with important limitations in terms of study quality. The available evidence showed an overall positive outcome, but some differences have been highlighted. Eccentric exercises may seem the strategy of choice in the short-term, but multiple PRP injections may offer more satisfactory results at long-term follow-up and can be therefore considered
... pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause reduced platelet function. Most of the time, people with these disorders have ...
Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Chan, Melissa V; Lundberg, Martina H; Morgan, Neil V; Bem, Danai; Nisar, Shaista P; Leo, Vincenzo C; Jones, Matthew L; Mundell, Stuart J; Daly, Martina E; Mumford, Andrew D; Warner, Timothy D; Watson, Steve P
Up to 1% of the population have mild bleeding disorders, but these remain poorly characterized, particularly with regard to the roles of platelets. We have compared the usefulness of Optimul, a 96-well plate-based assay of 7 distinct pathways of platelet activation to characterize inherited platelet defects in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Using Optimul and LTA, concentration-response curves were generated for arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, epinephrine, Thrombin receptor activating-peptide, U46619, and ristocetin in samples from (1) healthy volunteers (n = 50), (2) healthy volunteers treated with antiplatelet agents in vitro (n = 10), and (3) patients with bleeding of unknown origin (n = 65). The assays gave concordant results in 82% of cases (κ = 0.62, P < .0001). Normal platelet function results were particularly predictive (sensitivity, 94%; negative predictive value, 91%), whereas a positive result was not always substantiated by LTA (specificity, 67%; positive predictive value, 77%). The Optimul assay was significantly more sensitive at characterizing defects in the thromboxane pathway, which presented with normal responses with LTA. The Optimul assay is sensitive to mild platelet defects, could be used as a rapid screening assay in patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, and detects changes in platelet function more readily than LTA. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN 77951167.
Ranger Uranium Mine operates under an Authorisation issued by the Northern Territory Government. In addition, the site is regulated by a set of Environmental Requirements attached to the uranium export permit issued by the Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. A Heap Leach facility proposed for the site could result in a third approval being issued, in accordance with the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Finding the correct balance to regulate the mine in light of these approvals will be a challenge for the range of stakeholders involved in regulation and oversight of this operation. (author)
Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2506-2512, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.
Aster, Richard H
The discovery of citrate anticoagulant in the 1920s and the development of plastic packs for blood collection in the 1960s laid the groundwork for platelet transfusion therapy on a scale not previously possible. A major limitation, however, was the finding that platelet concentrates prepared from blood anticoagulated with citrate were unsuitable for transfusion because of platelet clumping. We found that this could be prevented by simply reducing the pH of platelet-rich plasma to about 6.5 prior to centrifugation. We used this approach to characterize platelet kinetics and sites of platelet sequestration in normal and pathologic states and to define the influence of variables such as anticoagulant and ABO incompatibility on post-transfusion platelet recovery. The "acidification" approach enabled much wider use of platelet transfusion therapy until alternative means of producing concentrates suitable for transfusion became available.
Expression of four pathway reporters were significantly increased (p53/DNA damage, TGFβ, MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK), while expression of two pathway reporters were decreased (Wnt and NFkB) upon miR-181a down-regulation. Notch, Myc/Max, hypoxia and cell cycle/pRB-E2F pathways were not significantly affected ...
Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto
Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507
diameter N I Estes, 1968 Mucopolysaccharidosis diameter N I Estes, 1968 Osteogenesis imperfecta diameter N N Estes, 1968 Montreal Platelet Syndrome...6. Inherited Disorders of Connective Tissue: Platelet size was evaluated in 31 families with the following disorders: Osteogenesis imperfecta ...controlled by factors regulating the passage of platelets in and out of the pool. The splenic pool is known to be mobilized following exercise or epinephrine
Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G
: In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase,
Galvani, Sylvain; Rafii, Shahin; Nachman, Ralph
Recent work has highlighted the multitude of biological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which include roles in hematopoietic cell trafficking, organization of immune organs, vascular development, and neuroinflammation. Indeed, a functional antagonist of S1P1 receptor, FTY720/Gilenya, has entered the clinic as a novel therapeutic for multiple sclerosis. In this issue of the JEM, Zhang et al. highlight yet another function of this lipid mediator: thrombopoiesis. The S1P1 receptor is required for the growth of proplatelet strings in the bloodstream and the shedding of platelets into the circulation. Notably, the sharp gradient of S1P between blood and the interstitial fluids seems to be essential to ensure the production of platelets, and S1P appears to cooperate with the CXCL12–CXCR4 axis. Pharmacologic modulation of the S1P1 receptor altered circulating platelet numbers acutely, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling thrombocytopenic states. However, the S1P4 receptor may also regulate thrombopoiesis during stress-induced accelerated platelet production. This work reveals a novel physiological action of the S1P/S1P1 duet that could potentially be harnessed for clinical translation. PMID:23166370
Full Text Available Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA. The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active, two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active, and two are not expressed (silent. These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA.
Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg
Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.
Lee, Ahn R; Hung, Wayne; Xie, Ning; Liu, Liangliang; He, Leye; Dong, Xuesen
The non-POU-domain-containing octamer binding protein (NONO; also known as p54nrb) has various nuclear functions ranging from transcription, RNA splicing, DNA synthesis and repair. Although tyrosine phosphorylation has been proposed to account for the multi-functional properties of p54nrb, direct evidence on p54nrb as a phosphotyrosine protein remains unclear. To investigate the tyrosine phosphorylation status of p54nrb, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the five tyrosine residues of p54nrb, replacing the tyrosine residues with phenylalanine or alanine, and immunoblotted for tyrosine phosphorylation. We then preceded with luciferase reporter assays, RNA splicing minigene assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy to study the function of p54nrb tyrosine residues on transcription, RNA splicing, protein-protein interaction, and cellular localization. We found that p54nrb was not phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Rather, it has non-specific binding affinity to anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. However, replacement of tyrosine with phenylalanine altered p54nrb activities in transcription co-repression and RNA splicing in gene context-dependent fashions by means of differential regulation of p54nrb protein association with its interacting partners and co-regulators of transcription and splicing. These results demonstrate that tyrosine residues, regardless of phosphorylation status, are important for p54nrb function. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 852-861, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Cécile V; Lenting, Peter J
Hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation are dynamic processes that require multiple adhesive receptor-ligand interactions, with blood platelets at the heart of such events. Many studies have contributed to shed light on the importance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) interaction with its platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and αIIbβ3 integrin, in promoting primary platelet adhesion and aggregation following vessel injury. This review will recapitulate our current knowledge on the subject from the rheological aspect to the spatio-temporal development of thrombus formation. We will also discuss the signaling events generated by VWF/GPIb-IX-V interaction, leading to platelet activation. Additionally, we will review the growing body of evidence gathered from the recent development of pathological mouse models suggesting that VWF binding to GPIb-IX-V is a promising target in arterial and venous pathological thrombosis. Finally, the pathological aspects of VWF and its impact on platelets will be addressed.
Wang, Chaoyun; Wang, Chunhua; Ma, Chunlei; Huang, Qingxian; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Xiaomin; Bai, Xianyong
Long-term inhalation of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) increases the risk of respiratory disease. Studies have suggested involvement of platelets in the development of some lung diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid compound, prevents hemostasis. Therefore, we investigated its effects on GEE-induced lung injury, and role of platelets in injury. Sixty-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to GEE for 4h/day for 6 weeks, and then grouped as follows: control, GEE, GEE+HSYA, GEE+HSYA+GW9662, and GEE+GW9662. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), pH, and the PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. Wet/dry lung weight ratio, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and cytokine concentrations in serum and BALF were determined. Furthermore, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Platelets were counted and their state was evaluated. HSYA attenuated GEE-mediated decreases in PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, platelet cAMP level, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression. HSYA also attenuated GEE-mediated increases in lung permeability, cytokine levels in serum and BALF, plasma platelet count, and ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. Moreover, it suppressed GEE-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines in platelets and lung tissue. Therefore, HSYA is therapeutically effective for GEE-mediated lung injury and acts by enhancing PKA activity and inhibiting platelet activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao
Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma
Huang, Er-Wen [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xue, Sheng-Jiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiao-Yan [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Suo-Wen [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Anaesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: email@example.com [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China)
Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.
Aster, Richard H.
The discovery of citrate anticoagulant in the 1920s and the development of plastic packs for blood collection in the 1960s laid the groundwork for platelet transfusion therapy on a scale not previously possible. A major limitation, however, was the finding that platelet concentrates prepared from blood anticoagulated with citrate were unsuitable for transfusion because of platelet clumping. We found that this could be prevented by simply reducing the pH of platelet-rich plasma to about 6.5 pr...
Carnevale, Roberto; Iuliano, Luigi; Nocella, Cristina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Trapè, Stefano; Russo, Roberta; Gentile, Maria Cristina; Cangemi, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco
Background Urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α, a marker of oxidative stress, is influenced by the activation of NOX2. It is unclear if platelets 8‐iso‐PGF2α contribute to urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, platelet, urinary, and serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α were determined in subjects with downregulation (X‐linked chronic granulomatous disease [X‐CGD], n=25) and upregulation (type II diabetic patients [T2D], n=121) of NOX2 and 153 controls matched for sex and age. In diabetic patients (n=18), the above variables were repeated before and after 7 days treatment with 100 mg/day aspirin or 100 mg/day aspirin plus 40 mg/day atorvastatin. In vitro study was performed to see the contribution of blood cells to serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α. Compared with controls, X‐CGD patients had lower platelet, serum, and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α values; conversely, diabetic patients had higher values of 8‐iso‐PGF2α compared with controls. Urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α significantly correlated with both platelet and serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α in the 2 cohorts. A parallel increase of platelet, serum, and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α by aspirin and a parallel decrease by aspirin plus atorvastatin were detected in the interventional study. In vitro study demonstrated that platelets contribute to 37% of serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α and that only 13% of it is of extravascular origin. Conclusions The study suggests that NOX2 contributes to the formation of 8‐iso‐PGF2α in both platelets and urine. The direct correlation between platelet and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α suggests that, at least partly, urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α reflects platelet 8‐iso‐PGF2α production. Analysis of serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α may represent a novel tool to investigate the production of 8‐iso‐PGF2α by blood cells including platelets. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01250340. PMID:23770972
Carnevale, Roberto; Iuliano, Luigi; Nocella, Cristina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Trapè, Stefano; Russo, Roberta; Gentile, Maria Cristina; Cangemi, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco
Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, a marker of oxidative stress, is influenced by the activation of NOX2. It is unclear if platelets 8-iso-PGF2α contribute to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α. In a cross-sectional study, platelet, urinary, and serum 8-iso-PGF2α were determined in subjects with downregulation (X-linked chronic granulomatous disease [X-CGD], n=25) and upregulation (type II diabetic patients [T2D], n=121) of NOX2 and 153 controls matched for sex and age. In diabetic patients (n=18), the above variables were repeated before and after 7 days treatment with 100 mg/day aspirin or 100 mg/day aspirin plus 40 mg/day atorvastatin. In vitro study was performed to see the contribution of blood cells to serum 8-iso-PGF2α. Compared with controls, X-CGD patients had lower platelet, serum, and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α values; conversely, diabetic patients had higher values of 8-iso-PGF2α compared with controls. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α significantly correlated with both platelet and serum 8-iso-PGF2α in the 2 cohorts. A parallel increase of platelet, serum, and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α by aspirin and a parallel decrease by aspirin plus atorvastatin were detected in the interventional study. In vitro study demonstrated that platelets contribute to 37% of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and that only 13% of it is of extravascular origin. The study suggests that NOX2 contributes to the formation of 8-iso-PGF2α in both platelets and urine. The direct correlation between platelet and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α suggests that, at least partly, urinary 8-iso-PGF2α reflects platelet 8-iso-PGF2α production. Analysis of serum 8-iso-PGF2α may represent a novel tool to investigate the production of 8-iso-PGF2α by blood cells including platelets. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01250340.
Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans -Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.
Maria T. K. Zaldivia
Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs circulating in the blood are small vesicles (100–1,000 nm in diameter derived from membrane blebs of cells such as activated platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. A growing body of evidence now supports the concept that platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs, the most abundant MVs in the circulation, are important regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Compared with healthy individuals, a large increase of circulating PMVs has been observed, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. As observed in MVs from other parent cells, PMVs exert their biological effects in multiple ways, such as triggering various intercellular signaling cascades and by participating in transcellular communication by the transfer of their “cargo” of cytoplasmic components and surface receptors to other cell types. This review describes our current understanding of the potential role of PMVs in mediating hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis and their consequences on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and venous thrombosis. Furthermore, new developments of the therapeutic potential of PMVs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases will be discussed.
... (the OPlib-Illa complex).3 Circulating platelets are normally in a resting state and, despite the presence of platelet surface GPTh-IX and OPlib-Illa complexes, they bind neither plasma von Willebrand factor nor plasma fibrinogen...
... (the GPIIb-IIIa complex). Circulating platelets are normally in a resting state and, despite the presence of platelet surface GPIb-IX and GPIIb-IIIa complexes, they bind neither plasma von Willebrand factor nor plasma fibrinogen...
Full Text Available Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists.
strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...
Yun Qian; Yun Qian; Qixin Han; Wei Chen; Wei Chen; Jialin Song; Jialin Song; Xiaotian Zhao; Yuanming Ouyang; Yuanming Ouyang; Weien Yuan; Cunyi Fan
Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of differen...
Makhoul, Stephanie; Walter, Elena; Pagel, Oliver; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Gambaryan, Stepan; Smolenski, Albert; Zahedi, René P; Jurk, Kerstin
Platelets are circulating sentinels of vascular integrity and are activated, inhibited, or modulated by multiple hormones, vasoactive substances or drugs. Endothelium- or drug-derived NO strongly inhibits platelet activation via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP elevation, often in synergy with cAMP-elevation by prostacyclin. However, the molecular mechanisms and diversity of cGMP effects in platelets are poorly understood and sometimes controversial. Recently, we established the quantitative human platelet proteome, the iloprost/prostacyclin/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-regulated phosphoproteome, and the interactions of the ADP- and iloprost/prostacyclin-affected phosphoproteome. We also showed that the sGC stimulator riociguat is in vitro a highly specific inhibitor, via cGMP, of various functions of human platelets. Here, we review the regulatory role of the cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) system in human platelet function, and our current approaches to establish and analyze the phosphoproteome after selective stimulation of the sGC/cGMP pathway by NO donors and riociguat. Present data indicate an extensive and diverse NO/riociguat/cGMP phosphoproteome, which has to be compared with the cAMP phosphoproteome. In particular, sGC/cGMP-regulated phosphorylation of many membrane proteins, G-proteins and their regulators, signaling molecules, protein kinases, and proteins involved in Ca 2+ regulation, suggests that the sGC/cGMP system targets multiple signaling networks rather than a limited number of PKG substrate proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ilyina, E; Mayo, K H
Native platelet factor 4 (PF4) (70 residues) has a hydrophobic three-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet domain on to which is folded an amphipathic C-terminal alpha-helix and an aperiodic N-terminal domain. The 33-amino acid beta-sheet domain from PF4 (residues 23-55) has been synthesized and studied by c.d. and n.m.r. At 10 degrees C and low concentration, peptide 23-55 appears to exist in aqueous solution in a random-coil distribution of highly flexible conformational states. Some preferred ...
Würtz, Morten; Grove, Erik; Wulff, Lise Nielsen
turnover. Key Words: aspirin; immature platelets; platelet aggregation; platelet function tests; stent thrombosis Abbreviations: ARU, aspirin reaction units; AU, aggregation units; BMS, bare-metal stent(s); DES, drug-eluting stent(s); IPF, immature platelet fraction; MEA, multiple electrode aggregometry...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the organismal variation we observe in nature is due to differences in organ size. The observation that even closely related species can show large, stably inherited differences in organ size indicates a strong genetic component to the control of organ size. Despite recent progress in identifying factors controlling organ growth in plants, our overall understanding of this process remains limited, partly because the individual factors have not yet been connected into larger regulatory pathways or networks. To begin addressing this aim, we have studied the upstream regulation of expression of BIG BROTHER (BB, a central growth-control gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that prevents overgrowth of organs. Final organ size and BB expression levels are tightly correlated, implying the need for precise control of its expression. BB expression mirrors proliferative activity, yet the gene functions to limit proliferation, suggesting that it acts in an incoherent feedforward loop downstream of growth activators to prevent over-proliferation. Results To investigate the upstream regulation of BB we combined a promoter deletion analysis with a phylogenetic footprinting approach. We were able to narrow down important, highly conserved, cis-regulatory elements within the BB promoter. Promoter sequences of other Brassicaceae species were able to partially complement the A. thaliana bb-1 mutant, suggesting that at least within the Brassicaceae family the regulatory pathways are conserved. Conclusions This work underlines the complexity involved in precise quantitative control of gene expression and lays the foundation for identifying important upstream regulators that determine BB expression levels and thus final organ size.
Fundamental study: Factors influencing the labeling on human platelets were evaluated and optimal labeling conditions were chosen. Then, platelet survival times were measured and organ distribution of labeled platelets was observed in rat by four different methods. These results were compared with each other. Based on the findings of those studies, the protocol of human platelet labeling with 111 In-oxine for clinical use was established. Clinical study: In normal cases, a platelet survival time and a platelet turnover rate were quite similar to the results from 51 Cr method. In gamma camera imaging, a radioactivity on the heart decreased with the lapse of time, while that on the spleen and liver gradually increased. In patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, platelet survival time was markedly shortened and both a platelet turnover rate and an effective production increased. In patient with congestive splenomegaly, a platelet survival time was normal, whereas a platelet pooling on the spleen markedly increased. In patients who were implanted dacron-graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm, a radioactivity accumulated to the graft and a platelet survival time shortened. In a patient with myocardial infarction, the camera imaging clearly showed the thrombus in the left ventricular aneurysm. In three patients with mitral stenosis, thrombi in left atrium were observed at the camera images. Imaging of a platelet distribution and measurement of platelet survival time using 111 In-oxine labeled platelets are considered to be an excellent method for the diagnosis and decision of treatment on various disorders with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available The healing of hard and soft tissue in mediated by a wide range of intracellular and extracellular events that are regulated by signaling proteins. Platelets can play a crucial role in periodontal regeneration as they are the reservoirs of growth factors and cytokines which are the key factors for regeneration of bone and maturation of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is first generation platelet concentrate. However, the short duration of cytokine release and its poor mechanical properties have resulted in search of new material. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared from an anticoagulant-free blood harvest without any artificial biochemical modification (no bovine thrombin is required that allows obtaining fibrin membranes enriched with platelets and growth factors. The slow polymerization during centrifugation, fibrin-based structure, ease of preparation, minimal expense makes PRF somewhat superior in some aspect to PRP.
Menter, David G; Kopetz, Scott; Hawk, Ernest; Sood, Anil K; Loree, Jonathan M; Gresele, Paolo; Honn, Kenneth V
Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities. Functionally, platelets normally initiate rapid clotting, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and wound biology that leads to sterilization, tissue repair, and resolution. Platelets also are among the first to sense, phagocytize, decorate, or react to pathogens in the circulation. These platelet first responder properties are commandeered during chronic inflammation, cancer progression, and metastasis. Leaky or inflammatory reaction blood vessel genesis during carcinogenesis provides opportunities for platelet invasion into tumors. Cancer is thought of as a non-healing or chronic wound that can be actively aided by platelet mitogenic properties to stimulate tumor growth. This growth ultimately outstrips circulatory support leads to angiogenesis and intravasation of tumor cells into the blood stream. Circulating tumor cells reengage additional platelets, which facilitates tumor cell adhesion, arrest and extravasation, and metastasis. This process, along with the hypercoagulable states associated with malignancy, is amplified by IL6 production in tumors that stimulate liver thrombopoietin production and elevates circulating platelet numbers by thrombopoiesis in the bone marrow. These complex interactions and the "first responder" role of platelets during diverse physiologic stresses provide a useful therapeutic target that deserves further exploration.
Lopez, Jose J; Albarrán, Letizia; Jardín, Isaac; Sanchez-Collado, Jose; Redondo, Pedro C; Bermejo, Nuria; Bobe, Regis; Smani, Tarik; Rosado, Juan A
Here, we provide evidence for the role of FLNA (filamin A) in the modulation of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). SOCE is a major mechanism for calcium influx controlled by the intracellular Ca 2+ stores. On store depletion, the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) redistributes into puncta at endoplasmic reticulum/plasma membrane junctions, a process supported by the cytoskeleton, where it interacts with the calcium channels; however, the mechanism for fine-tuning SOCE is not completely understood. Our results demonstrate that STIM1 interacts with FLNA on calcium store depletion in human platelets. The interaction is dependent on the phosphorylation of FLNA at Ser 2152 by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Impairment of FLNA phosphorylation and knockdown of FLNA expression using siRNA increased SOCE in platelets. Similarly, SOCE was significantly greater in FLNA-deficient melanoma M2 cells than in the FLNA-expressing M2 subclone A7. Expression of FLNA in M2 cells attenuated SOCE, an effect prevented when the cells were transfected with the nonphosphorylatable FLNA S2152A mutant. Transfection of M2 cells with the STIM1(K684,685E) mutant reduced the STIM1-FLNA interaction. In platelets, attenuation of FLNA expression using siRNA resulted in enhanced association of STIM1 with the cytoskeleton, greater STIM1-Orai1 interaction, and SOCE. Introduction of an anti-FLNA (2597-2647) antibody attenuated the STIM1-FLNA interaction and enhanced thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Our results indicate that FLNA modulates SOCE and then the correct platelet function, by fine-tuning the distribution of STIM1 in the cytoskeleton and the interaction with Orai1 channels. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sonego, Giona; Abonnenc, Mélanie; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels
Blood banks use pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies to increase the safety of platelet concentrates (PCs). The characteristics of PI-treated PCs slightly differ from those of untreated PCs, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. One possible cause is the generation of oxidative stress during the PI process. This is of great interest since reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as second messengers in platelet functions. Furthermore, there are links between protein oxidation and phosphorylation, another mechanism that is critical for cell regulation. Current research efforts focus on understanding the underlying mechanisms and identifying new target proteins. Proteomics technologies represent powerful tools for investigating signaling pathways involving ROS and post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, while quantitative techniques enable the comparison of the platelet resting state versus the stimulated state. In particular, redox cysteine is a key player in platelet activation upon stimulation by different agonists. This review highlights the experiments that have provided insights into the roles of ROS in platelet function and the implications for platelet transfusion, and potentially in diseases such as inflammation and platelet hyperactivity. The review also describes the implication of redox mechanism in platelet storage considerations. PMID:28208668
Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei
Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyz...
Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.
Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.
Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter
Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.
Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.
A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms
To understand the mechanism of stimulus-response coupling in platelets, the potentiating effect of succinate and lithium on platelet activation was examined. The action of succinate was immediate; preincubation with succinate did not lead to desensitization. Succinate was comparable to ADP in lowering cAMP levels previously elevated by PGl 2 . Since inhibition of cAMP is not a prerequisite for platelet activation, the mechanism of potentiation of succinate remains undefined. Lithium has also been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase in PGl 2 -pretreated platelets. Lithium, however, can also inhibit inositol phosphate (InsP) phosphatase and lead to an accumulation of InsP. In human platelets, lithium also enhanced the thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ), and inositol bisphosphate (InsP 2 ). One hour after thrombin addition, all 3 inositol phosphates returned to near basal levels. In the presence of lithium, while labelled InsP 2 and InsP 3 returned to their respective basal levels, the InsP level remained elevated, consistent with the known inhibitory effect of lithium on InsP phosphatase. In thrombin-stimulated platelets prelabeled with [ 32 P]phosphate, lithium led to a decrease in labelled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) as well as an enhanced production of labelled lysophosphatidylinositol, suggesting multiple effects of lithium on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. These observed effects, however, occurred too slowly to be the mechanism by which lithium potentiated agonist-induced platelet activation. To study the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of the specific, high affinity thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, on thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol phosphates was studied
Sanne Bøjet Larsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. AIM: To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. METHODS: We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100. Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. RESULTS: We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r = 0.61-0.99, p<0.0001. Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r = -0.17--0.25, p<0.0001. Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p = 0.03 and in smokers (p = 0.003. Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r = 0.10, p = 0.03 and thrombopoietin (r = 0.16, p<0.001. Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r = 0.10, p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a
Debra A. Pearson
Full Text Available Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.
Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten
This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...
Taaning, E; Simonsen, A C; Hjelms, E
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of platelet-specific antibodies after one series of blood transfusions has not been reported, and in multiply transfused patients is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the frequency of alloimmunization against platelet antigens in 117 patient...
Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J
Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential
Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L
Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.
Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.
Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....
Leon J. Schurgers
Full Text Available The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain. In fact, one-fifth of deaths are directly attributable to thrombotic rupture of a vulnerable plaque. Atherosclerotic lesion formation is caused by a concert of interactions between circulating leukocytes and platelets, interacting with the endothelial barrier, signalling into the arterial wall by the release of cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs. Both platelet- and cell-derived EVs represent a novel mechanism of cellular communication, particularly by the transport and transfer of cargo and by reprogramming of the recipient cell. These interactions result in phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs causing migration and proliferation, and subsequent secretion of EVs. Loss of VSMCs attracts perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs from the adventitia, which are a source of VSMCs and contribute to repair after vascular injury. However, continuous stress stimuli eventually switch phenotype of cells into osteochondrogenic VSMCs facilitating vascular calcification. Although Virchow’s triad is over 100 years old, it is a reality that is accurate today. It can be briefly summarised as changes in the composition of blood (platelet EVs, alterations in the vessel wall (VSMC phenotypic switching, MSC infiltration and EV release and disruption of blood flow (atherothrombosis. In this paper, we review the latest relevant advances in the identification of
Vulliamy, Paul; Gillespie, Scarlett; Gall, Lewis S; Green, Laura; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A
Platelets play a critical role in hemostasis with aberrant function implicated in trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, the impact of massive transfusion protocols on platelet function during trauma hemorrhage is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of platelet transfusion on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic markers during hemostatic resuscitation. Trauma patients enrolled into the prospective Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma study between January 2008 and November 2015 who received at least four units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were included. Blood was drawn in the emergency department within 2 hours of injury and at intervals after every four units of PRBCs transfused. Platelet aggregation was assessed in whole blood with multiple electrode aggregometry. Plasma proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 161 patients who received four or more PRBCs as part of their initial resuscitation, 44 received 8 to 11 units and 28 received 12 units or more. At each timepoint during bleeding, platelet aggregation was similar in patients who had received a platelet transfusion compared with those who had only received other blood products (p > 0.05 for all timepoints). Platelet transfusion during the four PRBC intervals was associated with a decrease in maximum lysis on rotational thromboelastometry (start of interval, 6% [2-12] vs. end of interval, 2% [0-5]; p = 0.001), an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (start of interval, 35.9 ± 14.9 vs. end of interval, 66.7 ± 22.0; p = 0.007) and a decrease in tissue plasminogen activator (start of interval, 26.2 ± 10.5 vs. end of interval, 19.0 +/- 5.1; p = 0.04). No statistically significant changes in these parameters occurred in intervals which did not contain platelets. Current hemostatic resuscitation strategies do not appear to restore platelet aggregation during active hemorrhage. However, stored platelets may attenuate fibrinolysis
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman
Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the post-transfusion platelet increment between the apheresis platelet concentrate (n=74 and pooled platelets (n=54. Pre- and post-transfusion platelet count of the recipient were carried out by automated hematology analyzer. In apheresis platelet concentrate group, the mean 24 hours post-transfusion platelet increment was 47 x 109/L which was statistically significant (p<0.001. On the other hand, in pooled platelets group, the mean 24 hours post–transfusions platelet count increment was 11.0 x 109/L which was also statistically significant (p<0.001. This study concluded that the transfusion of apheresis platelet concentrate was more useful than the transfusion of pooled platelets in terms of platelet count increment and requirement of donor.
Vinholt, P J; Frederiksen, H; Hvas, A-M
with collagen-related peptide). Platelet aggregation had a negative predictive value of 100% for a bleeding tendency among patients. Conclusion The established platelet aggregation assay was applicable for thrombocytopenic patients, and improved the identification of bleeding risk.......Essentials •Platelet function may influence bleeding risk in thrombocytopenia, but useful tests are needed. •A flow cytometric platelet aggregation test independent of the patient platelet count was made. •Platelet aggregation was reduced in thrombocytopenic patients with hematological cancer....... •High platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary Background Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count...
Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L
The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable. © 2015 The Author(s).
Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E.
Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of [ 3 H]serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of 125 I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF
Morley, D.; Santamore, W.P.
Clinical and experimental evidence suggest a strong relationship between arterial stenosis, platelet aggregation, and subsequent thrombus formation. To facilitate the study of platelet accumulation in stenotic arteries, we developed an in vitro preparation. Arterial segments were perfused with whole citrated blood. A stenosis was created by applying an external plastic constrictor to the artery. Platelet accumulation within the stenosis was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and by radioactive counts from Indium-111 labeled platelets. Utilizing this preparation, 30 carotid arterial segments from 10 mongrel dogs were perfused at 100 mmHg for 15 min. In 10 arteries without a stenosis, scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated little platelet accumulation. In contrast, extensive platelet aggregation was observed in 10 arteries with stenoses. Moreover, in 10 stenotic arteries exposed to the thromboxane mimetic, U46619 (Upjohn Diagnostic Group), scanning electron microscopy and radioactive counts demonstrated a significant increase in platelet deposition. Conversely, we demonstrated a dimunition of platelet accumulation in stenosed arterial segments exposed to the prostacyclin analogue platelet inhibitor, Iloprost. The in vitro preparation allows precise control of hemodynamic variables and makes it possible to perform multiple tests on segments of the same vessel from the same animal
Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.
Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet
Consistent Reduction in Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction With Cangrelor as Assessed by Multiple Definitions: Findings From CHAMPION PHOENIX (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition).
Cavender, Matthew A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A
Cangrelor is an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor approved to reduce periprocedural ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention not pretreated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. A total of 11 145 patients were randomized to cangrelor or clopidogrel in the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition). We explored the effects of cangrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) using different definitions and performed sensitivity analyses on the primary end point of the trial. A total of 462 patients (4.2%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention had an MI as defined by the second universal definition. The majority of these MIs (n=433, 93.7%) were type 4a. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the incidence of MI at 48 hours (3.8% versus 4.7%; odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97; P=0.02). When the Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition of periprocedural MI was applied to potential ischemic events, there were fewer total MIs (n=134); however, the effects of cangrelor on MI remained significant (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P=0.01). Similar effects were seen in the evaluation of the effects of cangrelor on MIs with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and those with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal, ischemic symptoms, or ECG changes (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). MIs defined by any of these definitions were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the composite end point of death, MI (Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition), ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis (1.4% versus 2.1%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92). MI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, regardless of definition, remains associated with increased risk of death
Guiver, Chris; Mueller, Markus; Hodgson, Dave; Townley, Stuart
Population managers will often have to deal with problems of meeting multiple goals, for example, keeping at specific levels both the total population and population abundances in given stage-classes of a stratified population. In control engineering, such set-point regulation problems are commonly tackled using multi-input, multi-output proportional and integral (PI) feedback controllers. Building on our recent results for population management with single goals, we develop a PI control approach in a context of multi-objective population management. We show that robust set-point regulation is achieved by using a modified PI controller with saturation and anti-windup elements, both described in the paper, and illustrate the theory with examples. Our results apply more generally to linear control systems with positive state variables, including a class of infinite-dimensional systems, and thus have broader appeal.
Balabanov, Pavel; Haas, Manuel; Elferink, Andre; Bakchine, Serge; Broich, Karl
Improving and facilitating the process of making new drugs available to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) requires cooperation among the regulators and other stakeholders. This cooperation will also positively contribute towards developing guidelines of the highest quality in medical, regulatory and scientific aspects. This would be beneficial both in areas that require further guideline development, but also in fields where existing guidance should be adapted to take into account evolution in science. Considering the input from all stakeholders, the European Medicines Agency confirmed its intention to update the relevant guideline and apply a flexible approach towards new drug development strategies in MS. This article is the first official position from the EU regulators, presenting the main changes to be expected in the guidance document. © The Author(s) 2014.
Seo, Pil Joon; Mas, Paloma
The circadian clock is a cellular time-keeper mechanism that regulates biological rhythms with a period of ~24 h. The circadian rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and development are synchronized by environmental cues such as light and temperature. In plants, proper matching of the internal circadian time with the external environment confers fitness advantages on plant survival and propagation. Accordingly, plants have evolved elaborated regulatory mechanisms that precisely control the circadian oscillations. Transcriptional feedback regulation of several clock components has been well characterized over the past years. However, the importance of additional regulatory mechanisms such as chromatin remodeling, protein complexes, protein phosphorylation, and stability is only starting to emerge. The multiple layers of circadian regulation enable plants to properly synchronize with the environmental cycles and to fine-tune the circadian oscillations. This review focuses on the diverse posttranslational events that regulate circadian clock function. We discuss the mechanistic insights explaining how plants articulate a high degree of complexity in their regulatory networks to maintain circadian homeostasis and to generate highly precise waveforms of circadian expression and activity.
Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.
The application of 111In-oxine to platelet labeling has contributed to the understanding of platelet kinetics along three lines: 1. It allows the measurement of new parameters of splenic function, such as the intrasplenic platelet transit time, which has shed new light on the physiology of splenic blood cell handling. 2. It facilitates the measurement of platelet life span in conditions, such as ITP, in which 51Cr may undergo undesirable elution from the platelet as a result of platelet-antibody interaction. 3. It allows the determination of the fate of platelets, that is, the site of platelet destruction in conditions in which reduced platelet life span is associated with abnormal platelet consumption, as a result of either premature destruction of ''abnormal'' platelets by the RE system, or the consumption (or destruction) of normal platelets after their interaction with an abnormal vasculature. Future research using 111In platelets may yield further valuable information on the control as well as the significance of intrasplenic platelet pooling, on the role of platelets in the development of chronic vascular lesions, and on the sites of platelet destruction in ITP. With regard to the latter, methods will have to be developed for harvesting sufficient platelets representative of the total circulating platelet population from severely thrombocytopenic patients for autologous platelet labeling. This would avoid the use of homologous platelets, which is likely to be responsible for some of the contradictory data relating to the use of radiolabeled platelet studies for the prediction of the response of patients with ITP to splenectomy
Finkenzeller, Günter; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen
-alpha downregulation is dependent on time and cell number. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed when hOBs were co-cultured with human primary chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Likewise, HUVEC-mediated suppression of PDGFR-alpha expression was only seen in hOBs and mesenchymal stem cells......Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling plays an important role in osteoblast function. Inhibition of PDGFR activity leads to a suppression of osteoblast proliferation, whereas mineralized matrix production is enhanced. In previous experiments, we showed that co......-cultivation of human primary endothelial cells and human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) leads to a cell contact-dependent downregulation of PDGFR-alpha expression in the osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated this effect in more detail, revealing that human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-mediated PDGFR...
Svetlov, S I; Sturm, E; Olson, M S; Crawford, J M
Normal rat bile contains secretory platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), and phospholipids containing oxidized truncated fatty acids. Because lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) possesses intrinsic PAF-AH-like activity, it also may represent a potential anti-inflammatory enzyme. The behavior of PAF-AH and LCAT in hepatobiliary inflammatory responses in vivo has not been characterized. We therefore investigated the biliary and plasma secretion and pharmacological characteristics of these enzymes in rats subjected to intraportal bacterial endotoxin exposure (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], Escherichia coli, 055:B5). Portal vein LPS infusion (1 mg/kg, bolus) resulted in a maximal 4- to 5-fold increase in bile PAF-AH-specific activity with a gradual decline to baseline by 18 hours. Biliary PAF-AH hydrolyzed also the truncated sn-2-succinoyl and sn-2-glutaroyl analogs of PAF, indicating a broader activity of PAF-AH in bile toward byproducts of glycerophospholipid peroxidation. Plasma PAF-AH activity was not altered 5 hours after LPS injection compared with saline injection, but it was significantly elevated 18 hours after endotoxin exposure. The levels of LCAT in bile were low and declined to nearly undetectable values by 5 hours after cannulation in both control and LPS-exposed rats. Plasma LCAT activity was significantly increased after 5 hours and decreased 18 hours after LPS injection. In summary, hepatic exposure to endotoxin results in a rapid increase in biliary secretion of PAF-AH followed by elevation of LCAT and PAF-AH levels in plasma. We propose that biliary secretion of PAF-AH may be involved in the hepatic response to endotoxic insult by counteracting potential inflammatory damage in the biliary tree and gastrointestinal tract, whereas plasma increases in LCAT and PAF-AH may promote elimination of excess PAF and oxidized phospholipids in the
Kwak, Su-Hwan; Song, Sang-Kee; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John
In Arabidopsis thaliana, an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), is required for multiple developmental processes including root epidermal cell fate determination, silique dehiscence, inflorescence growth, ovule morphogenesis, and tissue morphology. Previous work suggested that SCM regulates these multiple pathways using distinct mechanisms via interactions with specific downstream factors. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is known to regulate cell and tissue morphogenesis by influencing cortical microtubule arrangement, and recently, the AN protein was reported to interact with the SCM protein. Therefore, we examined whether AN might be responsible for mediating some of the SCM-dependent phenotypes. We discovered that both scm and an mutant lines cause an abnormal spiral or twisting growth of roots, but only the scm mutant affected root epidermal patterning. The siliques of the an and scm mutants also exhibited spiral growth, as previously reported, but only the scm mutant altered silique dehiscence. Interestingly, we discovered that the spiral growth of roots and siliques of the scm mutant is rescued by a truncated SCM protein that lacks its kinase domain, and that a juxtamembrane domain of SCM was sufficient for AN binding in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. These results suggest that the AN protein is one of the critical downstream factors of SCM pathways specifically responsible for mediating its effects on cell/tissue morphogenesis through cortical microtubule arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lentucci, Claudia; Belkina, Anna C; Cederquist, Carly T; Chan, Michelle; Johnson, Holly E; Prasad, Sherry; Lopacinski, Amanda; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Monti, Stefano; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Tanasa, Bogdan; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina
Non-proteolytic ubiquitin signaling mediated by Lys 63 ubiquitin chains plays a critical role in multiple pathways that are key to the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous work indicates that GPS2 (G-protein Pathway Suppressor 2) is a multifunctional protein regulating TNFα signaling and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through modulation of Lys 63 ubiquitination events. However, the full extent of GPS2-mediated regulation of ubiquitination and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that GPS2 is required for restricting the activation of TLR and BCR signaling pathways and the AKT/FOXO1 pathway in immune cells based on direct inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Relevance of this regulatory strategy is confirmed in vivo by B cell-targeted deletion of GPS2, resulting in developmental defects at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal that GPS2 genomic and non-genomic functions are critical for the development and cellular homeostasis of B cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Tessa K Solomon-Lane
Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Crespi, Erica J; Grober, Matthew S
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
Chai, Juin Hsien; Zhang, Yong; Tan, Wei Han; Chng, Wee Joo; Li, Baojie; Wang, Xueying
The cytogenetic characteristic of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome gene product, BCR-ABL. Given that BCR-ABL is the specific target of Gleevec in CML treatment, we investigated the regulation of the catalytic component of telomerase, hTERT, by BCR-ABL at multiple levels in K562 cells. Molecular techniques such as over expression, knockdown, real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, western blotting, reporter assay, confocal microscopy, telomerase assays and microarray were used to suggest that hTERT expression and activity is modulated by BCR-ABL at multiple levels. Our results suggest that BCR-ABL plays an important role in regulating hTERT in K562 (BCR-ABL positive human leukemia) cells. When Gleevec inhibited the tyrosine kinase activity of BCR-ABL, phosphorylation of hTERT was downregulated, therefore suggesting a positive correlation between BCR-ABL and hTERT. Gleevec treatment inhibited hTERT at mRNA level and significantly reduced telomerase activity (TA) in K562 cells, but not in HL60 or Jurkat cells (BCR-ABL negative cells). We also demonstrated that the transcription factor STAT5a plays a critical role in hTERT gene regulation in K562 cells. Knockdown of STAT5a, but not STAT5b, resulted in a marked downregulation of hTERT mRNA level, TA and hTERT protein level in K562 cells. Furthermore, translocation of hTERT from nucleoli to nucleoplasm was observed in K562 cells induced by Gleevec. Our data reveal that BCR-ABL can regulate TA at multiple levels, including transcription, post-translational level, and proper localization. Thus, suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis by Gleevec treatment may be partially due to TA inhibition. Additionally, we have identified STAT5a as critical mediator of the hTERT gene expression in BCR-ABL positive CML cells, suggesting that targeting STAT5a may be a promising therapeutic strategy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients
Claas, F.H.J.; Blankert, J.J.; Ruigrok, R.; Moerel, L.
Recently it was shown that the induction of antibodies against the H-2 antigens after multiple platelet transfusions is due to leukocyte contamination of the platelet suspensions. Pure platelets are not able to induce a primary antibody response. The present study shows that the platelets, however, can be recognized by the immune system but they induce a suppression of the response. Mice pretreated with donor platelets will not give a primary antibody response upon a subsequent injection of donor leukocytes and the survival of donor skin grafts will be prolonged. Similar results were obtained by pretreatment of the responder mice with heat-treated donor leukocytes. Furthermore, repeated injections of heat-treated leukocytes of the recipient strain to the donor before bone marrow grafting, will graft-versus-host mortality. The recipient mice were irradiated and received spleen cell injections. These data show that cells which have only class I antigens on their surface and no activating class II antigens, induce a suppression of the response against class I antigens. (Auth.)
Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.
One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined
The radioimmunoassay of platelet-specific proteins has proven to be an excellent way of monitoring platelet activation in vivo. In contrast to earlier methods such as aggregometry, which has been the major tool used in the evaluation of antiplatelet drugs, the RIAs are capable of working with samples which have been subjected to physiological conditions such as haematocrit, oxygen tension, shear rate and ionized calcium concentration. Also, in contrast to aggregometry, no choice of agonist is necessary. Thus, for the first time it has been possible to monitor the effects of therapeutic intervention with drugs upon the platelet release reaction in vivo. It seems reasonable to equate the release reaction in vivo with activation in vivo, though the stimuli necessarily remain unknown. Nevertheless, the fact that a significant number of the compounds mentioned in Table 3 are indeed capable of reducing platelet activation in vivo and that this effect can be measured objectively is a major step forward in our understanding of platelet pharmacology. Two important goals remain to be achieved, however, the establishment of nonhuman animal models for the evaluation of newer compounds in vivo and longer-term goal of proving in the clinical setting the relevance or otherwise of platelet activation per se to the clinical outcome of a particular disease. In this respect, the availability of accurate, reliable and specific radioimmunoassays has a central role
Mameli, Giuseppe; Astone, Vito; Khalili, Kamel; Serra, Caterina; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Dolei, Antonina
Syncytin-1 has a physiological role during early pregnancy, as mediator of trophoblast fusion into the syncytiotrophoblast layer, hence allowing embryo implantation. In addition, its expression in nerve tissue has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Syncytin-1 is the env glycoprotein of the ERVWE1 component of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), located on chromosome 7q21-22, in a candidate region for genetic susceptibility to MS. The mechanisms of ERVWE1 regulation in nerve tissue remain to be identified. Since there are correlations between some cytokines and MS outcome, we examined the regulation of the syncytin-1 promoter by MS-related cytokines in human U-87MG astrocytic cells. Using transient transfection assays, we observed that the MS-detrimental cytokines TNFα, interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 activate the ERVWE1 promoter, while the MS-protective interferon-β is inhibitory. The effects of cytokines are reduced by the deletion of the cellular enhancer domain of the promoter that contains binding sites for several transcription factors. In particular, we found that TNFα had the ability to activate the ERVWE1 promoter through an NF-κB-responsive element located within the enhancer domain of the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and ChIP assays showed that TNFα enhances the binding of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, to its cognate site within the promoter. The effect of TNFα is abolished by siRNA directed against p65. Taken together, these results illustrate a role for p65 in regulating the ERVWE1 promoter and in TNFα-mediated induction of syncytin-1 in multiple sclerosis
Cui, Tracy X.; Lin, Grace; LaPensee, Christopher R.; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra; Rathore, Maanjot; Streeter, Cale; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela; Lanning, Nathan; Jin, Hui; Carter-Su, Christin; Qin, Zhaohui S.
Regulation of c-Fos transcription by GH is mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ). This study examines the role of C/EBPβ in mediating GH activation of other early response genes, including Cyr61, Btg2, Socs3, Zfp36, and Socs1. C/EBPβ depletion using short hairpin RNA impaired responsiveness of these genes to GH, as seen for c-Fos. Rescue with wild-type C/EBPβ led to GH-dependent recruitment of the coactivator p300 to the c-Fos promoter. In contrast, rescue with C/EBPβ mutated at the ERK phosphorylation site at T188 failed to induce GH-dependent recruitment of p300, indicating that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of C/EBPβ at T188 is required for GH-induced recruitment of p300 to c-Fos. GH also induced the occupancy of phosphorylated C/EBPβ and p300 on Cyr61, Btg2, and Socs3 at predicted C/EBP-cAMP response element-binding protein motifs in their promoters. Consistent with a role for ERKs in GH-induced expression of these genes, treatment with U0126 to block ERK phosphorylation inhibited their GH-induced expression. In contrast, GH-dependent expression of Zfp36 and Socs1 was not inhibited by U0126. Thus, induction of multiple early response genes by GH in 3T3-F442A cells is mediated by C/EBPβ. A subset of these genes is regulated similarly to c-Fos, through a mechanism involving GH-stimulated ERK 1/2 activation, phosphorylation of C/EBPβ, and recruitment of p300. Overall, these studies suggest that C/EBPβ, like the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, regulates multiple genes in response to GH. PMID:21292824
Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi
Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.
Philipp evon Hundelshausen
Full Text Available The concept of platelets as important players in the process of atherogenesis has become increasingly accepted due to accumulating experimental and clinical evidence. Despite the progress in understanding the molecular details of atherosclerosis, particularly by using animal models, the inflammatory and thrombotic roles of activated platelet s especially in the human system remain difficult to dissect, as often only the complications of atherosclerosis i.e. stroke and myocardial infarction are definable but not the plaque burden.Platelet indices including platelet count and mean platelet volume and soluble mediators released by activated platelets are associated with atherosclerosis. The chemokine CXCL4 has multiple atherogenic activities e.g. altering the differentiation of T cells and macrophages by inhibiting neutrophil and monocyte apoptosis and by increasing the uptake of oxLDL and synergizing with CCL5. CCL5 is released and deposited on endothelium by activated platelets thereby triggering atherogenic monocyte recruitment, which can be attenuated by blocking the corresponding chemokine receptor CCR5. Atheroprotective and plaque stabilizing properties are attributed to CXCL12, which plays an important role in regenerative processes by attracting progenitor cells. Its release from luminal attached platelets accelerates endothelial healing after injury. Platelet surface molecules GPIIb/IIIa, GP1bα, P-selectin, JAM-A and the CD40/CD40L dyade are crucially involved in the interaction with endothelial cells, leukocytes and matrix molecules affecting atherogenesis. Beyond the effects on the arterial inflammatory infiltrate, platelets affect cholesterol metabolism by binding, modifying and endocytosing LDL particles via their scavenger receptors and contribute to the formation of lipid laden macrophages. Current medical therapies for the prevention of atherosclerotic therapies enable the elucidation of mechanisms linking platelets to inflammation
Chu, Jeffery S. C.; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Zhang, Di; Wang, Jun; Uyar, Bora; Tu, Domena; Trinh, Joanne; Baillie, David L.; Chen, Nansheng
In humans, mutations of a growing list of regulatory factor X (RFX) target genes have been associated with devastating genetics disease conditions including ciliopathies. However, mechanisms underlying RFX transcription factors (TFs)-mediated gene expression regulation, especially differential gene expression regulation, are largely unknown. In this study, we explore the functional significance of the co-existence of multiple X-box motifs in regulating differential gene expression in Caenorha...
Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.
Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531
... disorder, platelet-type, 4 deficient alpha granule syndrome GPS grey platelet syndrome platelet alpha-granule deficiency platelet ... on PubMed Central Kahr WH, Hinckley J, Li L, Schwertz H, Christensen H, Rowley JW, Pluthero FG, ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.
Singh, Sukhi; Shams Hakimi, Caroline; Jeppsson, Anders; Hesse, Camilla
Platelet storage lesion is characterized by morphological changes and impaired platelet function. The collection method and storage medium may influence the magnitude of the storage lesion. The aim of this study was to compare the newly introduced interim platelet unit (IPU) platelet concentrates (PCs) (additive solution SSP+, 40% residual plasma content) with the more established buffy-coat PCs (SSP, 20% residual plasma content) and apheresis PCs (autologous plasma) in terms of platelet storage lesions. Thirty PCs (n=10 for each type) were assessed by measuring metabolic parameters (lactate, glucose, and pH), platelet activation markers, and in vitro platelet aggregability on days 1, 4, and 7 after donation. The expression of platelet activation markers CD62p (P-selectin), CD63 (LAMP-3), and phosphatidylserine was measured using flow cytometry and in vitro aggregability was measured with multiple electrode aggregometry. Higher platelet activation and lower in vitro aggregability was observed in IPU than in buffy-coat PCs on day 1 after donation. In contrast, metabolic parameters, expression of platelet activation markers, and in vitro aggregability were better maintained in IPU than in buffy-coat PCs at the end of the storage period. Compared to apheresis PCs, IPU PCs had higher expression of activation markers and lower in vitro aggregability throughout storage. In conclusion, the results indicate that there are significant differences in platelet storage lesions between IPU, buffy-coat, and apheresis PCs. The quality of IPU PCs appears to be at least comparable to buffy-coat preparations. Further studies are required to distinguish the effect of the preparation methods from storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.
Sánchez, M; Yoshioka, T; Ortega, M; Delgado, D; Anitua, E
Peroneal nerve palsy in traumatic knee dislocations associated with multiple ligament injuries is common. Several surgical approaches are described for this lesion with less-than-optimal outcomes. The present case represents the application of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology for the treatment of peroneal nerve palsy with drop foot. This technology has already been proven its therapeutic potential for various musculoskeletal disorders. Based on these results, we hypothesized that PRGF could stimulate the healing process of traumatic peroneal nerve palsy with drop foot. The patient was a healthy 28-year-old man. He suffered peroneal nerve palsy with drop foot after multiple ligament injuries of the knee. PRGF was prepared according to the manufactured instruction. Eleven months after the trauma with severe axonotmesis, serial intraneural infiltrations of PRGF were started using ultrasound guidance. The therapeutic effect was assessed by electromyography (EMG), echogenicity of the peroneal nerve under ultrasound (US) and manual muscle testing. Twenty-one months after the first injection, not complete but partial useful recovery is obtained. He is satisfied with walking and running without orthosis. Sensitivity demonstrates almost full recovery in the peroneal nerve distribution area. EMG controls show complete reinnervation for the peroneus longus and a better reinnervation for the tibialis anterior muscle, compared with previous examinations. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) infiltrations could enhance healing process of peroneal nerve palsy with drop foot. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this technology for traumatic peripheral nerve palsy and the usefulness of US-guided PRGF. V.
Gowda, Santosh; Weinstein, David A; Blalock, Timothy D; Gandhi, Kavita; Mast, Bruce A; Chin, Gloria; Schultz, Gregory S
A bipedicle ischaemic rat skin flap model was used to study the effects of daily topical applications of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the healing of ischaemic wounds. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA), interleukin 1-beta (IL1B) and both the latent and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) were measured. Full-thickness wounds were made on a total of 72 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each group of 18 rats with normal and ischaemic wounds received either vehicle or 0·01% recombinant PDGF-BB. Additional applications were made on the wounds on a daily basis. Wound areas were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 9 and 13 days after wounding. Ischaemia caused a delay in wound healing as well as an increase in TNFA, IL1B and both the pro and active forms of MMP2 and MMP9. PDGF accelerated the rate of wound healing in both normal and ischaemic wounds and negated the effect of ischaemia. PDGF reduced the TNFA concentration in both normal and ischaemic wounds, and the rate of wound healing closely resembled the pattern of TNFA protein expression. PDGF also reduced both the magnitude and duration of the increases in IL1B and both the pro and active forms of MMP2 and MMP9 induced by ischaemia. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Hypertension is known to be associated with platelet overactivity, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on platelet function remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate whether elevated hydrostatic pressure is responsible for platelet activation and to address the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. We observed that hypertensive patients had significantly higher platelet volume and rate of ADP-induced platelets aggregation compared to the controls. In vitro, Primary human platelets were cultured under standard (0 mmHg or increased (120, 180, 240 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 18 h. Exposure to elevated pressure was associated with morphological changes in platelets. Platelet aggregation and PAC-1 (the active confirmation of GPIIb/IIIa binding were increased, CD40L was translocated from cytoplasm to the surface of platelet and soluble CD40L (sCD40L was released into the medium in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure (180 and 240 mmHg. The PPARγ activity was up-regulated as the pressure was increased from 120 mmHg to 180 mmHg. Pressure-induced platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, and translocation and release of CD40L were all attenuated by the PPARγ agonist Thiazolidinediones (TZDs. These results demonstrate that platelet activation and aggregation are increased by exposure to elevated pressure and that PPARγ may modulate platelet activation induced by high hydrostatic pressure.
Rao, Fang; Yang, Ren-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Shu; Xu, Jin-Song; Fu, Hui-Min; Su, Hai; Wang, Ling
Hypertension is known to be associated with platelet overactivity, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on platelet function remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate whether elevated hydrostatic pressure is responsible for platelet activation and to address the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). We observed that hypertensive patients had significantly higher platelet volume and rate of ADP-induced platelets aggregation compared to the controls. In vitro, Primary human platelets were cultured under standard (0 mmHg) or increased (120, 180, 240 mmHg) hydrostatic pressure for 18 h. Exposure to elevated pressure was associated with morphological changes in platelets. Platelet aggregation and PAC-1 (the active confirmation of GPIIb/IIIa) binding were increased, CD40L was translocated from cytoplasm to the surface of platelet and soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was released into the medium in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure (180 and 240 mmHg). The PPARγ activity was up-regulated as the pressure was increased from 120 mmHg to 180 mmHg. Pressure-induced platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, and translocation and release of CD40L were all attenuated by the PPARγ agonist Thiazolidinediones (TZDs). These results demonstrate that platelet activation and aggregation are increased by exposure to elevated pressure and that PPARγ may modulate platelet activation induced by high hydrostatic pressure.
Thompson, C B; Love, D G; Quinn, P G; Valeri, C R
The relationship between platelet size and in vivo aging was investigated in the baboon using size-dependent platelet subpopulations separated by counterflow centrifugation. The separation characteristics, size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and dense-body content of the baboon platelet subpopulations were similar to those previously observed in studies of human platelets. Three independent labeling techniques were used: (1) in vivo labeling with 75Se-methionine, (2) in vitro labeling with 51Cr, and (3) in vivo labeling with 14C-serotonin. Maximal incorporation of all three labels showed a close correlation between the mean platelet volume (MPV) of each fraction and the platelet radioactivity. The onset of incorporation and rate of accumulation of 75Se-methionine were comparable in all fractions when corrected for differences in volume, suggesting that platelet size heterogeneity was present from the time of release of the platelets from the bone marrow. Survival studies using 51Cr and 14C-serotonin showed no translocation of the label from one fraction to another in the circulation over time. In vivo survival values for the three radionuclides showed a slight but significant correlation between the lifespan and the MPV of the fractions. The data suggest that large platelets were not younger platelets, but rather platelets with a longer life-span. Platelet size heterogeneity is the result of production factors in the bone marrow and not maturation in the circulation.
Thompson, C.B.; Love, D.G.; Quinn, P.G.; Valeri, C.R.
The relationship between platelet size and in vivo aging was investigated in the baboon using size-dependent platelet subpopulations separated by counterflow centrifugation. The separation characteristics, size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and dense-body content of the baboon platelet subpopulations were similar to those previously observed in studies of human platelets. Three independent labeling techniques were used: (1) in vivo labeling with 75 Se-methionine, (2) in vitro labeling with 51 Cr, and (3) in vivo labeling with 14C-serotonin. Maximal incorporation of all three labels showed a close correlation between the mean platelet volume (MPV) of each fraction and the platelet radioactivity. The onset of incorporation and rate of accumulation of 75 Se-methionine were comparable in all fractions when corrected for differences in volume, suggesting that platelet size heterogeneity was present from the time of release of the platelets from the bone marrow. Survival studies using 51 Cr and 14 C-serotonin showed no translocation of the label from one fraction to another in the circulation over time. In vivo survival values for the three radionuclides showed a slight but significant correlation between the lifespan and the MPV of the fractions. The data suggest that large platelets were not younger platelets, but rather platelets with a longer life-span. Platelet size heterogeneity is the result of production factors in the bone marrow and not maturation in the circulation
Zainab S Al-Hosni
Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.
Full Text Available Multifunctional factor progranulin (PGRN plays an important role in lysosomes, and its mutations and insufficiency are associated with lysosomal storage diseases, including neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Gaucher disease (GD. The first breakthrough in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PGRN as regulator of lysosomal storage diseases came unexpectedly while investigating the role of PGRN in inflammation. Challenged PGRN null mice displayed typical features of GD. In addition, GRN gene variants were identified in GD patients and the serum levels of PGRN were significantly lower in GD patients. PGRN directly binds to and functions as a chaperone of the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCaase, whose mutations cause GD. In addition, its C-terminus containing granulin E domain, termed Pcgin (PGRN C-terminus for GCase Interaction, is required for the association between PGRN and GCase. The concept that PGRN acts as a chaperone of lysosomal enzymes was further supported and extended by a recent article showing that PGRN acts as a chaperone molecule of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D (CSTD, and the association between PGRN and CSTD is also mediated by PGRN's C-terminal granulin E domain. Collectively, these reports suggest that PGRN may act as a shared chaperone and regulates multiple lysosomal enzymes.
Rolf C G Gallandat Huet
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and unfractionated heparin have negative effects on blood platelet function. In acute normovolemic haemodilution autologous unfractionated heparinised blood is stored ex-vivo and retransfused at the end of the procedure to reduce (allogeneic transfusion requirements. In this observational study we assessed whether platelet function is better preserved in ex vivo stored autologous blood compared to platelet function in the patient during CPB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We measured platelet aggregation responses pre-CPB, 5 min after the start of CPB, at the end of CPB, and after unfractionated heparin reversal, using multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP and ristocetin activated test cells. We compared blood samples taken from the patient with samples taken from 100 ml ex-vivo stored blood, which we took to mimick blood storage during normovolemic haemodilution. Platelet function declined both in ex-vivo stored blood as well as in blood taken from the patient. At the end of CPB there were no differences in platelet aggregation responses between samples from the ex vivo stored blood and the patient. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ex vivo preservation of autologous blood in unfractionated heparin does not seem to be profitable to preserve platelet function.
Xu, Wei; Guo, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yongxian; Zen, Ke; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yu
Dexamethasone has been shown to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, which is required for preventing restenosis. However, the mechanism underlying effect of dexamethasone remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) can inhibit VSMC migration and proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in dexamethasone-reduced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanism. We first examined PGC-1α expression in cultured rat aortic VSMCs. The results revealed that incubation of VSMCs with dexamethasone could significantly elevate PGC-1α mRNA expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) decreased PGC-1α expression while stimulating VSMC migration. Mechanistic study showed that suppression of PGC-1α by small interfering RNA strongly abrogated the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VSMC migration, whereas overexpression of PGC-1α had the opposite effect. Furthermore, an analysis of MAPK signal pathways showed that dexamethasone inhibited ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Overexpression of PGC-1α decreased both basal and PDGF-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but it had no effect on ERK phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of PPARγ activation by a PPARγ antagonist GW9662 abolished the suppressive effects of PGC-1α on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and VSMC migration. These effects of PGC-1α were enhanced by a PPARγ agonist troglitazone. Collectively, our data indicated for the first time that one of the anti-migrated mechanisms of dexamethasone is due to the induction of PGC-1α expression. PGC-1α suppresses PDGF-induced VSMC migration through PPARγ coactivation and, consequently, p38 MAPK inhibition.
Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders
We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...... aggregation response and ISS. Higher TRAP values were associated with death due to cerebral injuries (P
Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui
The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelets are thought to play a role in a variety of inflammatory conditions in the lung, some of which may lead to fibrosis. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that whole platelets and platelet lysate can mediate remodelling of extracellular matrix in vitro by affecting fibroblast-mediated contraction of a collagen gel. We also sought to determine to what extent platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β contribute to this effect. Methods Washed platelets, isolated from healthy blood donors, and platelet lysate (freezing and thawing, were cast together with human lung fibroblasts in three-dimensional collagen gels. The gels were then released and cultured for four days. PDGF and TGF-β1 concentrations were measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. Results Both platelets and platelet lysate augmented fibroblast-mediated gel contraction in a time and concentration dependent manner (19.9% ± 0.1 (mean ± SEM of initial area vs. 48.0% ± 0.4 at 48 hours; P 1 and PDGF-AA/AB were released in co-culture. PDGF-AA/AB had a maximum release at 24 hours whereas TGF-β1 release increased with longer culture periods. Neutralising antibodies to these mediators partially inhibited platelet-induced gel contraction. Conclusion We conclude that platelets may promote remodelling of extracellular matrix in vitro and that PDGF and TGF-β partially mediate this effect, also indicating a role for other mediators. The findings may be an important mechanism in regulating repair processes after injury.
Metcalfe, Clive; Ramasubramoni, Anjana; Pula, Giordano; Harper, Matthew T; Mundell, Stuart J; Coxon, Carmen H
Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12) to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase). In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb). This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.
Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12 to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase. In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb. This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.
Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N. M.; van der Wal, J.; Boucherie, Richard J.; van Dijk, Nico M.
This paper illustrates how MDP or Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) can be used in practice for blood management at blood banks; both to set regular production quantities for perishable blood products (platelets) and how to do so in irregular periods (as holidays). The state space is too large to
Desborough, Michael J R; Smethurst, Peter A; Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J
Allogeneic platelet transfusions are widely used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Recent evidence suggests platelet transfusions have limited efficacy and are associated with uncertain immunomodulatory risks and concerns about viral or bacterial transmission. Alternatives to transfusion are a well-recognised tenet of Patient Blood Management, but there has been less focus on different strategies to reduce bleeding risk by comparison to platelet transfusion. Direct alternatives to platelet transfusion include agents to stimulate endogenous platelet production (thrombopoietin mimetics), optimising platelet adhesion to endothelium by treating anaemia or increasing von Willebrand factor levels (desmopressin), increasing formation of cross-linked fibrinogen (activated recombinant factor VII, fibrinogen concentrate or recombinant factor XIII), decreasing fibrinolysis (tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid) or using artificial or modified platelets (cryopreserved platelets, lyophilised platelets, haemostatic particles, liposomes, engineered nanoparticles or infusible platelet membranes). The evidence base to support the use of these alternatives is variable, but an area of active research. Much of the current randomised controlled trial focus is on evaluation of the use of thrombopoietin mimetics and anti-fibrinolytics. It is also recognised that one alternative strategy to platelet transfusion is choosing not to transfuse at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…
Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M
The carbon storage regulator A (CsrA) controls a wide variety of bacterial processes, including metabolism, adherence, stress responses, and virulence. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, harbors a homolog of csrA. Here, we generated an unmarked, in-frame deletion mutant of csrA to assess its contribution to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. In human inoculation experiments, the csrA mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation compared to its parent. Deletion of csrA resulted in decreased adherence of H. ducreyi to human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF); Flp1 and Flp2, the determinants of H. ducreyi adherence to HFF cells, were downregulated in the csrA mutant. Compared to its parent, the csrA mutant had a significantly reduced ability to tolerate oxidative stress and heat shock. The enhanced sensitivity of the mutant to oxidative stress was more pronounced in bacteria grown to stationary phase compared to that in bacteria grown to mid-log phase. The csrA mutant also had a significant survival defect within human macrophages when the bacteria were grown to stationary phase but not to mid-log phase. Complementation in trans partially or fully restored the mutant phenotypes. These data suggest that CsrA contributes to virulence by multiple mechanisms and that these contributions may be more profound in bacterial cell populations that are not rapidly dividing in the human host.
Panes, Olga; Padilla, Oslando; Matus, Valeria; Sáez, Claudia G; Berkovits, Alejandro; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego
Fibrinolysis dysfunctions cause bleeding or predisposition to thrombosis. Platelets contain several factors of the fibrinolytic system, which could up or down regulate this process. However, the temporal relationship and relative contributions of plasma and platelet components in clot lysis are mostly unknown. We developed a clot lysis time (CLT) assay in platelet-rich plasma (PRP-CLT, with and without stimulation) and compared it to a similar one in platelet-free plasma (PFP) and to another previously reported test in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We also studied the differential effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) on these tests in healthy subjects. PFP- and PPP-CLT were significantly shorter than PRP-CLT, and the three assays were highly correlated (p plasma PAI-1, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p platelet aggregation/secretion, platelet counts, and pro-coagulant tests to explore factor X activation by platelets, PRP clotting time, and thrombin generation in PRP. Among all the studied variables, PFP-CLT was independently associated with plasma PAI-1, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and, additionally, stimulated PRP-CLT was also independently associated with plasma fibrinogen. A single 1 g dose of TXA strikingly prolonged all three CLTs, but in contrast to the results without the drug, the lysis times were substantially shorter in non-stimulated or stimulated PRP than in PFP and PPP. This standardized PRP-CLT may become a useful tool to study the role of platelets in clot resistance and lysis. Our results suggest that initially, the platelets enmeshed in the clot slow down the fibrinolysis process. However, the increased clot resistance to lysis induced by TXA is overcome earlier in platelet-rich clots than in PFP or PPP clots. This is likely explained by the display of platelet pro-fibrinolytic effects. Focused research is needed to disclose the mechanisms for the relationship between CLT and plasma
Nathan J. Sniadecki
Full Text Available Coagulation involves a complex set of events that are important in maintaining hemostasis. Biochemical interactions are classically known to regulate the hemostatic process, but recent evidence has revealed that mechanical interactions between platelets and their surroundings can also play a substantial role. Investigations into platelet mechanobiology have been challenging however, due to the small dimensions of platelets and their glycoprotein receptors. Platelet researchers have recently turned to microfabricated devices to control these physical, nanometer-scale interactions with a higher degree of precision. These approaches have enabled exciting, new insights into the molecular and biomechanical factors that affect platelets in clot formation. In this review, we highlight the new tools used to understand platelet mechanobiology and the roles of adhesion, shear flow, and retraction forces in clot formation.
Gulliksson, Hans; Sandgren, Per; Sjödin, Agneta; Hultenby, Kjell
A major problem associated with platelet storage containers is that some platelet units show a dramatic fall in pH, especially above certain platelet contents. The aim of this study was a detailed investigation of the different in vitro effects occurring when the maximum storage capacity of a platelet container is exceeded as compared to normal storage. Buffy coats were combined in large-volume containers to create primary pools to be split into two equal aliquots for the preparation of platelets (450-520×10(9) platelets/unit) in SSP+ for 7-day storage in two containers (test and reference) with different platelet storage capacity (n=8). Exceeding the maximum storage capacity of the test platelet storage container resulted in immediate negative effects on platelet metabolism and energy supply, but also delayed effects on platelet function, activation and disintegration. Our study gives a very clear indication of the effects in different phases associated with exceeding the maximum storage capacity of platelet containers but throw little additional light on the mechanism initiating those negative effects. The problem appears to be complex and further studies in different media using different storage containers will be needed to understand the mechanisms involved.
Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony Cg; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L
Objectives The objective was to determine if decreased platelet function could be detected after treatment with aspirin and/or clopidogrel in healthy cats using three point-of-care platelet function tests that evaluate platelet function by different methods: Multiplate (by impedance), Platelet Function Analyzer 100 (by mechanical aperture closure) and Plateletworks (by platelet counting). Methods Thirty-six healthy cats were randomly assigned to receive one of three oral treatments over an 8 day period: (1) aspirin 5 mg q72h; (2) aspirin 20.25 mg q72h; or (3) clopidogrel 18.75 mg q24h. Cats treated with 5 and 20.25 mg aspirin also received clopidogrel on days 4-8. Platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate and collagen ± arachidonic acid was assessed on days 1 (baseline), 4 and 8. Aspirin and clopidogrel metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Platelet function in response to treatment was analyzed by ANCOVA, linear regression and Spearman correlation. Results The only solitary aspirin effect was detected using Plateletworks with collagen in cats treated with 20.25 mg. The only effect detected by Multiplate was using arachidonic acid in cats treated with both aspirin 20.25 mg and clopidogrel. All clopidogrel treatment effects were detected by Platelet Function Analyzer 100, Plateletworks (adenosine diphosphate) and Plateletworks (collagen). Drug metabolites were present in all cats, but concentrations were minimally correlated to platelet function test results. Conclusions and relevance Platelet Function Analyzer 100 and Plateletworks using adenosine diphosphate ± collagen agonists may be used to detect decreased platelet function in response to clopidogrel treatment. Either aspirin is not as effective an antiplatelet drug as clopidogrel, or the tests used were not optimal to measure aspirin effect. Cats with heart disease are commonly prescribed antiplatelet drugs to decrease the risk of aortic thromboembolism
This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are…
Monique Ramos de Oliveira Trugilho
Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet
Barata, Lidia; Miwa, Takashi; Sato, Sayaka; Kim, David; Mohammed, Imran; Song, Wen-Chao
Complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) are two murine membrane C3 complement regulators with overlapping functions. Crry deletion is embryonically lethal whereas DAF-deficient mice are generally healthy. Crry(-/-)DAF(-/-) mice were viable on a C3(-/-) background, but platelets from such mice were rapidly destroyed when transfused into C3-sufficient mice. In this study, we used the cre-lox system to delete platelet Crry in DAF(-/-) mice and studied Crry/DAF-deficient platelet development in vivo. Rather than displaying thrombocytopenia, Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mice had normal platelet counts and their peripheral platelets were resistant to complement attack. However, chimera mice generated with Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) bone marrows showed platelets from C3(-/-) but not C3(+/+) recipients to be sensitive to complement activation, suggesting that circulating platelets in Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mice were naturally selected in a complement-sufficient environment. Notably, Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mouse platelets became complement susceptible when factor H function was blocked. Examination of Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mouse bone marrows revealed exceedingly active thrombopoiesis. Thus, under in vivo conditions, Crry/DAF deficiency on platelets led to abnormal platelet turnover, but peripheral platelet count was compensated for by increased thrombopoiesis. Selective survival of Crry/DAF-deficient platelets aided by factor H protection and compensatory thrombopoiesis demonstrates the cooperation between membrane and fluid phase complement inhibitors and the body's ability to adaptively respond to complement regulator deficiencies.
Lu Tse-Yuan S
mutant construction in Z. mobilis, and constructed a Gateway compatible expression plasmid for use in Z. mobilis for the first time. We have also used genetics to show Z. mobilis Hfq and S. cerevisiae Lsm proteins play important roles in resisting multiple, important industrially relevant inhibitors. The conserved nature of this global regulator offers the potential to apply insights from these fundamental studies for further industrial strain development.
Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J
Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.
Nisar, S P; Jones, M L; Cunningham, M R; Mumford, A D; Mundell, S J
Platelet-expressed GPCRs are critical regulators of platelet function. Pharmacological blockade of these receptors forms a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis associated with coronary atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. However, anti-thrombotic drug therapy is associated with high inter-patient variability in therapeutic response and adverse bleeding side effects. In order to optimize the use of existing anti-platelet drugs and to develop new therapies, more detailed knowledge is required relating to the molecular mechanisms that regulate GPCR and therefore platelet function. One approach has been to identify rare, function-disrupting mutations within key platelet proteins in patients with bleeding disorders. In this review, we describe how an integrated functional genomics strategy has contributed important structure-function information about platelet GPCRs with specific emphasis upon purinergic and thromboxane A2 receptors. We also discuss the potential implications these findings have for pharmacotherapy and for understanding the molecular basis of mild bleeding disorders. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Karen E Drahos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets contact each other at the site of vascular injury to stop bleeding. One negative regulator of platelet aggregation is Disabled-2 (Dab2, which is released to the extracellular surface upon platelet activation. Dab2 inhibits platelet aggregation through its phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain by competing with fibrinogen for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin receptor binding by an unknown mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using protein-lipid overlay and liposome-binding assays, we identified that the N-terminal region of Dab2, including its PTB domain (N-PTB, specifically interacts with sulfatides. Moreover, we determined that such interaction is mediated by two conserved basic motifs with a dissociation constant (K(d of 0.6 microM as estimated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. In addition, liposome-binding assays combined with mass spectroscopy studies revealed that thrombin, a strong platelet agonist, cleaved N-PTB at a site located between the basic motifs, a region that becomes protected from thrombin cleavage when bound to sulfatides. Sulfatides on the platelet surface interact with coagulation proteins, playing a major role in haemostasis. Our results show that sulfatides recruit N-PTB to the platelet surface, sequestering it from integrin receptor binding during platelet activation. This is a transient recruitment that follows N-PTB internalization by an actin-dependent process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our experimental data support a model where two pools of Dab2 co-exist at the platelet surface, in both sulfatide- and integrin receptor-bound states, and their balance controls the extent of the clotting response.
Full Text Available Platelets play a role in tumor angiogenesis and growth and are the main transporters of several angiogenesis regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the levels of angiogenesis regulators and epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors sequestered by circulating platelets in breast cancer patients and age-matched healthy controls. Platelet pellets (PP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP were collected by routine protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, platelet factor 4 (PF4, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Angiogenesis-associated expression of VEGF (2.1 pg/106 platelets versus 0.9 pg/106 platelets, P < 0.001, PF4 (21.2 ng/106 platelets versus 10.2 ng/106 platelets, P < 0.001, PDGF-BB (42.9 pg/106 platelets versus 19.1 pg/106 platelets, P < 0.001, and TGF-β1 (15.3 ng/106 platelets versus 4.3 ng/106 platelets, P < 0.001 differed in the PP samples of cancer and control subjects. In addition, protein concentrations were associated with clinical characteristics (P<0.05. Circulating platelets in breast cancer sequester higher levels of PF4, VEGF, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β1, suggesting a possible target for early diagnosis. VEGF, PDGF, and TGF-β1 concentrations in platelets may be associated with prognosis.
Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Pallero, Manuel A.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.
Calreticulin (CRT), a chaperone and Ca2+ regulator, enhances wound healing, and its expression correlates with fibrosis in animal models, suggesting that CRT regulates production of the extracellular matrix. However, direct regulation of collagen matrix by CRT has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the role of CRT in the regulation of fibrillar collagen expression, secretion, processing, and deposition in the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts defi...
Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C A; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W
Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent alpha-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCbeta, whereas the novel isoform, PKC, negatively regulates these events. PKCdelta also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not alpha-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCalpha or PKCbeta showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKC. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen.
Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T.; Cosemans, Judith M. E. M.; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C. A.; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Poole, Alastair W.
Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent α-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCα and PKCβ, whereas the novel isoform, PKCθ, negatively regulates these events. PKCδ also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not α-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCα or PKCβ showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKCθ. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen. PMID:20479008
Dann, Rebecca; Hadi, Tarik; Montenont, Emilie; Boytard, Ludovic; Alebrahim, Dornaszadat; Feinstein, Jordyn; Allen, Nicole; Simon, Russell; Barone, Krista; Uryu, Kunihiro; Guo, Yu; Rockman, Caron; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Berger, Jeffrey S
Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a diffuse manifestation of atherothrombosis, is a major cardiovascular threat. Although platelets are primary mediators of atherothrombosis, their role in the pathogenesis of PAD remains unclear. The authors sought to investigate the role of platelets in a cohort of symptomatic PAD. The authors profiled platelet activity, mRNA, and effector roles in patients with symptomatic PAD and in healthy controls. Patients with PAD and carotid artery stenosis were recruited into ongoing studies (NCT02106429 and NCT01897103) investigating platelet activity, platelet RNA, and cardiovascular disease. Platelet RNA sequence profiling mapped a robust up-regulation of myeloid-related protein (MRP)-14 mRNA, a potent calcium binding protein heterodimer, in PAD. Circulating activated platelets were enriched with MRP-14 protein, which augmented the expression of the adhesion mediator, P-selectin, thereby promoting monocyte-platelet aggregates. Electron microscopy confirmed the firm interaction of platelets with monocytes in vitro and colocalization of macrophages with MRP-14 confirmed their cross talk in atherosclerotic manifestations of PAD in vivo. Platelet-derived MRP-14 was channeled to monocytes, thereby fueling their expression of key PAD lesional hallmarks and increasing their directed locomotion, which were both suppressed in the presence of antibody-mediated blockade. Circulating MRP-14 was heightened in the setting of PAD, significantly correlated with PAD severity, and was associated with incident limb events. The authors identified a heightened platelet activity profile and unraveled a novel immunomodulatory effector role of platelet-derived MRP-14 in reprograming monocyte activation in symptomatic PAD. (Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery and Cardiovascular Events [PACE]; NCT02106429; and Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery for Thrombosis and Bleeding [PIVOTAL]; NCT01897103). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation
Kornecki, E.; Ehrlich, Y.H.; Egbring, R.; Gramse, M.; Seitz, R.; Eckardt, A.; Lukasiewicz, H.; Niewiarowski, S.
The authors have examined the interaction of human granulocyte elastase with human platelets. Incubation of human platelets with human granulocyte elastase exposed active fibrinogen-binding sites as evidenced by 125 I-labeled fibrinogen binding and spontaneous fibrinogen-induced platelet aggregation. The aggregation of platelets by fibrinogen occurred at low concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. Platelets pretreated with human granulocyte elastase exposed an average of 10,500 fibrinogen-binding sites per platelet, i.e., about one-third the number of binding sites exposed by optimal concentrations of ADP. With the use of a polyclonal antiplatelet membrane antibody, the glycoproteins IIb (GPIIb), IIIa (GPIIIa), and a 60,000-Da (60 kDa) protein (66 kDa in a reduced system) derived from GPIIIa were immunoprecipitated from the surface of detergent extracts of human 125 I-radiolabeled platelets pretreated with increasing concentrations of human granulocyte elastase. They conclude that (1) the proteolytic action of human granulocyte elastase on platelet GPIIIa results in the formation of two major hydrolytic products, and (2) human granulocyte elastase exposes active fibrongen-binding sites associated with the GPIIb/GPIIIa complex, resulting in direct platelet aggregation by fibrinogen
ability to measure certain enzymes to their oxidation-reduc other enzymes which can be measured by o phosphatase , acid phosphatase , chymotryp...alkaline sin, trypsin, esterases (17)); M use of n A or wheat germ agglutinin in the second etect specific carbohydrate constituents. We have...Von Willebrand factor. Nurden and Caen also demonstrated that GPI was rich in sialic acid (5) and probably responsible for the platelets’ surface
Full Text Available Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of inflammatory tissue lesions. It can affect platelet function. While mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW are sample platelet indices, they may reflect subcinical platelet activation. To investigated associations between adiposity indices and platelet indices, 17327 eligible individuals (7677 males and 9650 females from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study (DFTJ-Cohort Study, n=27009 were included in this study, except for 9682 individuals with missing data on demographical, lifestyle, physical indicators and diseases relative to PDW and MPV. Associations between adiposity indices including waist circumstance (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, body mass index (BMI, and MPV or PDW in the participants were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. There were significantly negative associations between abnormal PDW and WC or WHtR for both sexes (ptrend<0.001 for all, as well as abnormal MPV and WC or WHtR among female participants (ptrend<0.05 for all. In the highest BMI groups, only females with low MPV or PDW were at greater risk for having low MPV (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.10, 1.62 ptrend<0.001 or PDW (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.14, 1.58, ptrend<0.001 than those who had low MPV or PDW in the corresponding lowest BMI group. The change of PDW seems more sensitive than MPV to oxidative stress and hypoxia. Associations between reduced PDW and MPV values and WC, WHtR and BMI values in Chinese female adults may help us to further investigate early changes in human body.
Bastida Bermejo, José María; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; González-Porras, José Ramón
Inherited platelet disorders diagnosis is based on the clinical history and bleeding assessment tools. The laboratory functional assays as well as the molecular test to identify the pathogenic genetic variant are essential to confirm the accurate diagnosis of these disorders. Nowadays, the main challenges to developing a new diagnostic system are involved in reducing the samples' volume, and faster and more helpful analysis. Moreover, there are no widely available and standardised global tests. High throughput genetic testing such as next-generation sequencing has revolutionised DNA sequencing technologies as it allows the simultaneous and faster investigation of multiple genes at a manageable cost. This technology has improved the molecular characterisation of inherited platelet disorders and has been implemented in the research studies and the clinical routine practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kimura, Akiro; Fujimura, Kingo; Kuramoto, Atsushi
Superoxide dismutase (S.O.D.) is the enzyme to protect from destructive effect of superoxide (O 2 -) produced in many metabolic pathways related to oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that S.O.D. may play an important role in the platelet function. The cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been investigated spectrophotometrically and gel electrophoretically in human platelets from eleven patients of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and three patients of primary thrombocythemia (P.Th.). Neither deficiency nor abnormality of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial S.O.D. has been found electrophoretically in any case compared to normal platelets. However, the total activity from three of the CML patients and one of the P.Th. patients were above 3 unit/mg platelet protein (normal subject: 2.11 - 2.70 unit/mg protein), suggesting the possibility either that more O 2 -production occurs in the platelets or that rather little O 2 -production due to much O 2 -deprivation by the increased S.O.D. The S.O.D. activity of human platelets has been also investigated in several conditions, where much O 2 -generation might occur in platelets. Sodium fluoride (2 mM), which increases platelet O 2 -production about 3 fold, had no effect on platelet S.O.D. The aggregated platelets induced by ADP (10 -5 M), epinephrin (50 μg/ml), ristocetin (1.5 mg/ml) or collagen (1 - 20 μg/ml) had no increase of S.O.D. activity compared to that from non aggregated platelets. X-ray irradiation (1,000 - 20,000R) had not induced its activity increase or decrease. These findings indicated the induction of platelet S.O.D. was not brought about under these conditions. (author)
Rodgers, G M
Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays
Read, E.J.; Kodis, C.; Carter, C.S.; Leitman, S.F.
Gamma irradiation of blood products is a standard practice recommended for the prevention of posttransfusion graft-versus-host disease in susceptible hosts. We studied the effects of irradiation on stored platelet concentrates and evaluated whether platelets could be stored for 5 days in the irradiated state without adverse effects on their viability. Using a pair-controlled design in which each of six normal subjects acted as his or her own control, we compared in vitro storage characteristics and in vivo kinetics of platelet concentrates exposed to 30 Gy and stored for 5 days with those of platelet concentrates simply stored for 5 days without irradiation. Irradiation had no significant effects on in vitro storage characteristics (platelet count, mean platelet volume, pH, and white cell count) or on in vivo kinetics, including initial recovery and mean platelet survival. Using the multiple-hit model, initial recovery was 49.6 +/- 10.8 percent, and mean platelet survival was 5.6 +/- 1.05 days for irradiated concentrates, compared with 51.3 +/- 13.0 percent and 5.9 +/- 0.50 days, respectively, for the unirradiated control concentrates. We conclude that irradiation of platelet concentrates with up to 30 Gy has no effect on their in vivo recovery or survival, and that irradiation administered before storage of platelet concentrates does not interfere with their clinical efficacy
Full Text Available Platelets are small anucleate cells circulating in the blood. It has been recognized for more than 100 years that platelet adhesion and aggregation at the site of vascular injury are critical events in hemostasis and thrombosis; however, recent studies demonstrated that, in addition to these classic roles, platelets also have important functions in inflammation and the immune response. Platelets contain many proinflammatory molecules and cytokines (e.g., P-selectin, CD40L, IL-1β, etc., which support leukocyte trafficking, modulate immunoglobulin class switch, and germinal center formation. Platelets express several functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs, such as TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9, which may potentially link innate immunity with thrombosis. Interestingly, platelets also contain multiple anti-inflammatory molecules and cytokines (e.g., transforming growth factor-β and thrombospondin-1. Emerging evidence also suggests that platelets are involved in lymphatic vessel development by directly interacting with lymphatic endothelial cells through C-type lectin-like receptor 2. Besides the active contributions of platelets to the immune system, platelets are passively targeted in several immune-mediated diseases, such as autoimmune thrombocytopenia, infection-associated thrombocytopenia, and fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. These data suggest that platelets are important immune cells and may contribute to innate and adaptive immunity under both physiological and pathological conditions.
Zou, Xiaojing; Qu, Mingyi; Fang, Fang; Fan, Zeng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Xie, Xiaoyan; Pei, Xuetao
Platelets (PLTs) are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs) that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI), nicotinamide (NIC), Src inhibitor (SI), and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI)) and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.
Full Text Available Platelets (PLTs are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs that completed differentiation and endomitosis. Endomitosis is an important process in which the cell replicates its DNA without cytokinesis and develops highly polyploid MK. In this study, to gain a better PLTs production, four small molecules (Rho-Rock inhibitor (RRI, nicotinamide (NIC, Src inhibitor (SI, and Aurora B inhibitor (ABI and their combinations were surveyed as MK culture supplements for promoting polyploidization. Three leukemia cell lines as well as primary mononuclear cells were chosen in the function and mechanism studies of the small molecules. In an optimal culture method, cells were treated with different small molecules and their combinations. The impact of the small molecules on megakaryocytic surface marker expression, polyploidy, proliferation, and apoptosis was examined for the best MK polyploidization supplement. The elaborate analysis confirmed that the combination of SI and RRI together with our MK induction system might result in efficient ploidy promotion. Our experiments demonstrated that, besides direct downregulation on the expression of cytoskeleton protein actin, SI and RRI could significantly enhance the level of cyclins through the suppression of p53 and p21. The verified small molecule combination might be further used in the in vitro PLT manufacture and clinical applications.
Li, Duo; Turner, Alan; Sinclair, Andrew J
Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) has been suggested as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and the increased reactivity of large platelets. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet phospholipid (PL) PUFA composition and MPV in 139 free-living healthy men ages 20-55 yr (vegans, n = 18; ovolacto vegetarians, n = 43; moderate meat-eaters, n = 60; and high meateaters, n = 18). Each subject completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and gave a blood sample. Platelet PL FA composition and MPV were determined by standard methods. MPV was significantly greater in the vegans than in the ovolacto vegetarian, moderate, or high meat-eater groups (P vegan and ovolacto vegetarian groups had significantly higher platelet PL 18:2n-6 and 22:4n-6, and lower 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 compared with the moderate and high meat-eater groups. The vegans demonstrated a significant reduction in 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3 compared with the ovolacto vegetarian, high meat-eater, and moderate meat-eater groups. Bivariate analysis results showed that MPV was significantly positively correlated with platelet PL 18:2n-6 (P = 0.048) and negatively correlated with 20:3n-6 (P = 0.02), 20:5n-3 (P = 0.005), and 22:5n-3 (P< 0.0001), respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling for potential confounding factors such as dietary group, age, exercise, body mass index, and dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, and fiber intake, the MPV was still strongly negatively correlated with platelet PL 20:3n-6 (P = 0.003) and 22:5n-3 (P = 0.001). The present data suggest that 22:5n-3 and 20:3n-6 may play a role in the structural function of the platelet membrane.
K. Manasa; R. Vani
Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platele...
Prakash, Shobha; Thakur, Aditi
Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis and wound healing, platelet growth factors are well known source of healing cytokines. Numerous techniques of autologous platelet concentrates have been developed and applied in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review describes the evolution of the first and second generation of platelet concentrates (platelet rich plasma and platelet rich fibrin respectively) from their fore runner-fibrin sealants.
Sharefkin, J.; Rich, N.M.
A detailed technique for labelling canine platelets with 111 In-oxine for the study of platelet survival patterns in four to six dogs at a time was developed. Useful modifications of earlier methods included splitting of the platelet rich plasma into multiple aliquots to improve pelleting efficiency at low gravity forces, use of saved platelet poor plasma to flush out injection syringes, and prompt use of commercial 111 In-oxine sources 3 to 5 minutes after mixing with Ringer's Citrate Dextrose. Avoidable pitfalls of the method included excessive lengths of incubation time in plasma free medium and loss of labelling efficacy by exposure of the chelate to iron or other metal contaminants in glassware. The method was used to study changes in platelet survival time in dogs with large synthetic arterial prostheses, and gave results in good agreement with earlier studies using 51 Cr labelled platelets
Bernardin, J.D.; Bosze, E.
This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators in the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD), a device used to determine and characterize the collision location of two accelerated heavy ions. The coolant temperatures and flow rates as well as the voltage regulator operating temperatures were used to assess and optimize the performance of the proposed cooling system, identify potential assembly problems and system limitations, and provide the necessary information for designing and sizing the final MVD cooling system components. The MVD is part of the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven RHIC
A similar pattern was observed for Mean Platelet Volume (MPV). However, Platelet ... Keywords: Platelet Count, Plateletcrit, Mean Platelet Volume, Platelet Distribution Width, Trimesters, ... bleeding disorders, diabetes and drugs capable of.
Sabourin, Jennifer L.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.
Self-regulated learning behaviors such as goal setting and monitoring have been found to be crucial to students' success in computer-based learning environments. Consequently, understanding students' self-regulated learning behavior has been the subject of increasing interest. Unfortunately, monitoring these behaviors in real-time has proven…
Qiao, Jian L; Shen, Yang; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K
In the past 5 years, metalloproteinase-mediated ectodomain shedding of platelet receptors has emerged as a new mechanism for modulating platelet function. By regulating surface expression of the platelet-specific receptors, glycoprotein (GP)VI that binds collagen, and GPIbalpha (the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex) that binds von Willebrand factor (VWF) and other procoagulant and proinflammatory ligands, shedding not only irreversibly downregulates GPVI/GPIbalpha function, but generates proteolytic fragments that might be unique biomarkers or modulators in plasma. This is potentially significant because GPVI and GPIbalpha are involved in initiating thrombotic diseases such as heart attack and stroke, as well as autoimmune diseases where anti-platelet antibodies result in thrombocytopenia. Altered expression levels of GPIbalpha/GPVI are associated with both thrombotic propensity and platelet aging, suggesting an additional role in platelet clearance. Although emerging data are elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying GPIbalpha/GPVI shedding, evidence for the functional consequences of shedding in vivo, either clinically or in animal models, is far more limited. Here we consider recent published evidence for GPVI or GPIbalpha shedding in humans, nonhuman primates and mice, and whether conservation of sheddase cleavage sites across species points to a functional role for metalloproteolytic shedding in vivo.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Platelet dysfunction plays an important role in thrombosis in diabetes with peripheral artery disease (PAD. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 regulate platelet activity by modulating calcium influx. We hypothesized that enhanced SOCE in platelets is associated with diabetes with PAD. Methods: We studied the activity of platelets from healthy participants and from type 2 diabetic patients. Platelet calcium influx and protein expression of STIM1 and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 3 (SERCA3 were investigated. Results: Compared with platelets from diabetic patients without PAD, platelets from diabetic patients with PAD exhibited significantly increased SOCE . Menthol administration completely inhibited calcium influx in platelets from diabetic patients without PAD, but this effect was blunted in those from diabetic patients with PAD. Furthermore, the increase in SOCE was correlated with the ankle brachial index (ABI in diabetic patients. High glucose significantly up-regulated STIM1 and SERCA3 protein expression and induced the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC in platelets from healthy participants. This effect was attenuated in the presence of menthol or U73122, an inhibitor of PLC. Similarly, significant increases in STIM1 and SERCA3 protein expression were found in platelets from diabetic patients compared to those from healthy participants. Conclusion: Platelets from diabetic patients with PAD exhibited enhanced Store-operated calcium influx, which was associated with elevated STIM1/SERCA3 expression via a PLC-dependent pathway and was inhibited by menthol.
Summary. Aims: Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is recommended for 1 year after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation or myocardial infarction. However, the discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy has become an important issue as recent studies have suggested a clustering of ischemic events within 90 days of clopidogrel withdrawal. The objective of this investigation was to explore the hypothesis that there is a transient ‘rebound’ increase in platelet reactivity within 3 months of clopidogrel discontinuation. Methods and Results: In this prospective study, platelet function was assessed in patients taking aspirin and clopidogrel for at least 1 year following DES implantation. Platelet aggregation was measured using a modification of light transmission aggregometry in response to multiple concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, arachidonic acid, thrombin receptor activating peptide and collagen. Clopidogrel was stopped and platelet function was reassessed 1 week, 1 month and 3 months later. Thirty-two patients on dual antiplatelet therapy were recruited. Discontinuation of clopidogrel increased platelet aggregation to all agonists, except arachidonic acid. Platelet aggregation in response to ADP (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μm) and epinephrine (5 and 20 μm) was significantly increased at 1 month compared with 3 months following clopidogrel withdrawal. Thus, a transient period of increased platelet reactivity to both ADP and epinephrine was observed 1 month after clopidogrel discontinuation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a transient increase in platelet reactivity 1 month after clopidogrel withdrawal. This phenomenon may, in part, explain the known clustering of thrombotic events observed after clopidogrel discontinuation. This observation requires confirmation in larger populations.
Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)
New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.
Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi
New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells
Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. cultivar `Dwarf Cuban Red 18-40 EEA' has high yields. For large-scale propagation, micropropagation is a possible solution. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two culture media, two cytokinins and an analog brasinoesteoides (DI-31 in the in vitro multiplication of this cultivar. Two culture media (MS and WPM, three concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg l-1, three of kinetin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg l-1 and two DI-31 (0.01 and 0.02 mg l-1 were evaluated. The variables evaluated were: number of shoots, number of leaves, shoot length and multiplication coefficient. It was found that the type of culture medium influenced the shoot multiplication of guava. The number of shoots, shoot length and multiplication coefficient were determined by the type and concentration of cytokinin added to the culture medium. With the use of WPM culture medium with 1 mg l-1 BAP It was obtained the highest values of the variables evaluated. The use of DI-31 promoted the shoot growth without affecting the multiplication coefficient. Key words: benzylaminopurine, DI-31, kinetin, guava, micropropagation, multiplication phase
Choi, Jun-Hui; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung
The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether kaempferol affects pro-coagulant proteinase activity, fibrin clot formation, blood clot and thrombin (or collagen/epinephrine)-stimulated platelet activation, thrombosis, and coagulation in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice and SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. Kaempferol significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of thrombin and FXa by 68 ± 1.6% and 52 ± 2.4%, respectively. Kaempferol also inhibited fibrin polymer formation in turbidity. Microscopic analysis was performed using a fluorescent conjugate. Kaempferol completely attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PKB (AKT) in thrombin-stimulated platelets and delayed aggregation time (clotting) by 34.6% in an assay of collagen/epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation. Moreover, kaempferol protected against thrombosis development in 3 animal models, including collagen/epinephrine- and thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism models and an FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus model. The ex vivo anticoagulant effect of kaempferol was further confirmed in ICR mice. This study demonstrated that kaempferol may be clinically useful due to its ability to reduce or prevent thrombotic challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I
and after platelet transfusion in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled before, 1 and 24 h after platelet transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate) and thromboelastography (TEG). Endothelial biomarkers (s......OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effect of platelet transfusion on haemostasis is well established, but there is emerging evidence that platelet transfusion induces an inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. BACKGROUND: We investigated haemostatic function and endothelial biomarkers before......ICAM-1, syndecan-1, sThrombomodulin, sVE-Cadherin) and platelet activation biomarkers (sCD40L, TGF-beta) were investigated along with haematology/biochemistry analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included. Despite continued low platelet counts, platelet transfusion normalised the median values...
Tessa K Solomon-Lane; Erica J Crespi; Erica J Crespi; Matthew Scott Grober; Matthew Scott Grober
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has ...
Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has be...
Fijnheer, R.; Pietersz, R. N.; de Korte, D.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Dekker, W. J.; Reesink, H. W.; Roos, D.
The activation of platelets during the preparation of platelet concentrates (PCs) by two methods was compared. To eliminate interdonor differences, 2 units of whole blood were pooled and subsequently divided into two batches. From one batch, the platelets were harvested as pelleted platelets from
Amira M. Elsayed
Mar 30, 2016 ... The aim of this study was to compare the MPV and mean platelet volume/platelet count ... brain stroke, both in the acute phase and long after disease.17 ... males, while the healthy controls comprised 12 females and 8.
Full Text Available The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli.
Rai, Ashutosh Kumar; Dubey, Ashutosh Prakash; Kumar, Santosh; Dutta, Debashis; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Singh, Bhupendra Narain; Tripathi, Anil Kumar
Carotenoids constitute an important component of the defense system against photooxidative stress in bacteria. In Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, a nonphotosynthetic rhizobacterium, carotenoid synthesis is controlled by a pair of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors (RpoEs) and their cognate zinc-binding anti-sigma factors (ChrRs). Its genome harbors two copies of the gene encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), the first critical step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. Inactivation of each of two crtE paralogs found in A. brasilense caused reduction in carotenoid content, suggesting their involvement in carotenoid synthesis. However, the effect of crtE1 deletion was more pronounced than that of crtE2 deletion. Out of the five paralogs of rpoH in A. brasilense, overexpression of rpoH1 and rpoH2 enhanced carotenoid synthesis. Promoters of crtE2 and rpoH2 were found to be dependent on RpoH2 and RpoE1, respectively. Using a two-plasmid system in Escherichia coli, we have shown that the crtE2 gene of A. brasilense Sp7 is regulated by two cascades of sigma factors: one consisting of RpoE1and RpoH2 and the other consisting of RpoE2 and RpoH1. In addition, expression of crtE1 was upregulated indirectly by RpoE1 and RpoE2. This study shows, for the first time in any carotenoid-producing bacterium, that the regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway involves a network of multiple cascades of alternative sigma factors. Carotenoids play a very important role in coping with photooxidative stress in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are known to directly regulate the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in bacteria, regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by one or multiple cascades of sigma factors had not been reported. This study provides the first evidence of the involvement of multiple cascades of sigma factors in the regulation of carotenoid synthesis in any bacterium by showing the
George, Mitchell J; Bynum, James; Nair, Prajeeda; Cap, Andrew P; Wade, Charles E; Cox, Charles S; Gill, Brijesh S
The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics and how this relationship affects the clinical interpretation of platelet function devices. Recent experimental and technological advances highlight platelet bioenergetics and biomechanics as alternative avenues for collecting clinically relevant data. Platelet bioenergetics drive energy production for key biomechanical processes like adhesion, spreading, aggregation, and contraction. Platelet function devices like thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and aggregometry measure these biomechanical processes. Platelet storage, stroke, sepsis, trauma, or the activity of antiplatelet drugs alters measures of platelet function. However, the specific mechanisms governing these alterations in platelet function and how they relate to platelet bioenergetics are still under investigation.
Sudomoina, Marina; Latypova, Ekaterina; Favorova, Olga O; Golemis, Erica A; Serebriiskii, Ilya G
Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC) system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.
Golemis Erica A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. Results In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.
Crowther, M; Ford, I; Jeffrey, R R; Urbaniak, S J; Greaves, M
Platelet dysfunction has a major contribution in bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and transfusion of platelets is frequently used to secure haemostasis. Allogeneic platelets prepared for transfusion are functionally impaired. Autologous platelets harvested preoperatively require a shorter storage time before transfusion and their use also avoids the risks associated with transfusion of allogeneic blood products. For the first time, we have compared the functional quality of autologous platelets with allogeneic platelets prepared by two methods, immediately before infusion. Platelet activation was assessed by P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding using flow cytometry. We also monitored the effects of CPB surgery and re-infusion of autologous platelets on platelet function. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contained a significantly lower (P platelets compared with allogeneic platelet preparations, and also contained a significantly higher (P platelets. Allogeneic platelets prepared by donor apheresis were more activated and less responsive than those produced by centrifugation of whole blood. In patients' blood, the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin or binding fibrinogen increased significantly after CPB (P platelets responsive to in vitro agonists was decreased (P platelet activation during the procedure. The percentage of activated platelets decreased (statistically not significant) after re-infusion of autologous PRP. P-selectin expression had returned to pre-CPB levels 24 h post-operatively. Autologous platelet preparations display minimal activation, but remain responsive. Conservation of platelet function may contribute to the potential clinical benefits of autologous transfusion in cardiopulmonary bypass.
Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.
Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH 2 from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and [ 125 I]-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the [ 125 I]antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10 9 platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency
provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D
Schaletzki, Yvonne; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Bröderdorf, Susanne; Hammer, Elke; Grube, Markus; Hagen, Paul; Sucic, Sonja; Freissmuth, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Rauch, Bernhard H; Kroemer, Heyo K; Jedlitschky, Gabriele
The multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) has been identified as an important transporter for signalling molecules including cyclic nucleotides and several lipid mediators in platelets and may thus represent a novel target to interfere with platelet function. Besides its localisation in the plasma membrane, MRP4 has been also detected in the membrane of dense granules in resting platelets. In polarised cells it is localised at the basolateral or apical plasma membrane. To date, the mechanism of MRP4 trafficking has not been elucidated; protein interactions may regulate both the localisation and function of this transporter. We approached this issue by searching for interacting proteins by in vitro binding assays, followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, and by visualising their co-localisation in platelets and haematopoietic cells. We identified the PDZ domain containing scaffold proteins ezrin-binding protein 50 (EBP50/NHERF1), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), but also the adaptor protein complex 3 subunit β3A (AP3B1) and the heat shock protein HSP90 as putative interaction partners of MRP4. The knock-down of SNX27, PSD95, and AP3B1 by siRNA in megakaryoblastic leukaemia cells led to a redistribution of MRP4 from intracellular structures to the plasma membrane. Inhibition of HSP90 led to a diminished expression and retention of MRP4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that MRP4 localisation and function are regulated by multiple protein interactions. Changes in the adaptor proteins can hence lead to altered localisation and function of the transporter.
Dovas, Athanassios; Couchman, John R
necessary for the correct targeting and regulation of Rho activities by conferring cues for spatial restriction, guidance and availability to effectors. These potential functions are discussed in the context of RhoGDI-associated multimolecular complexes, the newly emerged shuttling capability...... insight as to how RhoGDI exerts its effects on nucleotide binding, the membrane association-dissociation cycling of the GTPase and how these activities are controlled. Despite the initial negative roles attributed to RhoGDI, recent evidence has come to suggest that it may also act as a positive regulator...... of activities....
Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (VWF tethers platelets to sites of vascular injury via interaction with the platelet surface receptor, GPIb. To further define the VWF sequences required for VWF-platelet interaction, a phage library displaying random VWF protein fragments was screened against formalin-fixed platelets. After 3 rounds of affinity selection, DNA sequencing of platelet-bound clones identified VWF peptides mapping exclusively to the A1 domain. Aligning these sequences defined a minimal, overlapping segment spanning P1254-A1461, which encompasses the C1272-C1458 cystine loop. Analysis of phage carrying a mutated A1 segment (C1272/1458A confirmed the requirement of the cystine loop for optimal binding. Four rounds of affinity maturation of a randomly mutagenized A1 phage library identified 10 and 14 unique mutants associated with enhanced platelet binding in the presence and absence of botrocetin, respectively, with 2 mutants (S1370G and I1372V common to both conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of filamentous phage for studying VWF protein structure-function and identify a minimal, contiguous peptide that bind to formalin-fixed platelets, confirming the importance of the VWF A1 domain with no evidence for another independently platelet-binding segment within VWF. These findings also point to key structural elements within the A1 domain that regulate VWF-platelet adhesion.
Kuipers, Hedwich Fardau
Activation of microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system, is a key element in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion development and is characterized by enhanced expression of both classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This enhanced expression results from increased
Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger III, Andrew L.
Introduction: We have previously demonstrated platelet hyperreactivity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Carriers of one CF m utation (heterozygotes) have been shown to have abnormalities related to the presence of only one-half the normal amount of CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein...
Hu, Liang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Shenghui; Qi, Zhiyong; Yan, Hongmei; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Si; Wang, Yiping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Ye, Hongying; Ding, Zhongren
Platelets from patients with diabetes mellitus are hyperactive. Hyperactivated platelets may contribute to cardiovascular complications and inadequate responses to antiplatelet agents in the setting of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism of hyperactivated platelets is not completely understood. We measured P2Y 12 expression on platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on platelets from rats with diabetes mellitus. We also assayed platelet P2Y 12 activation by measuring cAMP and VASP phosphorylation. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of AR-C78511 and cangrelor were compared in rats. Finally, we explored the role of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in regulating P2Y 12 receptor expression in megakaryocytes. Platelet P2Y 12 levels are 4-fold higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects. P2Y 12 expression correlates with ADP-induced platelet aggregation (r=0.89, P diabetes mellitus is constitutively activated. Although both AR-C78511, a potent P2Y 12 inverse agonist, and cangrelor have similar antiplatelet efficacy on platelets from healthy subjects, AR-C78511 exhibits more powerful antiplatelet effects on diabetic platelets than cangrelor (aggregation ratio 36±3% versus 49±5%, respectively, P diabetes mellitus than cangrelor (thrombus weight 4.9±0.3 mg versus 8.3±0.4 mg, respectively, P diabetes mellitus. Platelet P2Y 12 receptor expression is significantly increased and the receptor is constitutively activated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contributes to platelet hyperactivity and limits antiplatelet drug efficacy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C
The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk...
Chen, Yicai; Yuan, Mingjun; Mohanty, Anee
The nucleotide signalling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays an essential role in regulating microbial virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and degraded by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One...
... not using, such method of regulated accounting only with respect to property subject to the... treatment of certain property as “pre-1970 public utility property” and § 1.167(l)-1(e)(4)(ii) for...) Property not entirely subject to jurisdiction of one regulatory body—(1) In general. If a taxpayer which...
Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; McDermott, Jason E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.
Background: Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results: In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions: Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.
Whitehorn, James; Rodriguez Roche, Rosmari; Guzman, Maria G
Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage...... of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity...... of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue....
Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A; Harper, Matthew T; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Williams, Christopher M; Navarro, Maria N; Carter, Deborah A; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W
Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion.
Constanza E Martínez
Full Text Available Platelet degranulation allows the release of a large amount of soluble mediators, is an essential step for wound healing initiation, and stimulates clotting and angiogenesis. The latter process is one of the most critical biological events observed during tissue repair,increasing the growth of blood vessels in the maturing wound. Angiogenesis requires the action of a variety of growth factors that act in an appropriate physiological ratio to assure functional blood vessel restoration. Platelets release main regulators of angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2, and Platelet derived growth factors (PDGFs, among others. In order to stimulate tissue repair, platelet derived fractions have been used as an autologous source of growth factors and biomolecules, namely Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP, Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP and Platelet Rich Fibrin(PRF. The continuous release of these growth factors has been proposed to promote angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the existence of clinical trials currently evaluating the efficacy of autologous PRP, the present review analyses fundamental questions regarding the putative role of platelet derived fractions as regulators of angiogenesis and evaluates the possible clinical implications of these formulations.
Dickson, Mary Nora; Amar, Levy; Hill, Michael; Schwartz, Joseph; Leonard, Edward F
We have designed a novel, low energy platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) separator capable of producing 50 mL of PRP in 30 min, intended for military and emergency applications. Blood flows over a 3 mm length of sieve at high rates of shear. A plasma-platelet filtrate passes through the sieve's pores while erythrocytes remain. The filtrate is flowed over a second 3 mm length of smaller-pored sieve that withdraws plasma. Bulk blood volume is maintained by returning platelet-free plasma to the erythrocyte pool, enabling a nearly complete multi-pass platelet extraction. The total percentage of platelets extracted is:θ(T)=1-exp (-V(f)(T)Φ(P)/V) where V is the original plasma volume, V ( f )(T) is the total filtered volume, and ϕ ( P ) is platelet passage ratio (filtrate concentration/bulk average concentration) taken to be constant. Maximum θ(T) occurs at maximum V ( f )(T)× ϕ ( P ) Test microsieves, 3 mm long × 3 mm wide, were used. ϕ ( P ) values measured at various filtrate flow rates (20-100 uL/min) and utilizing various filter pore sizes (1.2-3.5 μm), was as high as 150 %. Maximum V ( f )(T)× ϕ ( P ) was achieved utilizing the 3.5 um filters at the highest flow rate, 100 uL/min. Erythrocyte leakages were always below 2,000/uL, far below the allowable limit stipulated by the American Association of Blood Banking. These data imply that a 13.7 cm(2) filter area is sufficient to achieve the target separation of 50 mL of platelet concentrate in 30 min. The filtration cartridge would consist of multiple microporous strips of 3 mm width arranged in parallel so that each element would see the conditions used in the prototype experiments presented here. Other microfiltration schemes suggest no method of scaling to practical levels.
Full Text Available Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4 and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1 are two opposing regulators of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, which is the master modulator of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. While Brd4 recruits P-TEFb to promoter-proximal chromatins to activate transcription, HEXIM1 sequesters P-TEFb into an inactive complex containing the 7SK small nuclear RNA. Besides regulating P-TEFb’s transcriptional activity, recent evidence demonstrates that both Brd4 and HEXIM1 also play novel roles in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Here we will discuss the current knowledge on Brd4 and HEXIM1 and their implication as novel therapeutic options against cancer.
Rank, A.; Nieuwland, R.; Liebhardt, S.; Iberer, M.; Grützner, S.; Toth, B.; Pihusch, R.
Background and Objectives Microparticles (MP) are membrane vesicles with thrombogenic and immunomodulatory properties. We determined MP subgroups from resting platelets, activated platelets and endothelial cells in donors and apheresis platelet concentrates (PC). Material and Methods MP were double
Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém
Roč. 65, č. 10 (2014), s. 2585-2602 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR M200201205; GA MŠk LH12145 Grant - others:Centre for Algal Biotechnologies (Algatech)(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * regulation * growth * light Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014
Lin, Taoyan; Lin, Xia; Chen, Li; Zeng, Hui; Han, Yanjiang; Wu, Lihong; Huang, Shun; Wang, Meng; Huang, Shenhao; Xie, Raoying; Liang, Liqi; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ruiyu; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Jing; Wang, Shengchun; Sun, Penghui; Huang, Wenhua; Yao, Kaitai; Xu, Kang; Du, Tao; Xiao, Dong
miR-155 plays critical roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes, however, its function in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we reveal that miR-155 levels are downregulated in serum from type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, suggesting that miR-155 might be involved in blood glucose control and diabetes. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrate that miR-155 has no effects on the pancreatic β-cell proliferation and function. Global transgenic overexpression of miR-155 in mice leads to hypoglycaemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, miR-155 deficiency in mice causes hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. In addition, consistent with a positive regulatory role of miR-155 in glucose metabolism, miR-155 positively modulates glucose uptake in all cell types examined, while mice overexpressing miR-155 transgene show enhanced glycolysis, and insulin-stimulated AKT and IRS-1 phosphorylation in liver, adipose tissue or skeletal muscle. Furthermore, we reveal these aforementioned phenomena occur, at least partially, through miR-155-mediated repression of important negative regulators (i.e. C/EBPβ, HDAC4 and SOCS1) of insulin signaling. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that miR-155 is a positive regulator of insulin sensitivity with potential applications for diabetes treatment. PMID:27711113
Full Text Available The liver responds to estrogens and GH which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This cross-talk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency.
Benitez, Cecil M.; Qu, Kun; Sugiyama, Takuya; Pauerstein, Philip T.; Liu, Yinghua; Tsai, Jennifer; Gu, Xueying; Ghodasara, Amar; Arda, H. Efsun; Zhang, Jiajing; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Chang, Howard Y.; Kim, Seung K.
The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:25330008
Cecil M Benitez
Full Text Available The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession has become an important therapeutic issue due to increasing cosmetic demand. Multiple surgical procedures have been developed to obtain predictable esthetic root coverage. More specifically, after periodontal regenerative surgery, the aim is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a concentrated suspension of the growth factors, found in platelets. These growth factors are involved in wound healing and postulated as promoters of tissue regeneration. This paper reports the use of PRF membrane for root coverage on the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth. This was accomplished using laterally displaced flap technique with platelet rich fibrin (PRF membrane at the recipient site.
Almog, Nava, E-mail: email@example.com; Klement, Giannoula Lakka, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Caritas St. Elizabeth' s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)
Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the possibility of timely treatment and improvement in outcomes. We have recently described the ability of platelets to selectively uptake angiogenesis regulators very early in tumor growth, and proposed their use as an early marker of malignancy. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about these processes and will discuss the possibility of using platelet content to predict presence of occult tumors.
Giuseppe A. eRamirez
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread organ dysfunction due to fibrosis and ischemia. Its nebulous pathogenic background and the consequent absence of an etiological therapy prevent the adoption of satisfying treatment strategies, able to improve patients' quality of life and survival and stimulate researchers to identify a unifying pathogenic target. Platelets show a unique biological behavior, lying at the crossroads between vascular function, innate and adaptive immunity and regulation of cell proliferation. Consequently they are also emerging players in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including systemic sclerosis. In the setting of SSc platelets are detectable in a persistent activated state, which is intimately linked to the concomitant presence of an injured endothelium and to the widespread activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. As a consistent circulating source of bioactive compounds platelets contribute to the development of many characteristic phenomena of SSc, such as fibrosis and impaired vascular tone.
Lien, Li-Ming; Su, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chung, Chi-Li; Yen, Ting-Lin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung
Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, is isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our recent studies revealed that andrographolide possesses potent antiplatelet activity by inhibition of the p38 MAPK/(●) HO-NF-κB-ERK2 cascade. Although platelets are anucleated cells, apoptotic machinery apparatus recently has been found to regulate platelet activation and limit platelet lifespan. Therefore, we further investigated the regulatory effects of andrographolide on platelet apoptotic events. In this study, apoptotic signaling events for caspase-3, -8, and Bid were time (10-60 min)- and dose (25-100 μΜ)-dependently activated by andrographolide in human platelets. Andrographolide could also disrupt mitrochondrial membrane potential. In addition, caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk, 50 μΜ) was found to reverse andrographolide-induced caspase-8 activation, whereas the antagonistic anti-Fas receptor (ZB4, 500 ng/mL) and anti-tumor necrosis factor-R1 (H398, 10 µg/mL) monoclonal antibodies did not. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that andrographolide might limit platelet lifespan by initiating the caspase-8-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway, in spite of no direct evidence that death receptors are involved in this process proved. Overall, the various medicinal properties of andrographolide suggest its potential value in treating patients with thromboembolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sheng, Xiumei; Wang, Zhengxin
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in proteins. WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77), also known as p44, MEP50, or WD45, forms a stoichiometric complex with PRMT5. The PRMT5/p44 complex is required for cellular proliferation of lung and prostate epithelial cells during earlier stages of development and is re-activated during prostate and lung tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms by which PRMT5 and p44 promote cellular proliferation are unknown. Expression of PRMT5 and p44 in lung and prostate cancer cells was silenced and their target genes were identified. The regulation of target genes was validated in various cancer cells during lung development and tumorigenesis. Altered expression of target genes was achieved by ectopic cDNA expression and shRNA-mediated silencing. PRMT5 and p44 regulate expression of a specific set of genes encoding growth and anti-growth factors, including receptor tyrosine kinases and antiproliferative proteins. Genes whose expression was suppressed by PRMT5 and p44 encoded anti-growth factors and inhibited cell growth when ectopically expressed. In contrast, genes whose expression was enhanced by PRMT5 and p44 encoded growth factors and increased cell growth when expressed. Altered expression of target genes is associated with re-activation of PRMT5 and p44 during lung tumorigenesis. Our data provide the molecular basis by which PRMT5 and p44 regulate cell growth and lay a foundation for further investigation of their role in lung tumor initiation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2632-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
Full Text Available The central nervous system normally functions at O(2 levels which would be regarded as hypoxic by most other tissues. However, most in vitro studies of neurons and astrocytes are conducted under hyperoxic conditions without consideration of O(2-dependent cellular adaptation. We analyzed the reactivity of astrocytes to 1, 4 and 9% O(2 tensions compared to the cell culture standard of 20% O(2, to investigate their ability to sense and translate this O(2 information to transcriptional activity. Variance of ambient O(2 tension for rat astrocytes resulted in profound changes in ribosomal activity, cytoskeletal and energy-regulatory mechanisms and cytokine-related signaling. Clustering of transcriptional regulation patterns revealed four distinct response pattern groups that directionally pivoted around the 4% O(2 tension, or demonstrated coherent ascending/decreasing gene expression patterns in response to diverse oxygen tensions. Immune response and cell cycle/cancer-related signaling pathway transcriptomic subsets were significantly activated with increasing hypoxia, whilst hemostatic and cardiovascular signaling mechanisms were attenuated with increasing hypoxia. Our data indicate that variant O(2 tensions induce specific and physiologically-focused transcript regulation patterns that may underpin important physiological mechanisms that connect higher neurological activity to astrocytic function and ambient oxygen environments. These strongly defined patterns demonstrate a strong bias for physiological transcript programs to pivot around the 4% O(2 tension, while uni-modal programs that do not, appear more related to pathological actions. The functional interaction of these transcriptional 'programs' may serve to regulate the dynamic vascular responsivity of the central nervous system during periods of stress or heightened activity.
Some genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the transcriptional machinery as well as proteins involved in epigenetic modification of the genome share many overlapping features, such as facial dysmorphisms, growth problems and developmental delay/intellectual disability. As a basis for some shared phenotypic characteristics in these syndromes, a similar transcriptome disturbance, characterized by global transcriptional dysregulation, is believed to play a major role. In this review article, a general overview of gene transcription is provided, and the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying some disorders of transcriptional regulation, such as Rubinstein- Taybi, Coffin-Siris, Cornelia de Lange, and CHOPS syndromes, are discussed. PMID:27867341
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.
Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S
We previously have demonstrated that human platelets have functionally active platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptors. Studies with gel-filtered platelets showed that an autocrine inhibition pathway is transduced through this tyrosine kinase receptor during platelet activation. The physiological significance of this inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor on gel-filtered platelets activation is, however, not known. In the present study, we investigated whether platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation under more physiological conditions in heparinized whole blood, which represents a more physiological condition than gel-filtered platelets. Using flow cytometric assays, we demonstrate here that platelet-derived growth factor inhibits thrombin-, thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shedding of platelet-derived microparticles from the platelet plasma membrane during platelet aggregation in stirred heparinized whole blood. The inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor was dose dependent. However, under nonaggregating conditions (no stirring), we could not demonstrate any significant effect of platelet-derived growth factor on thrombin- and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Our results demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor appears to be a true antithrombotic agent only under aggregating conditions in heparinized whole blood.
McBride, J. A.
Platelet adhesiveness has been measured in citrated whole blood and in platelet-rich plasma obtained from normal subjects, splenectomized patients, and from patients in whom the diagnosis of recurrent venous thrombosis had been made. The duration of centrifugation used in the preparation of platelet-rich plasma was found to have a profound effect on the measurement of platelet adhesiveness because the figure for platelet adhesiveness measured in platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation was considerably lower than that found in citrated whole blood. This effect was particularly marked when platelet-rich plasma was obtained from subjects in whom platelet adhesiveness measured in whole blood was increased. PMID:5699080
Kitazono, Tomohiro; Hara-Kuge, Sayuri; Matsuda, Osamu; Inoue, Akitoshi; Fujiwara, Manabi; Ishihara, Takeshi
invertebrates. We found that in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, the noncell autonomous regulations of forgetting of olfactory adaptation is regulated by three conserved proteins: a membrane protein, MACO-1; a receptor tyrosine kinase, SCD-2: and its ligand, HEN-1. MACO-1 and SCD-2/HEN-1, working in coordination, accelerate forgetting by controlling sensory responses in parallel. Furthermore, temporal regulation of neuronal activity is important for proper forgetting. We suggest that multiple pathways may coordinately and temporally regulate forgetting through control of sensory responses. This study should lead to a better understanding of forgetting in higher organisms. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710240-12$15.00/0.
Hom, Sarah; Chen, Li; Wang, Tony; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei; Rubenstein, David A
Tobacco smoke extracts prepared from both mainstream and sidestream smoking have been associated with heightened platelet activation, aggregation, adhesion, and inflammation. Conversely, it has been shown that pure nicotine inhibits similar platelet functions. In this work, we 1) evaluated the effects of e-cigarette extracts on platelet activities and 2) elucidated the differences between the nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine dependent (e.g. fine particulate matter or toxic compounds) effects of tobacco and e-cigarette products on platelet activities. To accomplish these goals, platelets from healthy volunteers (n = 50) were exposed to tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts, and pure nicotine and changes in platelet activation, adhesion, aggregation, and inflammation were evaluated, using optical aggregation, flow cytometry, and ELISA methods. Interestingly, the exposure of platelets to e-vapor extracts induced a significant up-regulation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory gC1qR and cC1qR and induced a marked increase in the deposition of C3b as compared with traditional tobacco smoke extracts. Similarly, platelet activation, as measured by a prothrombinase based assay, and platelet aggregation were also significantly enhanced after exposure to e-vapor extracts. Finally, platelet adhesion potential toward fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other platelets was also enhanced after exposure to e-cigarette vapor extracts. In the presence of pure nicotine, platelet functions were observed to be inhibited, which further suggests that other constituents of tobacco smoke and electronic vapor can antagonize platelet functions, however, the presence of nicotine in extracts somewhat perpetuated the platelet functional changes in a dose-dependent manner.
Schöpf, Lotte; Mautz, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard
In the genome of Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, three functional β-carotene ketolase genes exist, one of the crtO and two of the crtW type. They were all expressed and their corresponding enzymes were functional inserting 4-keto groups into β-carotene as shown by functional pathway complementation in Escherichia coli. They all synthesized canthaxanthin but with different efficiencies. Canthaxanthin is the photoprotective carotenoid of N. punctiforme PCC 73102. Under high-light stress, its synthesis was enhanced. This was caused by up-regulation of the transcripts of two genes in combination. The first crtB-encoding phytoene synthase is the gate way enzyme of carotenogenesis resulting in an increased inflow into the pathway. The second was the ketolase gene crtW148 which in high light takes over β-carotene conversion into canthaxanthin from the other ketolases. The other ketolases were down-regulated under high-light conditions. CrtW148 was also exclusively responsible for the last step in 4-keto-myxoxanthophyll synthesis.
Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs
Tsubota, Takuya; Tomita, Shuichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Kimoto, Mai; Takiya, Shigeharu; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Sezutsu, Hideki
Hoxgenes play a pivotal role in the determination of anteroposterior axis specificity during bilaterian animal development. They do so by acting as a master control and regulating the expression of genes important for development. Recently, however, we showed that Hoxgenes can also function in terminally differentiated tissue of the lepidopteranBombyx mori In this species,Antennapedia(Antp) regulates expression of sericin-1, a major silk protein gene, in the silk gland. Here, we investigated whether Antpcan regulate expression of multiple genes in this tissue. By means of proteomic, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization analyses, we demonstrate that misexpression of Antpin the posterior silk gland induced ectopic expression of major silk protein genes such assericin-3,fhxh4, and fhxh5 These genes are normally expressed specifically in the middle silk gland as is Antp Therefore, the evidence strongly suggests that Antpactivates these silk protein genes in the middle silk gland. The putativesericin-1 activator complex (middle silk gland-intermolt-specific complex) can bind to the upstream regions of these genes, suggesting that Antpdirectly activates their expression. We also found that the pattern of gene expression was well conserved between B. moriand the wild species Bombyx mandarina, indicating that the gene regulation mechanism identified here is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism and not an artifact of the domestication of B. mori We suggest that Hoxgenes have a role as a master control in terminally differentiated tissues, possibly acting as a primary regulator for a range of physiological processes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Heyns, A. du P.; Loetter, M.G.; Badenhorst, P.N.
The Medical Research Council Blood Platelet Research Unit has studied many of the facets of platelets. The research highlights of the Unit include the following: the identification of ADPase, an enzyme found in the blood vessel wall, which breaks down adenosine diphospate (ADP) to adenosine, and which inhibits platelet aggregation; the determination of the relationship between the biochemical activity of the vessel wall with the development of atherosclerosis; the development of a method to label platelets with the compound In-111-oxine; the use of labelled platelets to study platelets in the spleen: an investigation of the life-span of platelets, which revealed how aged platelets are removed from circulation, and recently a study of methods to demonstrate in vivo activation of platelets. 1 fig
Yen, Ting-Lin; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lien, Li-Ming; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung
Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLC γ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.
Full Text Available Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.
Eduardo Freitas Moreira
Full Text Available Mutualistic plant-pollinator interactions play a key role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. In a community, the combination of these interactions can generate emergent properties, e.g., robustness and resilience to disturbances such as fluctuations in populations and extinctions. Given that these systems are hierarchical and complex, environmental changes must have multiple levels of influence. In addition, changes in habitat quality and in the landscape structure are important threats to plants, pollinators and their interactions. However, despite the importance of these phenomena for the understanding of biological systems, as well as for conservation and management strategies, few studies have empirically evaluated these effects at the network level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of local conditions and landscape structure at multiple scales on the characteristics of plant-pollinator networks. This study was conducted in agri-natural lands in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Pollinators were collected in 27 sampling units distributed orthogonally along a gradient of proportion of agriculture and landscape diversity. The Akaike information criterion was used to select models that best fit the metrics for network characteristics, comparing four hypotheses represented by a set of a priori candidate models with specific combinations of the proportion of agriculture, the average shape of the landscape elements, the diversity of the landscape and the structure of local vegetation. The results indicate that a reduction of habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity can cause species loss and decrease of networks nestedness. These structural changes can reduce robustness and resilience of plant-pollinator networks what compromises the reproductive success of plants, the maintenance of biodiversity and the pollination service stability. We also discuss the possible explanations for
Moreira, Eduardo Freitas; Boscolo, Danilo; Viana, Blandina Felipe
Mutualistic plant-pollinator interactions play a key role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. In a community, the combination of these interactions can generate emergent properties, e.g., robustness and resilience to disturbances such as fluctuations in populations and extinctions. Given that these systems are hierarchical and complex, environmental changes must have multiple levels of influence. In addition, changes in habitat quality and in the landscape structure are important threats to plants, pollinators and their interactions. However, despite the importance of these phenomena for the understanding of biological systems, as well as for conservation and management strategies, few studies have empirically evaluated these effects at the network level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of local conditions and landscape structure at multiple scales on the characteristics of plant-pollinator networks. This study was conducted in agri-natural lands in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Pollinators were collected in 27 sampling units distributed orthogonally along a gradient of proportion of agriculture and landscape diversity. The Akaike information criterion was used to select models that best fit the metrics for network characteristics, comparing four hypotheses represented by a set of a priori candidate models with specific combinations of the proportion of agriculture, the average shape of the landscape elements, the diversity of the landscape and the structure of local vegetation. The results indicate that a reduction of habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity can cause species loss and decrease of networks nestedness. These structural changes can reduce robustness and resilience of plant-pollinator networks what compromises the reproductive success of plants, the maintenance of biodiversity and the pollination service stability. We also discuss the possible explanations for these relationships and
Chen, Kan-Kan; He, Zheng-Mei; Ding, Bang-He; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Yu, Liang; Gao, Jian
To investigate the inhibitory effect of HSP90 inhibitory 17-AAG on proliferation of multiple myeloma cells and its main mechanism. The multiple myeloma cells U266 were treated with 17-AAG of different concentrations (200, 400, 600 and 800 nmol/L) for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively, then the proliferation rate, expression levels of β-catenin and C-MYC protein, as well as cell cycle of U266 cells were treated with 17-AAG and were detected by MTT method, Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. The 17-AAG showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of U266 cells in dose- and time-depetent manners (r = -0.518, P AAG displayed no inhibitory effect on proliferation of U266 cells (P > 0.05). The result of culturing U266 cells for 72 hours by 17-AAG of different concentrations showed that the more high of 17-AAG concentration, the more low level of β-catenin and C-MYC proteins (P AAG concentration, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG, the more long time of culture, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG can inhibit the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibition of HSP90 expression may be the main mechnisms of 17-AAG effect.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists took place only very recently. In fact, the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1 was cloned in 1990, followed 3 years later by the characterization of a second cannabinoid receptor (CB2. Since the 19th century, the use of cannabis has been reported to stimulate appetite and increase the consumption of sweet and tasty food, sometimes resulting in significant weight gain. The recent description of the endocannabinoid system, not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues, points to its involvement in the regulation of appetite, food intake and energy metabolism. Consequently, the pharmacological modulation of the over-activity of this system could be useful in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The endocannabinoid system has important physiological functions not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues. The activation of central CB1 receptors, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei and in the limbic system, is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, and especially in the control of the intake of palatable food. In the periphery, cannabinoid receptors are present in adipocytes, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract and liver, modulating energy metabolism.
Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Macaulay, Iain C; Jensen, Christina T; Woll, Petter S; Luis, Tiago C; Mead, Adam; Moore, Susan; Carella, Cintia; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Bouriez Jones, Tiphaine; Chowdhury, Onima; Stenson, Laura; Lutteropp, Michael; Green, Joanna C A; Facchini, Raffaella; Boukarabila, Hanane; Grover, Amit; Gambardella, Adriana; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Tarrant, Paul; Atkinson, Deborah; Clark, Sally-Ann; Nerlov, Claus; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W
The blood system is maintained by a small pool of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are required and sufficient for replenishing all human blood cell lineages at millions of cells per second throughout life. Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow are responsible for the continuous production of platelets in the blood, crucial for preventing bleeding--a common and life-threatening side effect of many cancer therapies--and major efforts are focused at identifying the most suitable cellular and molecular targets to enhance platelet production after bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy. Although it has become clear that distinct HSC subsets exist that are stably biased towards the generation of lymphoid or myeloid blood cells, we are yet to learn whether other types of lineage-biased HSC exist or understand their inter-relationships and how differently lineage-biased HSCs are generated and maintained. The functional relevance of notable phenotypic and molecular similarities between megakaryocytes and bone marrow cells with an HSC cell-surface phenotype remains unclear. Here we identify and prospectively isolate a molecularly and functionally distinct mouse HSC subset primed for platelet-specific gene expression, with enhanced propensity for short- and long-term reconstitution of platelets. Maintenance of platelet-biased HSCs crucially depends on thrombopoietin, the primary extrinsic regulator of platelet development. Platelet-primed HSCs also frequently have a long-term myeloid lineage bias, can self-renew and give rise to lymphoid-biased HSCs. These findings show that HSC subtypes can be organized into a cellular hierarchy, with platelet-primed HSCs at the apex. They also demonstrate that molecular and functional priming for platelet development initiates already in a distinct HSC population. The identification of a platelet-primed HSC population should enable the rational design of therapies enhancing platelet output.
Alberio, Lorenzo; Ravanat, Catherine; Hechler, Béatrice; Mangin, Pierre H; Lanza, François; Gachet, Christian
The combined action of collagen and thrombin induces the formation of COAT platelets, which are characterised by a coat of procoagulant and adhesive molecules on their surface. Although recent work has started to highlight their clinical relevance, the exact mechanisms regulating the formation of procoagulant COAT platelets remain unclear. Therefore, we employed flow cytometry in order to visualise in real time surface and intracellular events following simultaneous platelet activation with convulxin and thrombin. After a rapid initial response pattern characterised by the homogenous activation of the fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in all platelets, starting with a delay of about 2 minutes an increasing fraction transforms to procoagulant COAT platelets. Their surface is characterised by progressive loss of PAC-1 binding, expression of negative phospholipids and retention of α-granule von Willebrand factor. Intracellular events in procoagulant COAT platelets are a marked increase of free calcium into the low micromolar range, concomitantly with early depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane and activation of caspase-3, while non-COAT platelets keep the intracellular free calcium in the nanomolar range and maintain an intact mitochondrial membrane. We show for the first time that the flow-cytometrically distinct fractions of COAT and non-COAT platelets differentially phosphorylate two signalling proteins, PKCα and p38MAPK, which may be involved in the regulation of the different calcium fluxes observed in COAT versus non-COAT platelets. This study demonstrates the utility of concomitant cellular and signalling evaluation using flow cytometry in order to further dissect the mechanisms underlying the dichotomous platelet response observed after collagen/thrombin stimulation.
Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina
The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kraus, Emma; Kraus, Kristina; Obser, Tobias; Oyen, Florian; Klemm, Ulrike; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Brehm, Maria A
The multimeric form of von Willebrand factor (VWF), is the largest soluble protein in mammals and exhibits a multidomain structure resulting in multiple functions. Upon agonist stimulation endothelial cells secrete VWF multimers from Weibel-Palade bodies into the blood stream where VWF plays an essential role in platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Elongation of VWF strings on the cells' surface leads to accessibility of VWF binding sites for proteins, such as platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. The prothrombotic strings are size-regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 by shear force-activated proteolytic cleavage. VWF string formation was induced by histamine stimulation of HUVEC cells under unidirectional shear flow and VWF strings were detected employing the VWF binding peptide of platelet glycoprotein Ib coupled to latex beads. VWF strings were then used as substrate for kinetic studies of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13. To investigate specific aspects of the shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13, we developed a shear flow assay that allows observation of VWF string formation and their degradation by ADAMTS13 without the need for isolated platelets. Our assay specifically detects VWF strings, can be coupled with fluorescent applications and allows semi-automated, quantitative assessment of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Our assay may serve as a valuable research tool to investigate the biochemical characteristics of VWF and ADAMTS13 under shear flow and could complement diagnostics of von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura as it allows detection of shear flow-dependent dysfunction of VWD-associated VWF mutants as well as TTP-associated ADAMTS13 mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available T helper (Th2 cells have been proposed to play a neuroprotective role in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is mainly based on “loss-of-function” studies in an animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, using blocking antibodies against Th2 related cytokines, and knockout mice lacking Th2-related molecules. We tested whether an increase of Th2 responses (“gain-of-function” approach could alter EAE, the approach of novel GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3-transgenic (tg mice that overexpress GATA3, a transcription factor required for Th2 differentiation. In EAE induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55 peptide, GATA3-tg mice had a significantly delayed onset of disease and a less severe maximum clinical score, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Histologically, GATA3-tg mice had decreased levels of meningitis and demyelination in the spinal cord, and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles immunologically, however both groups developed similar levels of MOG-specific lymphoproliferative responses. During the early stage, we detected higher levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-10, with MOG and mitogen stimulation of regional lymph node cells in GATA3-tg mice. During the late stage, only mitogen stimulation induced higher IL-4 and lower interferon-γ and IL-17 production in GATA3-tg mice. These results suggest that a preexisting bias toward a Th2 immune response may reduce the severity of inflammatory demyelinating diseases, including MS.
Full Text Available Assimilation of nitrogen is an essential biological process for plant growth and productivity. Here we show that three chloroplast enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, nitrite reductase (NiR and glutamine synthetase (GS, separately assemble into distinct protein complexes in spinach chloroplasts, as analyzed by western blots under blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE. GOGAT and NiR were present not only as monomers, but also as novel complexes with a discrete size (730 kDa and multiple sizes (>120 kDa, respectively, in the stromal fraction of chloroplasts. These complexes showed the same mobility as each monomer on two-dimensional (2D SDS-PAGE after BN-PAGE. The 730 kDa complex containing GOGAT dissociated into monomers, and multiple complexes of NiR reversibly converted into monomers, in response to the changes in the pH of the stromal solvent. On the other hand, the bands detected by anti-GS antibody were present not only in stroma as a conventional decameric holoenzyme complex of 420 kDa, but also in thylakoids as a novel complex of 560 kDa. The polypeptide in the 560 kDa complex showed slower mobility than that of the 420 kDa complex on the 2D SDS-PAGE, implying the assembly of distinct GS isoforms or a post-translational modification of the same GS protein. The function of these multiple complexes was evaluated by in-gel GS activity under native conditions and by the binding ability of NiR and GOGAT with their physiological electron donor, ferredoxin. The results indicate that these multiplicities in size and localization of the three nitrogen assimilatory enzymes may be involved in the physiological regulation of their enzyme function, in a similar way as recently described cases of carbon assimilatory enzymes.
Rosas, Alejandro; Valencia, Martha P; Sánchez, Manuel; Bautista, Maura; Rico, Guadalupe; Vega, Gloria B
To determine the TGF-? concentration in plasma and platelets in patients with allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. The study group included 36 adult females, 6 with clinical and laboratory diagnoses of allergic rhinitis, 18 with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis (rhino-sinusitis) and 12 clinically healthy controls. The samples were obtained from venous blood. TGF-? was measured in plasma and in the supernatant fluid of platelets by a solid phase Enzymo-immun assay, and IL-11 was quantified using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. In both patient groups platelet numbers (106/mL) were greater than in controls. Plasma concentration (pg/ml) of TGF-? in the allergic rhinitis group (276 ± 16) was lower than in control group (932 ± 99) (p platelet TGF-? concentration was smaller than in control, but only significant (p platelet number and intraplatelet TGF-? levels. The inverse correlation between intra-platelet TGF-? and circulating platelets number found in all individuals studied suggests that platelets do not alter the regulating mechanism of TGF-? production in allergy or infection.
Full Text Available Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types—dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes—although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.
Polzin, Amin; Knoop, Betül; Böhm, Andreas; Dannenberg, Lisa; Zurek, Mark; Zeus, Tobias; Kelm, Malte; Levkau, Bodo; Rauch, Bernhard H
Aspirin plays a crucial role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We previously described that aspirin has effects beyond inhibition of platelet aggregation, as it inhibited thrombin-mediated release of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) from human platelets. S1P is a bioactive lipid with important functions on inflammation and apoptosis. In endothelial cells (EC), S1P is a key regulator of cell migration. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of aspirin on platelet-induced EC migration. Human umbilical EC migration was measured by Boyden chamber assay. EC migration was induced by platelet supernatants of thrombin receptor-activating peptide-1 (AP1) stimulated platelets. To investigate the S1P receptor subtype that promotes EC migration, specific inhibitors of S1P receptor subtypes were applied. S1P induced EC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. EC migration induced by AP1-stimulated platelet supernatants was reduced by aspirin. S1P1 receptor inhibition almost completely abolished EC migration induced by activated platelets. The inhibition of S1P2 or S1P3 receptor had no effect. Aspirin inhibits EC migration induced by activated platelets that is in part due to S1P and mediated by the endothelial S1P1 receptor. The clinical significance of this novel mechanism of aspirin action has to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Li, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiao; Ran, Bing; Wu, Jianbo; Ren, Meiping; Chen, Ni; Luo, Mao; Deng, Xin; Xia, Jiyi; Yu, Guang; Liu, Jinbo; He, Bing
Platelets play a fundamental role in maintaining hemostasis and have been shown to participate in hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. Abundant platelets were detected in the tumor microenvironment outside of the blood vessel, thus, platelet -tumor cell interaction outside of the bloodstream may play a role in regulating primary tumor growth and metastasis initiation. However, it is unclear that platelet depletion affects tumor vessel structure and dynamics. Using thrombocytopenia induction in two different tumor-bearing mouse models, tumor tissues were performed by Westernblotting and immunohistochemical staining. Vascular permeability was evaluated by determination of intratumoral Evans blue and Miles vascular permeability assay. Furthermore, microdialysis was used to examining the intratumoral extracellular angiogenic growth factors (VEGF, TGF-β) by ELISA. Platelet depletion showed no change in tumor growth and reduced lung metastasis. Platelet depletion led to reduced tumor hypoxia and Met receptor activation and was associated with a decreased release of MMP-2, 9, PAI-1, VEGF, and TGF-β. Tumor vessels in platelet-depleted mice showed impaired vessel density and maturation. Our findings demonstrate that platelets within the primary tumor microenvironment play a critical role in the induction of vascular permeability and initiation of tumor metastasis
Gruzdev, G P; Monichev, A Ya
A mathematical model of regulation of the rate of multiplication of the stem cells of the bone marrow has been constructed and investigated. Two possible variants of regulation of the proliferative activity of the irradiated stem cells are compared: at the level of tissue and subtissue units. Comparison of the results of modeling with the results of experimental investigations supports the latter mechanism of regulation of the proliferation of the stem cells.
Qiao, Sheng-Nan; Zhang, Zhijing; Ribelayga, Christophe P; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Dao-Qi
Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter in the retina and plays a central role in the light adaptive processes of the visual system. The sole source of retinal dopamine is dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs). We and others have previously demonstrated that DACs are activated by rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) upon illumination. However, it is still not clear how each class of photosensitive cells generates light responses in DACs. We genetically isolated cone function in mice to specifically examine the cone-mediated responses of DACs and their neural pathways. In addition to the reported excitatory input to DACs from light-increment (ON) bipolar cells, we found that cones alternatively signal to DACs via a retrograde signalling pathway from ipRGCs. Cones also produce ON and light-decrement (OFF) inhibitory responses in DACs, which are mediated by other amacrine cells, likely driven by type 1 and type 2/3a OFF bipolar cells, respectively. Dye injections indicated that DACs had similar morphological profiles with or without ON/OFF inhibition. Our data demonstrate that cones utilize specific parallel excitatory and inhibitory circuits to modulate DAC activity and efficiently regulate dopamine release and the light-adaptive state of the retina.
Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves sequential phases that overlap in time and space and affect each other dynamically at the gene and protein levels. We previously showed that insulin accelerates wound healing by stimulating faster and regenerative healing. One of the processes that insulin stimulates is an increase in monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. In this study, we performed experiments in vivo and in vitro to elucidate the signaling transduction pathways that are involved in insulin-induced monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. We found that insulin stimulates THP-1 cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent and insulin receptor-dependent manner. We also show that the kinases PI3K-Akt, SPAK/JNK, and p38 MAPK are key molecules in the insulin-induced signaling pathways that lead to chemoattraction of the THP-1 cell. Furthermore, both PI3K-Akt and SPAK/JNK signaling involve Rac1 activation, an important molecule in regulating cell motility. Indeed, topical application of Rac1 inhibitor at an early stage during the healing process caused delayed and impaired healing even in the presence of insulin. These results delineate cell and molecular mechanisms involved in insulin-induced chemotaxis of monocyte/macrophage, cells that are critical for proper healing.
Chevalier, Adrien S; Chaumont, François
Aquaporins are small channel proteins which facilitate the diffusion of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes. Compared with animals, plant genomes encode numerous aquaporins, which display a large variety of subcellular localization patterns. More specifically, plant aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily were first described as plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, but recent research has demonstrated that the trafficking and subcellular localization of these proteins are complex and highly regulated. In the past few years, PIPs emerged as new model proteins to study subcellular sorting and membrane dynamics in plant cells. At least two distinct sorting motifs (one cytosolic, the other buried in the membrane) are required to direct PIPs to the PM. Hetero-oligomerization and interaction with SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptors) also influence the subcellular trafficking of PIPs. In addition to these constitutive processes, both the progression of PIPs through the secretory pathway and their dynamics at the PM are responsive to changing environmental conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Dellett, Margaret; Hu, Wanzhou; Papadaki, Vasiliki; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi
The small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRPs) family of proteins currently consists of five classes, based on their structural composition and chromosomal location. As biologically active components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), SLRPs were known to bind to various collagens, having a role in regulating fibril assembly, organization and degradation. More recently, as a function of their diverse proteins cores and glycosaminoglycan side chains, SLRPs have been shown to be able to bind various cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and other ECM components resulting in the ability to influence various cellular functions. Their involvement in several signaling pathways such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor receptor also highlights their role as matricellular proteins. SLRP family members are expressed during neural development and in adult neural tissues, including ocular tissues. This review focuses on describing SLRP family members involvement in neural development with a brief summary of their role in non-neural ocular tissues and in response to neural injury. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.
During animal development, Hox transcription factors determine fate of developing tissues to generate diverse organs and appendages. Hox proteins are famous for their bizarre mutant phenotypes, such as replacing antennae with legs. Clearly, the functions of individual Hox proteins must be distinct and reliable in vivo, or the organism risks malformation or death. However, within the Hox protein family, the DNA-binding homeodomains are highly conserved and the amino acids that contact DNA are nearly invariant. These observations raise the question: How do different Hox proteins correctly identify their distinct target genes using a common DNA binding domain? One possible means to modulate DNA binding is through the influence of the non-homeodomain protein regions, which differ significantly among Hox proteins. However genetic approaches never detected intra-protein interactions, and early biochemical attempts were hindered because the special features of ``intrinsically disordered'' sequences were not appreciated. We propose the first-ever structural model of a Hox protein to explain how specific contacts between distant, intrinsically disordered regions of the protein and the homeodomain regulate DNA binding and coordinate this activity with other Hox molecular functions.
Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc
This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting. © 2016 The Author(s).
Tersteeg, Claudia; Heijnen, Harry F.; Eckly, Anita; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Maas, Coen; Hoefer, Imo E.; Nieuwland, Rienk; Farndale, Richard W.; Gachet, Christian; de Groot, Philip G.; Roest, Mark
Rationale: Platelets are the most important cells in the primary prevention of blood loss after injury. In addition, platelets are at the interface between circulating leukocytes and the (sub)endothelium regulating inflammatory responses. Objective: Our aim was to study the dynamic process that
Johnson, Thomas W; Mumford, Andrew D; Scott, Lauren J; Mundell, Stuart; Butler, Mark; Strange, Julian W; Rogers, Chris A; Reeves, Barnaby C; Baumbach, Andreas
Rapid coronary recanalization following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requires effective anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic therapies. This study tested the impact of door to end of procedure ('door-to-end') time and baseline platelet activity on platelet inhibition within 24hours post-STEMI. 108 patients, treated with prasugrel and procedural bivalirudin, underwent Multiplate® platelet function testing at baseline, 0, 1, 2 and 24hours post-procedure. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), bleeding and stent thrombosis (ST) were recorded. Baseline ADP activity was high (88.3U [71.8-109.0]), procedural time and consequently bivalirudin infusion duration were short (median door-to-end time 55minutes [40-70] and infusion duration 30minutes [20-42]). Baseline ADP was observed to influence all subsequent measurements of ADP activity, whereas door-to-end time only influenced ADP immediately post-procedure. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR ADP>46.8U) was observed in 75% of patients immediately post-procedure and persisted in 24% of patients at 2hours. Five patients suffered in-hospital MACE (4.6%). Acute ST occurred in 4 patients, all were <120mins post-procedure and had HRPR. No significant bleeding was observed. In a post-hoc analysis, pre-procedural morphine use was associated with significantly higher ADP activity following intervention. Baseline platelet function, time to STEMI treatment and opiate use all significantly influence immediate post-procedural platelet activity.
transfusion. Our project proposes to determine the efficacy of using a pathogen inactivation technique (Mirasol) coupled with a platelet additive solution (PAS...technology, platelet additive solution, platelet recovery and survival, platelet storage, platelet storage solution, platelets, thrombocytopenia, transfusion...Platelets Report to 2017 Military Health System Research Symposium ……………………………………………………………….. 29 Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates
Guerra-Cuesta, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Jiménez, A M; González-Fernández, F; Rico, L A; García, R; Gómez, J; Farré, J; Casado, S; López-Farré, A
Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan can block the thromboxane A2 receptor on the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men, aged 26-40 years. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l) or ADP (10(-5) mol/l). U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-dependent manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 x 10(-5) mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I converting inhibitor, failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan, whereas only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of [3H]-U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets. Losartan also reduced the platelet activation induced by ADP (10(-5) mol/l), a platelet agonist partially dependent on thromboxane A2. In addition, when thromboxane A2 generation was blocked by aspirin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited to a similar degree to the inhibition induced by losartan. Exogenous angiotensin II did not elicit any modification of either U46619- or ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a thromboxane A2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 was less potent than losartan in reducing thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation independently of its effect on angiotensin II.
Solari, Fiorella A; Mattheij, Nadine J A; Burkhart, Julia M; Swieringa, Frauke; Collins, Peter W; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Sickmann, Albert; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Zahedi, René P
The Scott syndrome is a very rare and likely underdiagnosed bleeding disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding anoctamin-6. Platelets from Scott patients are impaired in various Ca 2+ -dependent responses, including phosphatidylserine exposure, integrin closure, intracellular protein cleavage, and cytoskeleton-dependent morphological changes. Given the central role of anoctamin-6 in the platelet procoagulant response, we used quantitative proteomics to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and the complex phenotypic changes in Scott platelets compared with control platelets. Therefore, we applied an iTRAQ-based multi-pronged strategy to quantify changes in (1) the global proteome, (2) the phosphoproteome, and (3) proteolytic events between resting and stimulated Scott and control platelets. Our data indicate a limited number of proteins with decreased (70) or increased (64) expression in Scott platelets, among those we confirmed the absence of anoctamin-6 and the strong up-regulation of aquaporin-1 by parallel reaction monitoring. The quantification of 1566 phosphopeptides revealed major differences between Scott and control platelets after stimulation with thrombin/convulxin or ionomycin. In Scott platelets, phosphorylation levels of proteins regulating cytoskeletal or signaling events were increased. Finally, we quantified 1596 N-terminal peptides in activated Scott and control platelets, 180 of which we identified as calpain-regulated, whereas a distinct set of 23 neo-N termini was caspase-regulated. In Scott platelets, calpain-induced cleavage of cytoskeleton-linked and signaling proteins was downregulated, in accordance with an increased phosphorylation state. Thus, multipronged proteomic profiling of Scott platelets provides detailed insight into their protection against detrimental Ca 2+ -dependent changes that are normally associated with phosphatidylserine exposure. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular
Dütting, Sebastian; Heidenreich, Julius; Cherpokova, Deya
BACKGROUND: Platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury is essential for normal hemostasis, but may also cause pathological vessel occlusion. Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate essential cellular processes and they have pivotal functions in the cardiovascular system. Rac1......, have been characterized in different cell types, demonstrating high specificity for Rac1 or Rac, respectively. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the specificity of NSC23766 and EHT1864. METHODS: Platelet function was assessed in mouse wild-type and Rac1-deficient platelets by using flow cytometric...... function tests. Both inhibitors induced a Rac1-specific inhibition of platelet spreading, but also markedly impaired agonist-induced activation of Rac1(-/-) platelets. Furthermore, GPIb-mediated signaling was dramatically inhibited by NSC23766 in both wild-type and Rac1-deficient platelets. Importantly...
Full Text Available This study reports the regulation and purification of -glucosidases from a thermotolerant Aspergillus terreus AN1 strain, previously reported for efficient deinking of composite paper waste. The differential expression of four -glucosidase isoforms, in response to carbon sources in production medium, was studied by electrophoretically resolving proteins by polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis analysis (PAGE and developing zymograms using methylum-belliferyl -D glucoside as substrate. Three -glucosidases (GI, GII & GIII were purified using chromatographic techniques. SDS-PAGE revealed the respective molecular masses of GI, GII, and GIII, as 29, 43, and 98 KDa, and isoelectric point (pI to be 2.8, 3.7, and 3.0. The -glucosidases exhibited diverse pH and temperature optima as well as stability. -Glucosidase I (GI specifically recog-nized pNP--glucopyranoside (pNPG as a substrate, whereas, -glucosidase II (GII and III (GIII also showed activities against cellobiose and salicin. In contrast to GII and GIII, the activity of GI was positively influenced in the presence of hexoses/pentoses and alcohols. Km and Vmax for hydrolysis of pNPG by GI, GII, andGIII were found to be 14.2 mM and 166.9 µmol -1mg protein -1, 4.37 mM, and 34.7 µmol -1mg proteins -1, and 11.1 mM and 378.7µ mol -1 mg protein -1, respectively.
Full Text Available Cdc42 and Rac1, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, play critical roles in actin cytoskeleton regulation. We have shown previously that Rac1 is involved in regulation of platelet secretion and aggregation. However, the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation remains controversial. This study was undertaken to better understand the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation.We utilized the Mx-cre;Cdc42(lox/lox inducible mice with transient Cdc42 deletion to investigate the involvement of Cdc42 in platelet function. The Cdc42-deficient mice exhibited a significantly reduced platelet count than the matching Cdc42(+/+ mice. Platelets isolated from Cdc42(-/-, as compared to Cdc42(+/+, mice exhibited (a diminished phosphorylation of PAK1/2, an effector molecule of Cdc42, (b inhibition of filopodia formation on immobilized CRP or fibrinogen, (c inhibition of CRP- or thrombin-induced secretion of ATP and release of P-selectin, (d inhibition of CRP, collagen or thrombin induced platelet aggregation, and (e minimal phosphorylation of Akt upon stimulation with CRP or thrombin. The bleeding times were significantly prolonged in Cdc42(-/- mice compared with Cdc42(+/+ mice.Our data demonstrate that Cdc42 is required for platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation and therefore plays a critical role in platelet mediated hemostasis and thrombosis.
Full Text Available Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.
Full Text Available Meera Chitlur,1 Madhvi Rajpurkar,1 Michael Recht,2 Michael D Tarantino,3 Donald L Yee,4 David L Cooper,5 Sriya Gunawardena5 1Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University and Children’s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 3Bleeding and Clotting Disorders Institute, Peoria, IL, USA; 4Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 5Clinical Development, Medical and Regulatory Affairs, Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, USA Abstract: Patients with rare qualitative platelet disorders or platelet function disorders (PFDs may present to the hospital physician with severe bleeding episodes or excessive surgical bleeding. Although standard treatment consists of platelet transfusions, repeated transfusions may result in the development of antiplatelet antibodies (APA or clinical refractoriness, rendering further platelet therapy ineffective. In such settings, an approved treatment option for patients with Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT, one of the well-known rare PFDs, is recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa. Data regarding the efficacy of rFVIIa in patients with GT and platelet refractoriness are available from a large patient registry, an international survey, and multiple case reports and demonstrate efficacy in patients with and without refractoriness or APA. This article reviews the rFVIIa clinical data in patients with GT and platelet refractoriness and discusses clinical implications relevant to the hospital-based physician. Because uncontrolled bleeding can be life-threatening, hospital physicians should be alert to the signs of platelet refractoriness, be able to recognize continued internal or external bleeding, and know how to adapt treatment regimens for the effective management of bleeding. The management of patients who receive rFVIIa should occur in consultation with a hematologist with experience in PFDs, and
Neiva Teresinha J.C.
Full Text Available The use of hemo-derivatives is nowadays a fundamentally important therapeutic modality in the exercise of medicine. Among the various hemo-components employed, we have the platelet concentrate (PC, indicated in cases of hemorrhagic disturbances. We previously showed that platelet function in blood donors is reduced in their screening phase and after the separation process of PCs. Currently, we are providing evidence for the existence of biochemical and functional changes in PC preparations stored for three days at temperatures of 20 ± 2 ºC. Platelet concentrates from 40 healthy donors, collected in CPD anticoagulant and PL-146 polyvinylchloride containers, were examined in order to determine the pH value, pCO2 ,pO2 and lactate concentrations. In addition, the aggregation of platelets with thrombin and collagen were examined to evaluate platelet function. A pH increase from 7.07 ± 0.04 to 7.36 ± 0.07 (p < 0.01 was observed. The pCO2 concentration decreased progressively from 69.2 ± 7.7 mmHg to 28.8 ± 6.2 mmHg (p < 0.001 during the storage period. In contrast, pO2 value increase from 103.4 ± 30.6 to 152.3 ± 24.6 mmHg (p < 0.001 was evidenced during the 48 hours of storage. The lactate concentration increased from 17.97 ± 5.2 to 57.21 ± 5.7 mg/dl (p < 0.001. Platelet aggregation using 0.25 U/ml-thrombin and 2.0 µg/ml-collagen showed significant hypofunction from 61.8 ± 2.7% to 24.8 ± 9.8% and 62.7±5.0 to 33.4± 6.2 (p < 0.001, respectively. We concluded that the evaluated biochemical parameters and the platelet function changed significantly when the platelets were kept under routine storage conditions.
Hall, Kellie J.; Harper, Matthew T.; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Poole, Alastair W.
Background PKCθ is a novel protein kinase C isozyme, predominately expressed in T cells and platelets. PKCθ−/− T cells exhibit reduced activation and PKCθ−/− mice are resistant to autoimmune disease, making PKCθ an attractive therapeutic target for immune modulation. Collagen is a major agonist for platelets, operating through an immunoreceptor-like signalling pathway from its receptor GPVI. Although it has recently been shown that PKCθ positively regulates outside-in signalling through integrin αIIbβ3 in platelets, the role of PKCθ in GPVI-dependent signalling and functional activation of platelets has not been assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we assessed static adhesion, cell spreading, granule secretion, integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation in washed mouse platelets lacking PKCθ. Thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface was assessed in vitro under flow. PKCθ−/− platelets exhibited reduced static adhesion and filopodia generation on fibrinogen, suggesting that PKCθ positively regulates outside-in signalling, in agreement with a previous report. In contrast, PKCθ−/− platelets also exhibited markedly enhanced GPVI-dependent α-granule secretion, although dense granule secretion was unaffected, suggesting that PKCθ differentially regulates these two granules. Inside-out regulation of αIIbβ3 activation was also enhanced downstream of GPVI stimulation. Although this did not result in increased aggregation, importantly thrombus formation on collagen under high shear (1000 s−1) was enhanced. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that PKCθ is an important negative regulator of thrombus formation on collagen, potentially mediated by α-granule secretion and αIIbβ3 activation. PKCθ therefore may act to restrict thrombus growth, a finding that has important implications for the development and safe clinical use of PKCθ inhibitors. PMID:18815612
Kellie J Hall
Full Text Available PKCtheta is a novel protein kinase C isozyme, predominately expressed in T cells and platelets. PKCtheta(-/- T cells exhibit reduced activation and PKCtheta(-/- mice are resistant to autoimmune disease, making PKCtheta an attractive therapeutic target for immune modulation. Collagen is a major agonist for platelets, operating through an immunoreceptor-like signalling pathway from its receptor GPVI. Although it has recently been shown that PKCtheta positively regulates outside-in signalling through integrin alpha(IIbbeta(3 in platelets, the role of PKCtheta in GPVI-dependent signalling and functional activation of platelets has not been assessed.In the present study we assessed static adhesion, cell spreading, granule secretion, integrin alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation and platelet aggregation in washed mouse platelets lacking PKCtheta. Thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface was assessed in vitro under flow. PKCtheta(-/- platelets exhibited reduced static adhesion and filopodia generation on fibrinogen, suggesting that PKCtheta positively regulates outside-in signalling, in agreement with a previous report. In contrast, PKCtheta(-/- platelets also exhibited markedly enhanced GPVI-dependent alpha-granule secretion, although dense granule secretion was unaffected, suggesting that PKCtheta differentially regulates these two granules. Inside-out regulation of alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation was also enhanced downstream of GPVI stimulation. Although this did not result in increased aggregation, importantly thrombus formation on collagen under high shear (1000 s(-1 was enhanced.These data suggest that PKCtheta is an important negative regulator of thrombus formation on collagen, potentially mediated by alpha-granule secretion and alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation. PKCtheta therefore may act to restrict thrombus growth, a finding that has important implications for the development and safe clinical use of PKCtheta inhibitors.
Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin
We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of
Badlou, Bahram Alamdary
Introduction: Different clinical studies have shown that transfusion of stored platelets results in better haemostasis in patients with thrombocytopenia with and without a platelet function defect. Objectives: Current preservation procedures aim to optimally preserve the metabolic status of
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relapsing-remitting dynamics is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Although current understanding of both cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is significant, how their activity generates this prototypical dynamics is not understood yet. In order to gain insight about the mechanisms that drive these relapsing-remitting dynamics, we developed a computational model using such biological knowledge. We hypothesized that the relapsing dynamics in autoimmunity can arise through the failure in the mechanisms controlling cross-regulation between regulatory and effector T cells with the interplay of stochastic events (e.g. failure in central tolerance, activation by pathogens that are able to trigger the immune system. Results The model represents five concepts: central tolerance (T-cell generation by the thymus, T-cell activation, T-cell memory, cross-regulation (negative feedback between regulatory and effector T-cells and tissue damage. We enriched the model with reversible and irreversible tissue damage, which aims to provide a comprehensible link between autoimmune activity and clinical relapses and active lesions in the magnetic resonances studies in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Our analysis shows that the weakness in this negative feedback between effector and regulatory T-cells, allows the immune system to generate the characteristic relapsing-remitting dynamics of autoimmune diseases, without the need of additional environmental triggers. The simulations show that the timing at which relapses appear is highly unpredictable. We also introduced targeted perturbations into the model that mimicked immunotherapies that modulate effector and regulatory populations. The effects of such therapies happened to be highly dependent on the timing and/or dose, and on the underlying dynamic of the immune system. Conclusion The relapsing dynamic in MS
Full Text Available Circulating platelets consist of subpopulations with different age, maturation state and size. In this review, we address the association between platelet size and platelet function and summarize the current knowledge on platelet subpopulations including reticulated platelets, procoagulant platelets and platelets exposing signals to mediate their clearance. Thereby, we emphasize the impact of platelet turnover as an important condition for platelet production in vivo. Understanding of the features that characterize platelet subpopulations is very relevant for the methods of platelet concentrate production, which may enrich or deplete particular platelet subpopulations. Moreover, the concept of platelet size being associated with platelet function may be attractive for transfusion medicine as it holds the perspective to separate platelet subpopulations with specific functional capabilities.
Shadden, Shawn C.; Hendabadi, Sahar
Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation ...
Sagripanti, A.; Polloni, A.; Materazzi, F.; Ferdeghini, M.; Pinori, E.; Bianchi, R.
To evaluate the influence of emotional stress on platelet function mesured by radioimmunoassay in plasma two platelet factor 4, in a series of outpatients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for upper digestive complaints has been measured. The plasma levels of β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4, determined just before the instrumental examination, were significantly more elevated as compared to basal values, checked a week later. These results provide evidence of enhanced in vivo platelet release reaction during emotional stress
Boneu, B.; Vigoni, F.; Boneu, A.; Caranobe, C.; Sie, P.
The relationship between platelet buoyant density and platelet age was investigated in eight human subjects submitted to an autologous chromium labeled platelet survival study. Platelets were isolated after isopycnic centrifugation using eight discontinuous isoosmotic stractan gradients (five subjects), or various continuous and linear isoosmolar gradients (three subjects). A paradoxical radioactivity enrichment of the dense platelets and a premature loss of radioactivity in the light platelets were observed. These results are explained by a shift of the radioactivity distribution curve toward higher densities during the 3-4 days after platelet injection, while the standard deviation of the distribution was conserved throughout the platelet life span. These results suggest that young platelets are heterogeneous and slightly less dense than the total platelet population
Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Baldini, M.G.
A quantitative immunofluorescence platelet-associated immunoglobulin-G (PA-IgG) assay was used to detect alloimmunity to platelets in 8/12 multitransfused patients and to perform platelet crossmatching in the 8 alloimmunized patients. The correct separation of multitransfused patients into alloimmune and nonalloimmune groups was substantiated with chromium-51-labeled platelet survival studies. For 5 alloimmunized patients, compatible and incompatible donor platelets were demonstrated by PA-IgG crossmatching and were confirmed by platelet survival studies. With the other 3 alloimmunized patients, only Pa-IgG incompatible donor platelets were found. Survival studies with 5 of these incompatible donor platelets showed markedly reduced survival times on 4 occasions. Pa-IgG compatible donor platelets survived 3.5 to 8.7 days, while Pa-IgG incompatible platelets showed survival times of 0.1 to 2.4 days
This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Patke, Alina; Yu, Xin; Ren, Xiaodi; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Roeder, Robert G
OCA-B was originally identified as a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that is essential for antigen-driven immune responses. The later identification of a membrane bound, myristoylated form of OCA-B suggested additional, unique functions in B cell signaling pathways. This study has shown that OCA-B also functions in the pre-B1-to-pre-B2 cell transition and, most surprisingly, that it directly interacts with SYK, a tyrosine kinase critical for pre-BCR and BCR signaling. This unprecedented type of interaction-a transcriptional coactivator with a signaling kinase-occurs in the cytoplasm and directly regulates SYK stability. This study indicates that OCA-B is required for pre-BCR and BCR signaling at multiple stages of B cell development through its nontranscriptional regulation of SYK. Combined with the deregulation of OCA-B target genes, this may help explain the multitude of defects observed in B cell development and immune responses of Oca-b-/- mice.
Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J
Introduction: Platelets play a key role in primary hemostasis and are also intricately linked to secondary hemostasis. Investigation of platelet function in children, especially in neonates, is seriously challenged by the volumes required to perform the majority of platelet function tests and due...
Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A
A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.
Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C
The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Heyns, A. duP
In this paper an overview of the state of the art of platelet kinetics 1982 is presented. The subjects considered include a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of some of the many radionuclide platelet labels, viz 51 Cr, 111 In, focussing briefly on models for analysis of platelets survival. (Auth.)
Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Devaux, Frederic; Manoharlal, Raman; Vandeputte, Patrick; Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Singh, Ashutosh; Blugeon, Corinne; Sanglard, Dominique
In this study, we show that a chemical dye, malachite green (MG), which is commonly used in the fish industry as an antifungal, antiparasitic, and antibacterial agent, could effectively kill Candida albicans and non-C. albicans species. We have demonstrated that Candida cells are susceptible to MG at a very low concentration (MIC that reduces growth by 50% [MIC50], 100 ng ml−1) and that the effect of MG is independent of known antifungal targets, such as ergosterol metabolism and major drug efflux pump proteins. Transcriptional profiling in response to MG treatment of C. albicans cells revealed that of a total of 207 responsive genes, 167 genes involved in oxidative stress, virulence, carbohydrate metabolism, heat shock, amino acid metabolism, etc., were upregulated, while 37 genes involved in iron acquisition, filamentous growth, mitochondrial respiration, etc., were downregulated. We confirmed experimentally that Candida cells exposed to MG resort to a fermentative mode of metabolism, perhaps due to defective respiration. In addition, we showed that MG triggers depletion of intracellular iron pools and enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. These effects could be reversed by the addition of iron or antioxidants, respectively. We provided evidence that the antifungal effect of MG is exerted through the transcription regulators UPC2 (regulating ergosterol biosynthesis and azole resistance) and STP2 (regulating amino acid permease genes). Taken together, our transcriptome, genetic, and biochemical results allowed us to decipher the multiple mechanisms by which MG exerts its anti-Candida effects, leading to a metabolic shift toward fermentation, increased generation of ROS, labile iron deprivation, and cell necrosis. PMID:22006003
cDNA for the human β2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor
Kobilka, B.K.; Dixon, R.A.F.; Frielle, T.
The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster β 2 -adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the β 2 -adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor
This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are affected by these views. SRL connects the behaviors, metacognition, and motivation of students in their learning. The goals of this research project were to 1) qualitatively describe and document engineering students' SRL strategies, 2) examine interactions between engineering students' FTPs and SRL strategy use, and 3) explore goal-setting as a bridge between FTP and SRL. In an exploratory qualitative study with mid-year industrial engineering students to examine the SRL strategies used before and after an SRL intervention, results showed that students intended to use more SRL strategies than they attempted. However, students self-reported using new SRL strategies from the intervention. Students in this population also completed a survey and a single interview about FTP and SRL. Results showed perceptions of instrumentality of coursework and skills as motivation for using SRL strategies, and a varied use of SRL strategies for students with different FTPs. Overall, three types of student FTP were seen: students with a single realistic view of the future, conflicting ideal and realistic future views, or open views of the future. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted with mid-year students from multiple engineering majors. First a cluster analysis of survey results of FTP items compared to FTP interview responses was used for participant selection. Then a multiple case study was conducted with data collected through surveys, journal entries, course performance, and two interviews. Results showed that students with a well-defined FTP self-regulated in the present based on their varied perceptions of
Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.
Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects
Forstrom, L.A.; Luikens, B.; Johnson, T.
The possible role of abnormal platelet function in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus remains controversial. In vitro studies have shown variable alterations in platelet function in such patients. Studies of in vivo platelet kinetics in diabetic patients have been inconclusive, although decreased platelet survival has been observed in some cases. Earlier studies were carried out using chromium-51 or selenium-75 for platelet labeling. The authors have performed Indium-111-oxine labeled platelet kinetic and biodistribution studies in 4 patients with diabetes mellitus (ages 49-61 years), and in 4 control subjects (ages 46-60 years). All subjects were male. All diabetic patients were poorly controlled at the time of study, with blood glucose > 140 mg% and hemoglobin A-1c > 10%. Autologous platelets were labeled with Indium-111-oxine in ACD:plasma by previously reported methods, and reinjected in a dose of approximately 50 μCi (range 42-67μCi). Average recovery of the injected platelets was 67% (range 41-85%). Computer analyzed images at 24 hours showed no significant difference in liver uptake between diabetic and control subjects. Mildly increased splenic uptake in diabetic patients was of borderline significance (p=.07). Platelet survival was slightly decreased in diabetic subjects by 3 of 4 models utilized (linear, exponential, multiple hit and weighted mean), although the difference achieved significance only for the weighted man model (p=.05). These data support observations by earlier methods which suggest that platelet survival may be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other
Haimeur, Adil; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Guéno, Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Meskini, Nadia; Tremblin, Gérard
Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect
Full Text Available Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator leads to cystic fibrosis (CF. Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels. Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.
Kalovidouris, A.E.; Papayannis, A.G.
The effect of ionizing radiation on platelet function was investigated in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma (300x10 9 /l) was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 10, 20 and 50 Gy. Platelet function tests were performed on both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) platelet samples. The platelet function tests were (1) platelet aggregation by ADP (1, 2, 4 μmol final concentration), adrenaline and collagen, (2) ADP-release from platelets, (3) clot retraction and (4) platelet factor-3 availability. It was found that roentgen irradiation of platelets in vitro did not affect these platelet function tests. (Auth.)
AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag
Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×10 3 /µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia ( P =0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08-4.6, P =0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia ( P =0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). PC preeclampsia.
Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram
The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396
Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.
Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions
Lindahl, Tomas L; Ramström, Sofia
There are a multitude of platelet function tests available, reflecting the complex nature of the platelet in haemostasis. No simple single test will ever cover all aspects of platelet function. Some tests focus on the aggregation of platelets, for example aggregometry, other on the swelling in response to hypotonic solutions, i.e. the well-known hypotonic shock response, or adhesion or coagulation and clot retraction, for example thromboelastography. In general there is a lack of clinical studies showing a predictive value of analysis of platelet concentrates.
scaffold of the clot after its thrombin-induced polymerization to fibrin fibers. Formation of a stiff fibrin fiber network and its contraction by platelet...In another study (PROTEC T) Refused Participat ion (Yes=Y, No=N, W=Unqua lified , Refused further draws (agreed to keep previous data
Platelets and other blood components are often transfused in clinical settings associated with hypothermia and a bleeding diathesis, such as cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, other major surgery, and multiple trauma...
Ono, Kenichiro; Arimoto, Hirohiko; Shirotani, Toshiki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet aggregability and silent brain infarcts. The study subjects were 445 people (264 men, 181 women; mean age, 53±14 years) with no neurologic signs, history of brain tumor, trauma, cerebrovascular disease, or antiplatelet medications. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was measured by the aggregation-size analytic method. Platelet aggregability was classified into 9 classes. The presence of headache/vertigo, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or smoking was elicited by questioning or blood sampling. A head MRI scan was performed, and if marked atherosclerosis or obvious stenosis in the intracranial vessels was detected, it was defined as a positive MR angiography (MRA) finding. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 26.3% of subjects. Hyperaggregability defined as that above class 6, 7, and 8 was present in 43.8%, 30.8%, and 15.7% of subjects, respectively. The risk factors for silent brain infarcts by multiple logistic regression analysis were aging, hypertension, positive MRA findings, and hyperaggregability. Platelet ADP hyperaggregability might be a risk factor for silent brain infarcts. (author)
Rocheleau, Anne D; Khader, Ayesha; Ngo, Anh T P; Boehnlein, Colin; McDavitt, Cara; Lattimore, Susan; Recht, Michael; McCarty, Owen J T; Haley, Kristina M
BackgroundApproximately 40% of adolescent women experience heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), and 10-62% of them have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). Diagnosing a BD remains challenging because of limitations of available clinical platelet function assays. The aim of this study was to characterize platelet function in a population of adolescent women with HMB using small-volume whole-blood assays.MethodsAnticoagulated whole blood was used to assess platelet GPIIbIIIa activation, α-granule secretion, and aggregation in response to multiple agonists. Platelet adhesion on collagen or von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under static and shear flow was also assessed.ResultsFifteen participants with HMB were included in the study, of which eight were diagnosed with a clinically identifiable BD. Platelet activation was blunted in response to calcium ionophore in participants without a BD diagnosis compared with that in all other participants. Impaired GPIIbIIIa activation was observed in response to all GPCR agonists, except adenosine diphosphate (ADP), in participants with qualitative platelet disorders. Our assays detected platelet aggregation in the majority of participants with a BD in response to ADP, collagen-related peptide (CRP), thrombin receptor activator 6 (TRAP-6), or U46619. Platelet adhesion and aggregation on collagen and VWF was decreased for participants with VWD.ConclusionParticipants with and without BD exhibited aberrant platelet function in several assays in response to select agonists.
Macaulay, Iain C; Tijssen, Marloes R; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C; Gusnanto, Arief; Steward, Michael; Burns, Philippa; Langford, Cordelia F; Ellis, Peter D; Dudbridge, Frank; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Watkins, Nicholas A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Ouwehand, Willem H
To identify previously unknown platelet receptors we compared the transcriptomes of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes (MKs) and erythroblasts (EBs). RNA was obtained from purified, biologically paired MK and EB cultures and compared using cDNA microarrays. Bioinformatical analysis of MK-up-regulated genes identified 151 transcripts encoding transmembrane domain-containing proteins. Although many of these were known platelet genes, a number of previously unidentified or poorly characterized transcripts were also detected. Many of these transcripts, including G6b, G6f, LRRC32, LAT2, and the G protein-coupled receptor SUCNR1, encode proteins with structural features or functions that suggest they may be involved in the modulation of platelet function. Immunoblotting on platelets confirmed the presence of the encoded proteins, and flow cytometric analysis confirmed the expression of G6b, G6f, and LRRC32 on the surface of platelets. Through comparative analysis of expression in platelets and other blood cells we demonstrated that G6b, G6f, and LRRC32 are restricted to the platelet lineage, whereas LAT2 and SUCNR1 were also detected in other blood cells. The identification of the succinate receptor SUCNR1 in platelets is of particular interest, because physiologically relevant concentrations of succinate were shown to potentiate the effect of low doses of a variety of platelet agonists.
Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max
Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...
Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice transcription regulator OsWRKY13 influences the functioning of more than 500 genes in multiple signalling pathways, with roles in disease resistance, redox homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and development. Results To determine the putative transcriptional regulation mechanism of OsWRKY13, the putative cis-acting elements of OsWRKY13-influenced genes were analyzed using the whole genome expression profiling of OsWRKY13-activated plants generated with the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array. At least 39 transcription factor genes were influenced by OsWRKY13, and 30 of them were downregulated. The promoters of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes were overrepresented with W-boxes for WRKY protein binding, whereas the promoters of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes were enriched with cis-elements putatively for binding of MYB and AP2/EREBP types of transcription factors. Consistent with the distinctive distribution of these cis-elements in up- and downregulated genes, nine WRKY genes were influenced by OsWRKY13 and the promoters of five of them were bound by OsWRKY13 in vitro; all seven differentially expressed AP2/EREBP genes and six of the seven differentially expressed MYB genes were suppressed by in OsWRKY13-activated plants. A subset of OsWRKY13-influenced WRKY genes were involved in host-pathogen interactions. Conclusion These results suggest that OsWRKY13-mediated signalling pathways are partitioned by different transcription factors. WRKY proteins may play important roles in the monitoring of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes and genes involved in pathogen-induced defence responses, whereas MYB and AP2/EREBP proteins may contribute most to the control of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes.
Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Nanavati, Dhaval; Federle, Michael J
Streptococcus pyogenes, a human-restricted pathogen, accounts for substantial mortality related to infections worldwide. Recent studies indicate that streptococci produce and respond to several secreted peptide signaling molecules (pheromones), including those known as short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), to regulate gene expression by a quorum-sensing mechanism. Upon transport into the bacterial cell, pheromones bind to and modulate activity of receptor proteins belonging to the Rgg family of transcription factors. Previously, we reported biofilm regulation by the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing circuit in S. pyogenes. The aim of this study was to identify the composition of mature pheromones from cell-free culture supernatants that facilitate biofilm formation. Bioluminescent reporters were employed to detect active pheromones in culture supernatants fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography, and mass spectrometry was used to characterize their properties. Surprisingly, multiple SHPs that varied by length were detected. Synthetic peptides of each variant were tested individually using bioluminescence reporters and biofilm growth assays, and although activities differed widely among the group, peptides comprising the C-terminal eight amino acids of the full-length native peptide were most active. Direct Rgg/SHP interactions were determined using a fluorescence polarization assay that utilized FITC-labeled peptide ligands. Peptide receptor affinities were seen to be as low as 500 nm and their binding affinities directly correlated with observed bioactivity. Revelation of naturally produced pheromones along with determination of their affinity for cognate receptors are important steps forward in designing compounds whose purpose is positioned for future therapeutics aimed at treating infections through the interference of bacterial communication. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei
Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an αIIbβ3 antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment. PMID:23383331
Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei
Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an α(IIb)β₃ antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment.
Full Text Available Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an α(IIbβ₃ antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment.
Roy, Sashwati; Driggs, Jason; Elgharably, Haytham; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Findley, Muna; Khanna, Savita; Gnyawali, Urmila; Bergdall, Valerie K; Sen, Chandan K
The economic, social, and public health burden of chronic ulcers and other compromised wounds is enormous and rapidly increasing with the aging population. The growth factors derived from platelets play an important role in tissue remodeling including neovascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized and studied for the last four decades. Platelet gel and fibrin sealant, derived from PRP mixed with thrombin and calcium chloride, have been exogenously applied to tissues to promote wound healing, bone growth, hemostasis, and tissue sealing. In this study, we first characterized recovery and viability of as well as growth factor release from platelets in a novel preparation of platelet gel and fibrin matrix, namely platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM). Next, the effect of PRFM application in a delayed model of ischemic wound angiogenesis was investigated. The study, for the first time, shows the kinetics of the viability of platelet-embedded fibrin matrix. A slow and steady release of growth factors from PRFM was observed. The vascular endothelial growth factor released from PRFM was primarily responsible for endothelial mitogenic response via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation pathway. Finally, this preparation of PRFM effectively induced endothelial cell proliferation and improved wound angiogenesis in chronic wounds, providing evidence of probable mechanisms of action of PRFM in healing of chronic ulcers. 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.
Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.
Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Surovtseva, M A; Kim, I I; Poveshchenko, O V; Pokushalov, E A; Konenkov, V I
We studied the effects of human platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate on proliferation, migration, and colony-forming properties of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated the proliferation, migration, and colony formation of mesenchymal stem cells. A real-time study showed that platelet-rich plasma produces the most potent stimulatory effect, while both platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated migration of cells.
Full Text Available Platelets are essential for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. The mechanisms of megakaryocyte (MK differentiation and subsequent platelet production from stem cells remain only partially understood. The manufacture of megakaryocytes (MKs and platelets from cell sources including hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells have been highlighted for studying the platelet production mechanisms as well as for the development of new strategies for platelet transfusion. The mouse bone marrow stroma cell line OP9 has been widely used as feeder cells for the differentiation of stem cells into MK lineages. OP9 cells are reported to be pre-adipocytes. We previously reported that 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiated into MKs and platelets. In the present study, we examined whether OP9 cells differentiate into MKs and platelets using MK lineage induction (MKLI medium previously established to generate MKs and platelets from hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and pre-adipocytes. OP9 cells cultured in MKLI medium had megakaryocytic features, i.e., positivity for surface markers CD41 and CD42b, polyploidy, and distinct morphology. The OP9-derived platelets had functional characteristics, providing the first evidence for the differentiation of OP9 cells into MKs and platelets. We then analyzed gene expressions of critical factors that regulate megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. The gene expressions of p45NF-E2, FOG, Fli1, GATA2, RUNX1, thrombopoietin, and c-mpl were observed during the MK differentiation. Among the observed transcription factors of MK lineages, p45NF-E2 expression was increased during differentiation. We further studied MK and platelet generation using p45NF-E2-overexpressing OP9 cells. OP9 cells transfected with p45NF-E2 had enhanced production of MKs and platelets. Our findings revealed that OP9 cells differentiated into MKs and platelets in vitro. OP9 cells have critical factors for megakaryopoiesis and
Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin
The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P 0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.
Anitua, Eduardo; Tejero, Ricardo; Alkhraisat, Mohammad H; Orive, Gorka
Growth factors and cytokines are active players in controlling the different stages of wound healing and tissue regeneration. Recent trends in personalized regenerative medicine involve using patient's own platelet-rich plasma for stimulating wound healing and tissue regeneration. This technology provides a complex cocktail of growth factors and even a fibrin scaffold with multiple biologic effects. In the last few years, an increasing number of studies provide evidence of the potential of combining platelet-rich plasma with different biomaterials in order to improve their properties, including handling, administration, bioactivity, and level of osseointegration, among others. In this review, we discuss the use of platelet-rich plasma as an alternative, easy, cost-effective, and controllable strategy for the release of high concentrations of many endogenous growth factors. Additionally, we provide an overview of the current progress and future directions of research combining different types of biomaterials with platelet-rich plasma in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Muroi, Shuichi; Matsuda, Shin; Kariyone, Shigeo
Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 10 4 / μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)
Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.
Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.
In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.
Watson, Steve P
The prevention of excessive blood loss to avoid fatal haemorrhage is a pivotal process for all organisms possessing a circulatory system. Increased circulating blood volume and pressure, as required in larger animals, make this process all the more important and challenging. It is essential to have a powerful and rapid system to detect damage and generate an effective seal, and which is also exquisitely regulated to prevent unwanted, excessive or systemic activation so as to avoid blockage of vessels. Thus, a highly specialised and efficient haemostatic system has evolved that consists of cellular (platelets) and protein (coagulation factors) components. Importantly, this is able to support haemostasis in both the low shear environment of the venous system and the high shear environment of the arterial system. Endothelial cells, lining the entire circulation system, play a crucial role in the delicate balance between activation and inhibition of the haemostatic system. An intact and healthy endothelium supports blood flow by preventing attachment of cells and proteins which is required for initiation of coagulation and platelet activation. Endothelial cells produce and release the two powerful soluble inhibitors of platelet activation, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and express high levels of CD39 which rapidly metabolises the major platelet feedback agonist, ADP. This antithrombotic environment however can rapidly change following activation or removal of endothelial cells through injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Loss of endothelial cells exposes the subendothelial extracellular matrix which creates strong signals for activation of the haemostatic system including powerful platelet adhesion and activation. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the subendothelial extracellular matrix influence these prothrombotic characteristics with life threatening thrombotic and bleeding complications, as illustrated by formation of
Ritchie, J.L.; Stratton, J.R.; Thiele, B.; Haminton, G.W.; Warrick, L.N.; Huang, T.W.; Harker, L.A.
Thirty-four platelet imaging studies were performed in 23 patients to determine whether platelet deposition could be detected in patients with vascular aneurysms (18 patients) or in patients in whom Dacron prosthetic grafts had been placed (5 patients). In patients in whom abnormal platelet deposition was detected, the effect of administration of platelet-active drugs on platelet deposition was examined. Of the 18 patients with an aneurysm, 12 had equivocally positive studies on initial imaging and 2 had equivocally positive images. Of five patients with Dacron arterial grafts in place, four had diffuse platelet deposition in the grafts; the fifth patient had a platelet deposition only in a pseudoaneurysm. Eight patients with an abdominal aneurysm and positive or equivocally positive baseline images were restudied during platelet-active drug therapy either with aspirin plus dipyridamole (seven patients) or with sulfinpyrazone (four patients). No patient studied during treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole had detectably decreased platelet deposition compared with baseline determinations. In contrast, two of four patients studied while receiving sulfinpyrazone showed decreased platelet deposition. Thus, platelet imaging may be of value for studying platelet physiology in vivo and for assessing platelet-active drugs and the thrombogenicity of prosthetic graft materials in human beings
Musumeci, Lucia; Kuijpers, Marijke J; Gilio, Karen; Hego, Alexandre; Théâtre, Emilie; Maurissen, Lisbeth; Vandereyken, Maud; Diogo, Catia V; Lecut, Christelle; Guilmain, William; Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Eble, Johannes A; Dahl, Russell; Drion, Pierre; Rascon, Justin; Mostofi, Yalda; Yuan, Hongbin; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Thiry, Marc; Senis, Yotis; Moutschen, Michel; Mustelin, Tomas; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile; Rahmouni, Souad
A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is important for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2. DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism compared with wild-type mice and showed severely impaired thrombus formation on ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a protein tyrosine phosphatase, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cunningham, Margaret R; Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Mundell, Stuart J
Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes can disrupt receptor function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases, including platelet bleeding disorders. Platelets are critical for haemostasis with inappropriate platelet activation leading to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke whilst decreased platelet activity is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. GPCRs expressed on the surface of platelets play key roles in regulating platelet activity and therefore function. Receptors include purinergic receptors (P2Y 1 and P2Y 12 ), proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR4) and thromboxane receptors (TPα), among others. Pharmacological blockade of these receptors forms a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis. With the advance of genomic technologies, there has been a substantial increase in the identification of naturally occurring rare and common GPCR variants. These variants include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion or deletions that have the potential to alter GPCR expression or function. A number of defects in platelet GPCRs that disrupt receptor function have now been characterized in patients with mild bleeding disorders. This review will focus on rare, function-disrupting variants of platelet GPCRs with particular emphasis upon mutations in the P2Y 12 receptor gene that affect receptor traffic to modulate platelet function. Further this review will outline how the identification and characterization of function-disrupting GPCR mutations provides an essential link in translating our detailed understanding of receptor traffic and function in cell line studies into relevant human biological systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pleines, Irina; Elvers, Margitta; Strehl, Amrei
isoenzymes are activated downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whereas PLCgamma2 is activated downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors, such as the major platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI or CLEC-2. The mechanisms underlying PLC......Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury is triggered through different signaling pathways leading to activation of phospholipase (PL) Cbeta or PLCgamma2. Active PLCs trigger Ca(2+) mobilization and entry, which is a prerequisite for adhesion, secretion, and thrombus formation. PLCbeta...... regulation are not fully understood. An involvement of small GTPases of the Rho family (Rho, Rac, Cdc42) in PLC activation has been proposed but this has not been investigated in platelets. We here show that murine platelets lacking Rac1 display severely impaired GPVI- or CLEC-2-dependent activation...
Asim, A.; Khan, B.; Hussain, T.
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an autosomal recessive inherited platelet function defect. Though, quantitatively normal, the aggregation ability of platelets is reduced leading to bleeding episodes requiring transfusion of platelet concentrates. We describe a case of 13-year-old girl who had recurrent episodes of epistaxis since birth and was managed with multiple platelet concentrate transfusions and recently admitted with severe epistaxis refractory to platelet transfusion. At this stage administration of recombinant activated factor VII (fVIIa) was considered, which was initially given at 90 mu g/kg dose with little control of bleeding but subsequent second dose of 120 mu g/kg was administered with excellent response and immediate control of bleeding. (author)
Cerecedo, Doris; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Maldonado-García, Deneb; Hernández-González, Enrique; Winder, Steve J
Platelets are the most prominent elements of blood tissue involved in hemostasis at sites of blood vessel injury. Platelet cytoskeleton is responsible for their shape modifications observed during activation and adhesion to the substratum; therefore the interactions between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane are critical to modulate blood platelet functions. Several cytoskeletal components and binding partners, as well as enzymes that regulate the cytoskeleton, localize to membrane/lipid rafts (MLR) and regulate lateral diffusion of membrane proteins and lipids. Resting, thrombin-activated, and adherent human platelets were processed for biochemical studies including western-blot and immunprecipitation assays and confocal analysis were performed to characterize the interaction of MLR with the main cytoskeleton elements and β-dystroglycan as well as with the association of caveolin-1 PY14 with focal adhesion proteins. We transfected a megakaryoblast cell line (Meg-01) to deplete β-dystroglycan, subsequent to their differentiation to the platelet progenitors. Our data showed a direct interaction of the MLR with cytoskeleton to regulate platelet shape, while an association of caveolin-1 PY14 with vinculin is needed to establish focal adhesions, which are modulated for β-dystroglycan. In conclusion, caveolin-1 PY14 in association with platelet cytoskeleton participate in focal adhesions dynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis
The present study explored physical self-concept, goal orientation in sport, and self-regulation in regard to a motor task, in 75 secondary students with physical, intellectual, and multiple disabilities, who were educated in the same special education units. It was found that students with intellectual disabilities generally presented a positive profile in all three psychosocial constructs, whereas students with physical disabilities presented low scores in most measures. Students with multiple disabilities did not differ essentially from students with intellectual disability in regard to physical self-concept and goal orientation; however, they compared unfavorably to them regarding self-regulation. The delineation of a distinct and defendable profile of self-concept, goal orientation, and self-regulation for each disability group allows the formulation of proposals for the implementation of appropriate instructional programs for students belonging to the above mentioned categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Therapeutic platelet reduction is an effective modality for the reduction of platelet count in patients with treatment of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from a variety of primary and secondary causes of thrombocytosis, which may be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications of varying degrees. These cases when symptomatic fall into the ASFA Category II indication for therapeutic platelet apheresis procedure. Here, we report a case of postsplenectomy secondary thrombocytosis presenting with extremely high platelet counts and subsequent thrombosis in the shunt and successful treatment after therapeutic platelet reduction. The case is being presented to bring forth the fact that therapeutic platelet reduction is an easy procedure that gives quick and good results and also to bring to the attention of transfusion specialists an associated but as yet unreported procedural finding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background RGS17 and RGS20 encode two members of the regulator of G-protein signaling RGS-Rz subfamily. Variation in these genes may alter their transcription and thereby influence the function of G protein-coupled receptors, including opioid receptors, and modify risk for substance dependence. Methods The association of 13 RGS17 and eight RGS20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was examined with four substance dependence diagnoses (alcohol (AD, cocaine (CD, opioid (OD or marijuana (MjD] in 1,905 African Americans (AAs: 1,562 cases and 343 controls and 1,332 European Americans (EAs: 981 cases and 351 controls. Analyses were performed using both χ2 tests and logistic regression analyses that covaried sex, age, and ancestry proportion. Correlation of genotypes and mRNA expression levels was assessed by linear regression analyses. Results Seven RGS17 SNPs showed a significant association with at least one of the four dependence traits after a permutation-based correction for multiple testing (0.003≤Pempirical≤0.037. The G allele of SNP rs596359, in the RGS17 promoter region, was associated with AD, CD, OD, or MjD in both populations (0.005≤Pempirical≤0.019. This allele was also associated with significantly lower mRNA expression levels of RGS17 in YRI subjects (P = 0.002 and non-significantly lower mRNA expression levels of RGS17 in CEU subjects (P = 0.185. No RGS20 SNPs were associated with any of the four dependence traits in either population. Conclusions This study demonstrated that variation in RGS17 was associated with risk for substance dependence diagnoses in both AA and EA populations.
Morrison, W.J.; Dhar, A.; Shukla, S.D.
The possible involvement of protein kinase C activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets. PAF stimulated incorporation of 32 P into proteins and caused [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels to increase about 260% of control. These responses were compared after platelets were pretreated with either PAF, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or staurosporine and also after pretreatments with staurosporine followed by PAF or PMA. Pretreating platelets with staurosporine potentiated PAF-stimulated [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels by 54% and blocked protein phosphorylation. Pretreatments with PAF and PMA caused PAF-stimulated [ 3 H]InsP 3 levels to decrease to 115 and 136%, respectively. Staurosporine pretreatment blocked the decrease caused by the PMA pretreatment but not that by PAF. This study demonstrates that PAF-stimulated PLC activity is negatively affected by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and that inhibition of PKC activity did not prevent desensitization of PLC by PAF
Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco
Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weibrich, Gernot; Kleis, Wilfried K G; Streckbein, Philipp; Moergel, Maximilian; Hitzler, Walter E; Hafner, Gerd
This study analyzed the concentrations of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which are likely to depend on the method used for its production. The cellular composition and growth factor content of platelet concentrates (platelet-rich plasma) produced by six different procedures were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Platelet and leukocyte counts were determined on an automatic cell counter, and analysis of growth factors was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The principal differences between the analyzed PRP production methods (blood bank method of intermittent flow centrifuge system/platelet apheresis and by the five point-of-care methods) and the resulting platelet concentrates were evaluated with regard to resulting platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels. The platelet counts in both whole blood and PRP were generally higher in women than in men; no differences were observed with regard to age. Statistical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) showed no differences with regard to age or gender. Platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration correlated closely, as did platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels. There were only rare correlations between leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels, but comparison of leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels demonstrated certain parallel tendencies. TGF-β1 levels derive in substantial part from platelets and emphasize the role of leukocytes, in addition to that of platelets, as a source of growth factors in PRP. All methods of producing PRP showed high variability in platelet counts and growth factor levels. The highest growth factor levels were found in the PRP prepared using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System manufactured by Biomet 3i.
Surgenor, Douglas M.
New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.
initiate coagulation, resulting in the formation of a fibrin - rich tumor cell- platelet emboli (Figure 1). Many of these coagulation factor-tumor cell...the tumor cell in a fibrin - rich web. (13;23;24) During this process, the platelet integrin receptor, aIIb 3, serves as a receptor linking fibrin ... platelets , and tumor cells into a fibrin rich clot normally associated with a thrombus. (25;25) Indeed, it can be speculated the fibrin - rich clot
Johnson, Thomas W; Marsden, Debbie; Mumford, Andrew; Pike, Katie; Mundell, Stuart; Butler, Mark; Strange, Julian W; Bowles, Ruth; Rogers, Chris; Baumbach, Andreas; Reeves, Barnaby C
Optimal treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves rapid diagnosis, and transfer to a cardiac centre capable of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for immediate mechanical revascularisation. Successful treatment requires rapid return of perfusion to the myocardium achieved by thromboaspiration, passivation of the culprit lesion with stent scaffolding and systemic inhibition of thrombosis and platelet activation. A delicate balance exists between thrombosis and bleeding and consequently anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet treatment regimens continue to evolve. The desire to achieve reperfusion as soon as possible, in the setting of high platelet reactivity, requires potent and fast-acting anti-thrombotic/anti-platelet therapies. The associated bleeding risk may be minimised by use of short-acting anti-thrombotic intravenous agents. However, effective oral platelet inhibition is required to prevent recurrent thrombosis. The interaction between baseline platelet reactivity, timing of revascularisation and effective inhibition of thrombosis is yet to be formally investigated. We present a protocol for a prospective observational study in patients presenting with acute STEMI treated with primary PCI (PPCI) and receiving bolus/infusion bivalirudin and prasugrel therapy. The objective of this study is to describe variation in platelet reactivity, as measured by the multiplate platelet function analyser, at presentation, the end of the PPCI procedure and 1, 2, & 24 hours post-procedure. We intend to assess the prevalence of high residual platelet reactivity within 24 hours of PPCI in acute STEMI patients receiving prasugrel and bivalirudin. Additionally, we will investigate the association between high platelet reactivity before and after PPCI and the door-to-procedure completion time.This is a single centre study with a target sample size of 108 participants. The baseline platelet reactivity on presentation with a STEMI may impact on the
Gue, Ying X; Gorog, Diana A
The processes of thrombosis and coagulation are finely regulated by endogenous fibrinolysis maintaining healthy equilibrium. When the balance is altered in favour of platelet activation and/or coagulation, or if endogenous fibrinolysis becomes less efficient, pathological thrombosis can occur. Arterial thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world despite advances in medical therapies. The role endogenous fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis has gained increasing attention in recent years as it presents novel ways to prevent and treat existing diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of endogenous fibrinolysis in platelet thrombus formation, methods of measurement of fibrinolytic activity, its role in predicting cardiovascular diseases and clinical outcomes and future directions.
Maria José Dantas Coêlho
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of platelet aggregation is essential to assess in vitro platelet function by different platelet activation pathways. OBJECTIVE: To assess aggregation and biochemical parameters of random platelet concentrates produced at the Fundação HEMOAM using the quality control tests defined by law. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 80 donors and the respective platelet concentrate units were tested. Platelet concentrates were tested (platelet count, aggregation and pH on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. Additionally a leukocyte count was done only on day 1 and microbiological tests on day 5 of storage. Collagen and adenosine diphosphate were used as inducing agonists for platelet aggregation testing. RESULTS: Donor whole blood had normal aggregation (aggregation with adenosine diphosphate = 67% and with collagen = 78%. The median aggregation in platelet concentrates with adenosine diphosphate was low throughout storage (18% on day 1, 7% on day 3 and 6% on day 5 and the median aggregation with collagen was normal only on day 1 and low thereafter (54.4% on day 1, 20.5% on day 3 and 9% on day 5. CONCLUSION: Although the results were within the norms required by law, platelet concentrates had low aggregation rates. We suggest the inclusion of a functional assessment test for the quality control of platelet concentrates for a more effective response to platelet replacement therapy.
Danielsen, P.; Jorgensen, B.; Jorgensen, L.N.
BACKGROUND: Autologous platelet-rich fibrin contains multiple growth factors. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to study the effect of topical platelet-rich fibrin on epithelialization of donor sites and meshed split-thickness skin autografts. METHODS: Twenty consecutive leg ulcer pat...
Full Text Available Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC and potentiate HBEC apoptosis. Using cDNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes of HBEC in response to platelets in the presence or the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF and pRBC, which have been reported to alter gene expression in endothelial cells. Using a rigorous statistical approach with multiple test corrections, we showed a significant effect of platelets on gene expression in HBEC. We also detected a strong effect of TNF, whereas there was no transcriptional change induced specifically by pRBC. Nevertheless, a global ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA suggested that pRBC acted in interaction with platelets and TNF to alter gene expression in HBEC. The expression of selected genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The analysis of gene functional annotation indicated that platelets induce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis, such as genes involved in chemokine-, TREM1-, cytokine-, IL10-, TGFβ-, death-receptor-, and apoptosis-signaling. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that platelets play a pathogenic role in CM.
Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.
Afink, G. B.; Nistér, M.; Stassen, B. H.; Joosten, P. H.; Rademakers, P. J.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; van Zoelen, E. J.; Mosselman, S.
Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGF alpha R) is strictly regulated during mammalian development and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specific regulation of PDGF alpha R expression are unknown, but transcriptional regulation of the PDGF alpha R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test. However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG, such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The
Karalis, Ioannis; Nadar, Sunil K; Al Yemeni, Eman; Blann, Andrew D; Lip, Gregory Y H
Although excess platelet activation, as indicated by increased plasma beta thromboglobulin (beta-TG), has been shown in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), platelet adhesion, platelet morphology and a comparison of platelet and soluble (plasma) levels of the adhesion molecules P-selectin (pPsel and sPsel, respectively) have not been studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 consecutive women with PIH (age 31+/-6 years), 31 consecutive women with normotensive pregnancies (age 29+/-5 years) and 30 normotensive non pregnant women (age 30+/-5 years). Platelet adhesion was studied in vitro by binding to fibrinogen-coated microwells, platelet morphology [mass and volume by flow cytometry], whole-platelet P-selectin (pPsel) by ELISA of the lysate of 2 x 10(8) cells, and the plasma markers soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) and beta-TG, by ELISA. The women with PIH had significantly raised sPsel, pPsel and (as expected) beta-TG (all p<0.05), when compared to the normotensive pregnant women and controls. However, in PIH platelet adhesion was similar to that in the normotensive pregnancy, but still higher than the normal controls (p<0.001). There was no difference among the three groups with respect to platelet mass and volume. pPsel and platelet adhesion correlated with gestational age and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (all p<0.05). Increased platelet activation and adhesion develop during normal pregnancy, with some indices being further altered in PIH.
Sunitha Raja V
Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.
Marcucci, Rossella; Grifoni, Elisa; Giusti, Betti
High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HcPR) during dual-antiplatelet therapy is a marker of vascular risk, in particular stent thrombosis, in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Genetic determinants (CYP2C19*2 polymorphism), advanced age, female gender, diabetes and reduced ventricular function are related to a higher risk to develop HcPR. In addition, inflammation and increased platelet turnover, as revealed by the elevated percentage of reticulated platelets in patients' blood, that characterize the acute phase of acute coronary syndromes, are associated with HcPR. To overcome the limitation of clopidogrel, new antiplatelet agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor) were developed and the demonstration of their superiority over clopidogrel was obtained in the two randomized trials, TRITON TIMI 38 and PLATO. Emerging evidence is accumulating on the role of high-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HaPR), especially in the clinical context of diabetes. Finally, the presence of new, potent antiplatelet drugs has shifted the focus from thrombotic to bleeding risk. Recent data document that low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LPR) is associated with a significantly higher bleeding risk. Due to the current possibility to choose between multiple antiplatelet strategies, the future perspective is to include in the management of ACS, in addition to clinical data and classical risk factors, the definition of platelet function during treatment in order to set a tailored therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Curtis, Ross E; Kim, Seyoung; Woolford, John L; Xu, Wenjie; Xing, Eric P
Association analysis using genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data investigates the effect that genetic variation has on cellular pathways and leads to the discovery of candidate regulators. Traditional analysis of eQTL data via pairwise statistical significance tests or linear regression does not leverage the availability of the structural information of the transcriptome, such as presence of gene networks that reveal correlation and potentially regulatory relationships among the study genes. We employ a new eQTL mapping algorithm, GFlasso, which we have previously developed for sparse structured regression, to reanalyze a genome-wide yeast dataset. GFlasso fully takes into account the dependencies among expression traits to suppress false positives and to enhance the signal/noise ratio. Thus, GFlasso leverages the gene-interaction network to discover the pleiotropic effects of genetic loci that perturb the expression level of multiple (rather than individual) genes, which enables us to gain more power in detecting previously neglected signals that are marginally weak but pleiotropically significant. While eQTL hotspots in yeast have been reported previously as genomic regions controlling multiple genes, our analysis reveals additional novel eQTL hotspots and, more interestingly, uncovers groups of multiple contributing eQTL hotspots that affect the expression level of functional gene modules. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report this type of gene regulation stemming from multiple eQTL hotspots. Additionally, we report the results from in-depth bioinformatics analysis for three groups of these eQTL hotspots: ribosome biogenesis, telomere silencing, and retrotransposon biology. We suggest candidate regulators for the functional gene modules that map to each group of hotspots. Not only do we find that many of these candidate regulators contain mutations in the promoter and coding regions of the genes, in the case of the Ribi group
Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya
The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the pro...
Potts, Kathryn S; Sargeant, Tobias J; Dawson, Caleb A; Josefsson, Emma C; Hilton, Douglas J; Alexander, Warren S; Taoudi, Samir
The thrombopoietic environment of the neonate is established during prenatal life; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of platelet-forming cell development during embryogenesis is critical to understanding the etiology of early-onset thrombocytopenia. The recent discovery that the first platelet-forming cells of the conceptus are not megakaryocytes (MKs) but diploid platelet-forming cells (DPFCs) revealed a previously unappreciated complexity in thrombopoiesis. This raises important questions, including the following. When do conventional MKs appear? Do pathogenic genetic lesions of adult MKs affect DPFCs? What role does myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL), a key regulator of adult megakaryopoiesis, play in prenatal platelet-forming lineages? We performed a comprehensive study to determine the spatial and temporal appearance of prenatal platelet-forming lineages. We demonstrate that DPFCs originate in the yolk sac and then rapidly migrate to other extra- and intraembryonic tissues. Using gene disruption models of Gata1 and Nfe2, we demonstrate that perturbing essential adult MK genes causes an analogous phenotype in the early embryo before the onset of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell-driven (definitive) hematopoiesis. Finally, we present the surprising finding that DPFC and MK commitment from their respective precursors is MPL independent in vivo but that completion of MK differentiation and establishment of the prenatal platelet mass is dependent on MPL expression. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Kunita, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi G.; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Kato, Yukinari; Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya
Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation has been reported to facilitate hematogenous metastasis. Aggrus/podoplanin is a platelet aggregation-inducing factor that is up-regulated in a number of human cancers and has been implicated in tumor progression. We studied herein the role of Aggrus in tumor growth, metastasis, and survival in vivo. Aggrus expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells promoted pulmonary metastasis in both an experimental and a spontaneous mouse model. No differences in the size of metastatic foci or in primary tumor growth were found in either set of mice. Aggrus-expressing cells, which were covered with platelets, arrested in the lung microvasculature 30 minutes after injection. In addition, lung metastasis resulting from Aggrus expression decreased the survival of the mice. By generating several Aggrus point mutants, we revealed that point mutation at the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of Aggrus (Thr34 and Thr52) obliterated both platelet aggregation and metastasis. Furthermore, administration of aspirin to mice reduced the number of metastatic foci. These results indicate that Aggrus contributes to the establishment of metastasis by promoting platelet aggregation without affecting subsequent growth. Thus, Aggrus could serve as an ideal therapeutic target for drug development to block metastasis. PMID:17392172
Bettega, G; Schir, E
We evaluated the clinical contribution of platelet concentrates to oral and maxillo-facial surgery. This bibliographic research was made using the PubMed MeSH database with the following keywords: "platelet rich fibrin" (PRF), "platelet rich plasma" (PRP), "bone", "facial bone", "dental implant", and "blood platelet". The research was made without any date or language limitation since English summaries were available. All summaries were read to evaluate the relevance of the article. Only original articles and case reports were considered. The articles were classified as "in vitro studies", "animal experiments", or "clinical studies". The research was stopped on March 22, 2012. One hundred and sixty-nine articles were validated after excluding irrelevant articles, reviews, technical notes, and articles without English or French summaries. Seventeen were in vitro studies, 61 animal experiments, and 91 clinical studies. One hundred and ten complete articles were read to complete summary data. The data of in vitro studies univocally supports of using platelet concentrates. The data from animal experiment studies was less consensual and the validity of animal models was contested. The disparity of clinical study designs and the lack of rigorous methodology did not allow clearly determining platelet concentrate benefits for oral and maxillo-facial surgery. PRF or PRP clinical benefit has not been clearly demonstrated yet. French regulations relative to their use should be clarified. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Gremmel, Thomas; Kopp, Christoph W; Moertl, Deddo; Seidinger, Daniela; Koppensteiner, Renate; Panzer, Simon; Mannhalter, Christine; Steiner, Sabine
The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel has been linked to cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) carrier status. The presence of loss of function and gain of function variants were found to have a gene-dose effect on clopidogrel metabolism. However, genotyping is only one aspect of predicting response to clopidogrel and several platelet function tests are available to measure platelet response. Patients and methods We studied the influence of CYP2C19 allelic variants on on-treatment platelet reactivity as assessed by light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, the VASP assay, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), and the Impact-R in 288 patients after stenting for cardiovascular disease. Allelic variants of CYP2C19 were determined with the Infiniti® CYP450 2C19+ assay and categorized into four metabolizer states (ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate, poor). Platelet reactivity increased linearly from ultrarapid to poor metabolizers using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (P = 0.04), the VASP assay (P = 0.02) and the Impact-R (P = 0.04). The proportion of patients with high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) identified by LTA, the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and the VASP assay increased when the metabolizer status decreased, while no such relationship could be identified for results of MEA and Impact-R. The presence of loss of function variants (*2/*2, *2-8*/wt, *2/*17) was an independent predictor of HRPR in LTA and the VASP assay while it did not reach statistical significance in the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, MEA, and the Impact-R. Depending on the type of platelet function test differences in the association of on-treatment platelet reactivity with CYP2C19 carrier status are observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas W Johnson
Full Text Available Rapid coronary recanalization following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI requires effective anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic therapies. This study tested the impact of door to end of procedure ('door-to-end' time and baseline platelet activity on platelet inhibition within 24hours post-STEMI.108 patients, treated with prasugrel and procedural bivalirudin, underwent Multiplate® platelet function testing at baseline, 0, 1, 2 and 24hours post-procedure. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE, bleeding and stent thrombosis (ST were recorded. Baseline ADP activity was high (88.3U [71.8-109.0], procedural time and consequently bivalirudin infusion duration were short (median door-to-end time 55minutes [40-70] and infusion duration 30minutes [20-42]. Baseline ADP was observed to influence all subsequent measurements of ADP activity, whereas door-to-end time only influenced ADP immediately post-procedure. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR ADP>46.8U was observed in 75% of patients immediately post-procedure and persisted in 24% of patients at 2hours. Five patients suffered in-hospital MACE (4.6%. Acute ST occurred in 4 patients, all were <120mins post-procedure and had HRPR. No significant bleeding was observed. In a post-hoc analysis, pre-procedural morphine use was associated with significantly higher ADP activity following intervention.Baseline platelet function, time to STEMI treatment and opiate use all significantly influence immediate post-procedural platelet activity.
I. I. Patalakh
Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.
Södergren, Anna; Tynngård, Nahreen; Berlin, Gösta; Ramström, Sofia
Background and ObjectivesStorage lesions may prevent transfused platelets to respond to agonists and arrest bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the capacity of platelet activation during storage using flow cytometry and new markers of platelet activation. Materials and MethodsActivation responses of platelets prepared by apheresis were measured on days 1, 5, 7 and 12. In addition, comparisons were made for platelet concentrates stored until swirling was affected. Lyso...
The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)
Sturk, A.; Burt, L. M.; Hakvoort, T.; ten Cate, J. W.; Crawford, N.
Platelet concentrates were stored for one, two or three days at 4 degrees C (unagitated) or at room temperature (unagitated and linearly agitated). After washing the concentrates twice at room temperature and then incubating them for 60 minutes at 37 degrees C, the platelet morphology was
Full Text Available Abstract Anti-platelet therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with thrombotic diseases. The most commonly used anti-platelet drugs, namely, aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel, are effective in the prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban have demonstrated good clinical benefits and safety profiles in decreasing ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding have been reported in cases of therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent used in the treatment of patients with peripheral ischemia, such as intermittent claudication. Presently, platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y(12 receptor antagonists (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, cangrelor, and ticagrelor are being used in clinical settings for their pronounced protective effects. The new protease-activated receptor antagonists, vorapaxar and atopaxar, potentially decrease the risk of ischemic events without significantly increasing the rate of bleeding. Some other new anti-platelet drugs undergoing clinical trials have also been introduced. Indeed, the number of new anti-platelet drugs is increasing. Consequently, the efficacy of these anti-platelet agents in actual patients warrants scrutiny, especially in terms of the hemorrhagic risks. Hopefully, new selective platelet inhibitors with high anti-thrombotic efficiencies and low hemorrhagic side effects can be developed.
Wandall, Hans H; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll
Platelets are megakaryocyte subfragments that participate in hemostatic and host defense reactions and deliver pro- and anti-angiogenic factors throughout the vascular system. Platelets are anucleated cells and lack a complex secretory apparatus with distinct Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum compartme...
Platelet activation and blood coagulation are two processes often studied separately, but which cannot be seen independently from each other. Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, not only by providing negatively charged phospholipids, but also in localizing the coagulation process from a
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Platelet aggregometer. 864.6675 Section 864.6675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6675 Platelet...
Brand, A.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Tomson, B.
Platelet transfusions are indispensable for supportive care of patients with hematological diseases. We describe the developments in platelet products for transfusion since the 1970s, when, in particular, support for patients with allo-antibodies against human leukocyte antigens was a laborious
Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther
Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482
Full Text Available Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels.
There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.
Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...
There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.
Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N
Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.
Mortelmans, L.; Verbruggen, A.; Roo, M. de; Vermylen, J.
The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111 In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method based on that described by W.A. Heaton et al. 1979 was optimized in the authors' laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients. (author)
Mortelmans, L; Verbruggen, A; De Roo, M; Vermylen, J
The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method was optimized in our laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients.
Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A
Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Mark R Dowling
Full Text Available A fundamental issue in understanding homeostasis of the hematopoietic system is to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate cell fate. We recently revisited this issue for the case of blood platelets and concluded that platelet life span is largely regulated by internal factors, in contrast to the long-held view that accumulated damage from the environment triggers clearance. However, it is known that in humans there is an ongoing fixed requirement for platelets to maintain hemostasis and prevent bleeding; hence a proportion of platelets may be consumed in such processes before the end of their natural life span. Whether it is possible to detect this random loss of platelets in normal individuals at steady-state is unknown. To address this question, we have developed a mathematical model that independently incorporates age-independent random loss and age-dependent natural senescent clearance. By fitting to population survival curves, we illustrate the application of the model in quantifying the fixed requirement for platelets to maintain hemostasis in mice, and discuss the relationship with previous work in humans. Our results suggest a higher requirement for platelets in mice than in humans, however experimental uncertainty in the data limits our ability to constrain this quantity. We then explored the relationship between experimental uncertainty and parameter constraint using simulated data. We conclude that in order to provide useful constraint on the random loss fraction the standard error in the mean of the data must be reduced substantially, either through improving experimental uncertainty or increasing the number of experimental replicates to impractical levels. Finally we find that parameter constraint is improved at higher values of the random loss fraction; thus the model find utility in situations where the random loss fraction is expected to be high, for example during active bleeding or some types of thrombocytopenia.
The platelet plasma membrane is lined by a membrane skeleton that appears to contain short actin filaments cross-linked by actin-binding protein. Actin-binding protein is in turn associated with specific plasma membrane glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether the membrane skeleton regulates properties of the plasma membrane. Platelets were incubated with agents that disrupted the association of the membrane skeleton with membrane glycoproteins. The consequences of this c...
Liao, Han-Tsung; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter
Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains α-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival. In this review, we focus on the definition of PRP, the different PRP preparation and activation methods, and growth factor concentrations. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the role of PRP in fat grafting by reviewing in vitro studies with adipose-derived stem cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, and preclinical and clinical research. We also review platelet-rich fibrin, a so-called second generation PRP, and its slow-releasing biology and effects on fat grafts compared to PRP in both animal and clinical research. Finally, we provide a general foundation on which to critically evaluate earlier studies, discuss the limitations of previous research, and direct plans for future experiments to improve the optimal effects of PRP in fat grafting.
Zawilska, K; Komarnicki, M; Mańka, B
In 22 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (17 cases of myeloblastic leukaemia, 4 cases of myelomonocytic leukaemia and 1 case of undifferentiated-cell leukaemia) platelets were isolated from the plasma by the method of Nicholls and Hampton as modified by Levy-Toledano by centrifugation in albumin gradient. The aim of platelet isolation was their "concentration" in cases of thrombocytopenia to values making possible aggregation tests, and platelet separation from the influence of plasma factors. Then aggregation of isolated platelets caused by ADP was studied. In 16 out of 22 patients a fall of aggregation was observed, with the mean values of aggregation rate and intensity were significantly lower. Parallelly done determinations of aggregating activity released from the platelets by thrombin showed lower values as compared with platelets from healthy subjects. In might be thought, in this connection, that the demonstrated reduction of isolated platelets is associated with a diminution of the nucleotide pool or disturbances of the platelet release reaction. The disturbances of the platelet release reaction. The disturbances of aggregation of isolated platelets and reduction of the aggregating activity were most pronounced in acute myelomonocytic leukaemia.
Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.
Bradley S. Carter
Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.
... large dramatic outbreak can occur, related to a restaurant or a contaminated food or water source.Â ... understood this disclaimer. Copyright © 2007 James N. George . Design by Andreas Viklund . Last update: 4-6-2015 ...
Nina S Gowert
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-ß plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-ß (Aß peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of Aß peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by Aß in platelets. Treatment of platelets with Aß led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble Aß into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow ex vivo and in vivo and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.
Kaplan, J E; Moon, D G; Minnear, F L; Saba, T M
Platelet microembolization may contribute to microcirculatory and organ damage following trauma and shock. It is hypothesized that posttraumatic reticuloendothelial depression predisposes to such microembolization by failure to clear altered platelets from the circulation. The present study evaluated the short-term (1 h) clearance and organ localization of radiolabeled homologous damaged platelets in normal rats and in rats following sublethal Noble-Collip drum trauma. Platelets were collected in citrated platelet-rich plasma from normal rats and labeled with 51Cr in citrated saline. Platelets were altered by repeated centrifugation in protein-free medium. These platelets differed functionally and morphologically from normal platelets. Disappearance of iv injected damaged platelets conformed to a two-compartment exponential clearance. Velocity of clearance in the rapid compartment correlated with hepatic platelet localization, whereas velocity of clearance in the second compartment correlated with splenic platelet localization. Clearance rate of the rapid compartment was depressed at 1 h after trauma and elevated at 24 h. These changes were associated with a decrease in hepatic platelet localization at 1 h and an increase above normal at 24 h. Splenic platelet localization was decreased by 3 h following trauma. Pulmonary platelet localization was increased at all times following trauma. It is concluded that the posttrauma state is associated with a defect in the reticuloendothelial system clearance of altered platelets, which may augment embolization of platelets in the lung.
Best, M G; Vancura, A; Wurdinger, T
Platelets are multifunctional cell fragments, circulating in blood in high abundance. Platelets assist in thrombus formation, sensing of pathogens entering the blood stream, signaling to immune cells, releasing vascular remodeling factors, and, negatively, enhancing cancer metastasis. Platelets are 'educated' by their environment, including in patients with cancer. Cancer cells appear to initiate intraplatelet signaling, resulting in splicing of platelet pre-mRNAs, and enhance secretion of cytokines. Platelets can induce leukocyte and endothelial cell modeling factors, for example, through adenine nucleotides (ATP), thereby facilitating extravasation of cancer cells. Besides releasing factors, platelets can also sequester RNAs and proteins released by cancer cells. Thus, platelets actively respond to queues from local and systemic conditions, thereby altering their transcriptome and molecular content. Platelets contain a rich repertoire of RNA species, including mRNAs, small non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs; although studies regarding the functionality of the various platelet RNA species require more attention. Recent advances in high-throughput characterization of platelet mRNAs revealed 10 to > 1000 altered mRNAs in platelets in the presence of disease. Hence, platelet RNA appears to be dynamically affected by pathological conditions, thus possibly providing opportunities to use platelet RNA as diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, or monitoring biomarkers. In this review, we cover the literature regarding the platelet RNA families, processing of platelet RNAs, and the potential application of platelet RNA as disease biomarkers. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.
Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…
Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC
The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs
The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.
Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.
Imipramine binding was studied in platelet membranes isolated with different proportions of heavy (young) and light (old) platelets. The B/sub max/, a measure of the number of binding sites, was greater in the heavier platelets than in the light platelets. However, the dissociation constant K/sub d/ (a reflection of the affinity of imipramine binding) was greater in the lighter platelets compared to the heavy platelets. These results indicate that differences in K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ in particular membrane preparation, could be due to the differences in the relative proportion of heavy and light platelets
Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M.
Covalent attachment of fatty acid to proteins plays an important role in association of certain proteins with hydrophobic membrane structures. In platelets, the structure of many membrane glycoproteins (GPs) has been examined in detail, but the question of fatty acid acylation of platelet proteins has not been addressed. In this study, we wished to determine (a) whether platelet proteins could be fatty acid acylated; and, if so, (b) whether these modified proteins were present in isolated platelet membranes and cytoskeletal fractions; and (c) if the pattern of fatty acid acylated proteins changed on stimulation of the platelets with the agonist thrombin. We observed that in platelets allowed to incorporate 3H-palmitate, a small percentage (1.37%) of radioactivity incorporated into the cells became covalently bound to protein. Selective cleavage of thioester, thioester plus O-ester, and amide-linked 3H-fatty acids from proteins, and their subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the greatest part of 3H-fatty acid covalently bound to protein was thioester-linked 3H-palmitate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, at least ten major radiolabeled proteins were detected. Activation of platelets by thrombin greatly increased the quantity of 3H-palmitoylated proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Nearly all radiolabeled proteins were recovered in the membrane fraction, indicating that these proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins or proteins tightly associated to membrane constituents. Components of the GPIIb-IIIa complex were not palmitoylated. Thus, platelet proteins are significantly modified posttranslationally by 3H-palmitate, and incorporation of palmitoylated proteins into the cytoskeleton is a prominent component of the platelet response to thrombin stimulation
Lotter, M.G.; Heyns, A.D.P.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Minnaar, P.C.
Contrary to the accepted view, the authors have found that platelet turnover is not always increased in ITP if the mean platelet survival time (PS) is measured with In-AP. The authors investigated the possible cause of the discrepancy by comparing kinetics of In-AP with those of Cr-HP in 10 patients with ITP. PS was estimated with the multiple hit model. The equilibrium and final in vivo distribution of In-AP was quantitated with the geometrical mean method. The patients could be divided into either those with splenic or diffuse RES platelet destruction. The authors conclude that in ITP platelet survival of In-AP is significantly (P < .05) longer than that of Cr-HP. Platelet turnover measured with In-AP is only normal in patients with mainly splenic platelet sequestration. Results with Cr-HP give a false impression of PS. It seems that in ITP those patients with severe disease also have a platelet production defect
Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D.
Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24 degree C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying 32 P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 x 10 -7 M PAF at 37 degree C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for 32 P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of 32 P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage
Göker, Bahar; Özsavcı, Derya; Şener, Azize; Aksoy, Halil; Bağışgil, Vedat; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gülderen; Uras, Fikriye
SUMMARY: During storage of platelet obtained by apheresis several changes occur. The aimof this study was to investigate the effect of storage on activation, apoptosis, protein pattern,lipid peroxidation, and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) of platelets. In thisstudy, platelets obtained from healty donors (n=7) by apheresis were kept in an agitator fornine days at 20-24°C. The samples were taken on the 1st, 3 rd, 5 th and 9 th days and plateletswere precipitated. Platele...
Bigby, T.D.; Meslier, N. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))
We have examined the effects of co-culture and in vitro co-stimulation on lipoxygenase metabolism in monocytes and platelets. Monocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by discontinuous gradient centrifugation and adherence to tissue culture plastic. Platelets were obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of the same donor. When 10(9) platelets and 2.5 x 10(6) monocytes were co-stimulated with 1 microM A23187, these preparations released greater quantities of 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5(S),12-(S)dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene C4, 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-glutathionyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic (LTC4) when compared with monocytes alone. Release of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, delta 6-trans-LTB4, and delta 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 from monocytes was decreased in the presence of platelets. A dose-response curve was constructed and revealed that the above changes became evident when the platelet number exceeded 10(7). Dual radiolabeling experiments with 3H- and 14C-arachidonic acid revealed that monocytes provided arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, and LTA4 for further metabolism by the platelet. Monocytes did not metabolize platelet intermediates detectably. In addition, as much as 1.2 microM 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid had no effect on monocyte lipoxygenase metabolism. Platelets were capable of converting LTA4 to LTC4, but conversion of LTA4 to LTB4 was not detected. We conclude that the monocyte and platelet lipoxygenase pathways undergo a transcellular lipoxygenase interaction that differs from the interaction of the neutrophil and platelet lipoxygenase pathways. In this interaction monocytes provide intermediate substrates for further metabolic conversion by platelets in an unidirectional manner.
Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A
Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.
Verhaar, Robin; Dekkers, David W. C.; de Cuyper, Iris M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; de Korte, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.
UV-C irradiation has been shown to be effective for pathogen reduction in platelet concentrates, but preliminary work indicated that UV-C irradiation of platelets can induce platelet aggregation. In this study, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon was investigated. Irradiation of platelets with
Oliva, Carlos; Molina-Fernandez, Claudia; Maureira, Miguel; Candia, Noemi; López, Estefanía; Hassan, Bassem; Aerts, Stein; Cánovas, José; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena
During axon targeting, a stereotyped pattern of connectivity is achieved by the integration of intrinsic genetic programs and the response to extrinsic long and short-range directional cues. How this coordination occurs is the subject of intense study. Transcription factors play a central role due to their ability to regulate the expression of multiple genes required to sense and respond to these cues during development. Here we show that the transcription factor HNT regulates layer-specific photoreceptor axon targeting in Drosophila through transcriptional control of jbug/Filamin and multiple genes involved in axon guidance and cytoskeleton organization.Using a microarray analysis we identified 235 genes whose expression levels were changed by HNT overexpression in the eye primordia. We analyzed nine candidate genes involved in cytoskeleton regulation and axon guidance, six of which displayed significantly altered gene expression levels in hnt mutant retinas. Functional analysis confirmed the role of OTK/PTK7 in photoreceptor axon targeting and uncovered Tiggrin, an integrin ligand, and Jbug/Filamin, a conserved actin- binding protein, as new factors that participate of photoreceptor axon targeting. Moreover, we provided in silico and molecular evidence that supports jbug/Filamin as a direct transcriptional target of HNT and that HNT acts partially through Jbug/Filamin in vivo to regulate axon guidance. Our work broadens the understanding of how HNT regulates the coordinated expression of a group of genes to achieve the correct connectivity pattern in the Drosophila visual system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1018-1032, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud
Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.
The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37 0 C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient
N Sadat Razavi Hoseini
Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.
Binsker, Ulrike; Palankar, Raghavendra; Wesche, Jan; Kohler, Thomas P; Prucha, Josephine; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Rohde, Manfred; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Mamat, Uwe; Pané-Farré, Jan; Graf, Anica; Ebner, Patrick; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven
Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins. Eap and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitory protein (FLIPr) and the major autolysin Atl induced P-selectin expression in washed platelets and platelet-rich plasma. Similarly, AtlA, CHIPS and Eap induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Fluorescence microscopy illustrated that P-selectin expression is associated with calcium mobilization and re-organization of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Characterization of the functionally active domains of the major autolysin AtlA and Eap indicates that the amidase domain of Atl and the tandem repeats 3 and 4 of Eap are crucial for platelet activation. These results provide new insights in S. aureus protein interactions with platelets and identify secreted proteins as potential treatment targets in case of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.
Cuningham, D.A.; Kumar, B.; Siegel, B.A.; Gilula, L.A.; Totty, W.G.; Welch, M.J.
In-111 platelet scintigraphy was used to evaluate the effects of prior aspirin administration on the accumulation of In-111-labeled autologous platelets at sites of arterial injury resulting from iliac, femoral, or popliteal transluminal angioplasty in a nonrandomized study of 17 men. The degree of platelet localization at angioplasty sites was significantly less in nine men who had received aspirin in varying doses within the 4 days before angioplasty than in eight men who had not received aspirin for at least two weeks. The results suggest that aspirin treatment before angioplasty limits the early platelet deposition at the angioplasty site in men
Aydin, Fatma; Pancar Yuksel, Esra; Albayrak, Davut
Different systems have been used for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but platelet collection efficiencies of these systems are not clear. To evaluate the platelet collection efficiencies of three different PRP preparation systems. Blood samples were obtained from the same 16 volunteers for each system. The samples were centrifuged and PRP was prepared by three systems. The ratio of the total number of platelets in PRP to the total number of platelets of the venous blood sample of the patient expressed in percentage was named as platelet collection efficiency and calculated for each system. Mean platelet collection efficiencies were 66.6 (min: 56.9, max: 76.9), 58.3 (min: 27.3, max: 102.8), 50.8 (min: 27.2, max: 73) for top and bottom bag system, system using citrated tube, and the system using tube with Ficoll and cell extraction kit, respectively. Statistically significant difference was found only between the platelet collection efficiencies of systems using the tube with ficoll and cell extraction kit and the top and bottom bag system (p = 0.002). All three systems could be used for PRP preparation, but top and bottom bag system offers a slight advantage over the system using Ficoll and cell extraction kit regarding the platelet collection efficiency.
Cox, Dermot; Kerrigan, Steven W; Watson, Steve
It has become clear that platelets are not simply cell fragments that can plug the leak in a damaged blood vessel, they are in fact key components in the innate immune system which is supported by the presence of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on platelets. As the first responding cell to a site of injury they are well placed to direct the immune response to deal with any resulting exposure to pathogens. The response is triggered by bacteria binding to platelets which usually triggers platelet ac...
Hornsey, V S; McColl, K; Drummond, O; Macgregor, I R; Prowse, C V
New platelet storage systems, such as changes in the plastic of the storage bags, require validation. In this study, pooled buffy coat platelets stored in Fresenius/NPBI polyolefin bags were compared with those stored in Fresenius/NPBI butyryl-trihexyl citrate (BTHC) plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The CompoSelect thrombocyte polishing filter system (1000 mL polyolefin bag) and the CompoStop F730 system (1300 mL BTHC-PVC bag) were used to prepare paired, plasma-suspended, buffy coat platelet concentrates. Samples were taken up to day 7 for in vitro analysis. In a separate experiment, 12 units were prepared using the CompoStop F730 system and samples taken after leucofiltration for FXIIa assay. By day 7, platelet concentrates stored in BTHC-PVC demonstrated significantly higher pH levels (7.32 +/- 0.05 vs. 7.26 +/- 0.05) and a greater degree of cell lysis as shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels (497 +/- 107 vs. 392 +/- 81 U L(-1)). The supernatants contained higher concentrations of soluble P-selectin and the chemokine 'regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted', which are released from the alpha-granules during activation. The ATP concentrations were significantly lower in BTHC-PVC. Platelet counts, mean platelet volume and hypotonic shock response were similar for both bags. FXIIa antigen concentrations were 0.6 +/- 0.2 ng mL(-1) indicating that activation of the contact factor pathway had not occurred. Although the CompoStop F730 leucoreduction filter did not activate the contact system, platelets stored in 100% plasma in BTHC-PVC bags demonstrated different in vitro characteristics from those stored in polyolefin. Further work is required to demonstrate whether these differences will affect in vivo recovery and survival.
Baldini, M G
Progress is reported on studies on the physiology of blood platelets in thrombocytopenic patients and rabbits. Methods for the detection of platelet antibodies and the preservation of platelets in vitro were investigated. Studies on the effect of low doses of x irradiation (up to 1000 R) on platelet function indicate that platelets exposed to ionizing radiation have increased functional activity. A list is included of publications that report the results of the studies in detail.
Progress is reported on studies on the physiology of blood platelets in thrombocytopenic patients and rabbits. Methods for the detection of platelet antibodies and the preservation of platelets in vitro were investigated. Studies on the effect of low doses of x irradiation (up to 1000 R) on platelet function indicate that platelets exposed to ionizing radiation have increased functional activity. A list is included of publications that report the results of the studies in detail
Susan Skanderup Falkenberg
Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.
Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.
Kim, B K; Tanoue, K; Baldini, M G
Prolonged, probably indefinite storage of viable and functional human platelets is now possible by freezing with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The platelets have a nearly normal survival upon reinfusion and are capable of sustained hemostatic effectiveness in thrombocytopenic patients. Adaptation of the freezing technique for large-scale usage has more recently been achieved. The method is mainly based on the following principles: (1) use of plasma for suspension of the platelet concentrate; (2) gradual addition (0.5% every 2 min) of DMSO to a final concentration of 5% and its gradual removal; (3) a slow cooling rate of about 1/sup 0/C per min and rapid thawing (in 1 min); (4) use of a polyolefin plastic bag for freezing; (5) a washing medium of 20% plasma in Hanks' balanced salt solution; (6) final resuspension of the platelets in 50% plasma in Hanks' solution.
Morse, E E
Numerous drugs and chemicals affect the function of human blood platelets. The mechanism of action of some medications is partly understood. Aspirin is the most frequently involved drug. It appears to interfere with the platelet release reaction by acetylation of a platelet membrane protein which may be involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprophen (Motrin) and clonixin, also interfere with the release reaction but have a shorter acting course than aspirin. Some drugs stimulate adenylcyclase (gliclazide) or block phosphodiesterase, (dipyridamole, caffeine) both of which actions lead to an increase in adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and decrease aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These interactions should be known to clinical scientists since patients using these medicaments may manifest abnormal platelet function tests in the laboratory and mild hemorrhagic syndromes in the clinic.
Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft
12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.
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Nielsen, Nick S.; Jespersen, Sofie; Gaardbo, Julie C.
Increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bleeding has been found in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, and a re-balanced hemostasis has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate functional whole blood coagulation and platelet function in CHC infection....... The prospective study included 82 patients with CHC infection (39 with advanced liver fibrosis and 43 with no or mild liver fibrosis) and 39 healthy controls. A total of 33 patients were treated for CHC infection and achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Baseline and post-treatment blood samples were...... collected. Hemostasis was assessed by both standard coagulation tests and functional whole blood hemostatic assays (thromboelastograhy (TEG), and platelet aggregation (Multiplate). Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis had impaired platelet aggregation both compared to patients with no or mild fibrosis...
Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov
OBJECTIVE: Aspirin is a widely used drug for prevention of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients, but approximately 25% of patients experience insufficient platelet inhibition due to aspirin, and remain in risk of cardiovascular events. This study aimed to investigate the value...... of circulating miR-92a and platelet size as biomarkers of the individual response to aspirin therapy. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 50 healthy blood donors without antithrombotic medication and 50 patients with intermittent claudication on daily aspirin therapy. Based on results from the arachidonic...... acid stimulated aggregation test on Multiplate®analyzer (ASPItest), patients were defined as aspirin resistant (n=10) or aspirin responders (n=40). Plasma levels of miR-92a were evaluated by RT-qPCR analysis and platelet distribution width (PDW) was used to assess platelet size variability. Receiver...
Full Text Available Clinical-grade ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelial cells can increase the availability of corneal tissues for transplantation and treatment of corneal blindness. However, these cells have very limited proliferative capacity. Successful propagation has required so far to use very complex growth media supplemented with fetal bovine serum and other xenocomponents. We hypothesized that human platelet releasates rich in multiple growth factors, and in particular neurotrophins, could potentially be a useful supplement for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells due to their neural crest origin. Platelet releasates were prepared by calcium salt activation of apheresis platelet concentrates, subjected or not to complement inactivation by heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes. Platelet releasates were characterized for their content in proteins and were found to contain high amount of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor-AB (30.56 to 39.08 ng/ml and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (30.57 to 37.11 ng/ml neurotrophins. We compared the growth and viability of corneal endothelium cells in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with different combinations of components, including 2.5%∼10% of the platelet releasates. Corneal endothelium cells expanded in platelet releasates exhibited good adhesion and a typical hexagonal morphology. Their growth and viability were enhanced when using the complement-inactivated platelet releasate at a concentration of 10%. Immunostaining and Western blots showed that CECs maintained the expressions of four important membrane markers: Na-K ATPase α1, zona occludens-1, phospho-connexin 43 and N-cadherin. In conclusion, our study provides the first proof-of-concept that human platelet releasates can be used for ex vivo expansion of corneal endothelium cells. These findings open a new paradigm for ex vivo propagation protocols of corneal endothelium cells in compliance with good tissue culture practices
Corduan, Aurélie; Plé, Hélène; Laffont, Benoit; Wallon, Thérèse; Plante, Isabelle; Landry, Patricia; Provost, Patrick
Platelets play an important role in haemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. They harbour a wide variety of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), that can template de novo protein synthesis, and an abundant array of microRNAs, which are known to mediate mRNA translational repression through proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family. The relationship between platelet microRNAs and proteins capable of mediating translational repression, however, remains unclear. Here, we report that half of platelet microRNAs is associated to mRNA-regulatory Ago2 protein complexes, in various proportions. Associated to these Ago2 complexes are platelet mRNAs known to support de novo protein synthesis. Reporter gene activity assays confirmed the capacity of the platelet microRNAs, found to be associated to Ago2 complexes, to regulate translation of these platelet mRNAs through their 3'UTR. Neither the microRNA repertoire nor the microRNA composition of Ago2 complexes of human platelets changed upon activation with thrombin. However, under conditions favoring de novo synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, we documented a rapid dissociation of the encoding platelet SERPINE1 mRNA from Ago2 protein complexes as well as from the translational repressor protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). These findings are consistent with a scenario by which lifting of the repressive effects of Ago2 and TIA-1 protein complexes, involving a rearrangement of proteinmRNA complexes rather than disassembly of Ago2microRNA complexes, would allow translation of SERPINE1 mRNA into PAI-1 in response to platelet activation.
Brown, Charles O.; Salem, Kelley; Wagner, Brett A.; Bera, Soumen; Singh, Neeraj; Tiwari, Ajit; Choudhury, Amit; Buettner, Garry R.; Goel, Apollina
IL (interleukin)-6, an established growth factor for multiple myeloma cells, induces myeloma therapy resistance, but the resistance mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determines the role of IL-6 in re-establishing intracellular redox homoeostasis in the context of myeloma therapy. IL-6 treatment increased myeloma cell resistance to agents that induce oxidative stress, including IR (ionizing radiation) and Dex (dexamethasone). Relative to IR alone, myeloma cells treated with IL-6 plu...
Kuriyama, Takeo; Esashi, Jyunko; Hasegawa, Masami
Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching. Brown and green skin were found to differ with respect to the morphological characteristics of iridophores, with different thicknesses of the reflecting platelets and the cytoplasmic spacing between platelets, despite a shared vertical arrangement of pigment cells, i.e., xanthophores in the upper layer, iridophores in the middle layer, and melanophores at the bottom of the dermal layer, among the different Takydromus lizards. Iridophores of brown skin reflected longer wavelengths of light than those of green skin, which may be attributed to the thicker platelets and longer distances between platelets in brown skin. We discuss the potential role of genetic and intracellular mechanisms explaining the thickness and orientation of the light-reflecting platelets of iridophores in Takydromus lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N. [AREVA NP Gmbh, Erlangen (Germany); Kostroun, F. [AREVA NP Canada Ltd., Pickering, ON (Canada)
During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)
Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N.; Kostroun, F.
During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)
Conclusions: MS patients taking oral fingolimod treatment may be at risk for side-effects caused by low Plt levels. This may not be a factor for patients with higher or normal Plt levels. However, a patient with naturally low Plt levels may experience a drop below the normal level and be at risk for excessive bleeding. In addition to these possible harmful side-effects, the decreased Plt population may pose positive effects for MS patients.
Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.
Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products
Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.
Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation
Ng, Ashley P; Kauppi, Maria; Metcalf, Donald; Hyland, Craig D; Josefsson, Emma C; Lebois, Marion; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Baldwin, Tracey M; Di Rago, Ladina; Hilton, Douglas J; Alexander, Warren S
Thrombopoietin (TPO) acting via its receptor, the cellular homologue of the myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (Mpl), is the major cytokine regulator of platelet number. To precisely define the role of specific hematopoietic cells in TPO-dependent hematopoiesis, we generated mice that express the Mpl receptor normally on stem/progenitor cells but lack expression on megakaryocytes and platelets (Mpl(PF4cre/PF4cre)). Mpl(PF4cre/PF4cre) mice displayed profound megakaryocytosis and thrombocytosis with a remarkable expansion of megakaryocyte-committed and multipotential progenitor cells, the latter displaying biological responses and a gene expression signature indicative of chronic TPO overstimulation as the underlying causative mechanism, despite a normal circulating TPO level. Thus, TPO signaling in megakaryocytes is dispensable for platelet production; its key role in control of platelet number is via generation and stimulation of the bipotential megakaryocyte precursors. Nevertheless, Mpl expression on megakaryocytes and platelets is essential to prevent megakaryocytosis and myeloproliferation by restricting the amount of TPO available to stimulate the production of megakaryocytes from the progenitor cell pool.
Li, Kewei; Xu, Chang; Jin, Yongxin; Sun, Ziyu; Liu, Chang; Shi, Jing; Chen, Gukui; Chen, Ronghao; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui
ABSTRACT During initial colonization and chronic infection, pathogenic bacteria encounter distinct host environments. Adjusting gene expression accordingly is essential for the pathogenesis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has evolved complicated regulatory networks to regulate different sets of virulence factors to facilitate colonization and persistence. The type III secretion system (T3SS) and motility are associated with acute infections, while biofilm formation and the type VI secretion system (T6SS) are associated with chronic persistence. To identify novel regulatory genes required for pathogenesis, we screened a P. aeruginosa transposon (Tn) insertion library and found suhB to be an essential gene for the T3SS gene expression. The expression of suhB was upregulated in a mouse acute lung infection model, and loss of suhB resulted in avirulence. Suppression of T3SS gene expression in the suhB mutant is linked to a defective translation of the T3SS master regulator, ExsA. Further studies demonstrated that suhB mutation led to the upregulation of GacA and its downstream small RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, triggering T6SS expression and biofilm formation while inhibiting the T3SS. Our results demonstrate that an in vivo-inducible gene, suhB, reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute and chronic infections and plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24169572
Munirah Binti Mokhtar
Full Text Available Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP-derived platelet concentrate (PC during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius. Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001 for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 10 9 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001. Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma.
Full Text Available Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated.Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes.Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.
Fidler, Trevor P; Rowley, Jesse W; Araujo, Claudia; Boudreau, Luc H; Marti, Alex; Souvenir, Rhonda; Dale, Kali; Boilard, Eric; Weyrich, Andrew S; Abel, E Dale
Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote platelet activation. The sources of platelet-derived ROS are diverse and whether or not mitochondrial derived ROS, modulates platelet function is incompletely understood. Studies of platelets from patients with sickle cell disease, and diabetes suggest a correlation between mitochondrial ROS and platelet dysfunction. Therefore, we generated mice with a platelet specific knockout of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2-KO) to determine if increased mitochondrial ROS increases platelet activation. SOD2-KO platelets demonstrated decreased SOD2 activity and increased mitochondrial ROS, however total platelet ROS was unchanged. Mitochondrial function and content were maintained in non-stimulated platelets. However SOD2-KO platelets demonstrated decreased mitochondrial function following thrombin stimulation. In vitro platelet activation and spreading was normal and in vivo, deletion of SOD2 did not change tail-bleeding or arterial thrombosis indices. In pathophysiological models mediated by platelet-dependent immune mechanisms such as sepsis and autoimmune inflammatory arthritis, SOD2-KO mice were phenotypically identical to wildtype controls. These data demonstrate that increased mitochondrial ROS does not result in platelet dysfunction.
Christensen, Robert D
Some of the platelet transfusions currently given to NICU patients are unnecessary and convey no benefits. Although ordered with good intentions, unnecessary platelet transfusions carry known and unknown risks. Identifying and eliminating any unnecessary platelet transfusions in NICUs would be a step toward better care, lower costs, and more careful preservation of blood component resources. A renewed interest in platelet transfusion studies is needed, if essential data is to be gathered to improve NICU platelet transfusion practice. Retrospective studies can be of value: for instance, seeking associations between bleeding events and platelet counts can suggest the possibility of cause and effect relationships. Such studies might identify approximate platelet count levels that convey high hemorrhagic risk and might help focus future prospective trials. Prospective indirect studies also can be of value, for instance, measuring the template bleeding time and the PFA-100 closure time as a function of platelet count and perhaps as a function of circulating platelet mass, and would provide new information with relevance to platelet transfusion benefits. Such studies might give a better awareness of how low the platelet count can fall before platelet plug formation is impaired. It seems inescapable, however, that new, multicentered, randomized, prospective studies are needed, where NICU patients are assigned different platelet transfusion triggers and then carefully tracked for bleeding events and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Only that type of study is likely to generate the evidence base needed for widespread implementation of improvements in NICU platelet transfusion practice.
The paper investigates collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release in dependence of age, temperature, and pH value during the storage of the conserved platelets. The optimum pH (with adjusted CO 2 /air mixture) for platelet storage is found to be pH 6.9. The optimum temperature for platelet storage is 4-8 0 C. After 12, 24, or 48 hours of storage at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C and subsequent heating of the platelet-rich plasma to 37 0 C for 30 minutes, the values determined for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release rarely differed from the initial values before storage. Cold-induced spontaneous platelet aggregation and serotonin release of the platelets stored at 4-8 0 C can be avoided by 30-60 minutes pre-incubation of the platelets at 37 0 C before transfusions. The in vitro findings for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release indicate that platelet storage for 24-48 hours at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C may be permissible also for clinical purposes. The problem remains open whether the clinical effect of these platelets is still sufficient after 48 hours of storage, but literature findings suggest that this may well be the case. (orig.) [de
Prerna Ashok Karde
Full Text Available Background: Platelet concentrates are used in various medical procedures to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. In recent times, their antimicrobial efficacy is also explored. However, various platelet concentrates have evolved which differ in the centrifugation protocols. One such recently introduced platelet concentrate is injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF concentrate. Hence, the aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial property, and platelet count of i-PRF in comparison to other platelet concentrates, i.e., PRF, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, and control (whole blood. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 10 chronic generalized marginal gingivitis patients. Platelet concentrates were prepared using standardized centrifugation protocol. Platelet count was evaluated by manual counting method using smear preparation of each sample. Subsequently, antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria was examined on blood agar using disc diffusion method to quantify the inhibitory effects. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. P 0.05. i-PRF showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 in platelet count when compared to control. It was also significant when compared to PRP (P < 0.01, PRF (P < 0.001. Conclusion: i-PRF has maximum antimicrobial efficacy and higher platelet count in comparison to other platelet concentrates, thereby indicating to have a better regenerative potential then others.
Södergren, A L; Tynngård, N; Berlin, G; Ramström, S
Storage lesions may prevent transfused platelets to respond to agonists and arrest bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the capacity of platelet activation during storage using flow cytometry and new markers of platelet activation. Activation responses of platelets prepared by apheresis were measured on days 1, 5, 7 and 12. In addition, comparisons were made for platelet concentrates stored until swirling was affected. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure were assessed by flow cytometry on platelets in different subpopulations in resting state or following stimulation with platelet agonists (cross-linked collagen-related peptide (CRP-XL), PAR1- and PAR4-activating peptides). The ability to form subpopulations upon activation was significantly decreased already at day 5 for some agonist combinations. The agonist-induced exposure of PS and LAMP-1 also gradually decreased with time. Spontaneous exposure of P-selectin and PS increased with time, while spontaneous LAMP-1 exposure was unchanged. In addition, agonist-induced LAMP-1 expression clearly discriminated platelet concentrates with reduced swirling from those with retained swirling. This suggests that LAMP-1 could be a good marker to capture changes in activation capacity in stored platelets. The platelet activation potential seen as LAMP-1 exposure and fragmentation into platelet subpopulations is potential sensitive markers for the platelet storage lesion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs are genetically engineered seed cells with immunomodulatory effects, widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on CD4+ T cell subsets, including T helper cell (Th 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg, and its clinical significance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.005
Damgaard, Tina; Knudsen, Lene M; Dahl, Inger Marie S
the regulation of the CD56 promoter in relation to typical clinical factors. We used qPCR and FACS to measure the expression levels of CD56, and potential regulatory factors in patients with MM and related these with MM progression/prognosis. The transcription factors BTBD3, Pax5, RUNX1 and MMSET were positively...... associated with CD56 expression, as was CYCLIN D1, which is involved in disease progression, anti-apoptosis and proliferation. RUNX1 was negatively associated with the survival of stem-cell transplanted patients. Our findings propose four potential activators of the CD56 promoter and for CD56 to be involved...
Full Text Available Global gene expression data combined with bioinformatic analysis provides strong evidence that mammalian miRNAs mediate repression of gene expression primarily through binding sites within the 3' untranslated region (UTR. Using RNA induced silencing complex immunoprecipitation (RISC-IP techniques we have identified multiple cellular targets for a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV miRNA, miR-US25-1. Strikingly, this miRNA binds target sites primarily within 5'UTRs, mediating significant reduction in gene expression. Intriguingly, many of the genes targeted by miR-US25-1 are associated with cell cycle control, including cyclin E2, BRCC3, EID1, MAPRE2, and CD147, suggesting that miR-US25-1 is targeting genes within a related pathway. Deletion of miR-US25-1 from HCMV results in over expression of cyclin E2 in the context of viral infection. Our studies demonstrate that a viral miRNA mediates translational repression of multiple cellular genes by targeting mRNA 5'UTRs.
Full Text Available Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14. Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.
Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, inc