WorldWideScience

Sample records for regulate conflict exposure

  1. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, J.; Penning-Rowsell, E.; Tunstall, S.

    2011-10-01

    In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25) and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  2. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  3. Dealing with duplicate regulations and conflicting jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are a number of situations where mixed wastes are regulated by dual regulations and regulators. This presentation attempts to show where such duplication exists and how it evolved historically through legislative actions. The presentation includes a discussion of strategies that have been used to deal with the problems that result from duplicate regulations and jurisdictional conflicts. The RCRA and AEA regulations are really more similar than dissimilar. There are significant issues that must be worked through with the regulators. It is most important to work with your regulators early in process. The following are suggestions for dealing with the regulators. (1) Know the regulations in advance of discussions. (2) Begin dialogue with the regulator(s) as early as possible and get to know the people you will be dealing with -- and let them know you. (3) Explain the technical/regulatory issues/problems that you face at your facility in sufficient detail that they are clearly understood, and work with the regulator(s) to reasonably address them in the language/requirements of the permit. (4) Always attempt to comply with the regulations first before going in with a variance request -- document your efforts, and be honest with your assessment of issues. (5) Don't be adversarial -- remember that the regulator has the same objectives as you do. 1 tab

  4. Connections or conflicts between nuclear regulations and other regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1976-01-01

    The potential for conflicts between nuclear and other regulations stems in large part from overlapping jurisdictional lines which reflect not only the basic governmental structure but the political realities as well. A completely logical pattern - with a clear differentiation of responsibilities assigned to the various departments and agencies involved - is assuredly a worthy goal, but one not often, if ever, achieved. Fortunately, innovative means for obviating or mitigating the conflicts can be and have been found. (Auth) [fr

  5. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  6. Across-Task Conflict Regulation: A Replication Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runger, Dennis; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Fernandez-Duque and Knight (2008, Experiment 4) described an across-task effect of endogenously generated, anticipatory control: A cue that predicted conflict in an upcoming Eriksen flanker task modulated conflict regulation in a subsequent number Stroop task. In 3 experiments, 1 of which included an exact replication condition, we failed to…

  7. Emotion regulation and conflict transformation in multi-team systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Meeus, M.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to test the moderating role of emotion regulation in the transformation of both task and process conflict into relationship conflict. Design/methodology/approach A field study of multi-teams systems, in which (94) respondents are engaged in interpersonal and

  8. Mastery and Performance Goals Predict Epistemic and Relational Conflict Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnon, Celine; Muller, Dominique; Schrager, Sheree M.; Pannuzzo, Nelly; Butera, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The present research examines whether mastery and performance goals predict different ways of reacting to a sociocognitive conflict with another person over materials to be learned, an issue not yet addressed by the achievement goal literature. Results from 2 studies showed that mastery goals predicted epistemic conflict regulation (a conflict…

  9. Regulation and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, V.P.; Wenting, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution the authors provide an overview of regulatory issues and conflicts regarding electricity interconnectors between the Netherlands and its neighbours. The Electricity Act 1998 has assigned management of the Dutch part of the interconnectors to exclusively TenneT, the national transmission system operator in the Netherlands. The authors conclude that the dust of many regulatory problems and conflicts concerning existing interconnectors has settled down. The preliminary proceedings regarding the long Sep priority which are pending with the EU Court of Justice must still produce an answer as to the compatibility of this priority with community law. Regarding construction and management of new interconnectors many regulatory and commercial challenges lie ahead. As regards congestion management on existing interconnectors the authors raise the question whether concentration on increasing physical interconnector capacity is the right approach. Interconnector capacity, even if substantially expanded, will continue to be liable to falling short of demand due to price differences and volatility of prices in the various national markets. Perhaps more effort should be put into attaining conditions for non-transaction based congestion management. The combined UCTE (Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity) grid is, technically speaking, a 'copper plate'. If it were only managed as such by the various national transmission system operators through co-ordinated control of production and load, almost all transports on this copper plate could be secured, irrespective of underlying commercial flows [nl

  10. Effects of empathic paraphrasing - Extrinsic emotion regulation in social conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSeehausen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator’s perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy.20 participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized ten standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the ten descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition. Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings.Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants' voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, was higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing, indicating higher autonomic arousal.The results show that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing can extrinsically regulate negative emotion on a short-term basis. Paraphrasing led to enhanced autonomic activation in recipients, while at the same time influencing emotional valence in the direction of feeling better. A possible explanation for these results is that being treated in an empathic manner may stimulate a more intense emotion processing helping to transform and resolve the conflict.

  11. Macronutrient intake regulates sexual conflict in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, J; Jensen, K; Lane, S M; House, C M; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual conflict results in a diversity of sex-specific adaptations, including chemical additions to ejaculates. Male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) produce a gelatinous nuptial gift (the spermatophylax) that varies in size and free amino acid composition, which influences a female's willingness to fully consume this gift. Complete consumption of this gift maximizes sperm transfer through increased retention of the sperm-containing ampulla, but hinders post-copulatory mate choice. Here, we examine the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on the weight and amino acid composition of the spermatophylax that describes its gustatory appeal to the female, as well as the ability of this gift to regulate sexual conflict via ampulla attachment time. Nutrient intake had similar effects on the expression of these traits with each maximized at a high intake of nutrients with a P : C ratio of 1 : 1.3. Under dietary choice, males actively regulated their nutrient intake but this regulation did not coincide with the peak of the nutritional landscape for any trait. Our results therefore demonstrate that a balanced intake of nutrients is central to regulating sexual conflict in G. sigillatus, but males are constrained from reaching the optima needed to bias the outcome of this conflict in their favour. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Occupational exposure to HIV: a conflict situation for health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, E; Achora, S; Berggren, V; Bajunirwe, F

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the circumstances and predisposing factors, the high-risk groups, the extent to which exposures are reported and the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) utilized by health-care workers (HCWs) and students in a Ugandan hospital. Occupational exposure to HIV is a low but potential risk of HIV infection to health workers. Self-administered questionnaire was given to 224 participants (including 98 HCWs and 126 students) in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Of the 224 participants surveyed, 19.2% reported having sustained injection needle stick injuries in the previous year, of which 4.46% occurred with HIV-infected blood. Other reported injuries were cannula needle stick injury (0.89%), suture needle stick injuries (3.13%), scalpel cut injuries (0.45%) and muco-cutaneous contamination (10.27%). The most affected groups were nurses-midwives for scalpel injuries and students for stick injuries. The predisposing factors reported included lack of protective devices and recapping of needles. Exposures were under-reported. Uptake of PEP was also low. Occupational exposure to HIV presents a conflict situation for HCWs. It remains a frequent occurrence particularly among student nurses-midwives, despite being avoidable. Its prophylactic treatment is hampered by poor reporting and investigation of exposures, and poor access to PEP. Strict adherence to universal precaution and proper handling of occupational exposure to HIV should be encouraged. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm Silke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%, round up raids (82.7%, the witnessing of torture (66.9%, rape (13.3%, and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%, arrests/kidnapping (16.9%, torture (12.9%, and sexual violence (11.6%. Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7, violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8 and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7. Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5. Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.

  14. Ethical conflict in critical care nursing: Correlation between exposure and types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Roldan-Merino, Juan; Goberna-Tricas, Josefina; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-08-01

    Ethical conflicts in nursing have generally been studied in terms of temporal frequency and the degree of conflict. This study presents a new perspective for examining ethical conflict in terms of the degree of exposure to conflict and its typology. The aim was to examine the level of exposure to ethical conflict for professional nurses in critical care units and to analyze the relation between this level and the types of ethical conflict and moral states. This was a descriptive correlational study. Central and dispersion, normality tests, and analysis of variance were carried out. A total of 203 nurses were from two third-level teaching hospitals in Spain. Both centers are part of the University of Barcelona Health Network. Participants filled out the Ethical Conflict in Nursing Questionnaire-Critical Care Version. This investigation received the approval of the ethical committees for clinical investigation of the two participating hospitals. Participants were informed of the authorship and aims of the study. The index of exposure to ethical conflict was [Formula: see text]. The situations involving analgesic treatment and end-of-life care were shown to be frequent sources of conflict. The types of ethical conflict and moral states generally arranged themselves from lesser to greater levels of index of exposure to ethical conflict. The moderate level of exposure to ethical conflict was consistent with other international studies. However, the situations related with family are infrequent, and this presents differences with previous research. The results suggest that there is a logical relationship between types of conflict and levels of exposure to ethical conflict. The types of ethical conflict and moral states were related with the levels of exposure to ethical conflict. The new perspective was shown to be useful for analyzing the phenomenon of ethical conflict in the nurse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  16. The Role of Family Conflict in the Relation between Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…

  17. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  18. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  19. EU regulation on "conflict minerals": A step towards higher accountability in the extractive sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Küblböck, Karin; Grohs, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    "No blood in my cell phone" - In the early 2000s, NGO-campaign slogans pointed out the links between raw materials in electronic products and the financing of armed conflicts. These campaigns focused on the responsibility of companies for their supply chain. In July 2017, an EU regulation came into effect that aims to prevent companies from financing armed conflicts via their procurement of raw materials. This Policy Note explains how the debates on 'conflict minerals' led to the formulation ...

  20. Aberrant approach-avoidance conflict resolution following repeated cocaine pre-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Schumacher, Anett; Erb, Suzanne; Ito, Rutsuko

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by persistence to seek drug reinforcement despite negative consequences. Drug-induced aberrations in approach and avoidance processing likely facilitate the sustenance of addiction pathology. Currently, the effects of repeated drug exposure on the resolution of conflicting approach and avoidance motivational signals have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to investigate the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on conflict resolution using novel approach-avoidance paradigms. We used a novel mixed-valence conditioning paradigm to condition cocaine-pre-exposed rats to associate visuo-tactile cues with either the delivery of sucrose reward or shock punishment in the arms in which the cues were presented. Following training, exploration of an arm containing a superimposition of the cues was assessed as a measure of conflict resolution behavior. We also used a mixed-valence runway paradigm wherein cocaine-pre-exposed rats traversed an alleyway toward a goal compartment to receive a pairing of sucrose reward and shock punishment. Latency to enter the goal compartment across trials was taken as a measure of motivational conflict. Our results reveal that cocaine pre-exposure attenuated learning for the aversive cue association in our conditioning paradigm and enhanced preference for mixed-valence stimuli in both paradigms. Repeated cocaine pre-exposure allows appetitive approach motivations to gain greater influence over behavioral output in the context of motivational conflict, due to aberrant positive and negative incentive motivational processing.

  1. The radiation exposure regulation for XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the people radiation exposure by the ICRP and IAEA is subject to well-founded criticism for the excessive severity and complexity. In Russia these shortcomings adversely affected at the removal of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The future regulation system must be better coordinated with the other sources of human life risks. In the advanced countries the death probability from the all reasons is equal 1-2·10 -2 year -1 with the age variation from 5·10 -4 to 2·10 -1 . Therefore it is reasonable to consider that death risk from radiation less than 1·10 -5 - 1·10 -3 depending on age, as an insignificant, but not 1·10 -6 as it is accepted now. Whatever heritable effects of human irradiation are not revealed by the observation during a half on century. Therefore, there is no any reason to account them. As concern the dose dependence of the stochastic effects of radiation the new information is already demonstrating that more than an a half of the whole human's radiation cancers are submitted to dependence with the threshold from 0.3 to tens of sievert at the low dose rate. Therefore, the linear nonthreshold dependence is not true. This fact is undermining the modern system of irradiation regulation institution. One can't use the effective dose. One hasn't to fear of the radiation exposure in small doses. There isn't the necessity in optimization of such exposure all the more the balance detriment-benefit depends on not only dose but even not so much on dose. It is reasonable to base the future system regulation of radiation exposure with the only one principle: one mustn't exceed the limit of the personal life-span dose, which must be set at the level 2.5 Sv for the staff. The limit equal to 0.5 Sv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure that. For the population, the limit as 50-70 mSv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure the level 0.35-05 Sv for life-span. Equally, with the half century dose it is necessary to regulate

  2. Performance goals in conflictual social interactions: towards the distinction between two modes of relational conflict regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommet, Nicolas; Darnon, Céline; Mugny, Gabriel; Quiamzade, Alain; Pulfrey, Caroline; Dompnier, Benoît; Butera, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Socio-cognitive conflict has been defined as a situation of confrontation with a disagreeing other. Previous research suggests that individuals can regulate conflict in a relational way, namely by focusing on social comparison between relative levels of competences. Relational conflict regulation has been described as yielding particularly negative effects on social interactions and learning, but has been understudied. The present research addresses the question of the origin of relational conflict regulation by introducing a fundamental distinction between two types of regulation, one based on the affirmation of one's own point of view and the invalidation of the other's (i.e., 'competitive' regulation), the other corresponding to the protection of self-competence via compliance (i.e., 'protective' regulation). Three studies show that these modes of relational conflict regulation result from the endorsement of distinct performance goals, respectively, performance-approach goals (trying to outperform others) and performance-avoidance goals (avoiding performing more poorly than others). Theoretical implications for the literature on both conflict regulation and achievement goals are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  4. Heart rate variability and the relationship between trauma exposure age, and psychopathology in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Kemp, Andrew H; Steel, Zachary; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Tam, Natalino; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Silove, Derrick

    2016-05-10

    Cumulative exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) increases risk for mental distress in conflict-affected settings, but the psychophysiological mechanisms that mediate this dose-response relationship are unknown. We investigated diminished heart rate variability (HRV) - an index of vagus nerve function and a robust predictor of emotion regulation capacity - as a vulnerability marker that potentially mediates the association between PTE exposure, age and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and aggressive behavior, in a community sample from Timor-Leste - a post-conflict country with a history of mass violence. Resting state heart rate data was recorded from 45 cases of PTSD, depression and intermittent explosive disorder (IED); and 29 non-case controls. Resting HRV was significantly reduced in the combined case group compared with non-cases (p = .021; Cohen's d = 0.5). A significant mediation effect was also observed, whereby a sequence of increased age, reduced HRV and elevated PTSD symptoms mediated the association between PTE exposure and distress (B = .06, SE = .05, 95% CI = [.00-.217]) and aggression (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI = [.0003-.069])). The findings demonstrate an association between diminished resting HRV and psychopathology. Moreover, age-related HRV reductions emerged as a potential psychophysiological mechanism that underlies enhanced vulnerability to distress and aggression following cumulative PTE exposure.

  5. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  6. Exposure: land use and land degradation in times of violent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitri, George; Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter 5 is the first of the selection of chapters empirically developing the concepts that were theoretically explored in Chapters 2 and 3. It initiates the book’s Part 1 that is dedicated to empirical investigations of North Lebanon’s exposure and sensitivity to armed conflict and its

  7. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  8. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M C; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4-6, 7-9, and 10-13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  9. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: Implications for self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  10. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  11. 25 CFR 1000.464 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 1000.464 Section 1000.464 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... interest must the standards of conduct regulate? The personal conflicts of interest standards must: (a... financial interest or an employment relationship; (b) Prohibit such officers, employees, or agents from...

  12. The ionising radiation (medical exposure) regulations - IR (ME) R, Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R.; Brejza, P.; Cremona, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The regulations in Malta at present are in draft stage. These regulations partially implement European Council Directive 97/43/Euratom. This Directive lays down the basic measurements for the health and protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure. The regulations impose duties on persons administering radiations, to protect people from unnecessary exposure whether as part of their own medical diagnosis, treatment or as part of occupational health worker for health screening, medico-legal procedures, voluntary participation in research etc. These regulations also apply to individuals who help other individuals undergoing medical exposure. Main provisions 1. Regulation 2 contains the definitions of 28 terms used in these regulations. 2. Regulation 3.1 and 3.2 sets out the medical exposures to which the regulations apply. 3. Regulation 4 requires approval of medical exposures due to medical research, from radiation protection board of Malta. 4. Regulation 5 prohibits new procedures involving medical exposure unless it has been justified in advance. 5. Regulation 6 provides conditions justifying medical exposures. It prohibits any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and authorized and sets out matters to be taken into account for justification. 6. Regulation 7 requires that practitioner justifies the exposure, shall pay special attention towards (a) exposure from medical research procedures where there is no direct health benefit to the individual undergoing exposure, (b) exposures for medico-legal purposes; (c) exposures to pregnant or possible pregnant women and (d) exposures to breast-feeding women. 7. Regulation 8.1 to 8.3 prohibit any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and sets out matters to be taken for justification 8. Regulation 8.4 prohibits an exposure if it cannot be justified. 9. Regulation 9 requires the employer to provide a

  13. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2010-03-01

    Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to emotion regulation in response to laboratory-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal conflict. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real life. We investigated whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, healthy, adult participants in committed relationships (n = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In a three-week online daily diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. LPFC activity in response to the laboratory-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  15. Personnel and population exposure regulation questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    ICRP Recommendations-1990, Notice 60 was used as a basis for new NRBU-97 norms in Ukraine and also for Russian NRB-96 and reviewed NRB-99. These recommendations caused negative treatment among rather authoritative organizations and individual scientists of France, USA, Russia and other countries. Till 1988, norms NRB-76/87 were operated in Ukraine. ICRP Recommendations-1976, Notice 26 was used under their development, and dosage limits included into them surely provided radiation protection for Nuclear Power Units personnel and population during long-term period. But some leaders being affected by Chernobyl syndrome and radio phobia put strong pressure upon ICRP that resulted in Notice 60 appearance where dosage limits for personnel and population were sufficiently understated without any scientific ground. According to literary sources survey, it is shown that usage of dose-effect non threshold linear dependence concept essentially exaggerates the real danger. According to the concept, principles of regulation the exposure standards are suggested, which considered to be actual as large-scale works on dismantling the reactors and ChNPP Units equipment are expected soon on the phase of their decommissioning and also the conducting of works on Unit 'Shelter' transformation into ecologically safe system

  16. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to the regulation of emotional experience in response to lab-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk-factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real-life. Method We investigated whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During an fMRI scan, healthy, adult participants in committed, dating relationships (N = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In an online daily-diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Results LPFC activity in response to the lab-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to the change in mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted the change in mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Conclusions Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. PMID:20004365

  17. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…

  18. 75 FR 33752 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... extended an additional 30 days to provide additional time for interested parties to review the proposed... interested parties to review the proposed DFARS changes. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  19. THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS REGULATION IN THE REGION: THE DISPOSITION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Eduardovich Ushamirskiy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the specificity of the perception of the problem of social conflicts` regulation by the representatives of the regional establishment is analyzed on the basis of the results of sociological research conducted in the Volgograd region in 2014 by the method of a questionnaire survey on multi-stage, quota sampling (500 respondents. It is concluded that the representatives of the elite associate the main causes of social conflicts with the low political culture of the population, the mutual exclusion of power and population, corruption, social stratification and lack of tolerance. However, they are inadequate to resolve them in terms of technology. Despite the high subjective self-assessment, as a rule, the representatives of the establishment have the lack of knowledge and experience. The analysis gives the grounds to assert that the establishment in the regions hasn`t managed to form the system of regulation of conflicts yet.The solution to this problem requires the institutionalization of conflict mediating in public and municipal authorities; development and implementation of the mechanism of involvement in the conflict mediating of civil society institutions, first of all, the civic chambers of regions; organization of training of specialists in conflictology in universities.

  20. About the legal regulation of the conflicts resolution regarding the non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Teresa Mesa Tejeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents an analysis concerning the legal regulation of the conflicts resolution regarding the non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba. Both, the Decree-Law 305/12 «Non-Agricultural Cooperatives» and the Decree 309/12 «First Degree Cooperative Regulations», are marked by technical and drafting deficiencies that render unlikely the effectiveness and practical realization of the regulated precepts, and as a consequence, they can compromise the access to justice of the cooperative subjects before the existence of conflicts between them and between them and the cooperative.Received: 28 June 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  1. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, U.C. E-mail: ucmishra@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a

  2. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  3. Social conflict resolution regulated by two dorsal habenular subregions in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Yi; Amo, Ryunosuke; Kinoshita, Masae; Cherng, Bor-Wei; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tazu; Takahoko, Mikako; Yamazaki, Masako; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    When animals encounter conflict they initiate and escalate aggression to establish and maintain a social hierarchy. The neural mechanisms by which animals resolve fighting behaviors to determine such social hierarchies remain unknown. We identified two subregions of the dorsal habenula (dHb) in zebrafish that antagonistically regulate the outcome of conflict. The losing experience reduced neural transmission in the lateral subregion of dHb (dHbL)-dorsal/intermediate interpeduncular nucleus (d/iIPN) circuit. Silencing of the dHbL or medial subregion of dHb (dHbM) caused a stronger predisposition to lose or win a fight, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dHbL and dHbM comprise a dual control system for conflict resolution of social aggression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  5. An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: the moderating role of attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Shiri; Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Mikulincer, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Romantic couples (N = 127) engaged in a relationship conflict interaction during which their autonomic physiology, emotional experience, and emotional behavior were recorded. Couples were assigned randomly to one of two interventions, or to a control condition: In the affective suppression condition, one partner was instructed to refrain from expressing emotions. In the positive mindset condition, one partner was instructed to think about the positive aspects of the relationship. Results revealed that emotion regulation interventions influenced the physiology, emotional behavior, and emotional experience of both the manipulated person and his or her partner, who was oblivious to regulation manipulations. Specifically, suppression increased, and positive mindset decreased cardiovascular arousal and negative affect. These effects were generally exacerbated among those high on attachment anxiety and attenuated among those high on attachment avoidance. The results of this research corroborate and extend the Temporal Interpersonal Emotion Systems model (Butler, 2011) in the context of relationship conflict interactions.

  6. Optimal control approaches for aircraft conflict avoidance using speed regulation : a numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cellier , Loïc; Cafieri , Sonia; Messine , Frederic

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper a numerical study is provided to solve the aircraft conflict avoidance problem through velocity regulation maneuvers. Starting from optimal controlbased model and approaches in which aircraft accelerations are the controls, and by applying the direct shooting technique, we propose to study two different largescale nonlinear optimization problems. In order to compare different possibilities of implementation, two environments (AMPL and MATLAB) and determin...

  7. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...

  8. Regulating 'unruly' bodies: work tasks, conflict and violence in Britain's night-time economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F

    2002-09-01

    Security work in urban licensed premises is a risky occupation in Britain's fast expanding liminal night-time economy. Sociologically, little is known about this masculinist work, including those embodied strategies used by doorstaff or 'bouncers' to regulate 'unruly' bodies in and around commercial space. Using participant observational data generated in south-west Britain, this paper describes how the door supervisors' routine work tasks (largely comprising requests and demands) provide the conditions of possibility for hierarchical conflict and (near) violence between themselves and (potential) customers inside and at the entrances to licensed premises. Besides providing a thick description of this work and the phenomenology of physical violence, the paper supports recent theoretical arguments for an explicitly embodied sociology. Centrally, the paper maintains that bodies matter and that an empirical, interpretative sociology cannot ignore the corporeal dimensions of social life if it is to arrive at an adequate understanding of everynight tensions and conflict.

  9. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.

  10. Suicidal behaviors in adolescents with ADHD: associations with depressive and other comorbidity, parent-child conflict, trauma exposure, and impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W Burleson; Diler, Rasim S

    2014-11-01

    To examine potential predictors of lifetime suicidal behaviors (SBs) in adolescents with ADHD. Participants were 101 adolescents with ADHD aged 11 to 18 years, evaluated for lifetime SB and psychopathology with semistructured interviews, and for lifetime trauma exposure, parent-child conflict, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment with child, parent, and teacher ratings. Controlling for the effects of age, female sex, and comorbid depressive and other disorders, lifetime SB (n = 28) remained significantly associated (p = .001) with parent-child conflict, and to a lesser extent (p function and breadth of exposure to victimization events. Measures related to past and current ADHD symptoms and signs were not associated with lifetime SB. Apart from depression, clinicians should pay particular attention to parent-child conflict, victimization trauma, and social impairment rather than levels of ADHD symptoms when weighing the likelihood of SB in youth with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  11. Conflict and cooperation with respect to European natural-gas regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, O.G.

    2003-01-01

    Significant economies of scale and scope in the European gas industry make many transmission and local distribution companies natural monopolies in the markets in which they operate. Often, this gives them a strong market power and they experience little competitive pressure. Hence public interventions into the functioning of the market, as seen under the initiatives taken by the European Commission, such as the 'Gas Directive' occur. This paper discusses a game between the public authority and the transporters, where various levels of conflict and cooperation will influence how far regulations will go and how they will be designed. (author)

  12. Nucleus accumbens cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript mediates food intake during novelty conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, PR; Krolewski, DM; Dykhuis, KE; Ching, J; Pinawin, AM; Britton, SL; Koch, LG; Watson, SJ; Akil, H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a persistent and pervasive problem, particularly in industrialized nations. It has come to be appreciated that the metabolic health of an individual can influence brain function and subsequent behavioral patterns. To examine the relationship between metabolic phenotype and central systems that regulate behavior, we tested rats with divergent metabolic phenotypes (Low Capacity Runner: LCR vs. High Capacity Runner: HCR) for behavioral responses to the conflict between hunger and environmental novelty using the novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm. Additionally, we measured expression of mRNA, for peptides involved in energy management, in response to fasting. Following a 24-h fast, LCR rats showed lower latencies to begin eating in a novel environment compared to HCR rats. A 48-h fast equilibrated the latency to begin eating in the novel environment. A 24-h fast differentially affected expression of cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), where 24-h of fasting reduced CART mRNA in LCR rats. Bilateral microinjections of CART 55–102 peptide into the NAc increased the latency to begin eating in the NSF paradigm following a 24-h fast in LCR rats. These results indicate that metabolic phenotype influences how animals cope with the conflict between hunger and novelty, and that these differences are at least partially mediated by CART signaling in the NAc. For individuals with poor metabolic health who have to navigate food-rich and stressful environments, changes in central systems that mediate conflicting drives may feed into the rates of obesity and exacerbate the difficulty individuals have in maintaining weight loss. PMID:26926827

  13. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  14. The Longitudinal Effects of Chronic Mediated Exposure to Political Violence on Ideological Beliefs About Political Conflicts Among Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Boxer, Paul; Shikaki, Khalil

    This study examines the effects of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence on ideological beliefs regarding political conflict. It centers on these effects on young viewers, from preadolescents to adolescents. Ideological beliefs refers here to support of war, perception of threat to one's nation, and normative beliefs concerning aggression toward the out-group. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of Israeli and Palestinian youths who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand ( N = 1,207). Two alternative hypotheses were tested: that chronic exposure via the media increases support for war and aggression and elevates feeling of threat, or that chronic exposure via the media strengthens preexisting beliefs. Results demonstrated that higher levels of exposure were longitudinally related to stronger support for war. Regarding normative beliefs about aggression and threat to one's nation, mediated exposure reinforced initial beliefs, rendering the youths more extreme in their attitudes. These results mostly support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as "reciprocally determined" or "reinforcing spirals." The results are also discussed in light of the differences found between the effect of exposure to political violence firsthand and exposure via the media.

  15. Comments on the paper ''Market forces and planning by regulation: conflicts and complementarities'' by Rodney Stevensopn and Dennis Ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voll, S P [New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, NH (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The conflict between reliance on competitive markets and insistence on least-cost integrated planning highlights a fundamental difference in ideology, approach to regulation and assessment of the nature of the regulated industries that has developed between federal agencies and the state commissions in the USA in the last decade. While the conflict exists in the gas and telephone industries, and indeed would manifest itself in any industry subject to regulation at both the federal and state level, it is most apparent in the regulated electricity industry. The federal agencies (for electricity regulation the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)) view the state commissions as hopelessly old-fashioned in their attachment to traditional bureaucratic regulation; state regulators can argue that FERC has an unrealistic assessment of the nature of the electricity industry and an unfortunate indifference to the fate of captive ratepayers. (author)

  16. When ideology meets conflict-related content: Influences on emotion generation and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Halperin, Eran; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal

    2018-03-01

    Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies. We posited that right-left differences in experienced emotional intensity would be context-dependent, emerging mostly in response to depictions of harm to the outgroup, in accordance with the centrality of intergroup attitudes to ideological self-placement in conflict. Study 1 (N = 83) supported this hypothesis, with leftists (vs. rightists) experiencing outgroup harm (but not ingroup harm or conflict-irrelevant harm) with greater emotional intensity. Study 2 (N = 101), which replicated this finding, additionally examined whether behavioral differences in regulatory choice consequently emerge mostly regarding outgroup harm. We tested 2 competing hypotheses as to the nature of these differences: (a) the intensity hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would regulate their intensified reactions to outgroup harm through disengagement-distraction (vs. engagement-reappraisal) due to a documented greater preference for disengaging coping strategies as intensity increases, and (b) the motivation hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would prefer engagement-reappraisal (vs. disengagement-distraction), consistent with leftists' documented greater preference for intergroup empathy. Results exclusively supported the intensity hypothesis, and the significance of both studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Adolescent Conflict as a Developmental Process in the Prospective Pathway from Exposure to Interparental Violence to Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0–64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N = 182; 99 males, 83 females; 67% Caucasian, 11% African-American, 18% other, 4% unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12–34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

  18. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry

  19. Deciphering the Sunshine Act: Transparency Regulation and Financial Conflicts in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act ("Sunshine Act"), enacted to address financial conflicts in health care, is the first comprehensive federal legislation mandating public reporting of payments between drug companies, device manufacturers, and medicine. This article analyzes the Sunshine Act's uneven record, exploring how the law serves as an intriguing example of the uncertain case for transparency regulation in health care. The Sunshine Act's bumpy rollout demonstrates that commanding transparency through legislation can be arduous because of considerable implementation challenges. Capturing all the relevant information about financial relationships and reporting it with sufficient contextual and comparative data has proven disappointingly difficult. In addition, the law suffers from uncertainty and poor design as to the intended audience. Indeed, there is strong reason to believe that it will not significantly impact decision-making of primary recipients like patients. Yet the Sunshine Act nonetheless retains important and perhaps underappreciated value. From the almost four years of information generated, we have learned that industry-medicine financial ties vary significantly by physician specialty, and somewhat by physician gender. In many medical fields the distribution of top dollar payments tends to be heavily skewed to a few recipients, all of which have important implications for optimal management of financial conflicts and for health policy more generally. Accordingly, the Sunshine Act's greatest potential is not guiding decisions of individual patients or physicians, but its downstream effects. This Article traces how secondary audiences, such as regulators, watchdogs, and counsel are already starting to make productive use of Sunshine Act information. Public reporting has, for example, made more feasible linking industry payment information with Medicare reimbursement data. As a result, policymakers can more closely examine correlations between

  20. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  1. Speed uncertainty and speed regulation in conflict detection and resolution in Air Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Archambault , Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    International audience; With the predicted increase of air traffic volume, new air traffic management models are under investigation in order to increase airspace capacity and keep low delays while maintaining transportation safety standards. One of the tasks implied is to solve conflicts, i.e. maintain a sufficient separation between aircraft. Conflict resolution relies on conflict detection ; indeed predicting aircraft trajectories within a time window allows to detect the conflicts and app...

  2. 75 FR 20954 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Definition: Adding a new definition of ``organizational conflict of interest'' refers to the types of... necessary to identify conflicts are contained in section 203.1204, entitled Types of organizational... conflicts of interest. This section explains the three types of OCIs as recognized by the GAO and the Court...

  3. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, pconflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, pconflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mediation Effects of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Emotional Regulation on Children's Perceived Parental Conflict and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-yeon; Wesbecher, Kristen; Lee, Mihwa; Lee, Jeeyon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of dysfunctional beliefs and difficulties in emotional regulation on children's perception of interparental conflict and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. The participants in this study were 335 fifth grade elementary school students in Korea. We hypothesized that…

  5. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    study, men and women demonstrated significantly different strategies for regulating blood pressure and cerebral flow both at rest and during orthostatic stress on the day in which they had undergone exposure to AG. Since, in both men and women, a single, acute bout of AG exposure improved orthostatic tolerance, the feasibility of short exposures to AG during longer spaceflights or prior to entry into a gravitational (Earth or Mars) environment, should be explored. Given the known beneficial effects of AG on other organ systems, the present study indicates that the positive effect of artificial gravity on cardiac output make AG a likely candidate for sustaining cardiovascular conditioning upon return to gravity. Supported by KY NASA EPSCoR Grant #NNX07AT58A, KY State Matching Grants, NASA JSC Human Research Program and NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Sexual conflict explains the extraordinary diversity of mechanisms regulating mitochondrial inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Lane, Nick; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2017-10-26

    Mitochondria are predominantly inherited from the maternal gamete, even in unicellular organisms. Yet an extraordinary array of mechanisms enforce uniparental inheritance, which implies shifting selection pressures and multiple origins. We consider how this high turnover in mechanisms controlling uniparental inheritance arises using a novel evolutionary model in which control of mitochondrial transmission occurs either during spermatogenesis (by paternal nuclear genes) or at/after fertilization (by maternal nuclear genes). The model treats paternal leakage as an evolvable trait. Our evolutionary analysis shows that maternal control consistently favours strict uniparental inheritance with complete exclusion of sperm mitochondria, whereas some degree of paternal leakage of mitochondria is an expected outcome under paternal control. This difference arises because mito-nuclear linkage builds up with maternal control, allowing the greater variance created by asymmetric inheritance to boost the efficiency of purifying selection and bring benefits in the long term. In contrast, under paternal control, mito-nuclear linkage tends to be much weaker, giving greater advantage to the mixing of cytotypes, which improves mean fitness in the short term, even though it imposes a fitness cost to both mating types in the long term. Sexual conflict is an inevitable outcome when there is competition between maternal and paternal control of mitochondrial inheritance. If evolution has led to complete uniparental inheritance through maternal control, it creates selective pressure on the paternal nucleus in favour of subversion through paternal leakage, and vice versa. This selective divergence provides a reason for the repeated evolution of novel mechanisms that regulate the transmission of paternal mitochondria, both in the fertilized egg and spermatogenesis. Our analysis suggests that the widespread occurrence of paternal leakage and prevalence of heteroplasmy are natural outcomes of

  7. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

    2013-06-01

    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  8. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it.

  9. Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2013-06-08

    Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006-7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12-17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12-17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on

  10. Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12–17 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006–7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12–17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). Results The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12–17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. Conclusions Exposure to

  11. [Conflict of interest in the training and practices of nutritionists: regulation is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiane Nunes; Nascimento, Fabiana Alves do; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-12-01

    Transnational "Big Food" companies use advertising strategies to influence nutritionists, professors and students of nutrition. There are, however, conflicts of interest in this relationship. The scope of this study is to conduct a narrative review on the influence of the food industry in training in nutrition. It was revealed that industries seek to induce the recommendation, the prescription and the consumption of products by students and nutritionists through strategies such as sponsorship of scientific meetings, travel funding and the distribution of promotional gifts. However, acceptance of these gifts can generate a moral obligation to reciprocate, thereby jeopardizing the judgment of information and decision on professional conduct. At the University, the advertising occurs mainly through sponsorship of events and research funding, donation of materials and structures and publicity in the classroom. Regulating the conduct of the private sector in the academic arena is essential and, in this perspective, the implementation of regulatory measures to limit the inclusion of the food industry in undergraduate courses in nutrition is recommended to ensure that nutritionists will be better prepared to perform their tasks in and ethical and unbiased manner.

  12. Fathering by partner-abusive men: attitudes on children's exposure to interparental conflict and risk factors for child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Emily J; Henning, Kris; Holdford, Robert

    2009-08-01

    A substantial body of research concludes that children in homes marked by intimate partner violence (IPV) and conflict are at increased risk for maladjustment. Although studies often attribute these difficulties to the aggressive acts witnessed, other research and theoretical work suggests that disrupted parenting and co-occurring child maltreatment play an equally critical role in the onset of the children's psychological and behavioral problems. Despite the clear importance of parenting in the context of IPV, relatively little scholarship has been devoted to the topic, particularly when it comes to examining fathers. The current study sought to better understand the paternal relationships of men arrested for spouse/partner abuse, to examine their beliefs about children's exposure to interparental conflict and to identify the specific factors that may place their children at risk for maltreatment. The data consisted of questionnaires administered to 3,824 men attending a court-ordered evaluation after they were convicted of assaulting an intimate partner. Analyses revealed that most of the men had some type of fathering role with underage children (n = 2,508; 65.6%) and in most cases these relationships continued following their arrest. Although the majority of the men acknowledged that their children had been exposed to interparental conflicts, few perceived that their children had been affected by the arguing. Also of concern was the fact that risk factors for child maltreatment were highly prevalent in this population. Implications of these findings and suggestions for those working with domestic offenders are discussed.

  13. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  14. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  15. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Labinot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence-related injury, and family's financial burden were found to be inter-correlated. The sample confined to one ethnic group in one district

  17. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers - regulation and practice in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Kocsy, G.; Pellet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decree of Ministry of Health for the enforcement of the Act on Atomic Energy has put special emphasis on the regulation of monitoring for internal exposure in Hungary. The necessarily general prescription of the Decree 'In case of the possibility or suspicion of incorporating open radioactive substances the affected employee shall be subjected to internal contamination monitoring. The obligation of the internal monitoring shall be determined by the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the National Public Health and Medical Officer's Service' called for a guidance to assist the work of the competent authority. The guide was elaborated on the basis of the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2. According to the Safety Guide the decision factor shall first be determined for the potential radionuclides and practice applied. For routine monitoring the required frequency, method and MDA values, moreover for special monitoring the method and MDA values were derived for over 40 radionuclides considering the following two basic assumptions: the activity remaining in or excreted from the body could be determined by the given measurement method, the possible underestimation of intake shall be less than a factor of three within the monitoring interval. The following prescription of the Decree 'The laboratory performing the monitoring of internal exposure shall be accredited' has raised a conflict in practice. To solve the problem the Guide suggests a two-step monitoring process: a screening measurement for the possible internal contamination performed by the Radiation Protection Service of the workplace by any equipment used in daily practice for investigation of patients, radiation protection purposes, etc., if the result of screening indicates an internal contamination the radiation worker shall be monitored by an accredited laboratory. As an ISO Standard in process has several assumptions differing from the IAEA Safety Guide, e.g. the limitation of 'maximum potential

  18. Fear or greed? Oxytocin regulates inter-individual conflict by enhancing fear in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huimin; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-09-01

    People may choose non-cooperation in social dilemmas either out of fear (if others choose to defect) or out of greed (when others choose to cooperate). Previous studies have shown that exogenous oxytocin motivates a "tend and defend" pattern in inter-group conflict in which oxytocin stimulates in-group cooperation and out-group defense. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design combined with a modified Prisoner's dilemma game (PDG), we examined the effect of oxytocin on social motivations in inter-individual conflict in men. Results showed that compared with the placebo group, oxytocin-exposed participants were less cooperative in general. Specifically, oxytocin amplified the effect of fear on defection but did not influence the effect of greed. Another non-social control study confirmed participants' decisions were sensitive to social factors. Our findings suggest that even when social group conflict is removed, oxytocin promotes distrust of strangers in "me and you" inter-individual conflict by elevating social fear in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 68017 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... personal conflicts of interest by employees of Government contractors as required by statute. DATES... clause for future orders. In the event that a contractor refuses to accept such a modification, the...

  20. Vulnerability to high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB following exposure to war trauma as seen in post-conflict communities in eastern uganda: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muron Julius

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature on the relationship between conflict-related trauma and high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB often focuses on refugees and not mass in-country displaced people due to armed conflicts. There is paucity of research about contexts underlying HRSB and HIV/AIDS in conflict and post-conflict communities in Uganda. Understanding factors that underpin vulnerability to HRSB in post-conflict communities is vital in designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. We explored the socio-cultural factors, social interactions, socio-cultural practices, social norms and social network structures that underlie war trauma and vulnerability to HRSB in a post-conflict population. Methods We did a cross-sectional qualitative study of 3 sub-counties in Katakwi district and 1 in Amuria in Uganda between March and May 2009. We collected data using 8 FGDs, 32 key informant interviews and 16 in-depth interviews. We tape-recorded and transcribed the data. We followed thematic analysis principles to manage, analyse and interpret the data. We constantly identified and compared themes and sub-themes in the dataset as we read the transcripts. We used illuminating verbatim quotations to illustrate major findings. Results The commonly identified HRSB behaviours include; transactional sex, sexual predation, multiple partners, early marriages and forced marriages. Breakdown of the social structure due to conflict had resulted in economic destruction and a perceived soaring of vulnerable people whose propensity to HRSB is high. Dishonour of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirrored the consequence of exposure to conflict. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns were common. Many people were known to have started to display persistent worries, hopelessness, and

  1. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  2. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  3. Early Childhood Media Exposure and Self-Regulation: Bi-Directional Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Howard, Steven J; Radesky, Jenny S; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A

    2018-04-26

    To investigate: i) prospective associations between media exposure (television viewing, computers, and electronic games) at 2 years and self-regulation at 4 and 6 years, and ii) bi-directional associations between media exposure and self-regulation at 4 and 6 years. We hypothesized that media exposure and self-regulation would display a negative prospective association and subsequent bi-directional inverse associations. Data from the nationally-representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) when children were aged 2 (n=2786) and 4/6 years (n=3527) were used. Primary caregivers reported children's weekly electronic media exposure. A composite measure of self-regulation was computed from caregivers-, teacher-, and observer-report data. Associations were examined using linear regression and cross-lagged panel models, accounting for covariates. Lower television viewing and total media exposure at 2 years were associated with higher self-regulation at 4 years (both β -0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.03, -0.01). Lower self-regulation at 4 years was also significantly associated with higher television viewing (β -0.15; 95% CI -0.21, -0.08), electronic game use (β -0.05; 95% CI -0.09, -0.01), and total media exposure (β -0.19; 95% CI -0.29, -0.09) at 6 years. However, media exposure at 4 years was not associated with self-regulation at 6 years. Although media exposure duration at 2 years was associated with later self-regulation, and self-regulation at 4 years was associated with later media exposure, associations were of small magnitude. More research is needed examining content quality, social context, and mobile media use and child self-regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. REFLECTIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MINOR'S RIGHTS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: FROM THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS TO THE COMMUNITY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, BONCIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.

  5. 25 CFR 900.235 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 900.235 Section 900.235 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... must the standards of conduct regulate? The standards must prohibit an officer, employee, or agent... involving an entity in which such persons have a direct financial interest or an employment relationship. It...

  6. International comparison of regulations on abortion after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1977-12-01

    Possible factors to consider when assessing the necessity of an abortion are: 1) Exposure in the highly sensitive phase (e.g. organogenesis); 2) after intake of radioactive substances, accumulation of this radioactive substance in critical organs; 3) doses higher than the dose limit of 1 rem; 4) the wish of the pregnant woman to have an abortion. (orig.) [de

  7. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell's open-quotes doublethinkclose quotes should be generalized to open-quotes polythinkclose quotes to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics

  8. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  9. Evaluating exposure to land degradation in association with repetitive armed conflicts in North Lebanon using multi-temporal satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitri, George; Nader, Manal; van der Molen, I.; Lovett, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive armed conflicts may be directly and indirectly responsible for severe biophysical modification to the environment. This, in turn, makes land more susceptible to degradation. Mapping and monitoring land degradation are essential for designing and implementing post-conflict recovery plans

  10. Conflict Management in Participatory Approaches to Water Management: A Case Study of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Furber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Joint Commission (IJC has been involved in a 14-year effort to formulate a new water regulation plan for the Lake Ontario St. Lawrence River (“LOSLR” area that balances the interests of a diverse group of stakeholders including shipping and navigation, hydropower, environment, recreational boating, municipal and domestic water supply, First Nations, and shoreline property owners. It has embraced the principles of collaborative and participatory management and, applying a Shared Visioning Planning (SVP approach, has worked closely with stakeholders throughout all stages of this process; however, conflicts between competing stakeholders have delayed and complicated this effort. The overarching aim of this paper is to consider the extent to which the SVP approach employed by the IJC was effective in managing conflict in the LOSLR context. Audio recordings and transcriptions of public and technical hearings held by the IJC in 2013 have been systematically analysed using stakeholder mapping and content analysis methods, to gain insight into the stakeholder universe interacting with the IJC on Plan 2014.  The principal conclusions of this paper are that (a the Shared Vision Planning approach employed by the IJC had some significant successes in terms of conflict management—particularly notable is the success that has been achieved with regards to integration of First Nation concerns; (b there is a distinct group of shoreline property owners, based in New York State, who remain opposed to Plan 2014—the IJC’s public outreach and participation efforts have not been successful in reconciling their position with that of other stakeholders due to the fact that this stakeholder group perceive that they can only lose out from any regulation change and are therefore unlikely to be motivated to engage productively in any planning dialogue; and (c a solution would require that the problem be reframed so that this stakeholder can see

  11. Business Conflict and Risk Regulation: Understanding the Influence of the Pesticide Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Despite the criticism, frequent in the literature, of business influence on the formulation of pesticide risk regulation, there has been remarkably little systematic study of this practice. This article discusses Costa Rica pesticide producers’ business influence on global and national efforts to

  12. 78 FR 61153 - Post-Employment Conflict of Interest Regulations; Exempted Senior Employee Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Regulations; Exempted Senior Employee Positions AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE). ACTION: Final rule... notice of the revocation of certain regulatory exemptions of senior employee positions at the Securities... employee'' for a period of one year from knowingly making, with the intent to influence, any communication...

  13. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Does industry self-regulation protect young people from exposure to alcohol marketing? A review of compliance and complaint studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is considered to be potentially harmful to adolescents. In addition to statutory regulation, industry self-regulation is a common way to protect adolescents from alcohol marketing exposures. This paper critically reviews research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the alcohol industry's compliance procedures to manage complaints when alcohol marketing is considered to have violated a self-regulatory code. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: PubMed, SCOPUS, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations, government research centers and national industry advertising associations were also included. The search process yielded three peer-reviewed papers, seven non-peer reviewed reports published by academic institutes and non-profit organizations and 20 industry reports. The evidence indicates that the complaint process lacks standardization across countries, industry adjudicators may be trained inadequately or biased and few complaints are upheld against advertisements pre-determined to contain violations of a self-regulatory code. The current alcohol industry marketing complaint process used in a wide variety of countries may be ineffective at removing potentially harmful content from the market-place. The process of determining the validity of complaints employed by most industry groups appears to suffer from serious conflict of interest and procedural weaknesses that could compromise objective adjudication of even well-documented complaints. In our opinion the current system of self-regulation needs major modifications if it is to serve public health objectives, and more systematic evaluations of the complaint process are needed. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Innovation incentives or corrupt conflicts of interest? Moving beyond Jekyll and Hyde in regulating biomedical academic-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    The most contentious, unresolved issue in biomedicine in the last twenty-five years has been how to best address compensated partnerships between academic researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Law and policy deliberately promote these partnerships through intellectual property law, research funding programs, and drug and device approval pathways while simultaneously condemning them through conflict-of-interest (COI) regulations. These regulations have not been subjected to the close scrutiny that is typically utilized in administrative law to evaluate and improve regulatory systems. This Article suggests that the solution to this standoff in biomedical law and policy lies in an informed, empirical approach. Such an approach must both recognize such partnerships' legal and practical variations, as well as classify them based on their benefit to innovation and their harm to research biases. Ultimately, this approach must facilitate administrative reforms that would convert what is now an inherently arbitrary, yet widespread, regulatory regime into an epistemically rich mechanism for distinguishing between harmful and beneficial partnerships.

  16. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  17. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10 -1 --10 -3 and 10 -4 --10 -6 , respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens

  18. Conflict between civil liberties and nuclear energy safeguards: an analysis of current and prospective Federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The high regard that the U.S. has traditionally placed on individual rights and liberties makes it imperative that nuclear-safeguards measures currently in use or suggested by evaluated in terms of their social costs. A nuclear-safeguards strategy that minimizes civil-liberties impacts as a social cost and allows adequate protection against the threats of nuclear theft and sabotage in the rapidly developing nuclear energy industry must be arrived at. This study explores the possible civil-liberties impacts and the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards measures which may be or are being used. Case law and statutory law are extensively analyzed to classify the type of civil-liberties impacts that particular nuclear-safeguards measures may impose. Literature addressing the effectiveness of safeguards measures is examined in various contexts often completely outside of the ''security'' disciplines. A comparison of both the civil liberties impact and effectiveness of each nuclear safeguards measure reveals a cost/benefit factor from which conclusions may be drawn. The real issue is whether or not a nuclear safeguards system will interfere with historic respect governmental institutions have given rights and liberties guaranteed in the U.S. It is concluded that physical access controls present only minor civil liberties costs while providing substantial protection against theft and sabotage. Recommendations are made in the form of suggested statutes, regulations, and regulatory guides. Certain inter-agency relationships and methods for establishing those relationships are also suggested

  19. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  20. Conflicts between employee preferences and ergonomic recommendations in shift scheduling: regulation based on consent is not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Gärtner

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Contribution to the discussion of the role of participation/consent of employees in working hours regulation. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of conflicts between preferences of employees and ergonomic recommendations in shift scheduling by analysing a large number of participative shift scheduling projects. RESULTS: The analysis showed that very often the pursuit of higher income played the major role in the decision making process of employees and employees preferred working hours in conflict with health and safety principles. CONCLUSIONS: First, the consent of employees or the works council alone does not ensure ergonomically sound schedules. Besides consent, risk assessment procedures seem to be a promising but difficult approach. Secondly, more research is necessary to check the applicability of recommendations under various settings, to support the risk assessment processes and to improve regulatory approaches to working hours.OBJETIVO: Contribuir para a discussão do papel da participação/consentimento dos empregados na regulamentação das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo exploratório dos conflitos existentes entre as preferências dos empregados e as recomendações ergonômicas no planejamento de esquemas de trabalho em turnos, analisando-se um grande número de projetos participativos de planejamento dos turnos. RESULTADOS: O estudo mostrou que, com freqüência, a busca por um rendimento maior teve um papel importante no processo de tomada de decisão dos empregados, quando estes optaram pelas horas de trabalho em oposição aos princípios de saúde e segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Em primeiro lugar, o consentimento dos empregados ou da comissão de trabalhadores por si só não garante horários salutares do ponto de vista ergonômico. Além do consentimento, processos de avaliação de risco parecem ser uma abordagem promissora embora complicada. Em segundo lugar, fazem-se necessários mais estudos para

  1. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  2. Transcriptomic analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo after compound exposure: Individual gene expression and pathway regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsen, Sanne A.B., E-mail: Sanne.Hermsen@rivm.nl [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pronk, Tessa E. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den [Centre for Environmental Quality, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ven, Leo T.M. van der [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test is a promising alternative assay for developmental toxicity. Classically, morphological assessment of the embryos is applied to evaluate the effects of compound exposure. However, by applying differential gene expression analysis the sensitivity and predictability of the test may be increased. For defining gene expression signatures of developmental toxicity, we explored the possibility of using gene expression signatures of compound exposures based on commonly expressed individual genes as well as based on regulated gene pathways. Four developmental toxic compounds were tested in concentration-response design, caffeine, carbamazepine, retinoic acid and valproic acid, and two non-embryotoxic compounds, D-mannitol and saccharin, were included. With transcriptomic analyses we were able to identify commonly expressed genes, which were mostly development related, after exposure to the embryotoxicants. We also identified gene pathways regulated by the embryotoxicants, suggestive of their modes of action. Furthermore, whereas pathways may be regulated by all compounds, individual gene expression within these pathways can differ for each compound. Overall, the present study suggests that the use of individual gene expression signatures as well as pathway regulation may be useful starting points for defining gene biomarkers for predicting embryotoxicity. - Highlights: • The zebrafish embryotoxicity test in combination with transcriptomics was used. • We explored two approaches of defining gene biomarkers for developmental toxicity. • Four compounds in concentration-response design were tested. • We identified commonly expressed individual genes as well as regulated gene pathways. • Both approaches seem suitable starting points for defining gene biomarkers.

  3. Background paper for regulations related to the exposure of uranium mine and mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is modifying the Atomic Energy Control Regulations to include a maximum permissible exposure to radon daughters for uranium mine and mill workers. In January 1976, after consultation with the uranium producers, union, and government regulatory bodies, the AECB issued a directive endorsing a maximum permissible annual occupational exposure to radon daughters of 4 Working Level Months (WLM). This exposure limit was an interim guideline to be applied for at least one year. The Board staff and members of the Mine Safety Advisory Committee have examined available evidence on the excess risk of lung cancer owing to exposure to radon daughters since then, and have assessed the arguments for both raising and lowering the exposure limit. The evidence is still not conclusive, and further studies, especially epidemiological ones, are needed. Nevertheless, the Board considers that the interim guideline is acceptable in the light of the present state of knowledge and that it should be incorporated into the regulations. This document explains why the Board has made this decision and discusses a number of related issues

  4. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation regulating insulin sensitivity due to chronic cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Lai; Sun, Yizheng; Li, Ruiping; Deng, Jinbo; Deng, Jiexin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the causal relationship between chronic cold exposure and insulin resistance and the mechanisms of how DNA methylation and histone deacetylation regulate cold-reduced insulin resistance. 46 adult male mice from postnatal day 90-180 were randomly assigned to control group and cold-exposure group. Mice in cold-exposure group were placed at temperature from -1 to 4 °C for 30 days to mimic chronic cold environment. Then, fasting blood glucose, blood insulin level and insulin resistance index were measured with enzymatic methods. Immunofluorescent labeling was carried out to visualize the insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), Obese receptor (Ob-R, a leptin receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel protein 1 (VDAC1), cytochrome C (cytC), 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) positive cells in hippocampal CA1 area. Furthermore, the expressions of some proteins mentioned above were detected with Western blot. The results showed: ① Chronic cold exposure could reduce the insulin resistance index (P cold-exposure group than in control group with both immunohistochemical staining and Western blot (P cold exposure increased DNA methylation and histone deacetylation in the pyramidal cells of CA1 area and led to an increase in the expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and DNA methylation relative enzymes (P cold exposure can improve insulin sensitivity, with the involvement of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. These epigenetic modifications probably form the basic mechanism of cold-reduced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  7. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  8. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practice in many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure......Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...

  9. Effects of butyltin exposures on MAP kinase dependent transcription regulators in human natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Rachel J.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are a major immune defense mechanism against cancer development and viral infection. The butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) have been widely used in industrial and other applications and significantly contaminate the environment. Both TBT and DBT have been detected in human blood. These compounds inhibit the lytic and binding function of human NK cells and thus could increase the incidence of cancer and viral infections. Butyltin (BT)-induced loss of NK function is accompanied by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and decreases in expression of cell-surface and cytolytic proteins. MAPKs activate components of the transcription regulator AP-1 and activate the transcription regulator Elk-1. Based on the fact that BTs activate MAPKs and alter protein expression, the current study examined the effect of BT exposures on the levels and phosphorylation states of the components of AP-1 and the phosphorylation state of Elk-1. Exposure to 300 nM TBT for 10 min increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun in NK cells. 1 h exposures to 300 nM and 200 nM TBT increased the phosphorylation and overall level of c-Jun. During a 300 nM treatment with TBT for 1 h the binding activity of AP-1 was significantly decreased. There were no significant alterations of AP-1 components or of Elk-1 with DBT exposures. Thus, it appears that TBT-induced alterations on phosphorylation, total levels and binding activity of c-Jun might contribute to, but are not fully responsible for, TBT-induced alterations of NK protein expression. PMID:20370538

  10. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Katharine J.; Holloway, Adele; Cook, Anthony L.; Chin, Suyin P.; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  11. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Katharine J. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Holloway, Adele [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Cook, Anthony L. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Chin, Suyin P. [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Snow, Elizabeth T., E-mail: elizabeth.snow@utas.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  12. Regulation of ex vivo tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity is not altered by chronic lead (Pb) exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasley, S.M.; Green, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that chronic Pb exposure results in impaired regulation of CNS dopamine (DA) synthesis in rats. The present study was designed to directly assess TH activity in exposed animals compared to controls, employing a pharmacological model that assesses the functional status of dopaminergic synthesis-modulating autoreceptors. At birth dams received 0.2% Pb acetate in drinking water. Offspring were weaned to and maintained on the same solution until termination at 60 or 120 days. Rats were given saline or a DA agonist (EMD 23448 or CGS 15855A) 45 min before sacrifice followed 15 min later by gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). Regional TH activity was measured by a modification of the tritium release method. DA content was determined by liquid chromatography. The ability of EMD 23448 to prevent the GBL-induced increase in DA content was significantly diminished in caudate-putamen (C-P) of exposed rats compared to controls, similar to previous observations. However, an analogous effect of Pb on TH activity in this drug model was not observed using CGS 15855A in rats either 60 or 120 days of age. These findings suggest that chronic Pb exposure has no effect on autoreceptor-mediated regulation of TH in DA neurons when TH activity is measured ex vivo

  13. Public support for selected e-cigarette regulations and associations with overall information exposure and contradictory information exposure about e-cigarettes: Findings from a national survey of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Lee, Chul-Joo; Bigman, Cabral A

    2015-12-01

    We assessed public support for six e-cigarette regulations and examined whether self-reported exposure to e-cigarette information and contradictory e-cigarette information were associated with support. We conducted an online survey among a nationally representative sample of 527 U.S. adults in July 2014. Weighted, fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models predicted support for banning e-cigarettes in smoke-free areas, prohibiting e-cigarette sales to youth, requiring addiction warnings, banning flavors, requiring labeling nicotine and harmful ingredients, and banning youth-targeted marketing. Between 34% and 72% supported these six policies (disagreed 6-24%; no opinion 18-38%). We found higher support for policies to protect youth (prohibit sales to youth and youth-targeted marketing) and to require labeling e-cigarette constituents (nicotine and harmful ingredients). Banning the use of flavors in e-cigarettes was the least supported. Overall information exposure predicted lower relative risk of support for three policies (prohibit sales to youth, nicotine and harmful ingredient labeling, addiction warnings). In comparison, contradictory information exposure predicted lower relative risk of support for two policies (prohibit sales to youth, nicotine and harmful ingredient labeling). Exposure to overall and conflicting information about e-cigarettes in the public sphere is associated with reduced support for certain proposed e-cigarette policies. These findings are important for policymakers and tobacco control advocates involved in promulgation of e-cigarette policies. The results provide insights on which policies may meet some public resistance and therefore require efforts to first gain public support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of locus of control, psychological distress, and trauma exposure in groups impacted by intense political conflict in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vasiliki; Gadallah, Mohsen; Leon, Gloria R; Massou, Efthalia; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Skembris, Angelos; Levett, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Social and political instability have become common situations in many parts of the world. Exposure to different types of traumatic circumstances may differentially affect psychological status. The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between personal perceptions of control over the events happening in one's life and psychological distress in two groups who experienced physical trauma but differed as to whether the trauma was a result of political upheaval and violence. Views on the extent to which the state was interested in the individual were also assessed. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were injured in the Cairo epicenter and 120 matched controls from the greater Cairo area whose injuries were from other causes. The Brown Locus of Control Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL 90-R) were administered approximately three months after the January 2011 start of the demonstrations and subsequent overthrow of the government. The groups did not differ on locus of control. For both groups, externality was associated with greater distress, suggesting a relationship between perceived helplessness in controlling one's life and distress. The Cairo group scored significantly higher than the control group on the SCL 90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and Positive Symptom Total (PST). Perceptions of state interest in the population were low; overall, 78% viewed the state as having little or no interest in them. Discussion The relationship between exposure intensity and psychological distress is examined. In addition, differences in findings in populations experiencing political chaos compared with other types of disasters are considered. Beliefs regarding personal control over one's life circumstances are more closely associated with psychological distress than the circumstances in which the trauma occurred.

  15. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  17. Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Elizabeth T; Gerber, Kyle J; Zimmermann, Kelsey S; Ressler, Kerry J; Parsons, Ryan G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2017-11-01

    In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.

  18. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. Objectives: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Methods: Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1–21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results: Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230–237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258 PMID:27384154

  19. Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-02-01

    Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure. Neonates were exposed orally to 0, 25 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day during early postnatal life (PND 1-21) or throughout life from PND 1 until the end of the study. In adulthood, the animals were tested on a series of learning and attention tasks using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Early postnatal Mn exposure caused lasting attentional dysfunction due to impairments in attentional preparedness, selective attention, and arousal regulation, whereas associative ability (learning) and impulse control were spared. The presence and severity of these deficits varied with the dose and duration of Mn exposure. This study is the first to show that developmental Mn exposure can cause lasting impairments in focused and selective attention and arousal regulation, and to identify the specific nature of the impairments. Given the importance of attention and arousal regulation in cognitive functioning, these findings substantiate concerns about the adverse effects of developmental Mn exposure in humans. Citation: Beaudin SA, Strupp BJ, Strawderman M, Smith DR. 2017. Early postnatal manganese exposure causes lasting impairment of selective and focused attention and arousal regulation in adult rats. Environ Health Perspect 125:230-237; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP258.

  20. MCPIP1 Regulates Alveolar Macrophage Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibroblast Activation After in vitro Exposure to Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuxia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Zhou, Zewei; Dai, Xiaoniu; Cheng, Yusi; Fang, Shencun; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Silicosis is a fatal and fibrotic pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of silica. After arriving at the alveoli, silica is ingested by alveolar macrophages (AMOs), in which monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) plays an essential role in controlling macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of action of MCPIP1 in silicosis is poorly understood. Primary rat AMOs were isolated and treated with SiO2 (50 µg/cm(2)). MCPIP1 and AMO activation/apoptosis markers were detected by immunoblotting. MCPIP1 was down-regulated using siRNA in AMOs. The effects of AMOs on fibroblast activation and migration were evaluated using a gel contraction assay, a scratch assay, and a nested collagen matrix migration model. After exposure to SiO2, MCPIP1 was significantly increased in rat AMOs. Activation and apoptosis markers in AMOs were up-regulated after exposure to SiO2 Following siRNA-mediated silencing of MCPIP1 mRNA, the markers of AMO activation and apoptosis were significantly decreased. Rat pulmonary fibroblasts (PFBs) cultured in conditional medium from AMOs treated with MCPIP1 siRNA and SiO2 showed significantly less activation and migration compared with those cultured in conditional medium from AMOs treated with control siRNA and SiO2 CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a vital role for MCPIP1 in AMO apoptosis and PFB activation/migration induced by SiO2. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  3. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  4. Hypothalamic PGC-1α Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ERα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Morselli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets (HFDs lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS. Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.

  5. Hypothalamic PGC-1α protects against high-fat diet exposure by regulating ERα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P; Li, Dan L; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F; Tschöp, Matthias H; Clegg, Deborah J

    2014-10-23

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA) and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.

  6. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  7. Exposure to Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors Partially Explains Mean Differences in Self-Regulation between Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B; Miller, J Mitchell; DeShay, Rashaan A; Beaver, Kevin M; White, Norman

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other). Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850) were used to analyze the impact of pre- and perinatal risk factors on the development of self-regulation at age 2 years. Racial differences in levels of self-regulation were observed. Racial differences were also observed for 9 of the 12 pre-/perinatal risk factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a portion of the racial differences in self-regulation was explained by differential exposure to several of the pre-/perinatal risk factors. Specifically, maternal age at childbirth, gestational timing, and the family's socioeconomic status were significantly related to the child's level of self-regulation. These factors accounted for a statistically significant portion of the racial differences observed in self-regulation. The findings indicate racial differences in self-regulation may be, at least partially, explained by racial differences in exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors.

  8. Exposure to Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors Partially Explains Mean Differences in Self-Regulation between Races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Barnes

    Full Text Available To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other.Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850 were used to analyze the impact of pre- and perinatal risk factors on the development of self-regulation at age 2 years.Racial differences in levels of self-regulation were observed. Racial differences were also observed for 9 of the 12 pre-/perinatal risk factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a portion of the racial differences in self-regulation was explained by differential exposure to several of the pre-/perinatal risk factors. Specifically, maternal age at childbirth, gestational timing, and the family's socioeconomic status were significantly related to the child's level of self-regulation. These factors accounted for a statistically significant portion of the racial differences observed in self-regulation.The findings indicate racial differences in self-regulation may be, at least partially, explained by racial differences in exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors.

  9. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  10. 48 CFR 2009.570 - NRC organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2009.570 Section 2009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570 NRC organizational conflicts of interest. ...

  11. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  12. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  13. Body characteristics, [corrected] dietary protein and body weight regulation. Reconciling conflicting results from intervention and observational studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials.Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein of the matched trial participants.Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants.This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting

  14. Threat and defense as goal regulation: from implicit goal conflict to anxious uncertainty, reactive approach motivation, and ideological extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.

  15. No-observed effect levels are associated with up-regulation of MGMT following MMS exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Shareen H; Brüsehafer, Katja; Dudley, Ed; Quick, Emma; Johnson, George; Newton, Russell P; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2008-12-15

    The alkylating agents methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) have non-linear dose-response curves, with a no-observed effect level (NOEL) and a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) for both gross chromosomal damage and mutagenicity. However, the biological mechanism responsible for the NOEL has yet to be identified. A strong candidate is DNA repair as it may be able to efficiently remove alkyl adducts at low doses resulting in a NOEL, but at higher doses fails to fully remove all lesions due to saturation of enzymatic activity resulting in a LOEL and subsequent linear increases in mutagenicity. We therefore assessed the transcriptional status of N-methylpurine-DNA glycoslase (MPG) and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which represent the first line of defence following exposure to alkylating agents through the respective enzymatic removal of N7-alkylG and O(6)-alkylG. The relative MPG and MGMT gene expression profiles were assessed by real-time RT-PCR following exposure to 0-2 microg/ml MMS for 1-24h. MPG expression remained fairly steady, but in contrast significant up-regulation of MGMT was observed when cells were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 microg/ml MMS for 4h (2.5- and 6.5-fold increases respectively). These doses lie within the NOEL for MMS mutagenicity (LOEL is 1.25 microg/ml), thus this boost in MGMT expression at low doses may be responsible for efficiently repairing O(6)methylG lesions and creating the non-linear response for mutations. However, as the LOEL for MMS clastogenicity is 0.85 microg/ml, O(6)-alkylG is unlikely to be responsible for the clastogenicity observed at these concentrations. Consequently, at low doses N7-methylG is possibly the predominant cause of MMS clastogenicity, while O(6)-methylG is more likely to be responsible for MMS mutagenicity, with MGMT up-regulation playing a key role in removal of O(6)-alkylG lesions before they are fixed as permanent point mutations, resulting in non-linear dose

  16. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  17. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  18. The Relationship between Violence Exposure and Academic Achievement in African American Adolescents Is Moderated by Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vinetra L.; Mrug, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Compared with other ethnic groups, African American adolescents are exposed to higher levels of family and community violence, which contribute to poorer academic achievement. This study examines whether emotion regulation moderates the effects of exposure to family and community violence on academic achievement among low-income African American…

  19. Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Written Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E.; Sloan, Denise M.; Marx, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the extent to which cognitive emotion-regulation (ER) strategies moderated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome among 40 motor vehicle accident survivors. Participants were randomly assigned to either a brief written exposure therapy (WET) condition or a waitlist condition and were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at a 3-month follow-up. Positive-reappraisal and putting-into-perspective strategies at baseline interacted with condition to predict symptom change over time. Both strategies predicted greater reductions in PTSD in the waitlist group, suggesting facilitation of natural recovery. However, positive reappraisal was associated with smaller reductions in PTSD in the WET group, suggesting that this strategy may interfere with treatment. Treatment also reduced use of the maladaptive ER strategy of rumination. These results provide evidence that putting-into-perspective and positive-reappraisal strategies are beneficial in the absence of treatment and that certain types of ER strategies may reduce response to WET, highlighting the importance of future research examining ER during treatment. PMID:24482755

  20. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Novak Babič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  1. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Babič, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Vargha, Márta; Tischner, Zsófia; Magyar, Donát; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla; Meyer, Wieland; Brandão, João

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  2. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C

    2015-10-01

    Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns.

  3. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  4. Song exposure regulates known and novel microRNAs in the zebra finch auditory forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.

  5. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA regulation via systematic neonatal novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Dinces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother’s ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring HPA regulation. Using a 2x2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel daily during infancy (PND1-21 and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home; we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND54-63 novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring’s ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring’s ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the context of maternal

  6. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  7. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  8. National radiation exposures and risks caused by implementing EPA's proposed revised national primary drinking water regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1993-05-01

    This report estimates risks to workers and the public associated with treatment processes and their associated waste products that would be mandated under proposed regulations of radium, radon, and uranium in drinking water. Three scenarios were examined: (1) all wastes flushed to the sanitary sewer; (2) all wastes disposed on land; (3) similar to (2) but radon removal by granulated activated carbon rather than packed tower aeration. Risks considered included accidental injury and cancer. Worker risks for both scenarios I and II were estimated to be 0.025 and 0.01 deaths per year of operation for radium-226 and radium-228, respectively. Worker risks for uranium were estimated to be 0.13 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 0.5 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Worker risks for radon removal were estimated to be 1.7 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 2.2 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for radium-226 were 4 x 10 -4 and for radium-228 were 9 x 10 -5 deaths/year of operation. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for uranium were 7.3 x 10 -2 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively. Risks to the public for scenario I and II for radon were 24 deaths/year of operation and for scenario III were nil. Public risks were quantified only for people exposed during a year of operation. For example, effects of public exposures in future years via groundwater contamination associated with landfill of treatment waste were not considered

  9. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  10. Music Is Not Our Enemy, but Noise Should Be Regulated: Thoughts on Shooting/Conflicts Related to Dama Square Dance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    While Dama square dance is gaining popularity in China, especially with middle-aged and older-adult women--hence the "Dama" (Chinese for "big mamas") moniker--there have been conflicts due to the loud music played for the activity. After a brief explanation of Dama square dance and a description of the context of the conflicts,…

  11. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  12. Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Scott, Hamish S.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-κB activat...

  13. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  14. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana B

    2013-10-23

    The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980-2000). A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = -.198, t = -2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their relationship, which is not fully explained by linear

  15. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  16. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ni; Kido, Takashi; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; Breemen, Cornelis van; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-01-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 μg/m 3 of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-κB (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by ∼ 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-κB activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-κB activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R 2 = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-κB-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: → Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. → Examine iNOS expression and activity in the blood vessels and heart. → DE exposure

  17. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  19. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  20. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  1. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  2. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  3. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: Exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori eWeisel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help.Previous work established that this distinction---whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive---has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict.The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behaviour of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup.Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced.The main results are that(1 behaviour is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2 People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3 emph{Groupness}---the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being---is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it. In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of brown adipose tissue during cold exposure reveals extensive regulation of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Yadav, Rachita; Basse, Astrid L.

    2015-01-01

    We applied digital gene expression profiling to determine the transcriptome of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT, respectively) during cold exposure. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cold for 2 or 4 days. A notable induction of genes related to glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogen...... exposure, we propose a model for the intermediary glucose metabolism in activated BAT: 1) fluxes through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway are induced, the latter providing reducing equivalents for de novo fatty acid synthesis; 2) glycerol synthesis from glucose is increased, facilitating...

  5. Multiple cognitive control mechanisms associated with the nature of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Chung, Chongwook; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2010-06-07

    Cognitive control is required to regulate conflict. The conflict monitoring theory suggests that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is involved in detecting response conflict and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role in regulating conflict. Recent studies, however, have suggested that rostral dACC (rdACC) responds to response conflict whereas caudal dACC (cdACC) is associated with perceptual conflict. Moreover, DLPFC has been engaged only in regulation of response conflict. A neural network involved in perceptual conflict, however, remains unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an attempt to reveal monitor-controller networks corresponding to either perceptual conflict or response conflict. A version of the Stroop color matching task was used to manipulate perceptual conflict, response conflict was manipulated by an arrow. The results demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were engaged in response conflict whereas cdACC and the dorsal portion of premotor cortex (pre-PMd) were involved in perceptual conflict. Interestingly, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was activated by both types of conflict. Correlation analyses between behavioral conflict effects and neural responses demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were associated with response conflict whereas cdACC and pre-PMd were associated with perceptual conflict. PPC was not correlated with either perceptual conflict or response conflict. We suggest that cdACC and pre-PMd play critical roles in perceptual conflict processing, and this network is independent from the rdACC/DLPFC network for response conflict processing. We also discussed the function of PPC in conflict processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  7. Regulations on the allocating of subsidies to promote the development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. The subsidies are for purchase of equipment, materials, etc. and other expendures approved. The contents are as follows: applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, payment of subsidies, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, patent rights, payment of the earnings, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  8. Regulations on allocating the sums of money regarding of development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for the sums of money regarding research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. Expenses cover the purchase of equipment, personnel expenditures, travelling expenses, communication, etc. The contents are as follows: the application for subsidy allocations, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for a subsidy allocation, patent rights, utilization etc. of the results, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  9. Parentification – its direction and perceived benefits in terms of connections with late adolescents’ emotional regulation in the situation of marital conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judyta Borchet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Parentification means distortion of the roles between family members. A child performs adult tasks and responsibilities for his siblings and/or parents. The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about parentification and its connections with parental conflict as well as strategies of coping with parental conflict in the group of late adolescents who live with their parents or live on their own. Participants and procedure The empirical evidence consisted of the results of 264 volunteer late adolescents. Two questionnaires were used in the study. The first one was the experimental version of the Polish adaptation of Hooper’s Parentification Inventory. It is a scale that enables one to assess the intensity of parentification levels that are judged retrospectively by the subject. The second tool was the experimental version of the Polish adaptation of Davies’ and Forman’s Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scale – Child Report. The scale examines children’s reactions to parental conflict. Results The obtained results suggest that intensity of parental conflict and strategies of coping with it influence parentification characteristics. The connections seem to be different in two adolescent groups – those who still live with their parents and those who decided to live on their own. Conclusions Thus, parental conflict may foster tightening of the family bonds and intensify parentification at the same time. On the other hand, in order to separate and break excessive family ties, adolescents may move out of the family house.

  10. Exposure to coplanar PCBs induces endothelial cell inflammation through epigenetic regulation of NF-κB subunit p65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan; Perkins, Jordan T. [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Petriello, Michael C. [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@uky.edu [Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones alter cellular phenotypes without changing genetic codes. Alterations of epigenetic marks can be induced by exposure to environmental pollutants and may contribute to associated disease risks. Here we test the hypothesis that endothelial cell dysfunction induced by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is mediated in part though histone modifications. In this study, human vascular endothelial cells were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of several PCBs congeners (e.g., PCBs 77, 118, 126 and 153) followed by quantification of inflammatory gene expression and changes of histone methylation. Only exposure to coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 induced the expression of histone H3K9 trimethyl demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, activated NF-κB signaling as evidenced by nuclear translocation of p65, and up-regulated p65 target inflammatory genes, such as interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-1α/β. The increased accumulation of JMJD2B in the p65 promoter led to a depletion of H3K9me3 repression mark, which accounts for the observed up-regulation of p65 and associated inflammatory genes. JMJD2B gene knockdown confirmed a critical role for this histone demethylase in mediating PCB-induced inflammation of the vascular endothelium. Finally, it was determined, via chemical inhibition, that PCB-induced up-regulation of JMJD2B was estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) dependent. These data suggest that coplanar PCBs may exert endothelial cell toxicity through changes in histone modifications. - Highlights: • Coplanar PCBs significantly induced histone demethylase JMJD2B expression. • Coplanar PCBs activated NF-κB through p65 up-regulation and nuclear translocation. • Histone H3K4 and K9 modifications were mediated by ER-α/JMJD2B/MLL2 complex.

  11. Analysis of cell-cycle regulation following exposure of lung-derived cells to γ-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, D.; Lucchetti, C.; Cassone, M.; D'Agostino, L.; Caputi, M.; Giordano, A.

    Acute exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation results in a delay of cell-cycle progression and/or augmentation of apoptosis. Following ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest in the G1- or G2-phase of the cell-cycle prevents or delays DNA replication or mitosis, providing time for the DNA repair machinery to exert its function. Deregulation or failing of cell-cycle checkpoints and/or DNA repair mechanisms may lead normal cells bearing chromosome mutations to acquire neoplastic autonomy, which in turn can trigger the onset of cancer. Existing studies have focused on the impact of p53 status on the radiation response of lung cancer (LC) cell lines in terms of both cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis, while no comparative studies have been performed on the radiation response of lung derived normal and cancerous epithelial cells. To investigate the radiation response in normal and cancerous phenotypes, along with the role and impact of p53 status, and possible correlations with pRb/p105 or other proteins involved in carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation, we selected two lung-derived epithelial cell lines, one normal (NL20, p53 wild-type) and one non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), H358 (known to be p53-deficient). We compared the levels of γ-induced cell proliferation ability, cell-cycle arrest, apoptotic index, and expression levels of cell-cycle regulating and regulated proteins. The different cell sensitivity, apoptotic response and protein expression profiles resulting from our study for NL20 and H358 cells suggest that still unknown mechanisms involving p53, pRb/p105 and their target molecules might play a pivotal role in determining cell sensitivity and resistance upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  12. 16 CFR 423.9 - Conflict with flammability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with flammability standards. 423.9... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.9 Conflict with flammability standards. If there is a conflict between this regulation and any regulations issued under the Flammable Fabrics...

  13. Regulating exposure of the lens of the eye to ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M C

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reviewed recent epidemiological evidence suggesting that, for the lens of the eye, the threshold in absorbed dose for the induction of deleterious health effects is about 0.5 Gy. On this basis, the Commission recommends that for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 yr, with exposure not exceeding 50 mSv in any single year. This paper summarises the data that have been taken into account by the ICRP and critically examines whether the proposed downward revision of the dose limit is justified. Overall, it is concluded that the accumulating radiobiological and epidemiological evidence makes it more appropriate to treat cataract induction as a stochastic rather than a deterministic effect. Within this framework, it is illogical to have the same dose limit for the lens of the eye as for the whole body irradiated uniformly. This could be addressed either by removing the special dose limit for the lens of the eye, assigning it an appropriate tissue weighting factor and including it in the computation of the effective dose, or through a composite approach involving the use of a tissue weighting factor for effective dose computations together with a special limit on the equivalent dose to the lens of the eye to ensure that no individual was subject to an unacceptably high risk of induction of clinically significant cataracts.

  14. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  15. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  16. Driving habits and risk exposure in older drivers: lessons learned from the implementation of a self-regulation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vanya C; Cho, Juhee; Abendschoen-Milani, Jackie; Gielen, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the development and pilot testing of Seniors on the MOVE (Mature Operators Vehicular Education), a safe driving education program for older adults. The study aims are to describe driving experiences and habits of a community sample of older drivers and to determine whether the program reduces their driving risk exposures. A 2-group randomized design was used. Fifty-eight participants with an average age of 70 were randomly assigned to the MOVE program or a no treatment control group. MOVE is a 4-session program designed to help older drivers better understand and utilize self-regulation skills for safer driving. Baseline and 4-week follow-up questionnaires were completed by both groups, after which the control group received the MOVE program. In the total sample, 14 percent reported having ever been in a traffic crash where someone was injured, and 10 percent reported having received a traffic citation in the past 6 months. Almost one half of the sample (47%) reported thinking about reducing the amount of driving done at night. Nearly one third were thinking about reducing the amount of driving done in unfamiliar places (32%) and the number of miles driven each week (30%). Participants reported most frequently driving between 2 to 10 miles from home, on local roadways, and between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. Based on responses to items that measured such driving habits, a risk exposure score was created by combining driving exposure variables. Participants were categorized into lower and higher driving risk exposure groups at baseline and follow-up. There were no statistical differences in changes in higher or lower risk driving exposure variables when comparing the 2 groups. Although the impact of this program on reported driving behaviors yielded null results, descriptions of older drivers' habits and plans are informative. Because many participants were thinking about making changes to their driving habits, and many already had, the need for more

  17. Making sense of all the conflict: a theoretical review and critique of conflict-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests that goal-directed behavior is governed by a dynamic interplay between areas of the prefrontal cortex. Critical to cognitive control is the detection and resolution of competing stimulus or response representations (i.e., conflict). Event-related potential (ERP) research provides a window into the nature and precise temporal sequence of conflict monitoring. We critically review the research on conflict-related ERPs, including the error-related negativity (ERN), Flanker N2, Stroop N450 and conflict slow potential (conflict SP or negative slow wave [NSW]), and provide an analysis of how these ERPs inform conflict monitoring theory. Overall, there is considerable evidence that amplitude of the ERN is sensitive to the degree of response conflict, consistent with a role in conflict monitoring. It remains unclear, however, to what degree contextual, individual, affective, and motivational factors influence ERN amplitudes and how ERN amplitudes are related to regulative changes in behavior. The Flanker N2, Stroop N450, and conflict SP ERPs represent distinct conflict-monitoring processes that reflect conflict detection (N2, N450) and conflict adjustment or resolution processes (N2, conflict SP). The investigation of conflict adaptation effects (i.e., sequence or sequential trial effects) shows that the N2 and conflict SP reflect post-conflict adjustments in cognitive control, but the N450 generally does not. Conflict-related ERP research provides a promising avenue for understanding the effects of individual differences on cognitive control processes in healthy, neurologic and psychiatric populations. Comparisons between the major conflict-related ERPs and suggestions for future studies to clarify the nature of conflict-related neural processes are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A functional dissociation of conflict processing within anterior cingulate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chobok Kim; James Kroger; Jeounghoon Kim

    2008-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires cognitive control to regulate neural processing when conflict is encountered. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been associated with detecting response conflict during conflict tasks. However, recent findings have indicated not only that two distinct subregions of dACC are involved in conflict processing but also that the conflict occurs at both perceptual and response levels. We clarified a functional dissociation of the caudal dACC (cdACC) and t...

  19. Meditation-induced cognitive-control states regulate response-conflict adaptation: Evidence from trial-to-trial adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful sit...

  1. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  2. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  3. Vinclozolin exposure in utero induces postpubertal prostatitis and reduces sperm production via a reversible hormone-regulated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Prue A; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K; Foster, Paul M D; Scott, Hamish S; Risbridger, Gail P

    2010-02-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-kappaB activation. We postulated the male reproductive abnormalities induced by in utero Vinclozolin exposure could be reversed by testosterone supplementation, in contrast to the permanent modifications involving DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) described by others. To test this hypothesis, we administered high-dose testosterone at puberty to Vinclozolin-treated rats and determined the effect on anogenital distance (AGD); testicular germ cell apoptosis, concentration of elongated spermatids, and the onset of prostatitis. Concurrently we examined Dnmt1, -3A, -3B, and -3L mRNA expression. Consistent with previous reports, in utero exposure to Vinclozolin significantly reduced AGD, increased testicular germ cell apoptosis 3-fold, reduced elongated spermatid number by 40%, and induced postpubertal prostatitis in 100% of exposed males. Administration of high-dose testosterone (25 mg/kg) at puberty normalized AGD, reduced germ cell apoptosis, and restored elongated spermatid number. Testosterone restored AR and nuclear factor-kappaB expression in the prostate and abolished Vinclozolin-induced prostatitis. Altered Dnmt expression was evident with in utero Vinclozolin exposure and was not normalized after testosterone treatment. These data demonstrate in utero Vinclozolin-induced male reproductive tract abnormalities are AR mediated and reversible and involve a mechanism independent of Dnmt expression.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  5. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  6. Emotions in conflicts: understanding emotional processes sheds light on the nature and potential resolution of intractable conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Eran; Tagar, Michal Reifen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, researchers have been making substantial advances in understanding the central role of emotions in intractable conflict. We now know that discrete emotions uniquely shape policy preferences in conflict through their unique emotional goals and action tendencies in all stages of conflict including conflict management, conflict resolution and reconciliation. Drawing on this understanding, recent research also points to emotion regulation as a path to reduce conflict and advance peace, exploring both direct and indirect strategies of emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic regulation of six histone H3 lysine (K) methyltransferases in response to prolonged anoxia exposure in a freshwater turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Sanoji; Hawkins, Liam J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2018-04-05

    The importance of histone lysine methylation is well established in health, disease, early development, aging, and cancer. However, the potential role of histone H3 methylation in regulating gene expression in response to extended periods of oxygen deprivation (anoxia) in a natural, anoxia-tolerant model system is underexplored. Red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) can tolerate and survive three months of absolute anoxia and recover without incurring detrimental cellular damage, mainly by reducing the overall metabolic rate by 90% when compared to normoxia. Stringent regulation of gene expression is a vital aspect of metabolic rate depression in red-eared sliders, and as such we examined the anoxia-responsive regulation of histone lysine methylation in the liver during 5 h and 20 h anoxia exposure. Interestingly, this is the first study to illustrate the existence of histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) and corresponding histone H3 lysine methylation levels in the liver of anoxia-tolerant red-eared sliders. In brief, H3K4me1, a histone mark associated with active transcription, and two corresponding histone lysine methyltransferases that modify H3K4me1 site, significantly increased in response to anoxia. On the contrary, H3K27me1, another transcriptionally active histone mark, significantly decreased during 20 h anoxia, and a transcriptionally repressive histone mark, H3K9me3, and the corresponding KMTs, similarly increased during 20 h anoxia. Overall, the results suggest a dynamic regulation of histone H3 lysine methylation in the liver of red-eared sliders that could theoretically aid in the selective upregulation of genes that are necessary for anoxia survival, while globally suppressing others to conserve energy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Practical implications of ICRP26 for recording and regulation of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.A.; Woodhouse, J.A.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The paper compares the system of dose limitation recommended in ICRP Publication 26 with that based upon previous ICRP Publications upon which the current United Kingdom Legislation is based. Particular attention is given to the implication of the place given to the concept of committed dose in the system of dose limitation. The present dosimetry procedures in use within British Nuclear Fuels Ltd are outlined together with their practical limitations, and attention is drawn to the particular technical problems associated with plutonium uptake assessments. A number of other practical issues are identified such as dose records and the supplementary dose information which would require recording and the need for the re-education of employees in the new control concepts. A proposal is presented for internal dose recording based initially upon environmental measurements but subject to subsequent modification by preferred assessments based upon in-vivo and urinalysis techniques. Finally an assessment and, where appropriate, suspension procedure is proposed to control long-term exposure arising from plutonium intakes based upon an averaging period of 15 years. (author)

  10. Fluoride exposure regulates the elongation phase of protein synthesis in cultured Bergmann glia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Méndez, Marco; Ramírez, Diana; Alamillo, Nely; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; Del Razo, Luz María; Ortega, Arturo

    2014-08-17

    Fluoride is an environmental pollutant present in dental products, food, pesticides and water. The latter, is the greatest source of exposure to this contaminant. Structural and functional damages to the central nervous system are present in exposed population. An established consequence of the neuronal is the release of a substantial amount of glutamate to the extracellular space, leading to an excitotoxic insult. Glutamate exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors and transporters present in neurons and in glia cells and it is the over-activation of glutamate receptors and transporters, the biochemical hallmark of neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell death. In this context, taking into consideration that fluoride leads to degeneration of cerebellar cells, we took the advantage of the well-established model of cerebellar Bergmann glia cultures to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms inherent to fluoride neurotoxicity that might be triggered in glia cells. We could establish that fluoride decreases [(35)S]-methionine incorporation into newly synthesized polypeptides, in a time-dependent manner, and that this halt in protein synthesis is the result of a decrease in the elongation phase of translation, mediated by an augmentation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation. These results favor the notion of glial cells as targets of fluoride toxicity and strengthen the idea of a critical involvement of glia cells in the function and dysfunction of the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical institution development point of view, the used research methods being the observation and the comparative analysis. The legislator adapted the procedure for the resolution of conflicts of interests/ collective labour conflicts in accordance with the social and economic development of the labour relations and identified other means of resolution, such as the mediation, the arbitrage or the strike, when the conciliation didn’t lead to the end of the conflict. The present paper aims is to realize an assessment over the historical development of the labour conflicts conciliation and to draw up a study on the statistical data concerning these conflicts. The study may be used within the research activity, its contribution being set up by the updated presentation of the statistical data and on the legislation within the field of labour conflicts conciliation.

  12. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  13. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  14. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  15. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  16. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans.

  17. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  18. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 14 CFR 243.15 - Conflict with foreign laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with foreign laws. 243.15 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PASSENGER MANIFEST INFORMATION § 243.15 Conflict with foreign laws. (a) If a... portion of this part is not required because of a conflict with applicable foreign law. [Doc. No. OST-95...

  20. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A of...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1218.3 Section 1218.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee of the U.S...

  2. 42 CFR 421.310 - Conflict of interest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest requirements. 421.310 Section... Conflict of interest requirements. Offerors for MIP contracts and MIP contractors are subject to the following: (a) The conflict of interest standards and requirements of the Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  3. 20 CFR 220.63 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 220.63 Section 220.63 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.63 Conflict of interest. All implications of possible conflict of...

  4. 48 CFR 3052.209-72 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competitive advantage. The nature of the conflict of interest and the limitation on future contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.209-72 Organizational conflict of interest. As...

  5. 48 CFR 1352.209-74 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... Organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(d), insert the following clause: Organizational Conflict of Interest (APR 2010) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is to ensure that the...

  6. 48 CFR 3452.209-70 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... Clauses 3452.209-70 Organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 3409.570, insert the following provision in all certifications: Organizational Conflict of Interest (OCT 1987) The offeror certifies that...

  7. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Henseler, Manuel; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 μg/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate

  8. Computational assessment of pregnant woman models exposed to uniform ELF-magnetic fields: compliance with the European current exposure regulations for the general public and occupational exposures at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo; Douglas, Mark; Capstick, Myles; Kuster, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The Recommendation 1999/529/EU and the Directive 2013/35/EU suggest limits for both general public and occupational exposures to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, but without special limits for pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of 40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages). (authors)

  9. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  10. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  11. Proposal to regulate human exposure limits to electromagnetic fields produced by cellular telephony systems in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Lizano, Cristian; Calvo Horth, Gustavo; Dompe Gamboa, Pablo; Ramirez Rodriguez, David; Retana Duran, Elias; Gutierrez Chinchilla, Jose Alcides

    2008-01-01

    Modern society has presented an epic technology development in recent years, driven strongly by communications networks: from micro environments such as personal area networks passing by cell phone to the global Internet network. The communications established in real-time are increasingly, a necessary input. However, the growing demand for communications services and in particularly mobile phone, has meant that the environment is altered by the large number of signals generated by electromagnetic fields that transmit high volumes of energy, which saturate the electromagnetic spectrum, these waves of energy called no ionizing energy. The World Health Organization, through the International Energy Agency Nonionizing (ICNIRP for its acronym in English), has conducted in recent years researches on the effects of the health of people exposed to nonionizing energy; also, have existed proposals regulating these exposure levels. Nonionizing electromagnetic fields are investigated, focusing on transmitting equipment for mobile phone systems in Costa Rica and electromagnetic safety criteria of exposure, both occupational as of general public. The electromagnetism basic concepts and parameters related with nonionizing radiations research are referenced, among them can be mentioned the relationship between the electric field E, the magnetic field H and the power density S. Other concepts such as near-field region, far-field region, exposure zones and specified absorption rate SAR, are also defined. A mathematical fundament is presented showing the relationships between the concepts explained. Guidelines for calculating the power density are provided by means of a theoretical estimate from parameters of transmitting equipment. Also, the procedures for calculating the spatial and temporal averaging are set out and a brief overview is made of epidemiological and biological effects caused by radio frequency radiation. The existing rules at the international level are analyzed to

  12. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  13. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  14. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  15. Short-term exposure of Arabidopsis cell culures to hyper-G: Short-term changes in transcription regulation expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, Maren; Hampp, Rudiger

    2005-08-01

    Callus cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were used to screen for early changes in gene expression in response to altered gravitational fields. In a recent microarray study we found hyper- g dependent changes in gene expression which indicated the involvement of WRKY genes [Martzivanou M. and Hampp R., Physiol. Plant., 118, 221-231,2003]. WRKY genes code for a family of plant-specific regulators of gene expression. In this study we report on the exposure of Arabidopsis callus cultures to 8g for up to 30 min. Quantitative analysis by real time RT-PCR of the amount of transcripts of WRKYs 3, 6, 22, 46, 65 and 70 showed individual changes in expression. As far as their function is known, these WRKY proteins are mainly involved in stress responses. As most alterations in transcript amount occurred within 10 min of treatment, such genes can be used for the investigation of microgravity-related effects on gene expression under sounding rocket conditions (TEXUS, MAXUS).

  16. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  17. Interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on expression of CYP1A and its potential regulators in Atlantic croaker liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A. Croaker were exposed to hypoxia (1.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77, dose: 2 and 8 µg/g body weight), and Aroclor 1254 (a common PCB mixture, dose: 0.5 and 1 µg/g body weight), alone and in combination for 4 weeks. PCB 77 exposure markedly increased hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein expression, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, an indicator of CYP1A enzyme) activity and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression. PCB 77 treatment also increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a cytokine) mRNA levels and protein carbonyl (PC, an indicator of reactive oxygen species, ROS) contents. These marked PCB 77- and Aroclor 1254-induced increases in CYP1A mRNA levels and EROD activity were significantly attenuated by co-exposure to hypoxia, whereas the increases in hepatic eNOS protein and IL-1β mRNA expression, and PC contents were augmented by hypoxia co-exposure. The results suggest that biotransformation of organic xenobiotics by CYP1A is reduced in fish during co-exposure to hypoxia and is accompanied by alterations in eNOS, ROS, and IL-1β levels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  19. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  20. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  1. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  2. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  3. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  4. 29 CFR 530.201 - Conflict with State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict with State law. 530.201 Section 530.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... Conflict with State law. No certificate will be issued pursuant to § 530.101 of subpart B above authorizing...

  5. Conflict and normative sanctions among Galapagos fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arren Mendezona Allegretti; Jerry J. Vaske; Ryan. Finchum

    2012-01-01

    At the start of this century, aggressive fishermen retaliated against changes in fishing regulations in the Galapagos. To understand this conflict, we examined fishermen's norms regarding sanctions that the Galapagos National Park Service should use for: (a) fishing regulation violations, and (b) aggressive behavior by fishermen.

  6. 15 CFR 700.75 - Compliance conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance conflicts. 700.75 Section 700.75 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  7. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  8. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  9. 76 FR 60319 - Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... do not constitute the type of `material conflicts' intended to be regulated by Section 621''). \\26... terms. Pool selection may also involve conflicts * * * We believe that conflicts of this type, relating... Part 230 Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  10. 48 CFR 1352.209-70 - Potential organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Consultant Conflicts of Interest) due to [state the nature of the potential conflict]. Accordingly... conflict of interest. 1352.209-70 Section 1352.209-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....209-70 Potential organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-1(a), insert...

  11. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  12. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  13. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  14. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  15. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  16. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  17. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  18. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  19. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  20. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  1. Analysis of cell cycle regulated and regulating proteins following exposure of lung derived cells to sub-lethal doses of a-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, D.; Claudio, P. P.; Cassone, M.; Lucchetti, C.; D'Agostino, L.; Caputi, M.; Giordano, A.

    Introduction Since the last century mankind had to face an increased exposure to man made and natural sources of radiation Radiation represents a therapeutic instrument for radiosensitive cancers as well as a cytotoxic agent for normal human tissues The effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of high energy radiation are still not well-known at the molecular and clinical level Understanding their molecular effects will aid in developing more tailored therapeutic strategies as well as implementing radio-protective measures essential prerequisite for the long-time permanence of men in space Objective of the study The general aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility and the response of lung epithelial cells to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations We decided to study a panel of epithelial bronchial cell lines because of their fast-growth rate and their prominent exposure to both environmental and medical radiations The specific objective of our study was to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively assess the involvement and behaviour of selected genes in DNA damage DNA-repair mechanisms and apoptosis which follow radiation exposure with the aim to determine the involvement of the most promising targets for the early detection of radiation-mediated lung damage before chronic disease develops Methods Four epithelial cell lines one normal and three neoplastic were selected in order to detect and compare survival cell cycle and protein expression differences related to their different genetic asset

  2. [Conflicts between parents and aggressive and delinquent behavior in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia Galiano, M José; Cantón Duarte, José

    2011-02-01

    The exposure of children to their parents' conflicts are a factor of substantial risk for the development of behavior problems in children. This study examines the relationship between marital conflicts and children's aggressive and delinquent behavior. The sample consisted of a total of 332 children, aged 7 to 17 years, and their mothers. The children completed the Children's Perceptions of Interparental Conflict Scale, providing information on the dimensions of the marital conflicts: frequency, intensity, no resolution, and content. The mothers completed the O'Leary Porter Scale, providing information about the frequency of conflicts, and the Child Behavior Checklist, about the aggressive and delinquent behavior problems in their children. The results indicate that parental conflicts affect sons and daughters equally, and they affect adolescents more than younger children when they are perceived by the children. However, conflicts affect all groups when the mothers perceive them.

  3. A functional dissociation of conflict processing within anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Kroger, James K; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2011-02-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires cognitive control to regulate the occurrence of conflict. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been suggested in detecting response conflict during various conflict tasks. Recent findings, however, have indicated not only that two distinct subregions of dACC are involved in conflict processing but also that the conflict occurs at both perceptual and response levels. In this study, we sought to examine whether perceptual and response conflicts are functionally dissociated in dACC. Thirteen healthy subjects performed a version of the Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. We identified a functional dissociation of the caudal dACC (cdACC) and the rostral dACC (rdACC) in their responses to different sources of conflict. The cdACC was selectively engaged in perceptual conflict whereas the rdACC was more active in response conflict. Further, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was coactivated not with cdACC but with rdACC. We suggest that cdACC plays an important role in regulative processing of perceptual conflict whereas rdACC is involved in detecting response conflict. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  5. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  6. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  8. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  9. Modifications in cell cycle kinetics and in expression of G1 phase-regulating proteins in human amniotic cells after exposure to electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, S; Viergutz, T; Simkó, M

    2004-10-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic fields are suspected of being involved in carcinogenesis, particularly in processes that could be related to cancer promotion. Because development of cancer is associated with deregulated cell growth and we previously observed a magnetic field-induced decrease in DNA synthesis [Lange et al. (2002) Alterations in the cell cycle and in the protein level of cyclin D1p, 21CIP1, and p16INK4a after exposure to 50 HZ. MF in human cells. Radiat. Environ. Biophys.41, 131], this study aims to document the influence of 50 Hz, 1 mT magnetic fields (MF), with or without initial gamma-ionizing radiation (IR), on the following cell proliferation-relevant parameters in human amniotic fluid cells (AFC): cell cycle distribution, expression of the G1 phase-regulating proteins Cdk4, cyclin D1, p21CIP1 and p16INK4a, and Cdk4 activity. While IR induced a G1 delay and a dose-dependent G2 arrest, no discernible changes in cell cycle kinetics were observed due to MF exposure. However, a significant decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and an increase in p21CIP1- and p16INK4a-expression could be detected after exposure to MF alone. IR-exposure caused an augmentation of p21CIP1- and p16INK4a- levels as well, but did not alter cyclin D1 expression. A slight diminution of Cdk4 activity was noticed after MF exposure only, indicating that Cdk4 appears not to act as a mediator of MF- or IR-induced changes in the cell cycle of AFC cells. Co-exposure to MF/IR affected neither cell cycle distribution nor protein expression or kinase activity additionally or synergistically, and therefore MF seems not to modify the mutagenic potency of IR.

  10. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  11. [Conflict of interests in clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elaine Maria de Oliveira; Tubino, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    In clinical research there is a real possibility to have some conflict of interests. Even for the researcher, the identification of these conflicts cannot be clear. There are many aspects to be considered, involving all participants of the process: the research subject, the researcher, the institution where the research is carried through, the sponsor, the ethics committees, the regulating agencies, the scientific community and the society. The conclusion is that conflicts of interests are common and inevitable in the academic field. The challenge is not to eradicate them, but to recognize them and to manage them properly. The only acceptable way to do this is to expose clearly the conflicts of interests and always to submit the clinical research projects to the ethics committees.

  12. Loose Coupling, Conflict, and Resistance: The Case of IPR Policy Conflict in an Israeli University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Adi; Oliver, Amalya

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates a conflict that erupted during the years 2003-2005 between faculty and management at an Israeli research university, over the introduction of new intellectual property rights (IPR) regulations. The introduction of new IPR regulations triggered contention and resistance among faculty members and raised debates over questions…

  13. Zearalenone exposure impairs ovarian primordial follicle formation via down-regulation of Lhx8 expression in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Sun, Xiao-Feng [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Feng, Yan-Zhong [Institute of Animal Sciences, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086 (China); Li, Bo [Chengguo Station of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Laizhou 261437 (China); Li, Ya-Peng; Yang, Fan [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Nyachoti, Charles Martin [Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Shen, Wei [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Sun, Shi-Duo, E-mail: ssdsm@tom.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Lan, E-mail: lilan9600@126.com [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly. Our results demonstrated that newborn mouse ovaries exposed to 10 or 30 μM ZEA in vitro had significantly less germ cell numbers compared to the control group. Moreover, the presence of ZEA in vitro increased the numbers of TUNEL and γH2AX positive cells within mouse ovaries and the ratio of mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, ZEA exposure reduced the mRNA of oocyte specific genes such as LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8), newborn ovary homeobox (Nobox), spermatogenesis and oogenesis helix-loop-helix (Sohlh2), and factor in the germline alpha (Figlα) in a dose dependent manner. Exposure to ZEA led to remarkable changes in the Lhx8 3′-UTR DNA methylation dynamics in oocytes and severely impaired folliculogenesis in ovaries after transplantation under the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, ZEA exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle formation in vitro. - Highlights: • First time to evaluate the impact of ZEA on primordial follicle formation • ZEA exposure increases oocyte apoptosis and delays germ cell cyst breakdown. • ZEA exposure impairs the expression of LHX8 by affecting its DNA methylation.

  14. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  15. Patient decision making in the face of conflicting medication information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Elstad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When patients consult more than one source of information about their medications, they may encounter conflicting information. Although conflicting information has been associated with negative outcomes, including worse medication adherence, little is known about how patients make health decisions when they receive conflicting information. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making strategies that individuals with arthritis use when they receive conflicting medication information. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 men and women with arthritis. Interview vignettes posed scenarios involving conflicting information from different sources (e.g., doctor, pharmacist, and relative, and respondents were asked how they would respond to the situation. Data analysis involved inductive coding to identify emergent themes and deductive contextualization to make meaning from the emergent themes. In response to conflicting medication information, patients used rules of thumb, trial and error, weighed benefits and risks, and sought more information, especially from a doctor. Patients relied heavily on trial and error when there was no conflicting information involved in the vignette. In contrast, patients used rules of thumb as a unique response to conflicting information. These findings increase our understanding of what patients do when they receive conflicting medication information. Given that patient exposure to conflicting information is likely to increase alongside the proliferation of medication information on the Internet, patients may benefit from assistance in identifying the most appropriate decision strategies for dealing with conflicting information, including information about best information sources.

  16. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  17. Associations Between Childhood Abuse, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Implicit Emotion Regulation Deficits: Evidence From a Low-Income, Inner-City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including increased risk for development of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to examine associations between child abuse, PTSD symptoms, and performance on an emotional conflict regulation task that assesses implicit emotion regulation abilities. The sample consisted of 67 (94% African American) females recruited from a public, urban hospital. Childhood abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was measured using the modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Task accuracy and implicit emotion regulation were measured through an emotional conflict regulation behavioral task. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that exposure to moderate to severe childhood abuse was significantly related to worse emotional conflict regulation scores independent of current PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and adult trauma exposure, suggesting a deficit in implicit emotion regulation. We also found an interaction between PTSD symptoms and abuse exposure in predicting accuracy on the behavioral task; high levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer task accuracy among individuals who reported moderate to severe exposure to childhood abuse. However, no relationship between implicit emotion regulation abilities and overall PTSD symptom severity was found. This study provides preliminary evidence of an implicit emotion regulation deficit for individuals exposed to significant childhood abuse and further supports the growing evidence that addressing various aspects of emotion dysregulation, such as awareness of emotions and strategies to manage strong emotions, in the context of treatment would be valuable.

  18. A late IL-33 response after exposure to Schistosoma haematobium antigen is associated with an up-regulation of IL-13 in human eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, S.; Jones, F. M.; Fofana, H. K. M.

    2013-01-01

    IL-33, a proposed alarmin, stimulates innate immune cells and Th2 cells to produce IL-13 and is rapidly upregulated upon antigen exposure in murine helminth infection. The human IL-33 response to helminth antigen was analysed in Malians infected with Schistosoma haematobium by disrupting parasite...... integrity via chemotherapy. Plasma IL-33 was measured pretreatment, and 24 h and 9 weeks post-treatment. At 24 h post-treatment, IL-33 levels were low. Nine week post-treatment IL-33 levels were elevated and were associated with an increase in intracellular IL-13 in eosinophils. Up......-regulation of intracellular IL-13 in eosinophils was also associated with eosinophil expression of ST2L, the IL-33 receptor. IL-33 may play an important downstream role in the human response to schistosome adult worm antigen exposure....

  19. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 regulates the hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of thienorphine and its glucuronide conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Lei Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thienorphine (TNP is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic.

  20. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, F.; Pawluski, J.L.; Homberg, J.R.; Machiels, B.; Kroeze, Y.; Kumar, N.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Kenis, G.; Hove, D.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has

  1. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurodevelopment of Conflict Adaptation: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiuying; Liu, Tongran; Shangguan, Fangfang

    2018-01-01

    Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different a...... to better assimilate and accommodate potential environmental conflicts. The results may also indicate that the development of conflict adaption is affected by the specific characteristic of the different types of conflict.......Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different...... ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation...

  3. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  4. D-Serine exposure resulted in gene expression changes indicative of activation of fibrogenic pathways and down-regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Armando; DelRaso, Nicholas J.; Schlager, John J.; Chan, Victor T.

    2008-01-01

    Renal toxicity can commonly occur after exposure to xenobiotics, pharmaceutical agents or environmental pollutants. Changes in the gene expression in kidney parenchymal cells that precede and/or accompany renal injury may be hallmark critical events in the onset of pathologic changes of renal functions. Over the last several years, transcriptomic analysis has evolved to enable simultaneous analysis of the expression profiles of tens of thousands of genes in response to various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes in the kidney after acute exposure to a nephrotoxin, D-serine, which targets the proximal tubule of the kidney. Male F-344 rats injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of D-serine (5, 20, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg), and gene expression profiles in the kidney were determined using the Affymetrix RAE230A gene arrays at 96 h post-dosing. D-Serine treatment resulted in the up- and down-regulation of 1158 and 749 genes, respectively, over the entire dose range based on the intersection of the results of t-test, p < 0.01 over two consecutive doses, and ANOVA with Bonferonni correction for multiple testing. Interestingly, both the up-and down-regulated genes show a unified dose response pattern as revealed in the self-organized map clustering analysis using the expression profiles of the 1907 differentially expressed genes as input data. There appears to be minimal changes in the expression level of these genes in the dose range of 5-50 mg/kg, while the most prominent changes were observed at the highest doses tested, i.e. 200 and 500 mg/kg. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed perturbation of a large number of biological processes/pathways after D-serine exposure. Among the up-regulated pathways are actin cytoskeleton biogenesis and organization, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, chromatin assembly, excision repair of damaged DNA, DNA replication and packaging, protein biosynthesis

  5. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  6. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  7. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  8. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  9. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  10. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  11. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  12. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  13. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  14. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  15. Effects of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Family Conflict: Constructive Conflict, Emotional Insecurity and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Cummings, E Mark; Bergman, Kathleen N

    2016-10-01

    The role of emotional security in promoting positive adjustment following exposure to marital conflict has been identified in a large number of empirical investigations, yet to date, no interventions have explicitly addressed the processes that predict child adjustment after marital conflict. The current study evaluated a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention program aimed at promoting constructive marital conflict behaviors thereby increasing adolescent emotional security and adjustment. Families (n = 225) were randomized into 1 of 4 conditions: Parent-Adolescent (n = 75), Parent-Only (n = 75), Self-Study (n = 38) and No Treatment (n = 37). Multi-informant and multi-method assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Effects of treatment on destructive and constructive conflict behaviors were evaluated using multilevel models where observations were nested within individuals over time. Process models assessing the impact of constructive and destructive conflict behaviors on emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment were evaluated using path modeling. Results indicated that the treatment was effective in increasing constructive conflict behaviors (d = 0.89) and decreasing destructive conflict behaviors (d = -0.30). For the Parent-Only Group, post-test constructive conflict behaviors directly predicted lower levels of adolescent externalizing behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Post-test constructive conflict skills also indirectly affected adolescent internalizing behaviors through adolescent emotional security. These findings support the use of a brief psychoeducational intervention in improving post-treatment conflict and emotional security about interparental relationships.

  16. Impairments in Learning Due to Motivational Conflict: Situation Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Nina K.; Grund, Axel; Hilckmann, Kristina; Fries, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although many theories mention distractions by conflicting alternatives as a problem for self-regulation, motivational conflicts are rarely considered when explaining impairments in learning. In two studies, we investigate the assumption of motivational interference theory that students show different amounts of impairments in learning depending…

  17. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate in...

  18. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No members...

  19. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a direct...

  20. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation or...

  1. 24 CFR 964.145 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 964.145 Section 964.145 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Conflict of interest. Resident council officers can not serve as contractors or employees if they are in...

  2. 7 CFR 3401.14 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3401.14 Section 3401.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.14 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review...

  3. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.12 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review...

  4. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.12 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups...

  5. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest. Official personnel...

  6. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  7. A non-linear relationship between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout and the potentially emotion regulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Jia-Huan; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-10-08

    Stressful situations can increase the likelihood of nurses experiencing negative emotions, especially burnout. To explore the association of cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and emotion regulation strategies with nurses' burnout. Participants were 602 nurses from three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Social demographic characteristics, occupational stress, burnout, and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination), were assessed. Nearly 70% of nurses reported that they were burnt out. Those with a moderate level and high level of stressors were 3.203 times and 26.444 times more likely to have burnout, respectively (x 2 trend = 62.732). Logistic regression revealed that nurses had higher cognitive reappraisal score (odds ratios (OR) = 0.941), scored lower for burnout. Those who had higher expressive suppression score (OR = 1.054), higher rumination score (OR = 1.037), and a higher level of stressors (OR = 2.779-18.259) scored higher for burnout. The results of sensitivity analysis were similar. A non-linear relationship exists between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout. Those who less frequently use cognitive reappraisal, more frequently use rumination and expressive suppression, and have a high level of stressors may be more likely to experience burnout.

  8. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osvald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization all the companies try to find the effective ways of maximizing their profit. One of the instruments is the system of the transfer pricing that helps to optimize the costs and allocate effective the resources of the company. Transfer pricing has detrimental effect on the economy of countries, though the governments use the regulations to minimize this effect on their economy. In this case the conflict of interests appears. Paper deals with an analysis of the functions and reasons of the economic agents which use the transfer prices to demonstrate the conflict of interests in transfer pricing. The purpose of the study is the determination of the best ways to solve the conflict situations in the process of transfer pricing according to the economic interests of the agents: company and government and within the company: headquarters and subsidiaries. The main point of resolving the conflict between company and government is to make clear regulations of transfer pricing for enterprises and productive relations between company and government. The methods to resolve the conflict within the company are: clear guidelines, decentralization and motivation for stuff members.

  10. Differential regulation of sodium-potassium pump isoforms during smolt development and seawater exposure of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, Amy M.; Christensen, Arne K.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and seawater isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have previously been identified in gill ionocytes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In the present study we examine the abundance and cellular localization of these isoforms during the parr–smolt transformation, a developmental process that is preparatory for seawater entry. The abundance of NKAα1a was lower in smolts than in parr, remained relatively constant during spring and decreased in summer. NKAα1b increased tenfold in smolts during spring, peaking in late April, coincident with downstream migration and increased salinity tolerance. NKAα1b increased a further twofold after seawater exposure of smolts, whereas NKAα1a decreased by 98%. The abundance of NKAα1b-positive, and NKAα1b and NKAα1a co-labeled ionocytes increased during smolt development, whereas the number of NKAα1a cells decreased. After seawater exposure of smolts, NKAα1b-positive ionocytes increased, NKAα1a-positive cells decreased, and co-labeled cells disappeared. Plasma growth hormone and cortisol increased during spring in smolts, but not in parr, peaking just prior to the highest levels of NKAα1b. The results indicate that the increase in the abundance of NKAα1b during smolt development is directly linked to the increase in salinity tolerance that occurs at this stage, but that significant changes also occur after seawater exposure. Spring increases in circulating levels of growth hormone and cortisol indicate that these hormones may be instrumental in upregulating NKAα1b during smolt development.

  11. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio, E-mail: ojimenezgarza@ugto.mx [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min [Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro [Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Laboratory, Nayarit Autonomous University, Av. Ciudad de la Cultura s/n, “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit C.P. 63155 (Mexico); Albores, Arnulfo [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  12. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2–3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent......1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state....

  13. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-01-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m 3 ) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m 3 ) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1 promoter

  14. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  15. Why Most Dieters Fail but Some Succeed: A Goal Conflict Model of Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Papies, Esther K.; Aarts, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Theories of eating regulation often attribute overweight to a malfunction of homeostatic regulation of body weight. With the goal conflict model of eating, we present a new perspective that attributes the difficulty of chronic dieters (i.e., restrained eaters) in regulating their food intake to a conflict between 2 incompatible goals--namely,…

  16. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia A. Reimann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malTcon double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  17. The role of wave-exposure and human impacts in regulating the distribution of alternative habitats on NW Mediterranean rocky reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Cucco, Andrea; Dal Bello, Martina; Maggi, Elena; Ravaglioli, Chiara; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2018-02-01

    The global decline of canopy-forming macroalgae has stimulated research on the mechanism regulating shifts among alternative habitats on rocky reefs. The effects of sea urchin grazing and alterations of environmental conditions are now acknowledged as the main drivers of shifts between canopy-formers and encrusting coralline barrens and algal turfs, respectively. The conditions under which these mechanisms operate remains, however, somewhat elusive. This is mostly a consequence of the fact that our current understanding has been generated by envisioning habitat shifts as dichotomic, at odds with rocky reef landscapes being composed by mosaics of habitats and with evidence of strong interactions among the species that compose each of the alternative habitats. Using data from a long-term sampling program and path analysis, we investigated how wave-exposure and human-induced degradation of environmental conditions regulate the mechanisms maintaining algal canopies formed by Cystoseira crinita, barren habitats and algal turfs as alternative states on subtidal reefs in the NW Mediterranean. In the Tuscan Archipelago, wave-exposure had positive effects on sea urchins, which, likely due to their low mean density, had weak effects on each of the alternative habitats. Canopy-forming macroalgae resulted, instead, to exert strong negative effects on the abundance of algal turfs. Since data from the Tuscan Archipelago did not explain any of the variation in the abundance of C. crinita canopies, a further analysis was performed including data from the coast of Tuscany to assess the role of cumulative human impacts in regulating habitat shifts. This showed that degradation of environmental conditions is a direct cause of the decline of macroalgal canopies, indirectly favouring the dominance of algal turfs. Our study suggests that management of human impacts should be considered a priority for preserving subtidal canopies formed by Cystoseira in the NW Mediterranean and that

  18. How family conflict moderates the relationship between media violence and adolescents' aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of violent media exposure and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression using data from a longitudinal study with 499 Dutch 10- to 14-year-olds. High violent media exposure in combination with high family conflict was expected to lead to increased levels of

  19. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-08-01

    CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86+/-7mg/m(3)) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21+/-0.02mg/m(3)) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r=-.36, psmoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern Recognition Scavenger Receptor A/CD204 Regulates Airway Inflammatory Homeostasis Following Organic Dust Extract Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jill A.; Anderson, Leigh; Gleason, Angela M.; West, William W.; Romberger, Debra J.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to agriculture organic dusts, comprised of a diversity of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, results in chronic airway diseases. The multi-functional class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA)/CD204 has emerged as an important class of pattern recognition receptors with broad ligand binding ability. Our objective was to determine the role of SRA in mediating repetitive and post-inflammatory organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and SRA knockout (KO) mice were intra-nasally treated with ODE or saline daily for 3 wk and immediately euthanized or allowed to recover for 1 wk. Results show that lung histopathologic changes were increased in SRA KO mice as compared to WT following repetitive ODE exposures marked predominately by increased size and distribution of lymphoid aggregates. After a 1-wk recovery from daily ODE treatments, there was significant resolution of lung injury in WT mice, but not SRA KO animals. The increased lung histopathology induced by ODE treatment was associated with decreased accumulation of neutrophils, but greater accumulation of CD4+ T-cells. The lung cytokine milieu induced by ODE was consistent with a TH1/TH17 polarization in both WT and SRA KO mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that SRA/CD204 plays an important role in the normative inflammatory lung response to ODE as evidenced by the enhanced dust-mediated injury viewed in the absence of this receptor. PMID:24491035

  1. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  3. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  4. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  5. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a practical problem-solving approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of ...

  6. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...

  7. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  8. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  9. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other sex, usually through direct reproductive interactions. This leads ... Most of the interaction is through .... clearly indicating parental conflict over offspring provision- ing. ... Ba˜nuelos M. J. and Obeso J. R. 2003 Maternal provisioning, sibling.

  10. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    34an ounce of type-A botulinal toxin, properly dis- persed, could kill every man, woman , and child in North America. . . just eight ounces of the...attend to the short-term humanitarian needs generated by conflict, frequently a good deal of "wheel- spinning " occurs; little headway is made in...Empire’s millet system, for exam- ple, where the religious leaders of Judaism and several Christian churches were entrusted with arbitrating conflicts

  11. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  12. Cardiac autonomic regulation during exposure to auditory stimulation with classical baroque or heavy metal music of different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joice A T; Nogueira, Marcela L; Roque, Adriano L; Guida, Heraldo L; De Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Raimundo, Rodrigo Daminello; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ribeiro, Vivian L; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of chronic music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system have been investigated in the literature. However, data regarding the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation are lacking. The literature has indicated that auditory stimulation with white noise above 50 dB induces cardiac responses. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal music of different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation. The study was performed in 16 healthy men aged 18-25 years. All procedures were performed in the same soundproof room. We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) in time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals [SDNN], root-mean square of differences [RMSSD] and percentage of adjacent NN intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms [pNN50]) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF] and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the volunteers were exposed to one of the two musical styles (classical baroque or heavy metal music) for five minutes through an earphone, followed by a five-minute period of rest, and then they were exposed to the other style for another five minutes. The subjects were exposed to three equivalent sound levels (60-70dB, 70-80dB and 80-90dB). The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. Auditory stimulation with heavy metal music did not influence HRV indices in the time and frequency domains in the three equivalent sound level ranges. The same was observed with classical baroque musical auditory stimulation with the three equivalent sound level ranges. Musical auditory stimulation of different intensities did not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men.

  13. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  14. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  15. Conflict and Conflict Mangement in the Cross-border Provision of Healthcare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2009-01-01

    Welfare regulation in the European Union continues to crawl forward despite salient conflicts of interests. This article addresses the fundamental puzzle of how regulatory competences may expand into the core of the welfare state and how conflicts are, eventually, managed in such processes....... It analyses the EU cross-border provision of healthcare services and argues that the interplay between the Commission and the Court constitutes a powerful dynamic in generating new regulatory activities and in finding ways to set conflicts aside. The Commission draws on formulations offered by the Court...... in finding ways to manage conflict, for example, by requiring ‘proportionate’ national policies which establish that national obstacles to free movement principles are ‘objectively necessary’. The article concludes that law and evidence-based policy-making serve as powerful resources for the Commission...

  16. 48 CFR 1552.209-73 - Notification of conflicts of interest regarding personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contractor. A personal conflict of interest is defined as a relationship of an employee... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Notification of conflicts... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.209-73 Notification of conflicts of interest regarding personnel...

  17. 75 FR 70152 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... proposed regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for futures commission merchants (FCMs... comments, identified by RIN number 3038-AC96 and FCM-IB Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following... rulemaking relates to the conflicts of interest provisions set forth in section 732 of the Dodd-Frank Act. In...

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers fate in China: a review with an emphasis on environmental contamination levels, human exposure and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana

    2012-12-30

    Because of their highly effective flame-retardant capability, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively used as flame retardants in consumer goods. However, compelling evidence shows that many congeners of PBDEs have been accumulating in the environment, in biota and in human populations worldwide. In China, although octabrominated diphenyl ether (octaBDE) has never been produced or used, pentabrominated diphenyl ether (pentaBDE) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE) have been produced and used in large quantities. In the face of increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, there is a growing push for China to develop more stringent methods of managing PBDE waste. This paper summarizes the information about PBDE production and application, describes the flame-retarding mechanism, and then reviews the toxicity and levels of PBDEs in China's environmental media and human tissues. Based on international regulations on PBDEs, the paper finally puts forward some suggestions for Chinese policy making and for self-regulation within the flame retardant industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  20. Focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose irradiation down-regulated organ development-related functions and up-regulated the immune response in mouse pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jin, Hee; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Ga-Young; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2016-01-27

    Despite the emergence of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose radiation have not been fully characterized. This study was designed to identify molecular changes induced by focal high-dose irradiation using a mouse model of SBRT. Central areas of the mouse left lung were focally-irradiated (3 mm in diameter) with a single high-dose of radiation (90 Gy). Temporal changes in gene expression in the irradiated and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions were analyzed by microarray. For comparison, the long-term effect (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation on a diffuse region of lung was also measured. The majority of genes were down-regulated in the focally-irradiated lung areas at 2 to 3 weeks after irradiation. This pattern of gene expression was clearly different than gene expression in the diffuse region of lungs exposed to low-dose radiation. Ontological and pathway analyses indicated these down-regulated genes were mainly associated with organ development. Although the number was small, genes that were up-regulated after focal irradiation were associated with immune-related functions. The temporal patterns of gene expression and the associated biological functions were also similar in non-irradiated neighboring lung regions, although statistical significance was greatly reduced when compared with those from focally-irradiated areas of the lung. From network analysis of temporally regulated genes, we identified inter-related modules associated with diverse functions, including organ development and the immune response, in both the focally-irradiated regions and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions. Focal exposure of lung tissue to high-dose radiation induced expression of genes associated with organ development and the immune response. This pattern of gene expression was also observed in non

  1. Organizational-professional conflict of I/O psychologists, job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Branko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available organizational-professional conflict occurs among employees in situations when organizational expectations and demands are opposed to the professional principles and standards. The results of studies have shown that this conflict negatively affects employees' attitude towards the job and affective-motivational state of fulfilment with work role. The purpose of this research was to examine exposure to organizational-professional conflict among I/O psychologists in Serbia, to find out whether there is a correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict, job satisfaction and work engagement, and to determine the main factors of exposure to organizational-professional conflict. Our sample consisted of 96 I/O psychologists. Results have shown that there was significant high negative correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and job satisfaction, as well as significant moderate negative correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and work engagement. The highest correlations were with social dimensions of job satisfaction. The exposure to organizational-professional conflict was lower among I/O psychologists with longer work experience and those at higher positions in organizational hierarchy. The exposure to organizational-professional conflict was higher among I/O psychologists who were working in privately owned companies and among those who were fixed-term employees. There was no significant correlation between the exposure to organizational-professional conflict and the size of the organization or business field. Our study showed that organizational-professional conflict should be considered as an important theoretical and research topic, as well as a relevant professional and career issue.

  2. Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

  3. Alteration of cytochrome P450 1 regulation and HSP 70 level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after chronic exposure to tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua; Mu, Wei-Na

    2016-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic contaminant in aquatic environments, has bio-accumulated in aquatic food webs throughout the world and can be found at toxic levels in some biota. However, the molecular mechanisms and effects of TBT are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure of TBT on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1 regulation and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) profiling in brain of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1 family genes and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the brain of common carp were evaluated, as well as HSP 70 level. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on EROD activity, HSP 70 level and CYP450 1 family genes expression). The mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring the TBT pollution in the field.

  4. Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Steward

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict...... as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested...... conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict...

  5. BDNF Val66Met Genotype Interacts With a History of Simulated Stress Exposure to Regulate Sensorimotor Gating and Startle Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaras, Michael J; Hill, Rachel A; Gogos, Joseph A; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2017-05-01

    Reduced expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, which results in deficient activity-dependent secretion of BDNF, is associated with clinical features of schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on Prepulse Inhibition (PPI), a translational model of sensorimotor gating which is disrupted in schizophrenia. We utilized humanized BDNFVal66Met (hBDNFVal66Met) mice which have been modified to carry the Val66Met polymorphism, as well as express humanized BDNF in vivo. We also studied the long-term effect of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure in these animals as a model of history of stress. PPI was assessed at 30ms and 100ms interstimulus intervals (ISI). Analysis of PPI at the commonly used 100ms ISI identified that, irrespective of CORT treatment, the hBDNFVal/Met genotype was associated with significantly reduced PPI. In contrast, PPI was not different between hBDNFMet/Met and hBDNFVal/Val genotype mice. At the 30ms ISI, CORT treatment selectively disrupted sensorimotor gating of hBDNFVal/Met heterozygote mice but not hBDNFVal/Val or hBDNFMet/Met mice. Analysis of startle reactivity revealed that chronic CORT reduced startle reactivity of hBDNFVal/Val male mice by 51%. However, this was independent of the effect of CORT on PPI. In summary, we provide evidence of a distinct BDNFVal66Met heterozygote-specific phenotype using the sensorimotor gating endophenotype of schizophrenia. These data have important implications for clinical studies where, if possible, the BDNFVal/Met heterozygote genotype should be distinguished from the BDNFMet/Met genotype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Ercument Beyhun

    Full Text Available Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164. Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154 of students, and 68.8% (106/154 reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153 of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153 of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154 thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154 agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I, p -3.7(1.2-11.5, p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any

  7. Turkish Final Year Medical Students’ Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company–medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company–medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians’ prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that “drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties”. Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement “I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions” than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2–11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that “A physician should not

  8. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2-11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any gift from a

  9. Effects of chronic exposure to tributyltin on tissue-specific cytochrome P450 1 regulation in juvenile common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to compare tributyltin (TBT)-induced cytochrome P450 1 (CYP450 1) regulation in liver, gills and muscle of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 2. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. CYP450 1A was measured at the enzyme activity level as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) in fish tissues. 3. Based on the results, the liver displayed the highest absolute levels of EROD activity, both under nonexposed and exposed conditions. Additional, EROD activities and CYP1A gene levels showed a good correlation in all three organs. According to the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes, it suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. 4. Overall, the study revealed both similarities and differences in the concentration-dependent CYP450 1 responses of the three target organs, which could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  10. Identification and transcription profiling of trypsin in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation, blood feeding, and permethrin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Chen, Jian; Becnel, James J; Kline, Daniel L; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2011-05-01

    The cDNA of a trypsin gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Weidemann) was cloned and sequenced. The full-length mRNA sequence (890 bp) for trypsin from Ae. taeniorhynchus (AetTryp1) was obtained, which encodes an open reading frame of 765 bp (i.e., 255 amino acids). To detect whether AetTryp is developmentally regulated, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine AetTrypl mRNA expression levels in different developmental stages of Ae. taeniorhynchus. AetTryp1 was expressed at low levels in egg, larval, and pupal stages, but was differentially expressed in adult Ae. taeniorhynchus, with highest levels found in 5-d-old female adults when compared with teneral adults. In addition, AetTryp1 mRNA expression differed between sexes, with expression levels much lower in males. However, in both males and females, there was a significant increase in AetTryp1 transcription levels as age increased and peaked in 5-d-old adults. AetTrypl expressed in 5-d-old female Ae. taeniorhynchus significantly increased after 30 min postblood feeding compared with the control. The AetTryp1 mRNA expression in 5-d-old female Ae. taeniorhynchus was affected by different concentrations of permethrin.

  11. Proteomic analysis of a model unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, during short-term exposure to irradiance stress reveals significant down regulation of several heat-shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahong, Bancha; Roytrakul, Suttiruk; Phaonaklop, Narumon; Wongratana, Janewit; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2012-03-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms often suffer from excessive irradiance, which cause harmful effects to the chloroplast proteins and lipids. Photoprotection and the photosystem II repair processes are the mechanisms that plants deploy to counteract the drastic effects from irradiance stress. Although the protective and repair mechanisms seemed to be similar in most plants, many species do confer different level of tolerance toward high light. Such diversity may originate from differences at the molecular level, i.e., perception of the light stress, signal transduction and expression of stress responsive genes. Comprehensive analysis of overall changes in the total pool of proteins in an organism can be performed using a proteomic approach. In this study, we employed 2-DE/LC-MS/MS-based comparative proteomic approach to analyze total proteins of the light sensitive model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to excessive irradiance. Results showed that among all the differentially expressed proteins, several heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones were surprisingly down-regulated after 3-6 h of high light exposure. Discussions were made on the possible involvement of such down regulation and the light sensitive nature of this model alga.

  12. Sampling in schools and large institutional buildings: Implications for regulations, exposure and management of lead and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Evelyne; Deshommes, Elise; Andrews, Robert C; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2018-04-21

    Legacy lead and copper components are ubiquitous in plumbing of large buildings including schools that serve children most vulnerable to lead exposure. Lead and copper samples must be collected after varying stagnation times and interpreted in reference to different thresholds. A total of 130 outlets (fountains, bathroom and kitchen taps) were sampled for dissolved and particulate lead as well as copper. Sampling was conducted at 8 schools and 3 institutional (non-residential) buildings served by municipal water of varying corrosivity, with and without corrosion control (CC), and without a lead service line. Samples included first draw following overnight stagnation (>8h), partial (30 s) and fully (5 min) flushed, and first draw after 30 min of stagnation. Total lead concentrations in first draw samples after overnight stagnation varied widely from 0.07 to 19.9 μg Pb/L (median: 1.7 μg Pb/L) for large buildings served with non-corrosive water. Higher concentrations were observed in schools with corrosive water without CC (0.9-201 μg Pb/L, median: 14.3 μg Pb/L), while levels in schools with CC ranged from 0.2 to 45.1 μg Pb/L (median: 2.1 μg Pb/L). Partial flushing (30 s) and full flushing (5 min) reduced concentrations by 88% and 92% respectively for corrosive waters without CC. Lead concentrations were 45% than values in 1st draw samples collected after overnight stagnation. Concentrations of particulate Pb varied widely (≥0.02-846 μg Pb/L) and was found to be the cause of very high total Pb concentrations in the 2% of samples exceeding 50 μg Pb/L. Pb levels across outlets within the same building varied widely (up to 1000X) especially in corrosive water (0.85-851 μg Pb/L after 30MS) confirming the need to sample at each outlet to identify high risk taps. Based on the much higher concentrations observed in first draw samples, even after a short stagnation, the first 250mL should be discarded unless no sources

  13. Dynamic goal states: adjusting cognitive control without conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Ruge, Hannes; Goschke, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    A central topic in the cognitive sciences is how cognitive control is adjusted flexibly to changing environmental demands at different time scales to produce goal-oriented behavior. According to an influential account, the context-sensitive recruitment of cognitive control is mediated by a specialized conflict monitoring process that registers current conflict and signals the demand for enhanced control in subsequent trials. This view has been immensely successful not least due to supporting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggesting that the conflict monitoring function is localized within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which, in turn, signals the demand for enhanced control to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this article, we propose an alternative model of the adaptive regulation of cognitive control based on multistable goal attractor network dynamics and adjustments of cognitive control within a conflict trial. Without incorporation of an explicit conflict monitoring module, the model mirrors behavior in conflict tasks accounting for effects of response congruency, sequential conflict adaptation, and proportion of incongruent trials. Importantly, the model also mirrors frequency tagged EEG data indicating continuous conflict adaptation and suggests a reinterpretation of the correlation between ACC and the PFC BOLD data reported in previous imaging studies. Together, our simulation data propose an alternative interpretation of both behavioral data as well as imaging data that have previously been interpreted in favor of a specialized conflict monitoring process in the ACC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  15. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  16. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  17. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  18. The impact of conflict on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal; Nelson, Brett D; Nachega, Jean B

    2006-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately represents the largest incidence of both HIV/AIDS and internal conflicts. The impact of conflict on HIV incidence is largely unknown. Current epidemiological evidence paradoxically suggests that in most populations affected by conflict, HIV prevalence is lower than surrounding communities. However, in situations of conflict, the most vulnerable populations, such as women and children, are at increased risk for HIV through sexual violence, forced occupational exposure and an absence of access to health care or testing. Together, these dimensions of conflict create a complex and challenging situation for prevention of HIV/AIDS and delivery of care to conflict-affected populations. We examine the complexity of monitoring HIV/AIDS in conflict settings. We argue that increased efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and design health-delivery systems that are sustainable in settings of conflict.

  19. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kitamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  20. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  1. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  2. Derailing Intragroup Management Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John; Vaughn, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of management conflict highlights differing job perceptions held by middle managers. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Assessment Program is described, and a management structure that requires members of each group to experience job perceptions and tasks of the other group is recommended for performance improvement. (Contains three…

  3. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  4. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  5. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert; Nauta, Aukje; Giebels, Ellen; Janssen, Onne

    1999-01-01

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  6. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  7. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  8. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  9. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  10. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. .... A Basic Approach to Pre-Conflict Management Planning ... and also factor in an evaluation of perception variables that help us to understand ...

  11. Alteration of synaptic activity-regulating genes underlying functional improvement by long-term exposure to an enriched environment in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seo, Jung Hwa; Park, Eun Sook; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Hyongbum; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    Housing animals in an enriched environment (EE) enhances behavioral function. However, the mechanism underlying this EE-mediated functional improvement and the resultant changes in gene expression have yet to be elucidated. We attempted to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with long-term exposure to an EE by evaluating gene expression patterns. We housed 6-week-old CD-1 (ICR) mice in standard cages or an EE comprising a running wheel, novel objects, and social interaction for 2 months. Motor and cognitive performances were evaluated using the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, and gene expression profile was investigated in the cerebral hemispheres using microarray and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In behavioral assessment, an EE significantly enhanced rotarod performance and short-term working memory. Microarray analysis revealed that genes associated with neuronal activity were significantly altered by an EE. GSEA showed that genes involved in synaptic transmission and postsynaptic signal transduction were globally upregulated, whereas those associated with reuptake by presynaptic neurotransmitter transporters were downregulated. In particular, both microarray and GSEA demonstrated that EE exposure increased opioid signaling, acetylcholine release cycle, and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors but decreased Na+ / Cl- -dependent neurotransmitter transporters, including dopamine transporter Slc6a3 in the brain. Western blotting confirmed that SLC6A3, DARPP32 (PPP1R1B), and P2RY12 were largely altered in a region-specific manner. An EE enhanced motor and cognitive function through the alteration of synaptic activity-regulating genes, improving the efficient use of neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity by the upregulation of genes associated with postsynaptic receptor activity and downregulation of presynaptic reuptake by neurotransmitter transporters.

  12. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  13. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  14. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  15. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  16. Acrolein Exposure in Hookah Smokers and Non-Smokers Exposed to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke: Implications for Regulating Hookah Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Zarth, Adam T; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Chatfield, Dale A; Carmella, Steven G; Hecht, Stephen S; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-06

    Acrolein is a highly ciliatoxic agent, a toxic respiratory irritant, a cardiotoxicant, and a possible carcinogen present in tobacco smoke including hookah tobacco. 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers attended exclusively hookah smoking social events at either a hookah lounge or private home, and provided urine samples the morning of and the morning after the event. Samples were analyzed for 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of acrolein. Geometric mean (GM) urinary 3-HPMA levels in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) increased significantly, 1.41 times, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.74 and 1.39 times, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.67, respectively, following a hookah social event. The highest increase (1.68 times, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.45; p = 0.007) in 3-HPMA post a hookah social event was among daily hookah smokers (GM, from 1991 pmol/mg to 3348 pmol/mg). Pre-to-post event change in urinary 3-HPMA was significantly positively correlated with pre-to-post event change in urinary cotinine among hookah smokers at either location of hookah event, (ρ = 0.359, p = 0.001), and among non-smokers in hookah lounges (ρ = 0.369, p = 0.012). Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of acrolein exposure. Findings support regulating hookah tobacco products including reducing humectants and sugar additives, which are precursors of acrolein under certain pyrolysis conditions. We suggest posting health warning signs for indoor smoking in hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans of smoking hookah tobacco in private homes. Our study is the first to quantify the increase in acrolein exposure in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to exclusively hookah tobacco SHS at hookah social events in homes or hookah lounges. Our findings provide additional support for regulating hookah tobacco product content, protecting non-smokers' health by posting health warning signs for indoor smoking in hookah lounges, and encouraging home bans on hookah tobacco smoking to

  17. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  18. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  20. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...

  1. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  2. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  3. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  4. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  5. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  6. US land use and energy policy: assessing potential conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowall, D E

    1980-03-01

    The author identifies areas of potential conflict between land-use planning and energy policy. Conflicts center on the rate and intensity of land use, location of land-using activities, and the diversity and interaction of these activities. A range of regulations affecting land use and energy planning are presented and areas of policy choice are indicated. Three energy programs (decentralized technologies, energy-conserving land-use planning, and energy facility siting) are used to illustrate land-use-planning issues. The policy research needed for conflict resolution is also outlined. 36 references.

  7. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  8. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  9. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  10. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  11. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  12. Islam: Ideology and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    brands ’ (‘ popular fronts’ and ‘liberation fronts’). The difference was that the ‘fronts’ often had real state backers while the current VEOs do not...assuming the al Qaeda brand name. This underscores the essential role of local conflicts and rivalries.5 To a significant degree, this paper argues...under poor leadership it was disas- trous. The Abbasids did not have that luxury . They were far more dependent on political power centers that

  13. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  14. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  15. Conflict: an imperative for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F J

    1986-04-01

    Conflict in organizations of any type is inevitable. Medical institutions, particularly multispecialty clinics, are no exception. This paper presents an examination of the anatomy of conflict in group practice settings. Several case studies, including the "Hunterdon Experiment," are presented to illustrate the outcome of conflict situations where management was unable to direct its energy to productive ends. Recommendations are made for identifying, considering, and resolving conflicts in a proactive fashion. The conflict management role of the top management of the organization is described, with particular emphasis on the pivotal position of the Medical Director.

  16. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  17. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  18. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  19. How negotiators get to yes: predicting the constellation of strategies used across cultures to negotiate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, C H

    2001-08-01

    Individualism, hierarchy, polychronicity, and explicit-contracting values explain why managers from Germany, Japan, and the United States use a different mix of strategies to negotiate workplace conflict. Hypotheses extend prior research in showing that conflict behavior is multiply determined and that each culture uses a variety of interests, regulations, and power-based conflict management strategies. Results of actual (rather than survey-based) conflict resolution behavior suggest several fruitful avenues for future research, including examining the inferred meaning of negotiation arguments, analyzing interaction effects of cultural value dimensions, studying the effectiveness of different strategies across cultures, and examining whether strategic adjustments are made during intercultural conflict management.

  20. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  1. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  2. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  3. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  4. Organizational-professional conflict of I/O psychologists, job satisfaction and work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Branko; Petrović Ivana B.

    2015-01-01

    organizational-professional conflict occurs among employees in situations when organizational expectations and demands are opposed to the professional principles and standards. The results of studies have shown that this conflict negatively affects employees' attitude towards the job and affective-motivational state of fulfilment with work role. The purpose of this research was to examine exposure to organizational-professional conflict among I/O psychologists in Serbia, to find out whether t...

  5. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  6. Parenting Coordination: Applying Clinical Thinking to the Management and Resolution of Post-Divorce Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    There is a small but significant number of parents who remain stuck in a high level of conflict with each other after the legal conclusion of their divorce. Exposure to chronically high levels of parental conflict is a strong risk factor negatively affecting both children's short- and long-term adjustment. Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial, child-focused dispute-resolution process designed to help divorced parents contain their conflict to protect children from its negative effect. Parenting coordination is a hybrid role combining different skills and conflict-resolution approaches. In high-conflict divorce, each parent's internalization of relationship patterns constructed from past experiences contributes to the intractable nature of the interparent conflict. A case presentation illustrates how this clinical perspective enhances the parenting coordinator's ability to work with parents to manage and contain their parenting conflicts with each other. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants...-AC96 and SD-MSP Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following methods: Agency Web site, via its... mandates that the required conflicts of interest systems and procedures ``address such other issues as the...

  8. Memory for Textual Conflicts Predicts Sourcing When Adolescents Read Multiple Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang Lund, Elisabeth; Bråten, Ivar; Brante, Eva W.; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether memory for conflicting information predicted mental representation of source-content links (i.e., who said what) in a sample of 86 Norwegian adolescent readers. Participants read four texts presenting conflicting claims about sun exposure and health. With differences in gender, prior knowledge, and interest…

  9. Naïve Scientists and Conflict Analysis: Learning through Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, R. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Much of our teaching about conflict relies on theoretical ideas and models that are delivered as finished products. This article explores the supposition that what students need is not already-formed theoretical ideas, but exposure to more real-world cases of conflict from which to build theory. The article presents an experiment in pedagogy:…

  10. The Role of Emotional Responses and Physiological Reactivity in the Marital Conflict-Child Functioning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…

  11. Conflict and the Evolution of Institutions: Unbundling Institutions at the Local Level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  12. Conflict and the evolution of institutions: Unbundling institutions at the local level in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Maarten J.; Bulte, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between

  13. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  14. Community Violence, Family Conflict, and Preschoolers' Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan; Eppe, Stefanie; Fernandez, Alicia; Schwartz, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among family conflict, community violence, and young children's socioemotional functioning and explored how children's social cognition and mothers' psychological functioning may mediate the outcomes associated with this exposure. Mothers of 431 Head Start preschoolers completed questionnaires about their family…

  15. Aberrant Epigenetic Gene Regulation in GABAergic Interneuron Subpopulations in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring Following Developmental Exposure to Hexachlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yousuke; Abe, Hajime; Nakajima, Kota; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on PND 21. Validation analyses on methylation identified three genes, Dlx4, Dmrt1, and Plcb4, showing promoter-region hypermethylation. Immunohistochemically, DLX4+, DMRT1+, and PLCB4+ cells in the dentate hilus co-expressed GAD67, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuron marker. HCP decreased all of three subpopulations as well as GAD67+ cells on PND 21. PLCB4+ cells also co-expressed the metabotropic glutamate receptor, GRM1. HCP also decreased transcript level of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the dentate gyrus and immunoreactive granule cells for synaptic plasticity-related ARC. On PND 77, all immunohistochemical cellular density changes were reversed, whereas the transcript expression of the synaptic plasticity-related genes fluctuated. Thus, HCP-exposed offspring transiently reduced the number of GABAergic interneurons. Among them, subpopulations expressing DLX4, DMRT1, or PLCB4 were transiently reduced in number through an epigenetic mechanism. Considering the role of the Dlx gene family in GABAergic interneuron migration and differentiation, the decreased number of DLX4+ cells may be responsible for reducing those GABAergic interneurons regulating neurogenesis. The effect on granule cell synaptic plasticity was sustained until the adult stage, and reduced GABAergic interneurons active in GRM1-PLCB4 signaling may be responsible for the suppression on weaning.

  16. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  18. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  19. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government contracts, Procurement, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 48 CFR Part 1302 Definitions, Government procurement, Terms. 48 CFR Part 1303 Antitrust, Conflict of interests, Ethical conduct, Government procurement, Reporting and...

  20. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  1. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  3. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  4. Interdisciplinary conflict and organizational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M E

    1986-01-01

    Most people think that conflict among the professional staff is inevitable and results from each profession's unique set of values. Each profession then defends itself by claiming its own turf. This article demonstrates that organizational complexity, not professional territorialism, influences the amount of intraorganizational conflict. In a comparison of two psychiatric hospitals, this study shows that there is not necessarily greater conflict across professions than within professions. However, there is a significantly greater amount of conflict among staff at a structurally more complex hospital than at a less-complex hospital, regardless of profession. Implications for management are discussed.

  5. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  6. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  7. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  8. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    and aggression, were more related to factors indirectly related to the conflict. This suggests a need to focus on the systemic affects of armed conflict and not solely on direct exposure to fighting.

  9. America and the age of genocide: labeling a third-party conflict "genocide" decreases support for intervention among ingroup-glorifying Americans because they down-regulate guilt and perceived responsibility to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Drawing on research on the collapse of compassion and group processes and interrelations, four experiments investigated how labeling a conflict "genocide" affects distant bystanders' support for intervention. The genocide label (compared with no label or the label "not a genocide") weakened Americans' support for intervention in a crisis analogous to Darfur. Ingroup glorification moderated this effect such that the genocide label decreased support at high levels of glorification (Studies 1-3). Ingroup attachment, if anything, moderated such that the genocide label increased support at high levels of attachment (Studies 1 and 3). Importantly, the effects occurred even when controlling for conservatism (Studies 1 and 3), gender, religion, military affiliation, and level of education (Study 2). Decreases in anticipated guilt over possible nonintervention (Studies 1 and 3) among high glorifiers, and a subsequent decrease in perceived obligation to intervene (Study 3), mediated the effect of the genocide label on support for intervention. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of conflict and conflict resolution styles among university students. The participants were 390 (49 female and 341 male) sophomore (87.7%), junior (5.6%), and senior (6.7%) university students. Students identified themselves as Amhara, Oromo, Tigre, and as belonging to other ethnic groups ...

  11. "Conflict management" and "conflict resolution" are not synonymous terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S P

    1978-01-01

    Robbins sees functional conflict as an absolute necessity within organizations and explicitly encourages it. He explains: "Survival can result only when an organization is able to adapt to constant changes in the environment. Adaption is possible only through change, and change is stimulated by conflict." Robbins cites evidence indicating that conflict can be related to increased productivity and that critical thinking encourages well-developed decisions. He admits, however, that not all conflicts are good for the organization. Their functional or dysfunctional nature is determined by the impact of the conflict on the objectives of the organization. The author identifies several factors underlying the need for conflict stimulation: (1) managers who are surrounded by "yes men"; (2) subordinates who are afraid to admit ignorance or uncertainty; (3) decision-makers' excessive concern about hurting the feelings of others; or (4) an environment where new ideas are slow in coming forth. He suggests techniques for stimulating conflict; manipulating the communication channels (i.e., repression of information); changing the organizational structure (i.e., changes in size or position); and altering personal behavior factors (i.e., role incongruence). Robbins stresses that the actual method to be used in either resolving or stimulating conflict must be appropriate to the situation.

  12. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  13. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  14. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  15. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  16. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  17. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  18. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  19. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  20. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Celine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict…

  1. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  2. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  3. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  4. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...

  5. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  6. The high cost of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  7. Creating constructive outcomes in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, B

    1998-06-01

    1. Conflict and disagreement are a fact of business life. Effort toward optomizing differences rather than minimizing them is a value added activity--leading to greater creativity, increasing levels of respect in relationships, and better solutions. 2. Proactively looking at potential conflict--where diasgreeing parties are often inherent and/or predictable--can save energy, relationships, and costly mistakes. Diagnosing or "reading" a situation and planning an approach is wise. 3. Several options or responses are available when facing conflict. Knowing when to use a given response is an important interpersonal skill. Relying on learned, habitual, and exclusive approaches to conflict may be limiting. 4. Implementation of effective conflict resolution is a function of attitude, initiative, and flexibility. An exploratory posture and a willingness to learn are constructive in attempting to reach agreements with optimum short and long term effect.

  8. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 24 CFR 1000.32 - May exceptions be made to the conflict of interest provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conflict of interest provisions? 1000.32 Section 1000.32 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.32... conflict of interest provisions set forth in § 1000.30(b) on a case-by-case basis when it determines that...

  10. 48 CFR 2052.209-72 - Contractor organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2052.209-72 Section 2052.209-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Clauses 2052.209-72 Contractor organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 2009.570-5(a) and..., contracts, and simplified acquisitions of the types described; 2009.570-4(b): Contractor Organizational...

  11. Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…

  12. Cognitive Control and Conflict Adaptation in Youth with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J.; South, Mikle; Clayson, Peter E.; Clawson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show deficits in cognitive control processes, potentially contributing to characteristic difficulties monitoring and regulating behavior. Modification of performance following conflict can be measured by examining conflict adaptation, the adjustment of cognitive resources based…

  13. Domain-Specific Control Mechanisms for Emotional and Nonemotional Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human brain activates dissociable cognitive control networks in response to conflicts arising within the cognitive and the affective domain. The present study tested the hypothesis that nonemotional and emotional conflict regulation can also be dissociated on a functional level. For that purpose, we…

  14. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  15. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  16. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  17. Heavy Metal Exposure and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Human and Model System Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Green, Adrian; Hoyo, Cathrine; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade. Data from 36 epidemiological studies involving 17 unique countries/regions and 13 studies leveraging model systems are included in this review. Epidemiological and model system studies support a possible association between heavy metal exposure and MS or comorbid conditions; however, results remain conflicting. Epidemiological studies were predominantly cross-sectional and collectively, they highlight a global interest in this question and reveal evidence of differential susceptibility by sex and age to heavy metal exposures. In vivo studies in rats and mice and in vitro cell-based assays provide insights into potential mechanisms of action relevant to MS including altered regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and oxidative stress. Heavy metal exposure may contribute to MS or comorbid conditions; however, available data are conflicting. Causal inference remains challenging as epidemiological data are largely cross-sectional; and variation in study design, including samples used for heavy metal measurements, age of subjects at which MS outcomes are measured; the scope and treatment of confounding factors; and the population demographics vary widely. Prospective studies, standardization or increased consistency across study designs and reporting, and consideration of molecular mechanisms informed by model

  18. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  20. Multiple Role Conflict and Graduate Students' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley; Martinez-Pons, Manuel

    This study examined the effect of multiple social roles on the psychological functioning of 60 adult students (age 25 to 51 years) in an introductory graduate course in educational research. Using multiple role conflict (MRC), perceived ability to cope (PAC), subject anxiety (SA), academic self-efficacy (SE), self-regulation (SR), and course…

  1. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  2. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  3. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  4. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  5. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines diffe...

  6. Prenatal exposure of mice to diethylstilbestrol disrupts T-cell differentiation by regulating Fas/Fas ligand expression through estrogen receptor element and nuclear factor-κB motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to DES on thymocyte differentiation involving apoptotic pathways. Prenatal DES exposure caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and up-regulation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in thymocytes. To examine the mechanism underlying DES-mediated regulation of Fas and FasL, we performed luciferase assays using T cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing full-length Fas or FasL promoters. There was significant luciferase induction in the presence of Fas or FasL promoters after DES exposure. Further analysis demonstrated the presence of several cis-regulatory motifs on both Fas and FasL promoters. When DES-induced transcription factors were analyzed, estrogen receptor element (ERE), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), and activator protein-1 motifs on the Fas promoter, as well as ERE, NF-κB, and NF-AT motifs on the FasL promoter, showed binding affinity with the transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were performed to verify the binding affinity of cis-regulatory motifs of Fas or FasL promoters with transcription factors. There was shift in mobility of probes (ERE or NF-κB2) of both Fas and FasL in the presence of nuclear proteins from DES-treated cells, and the shift was specific to DES because these probes failed to shift their mobility in the presence of nuclear proteins from vehicle-treated cells. Together, the current study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES triggers significant alterations in apoptotic molecules expressed on thymocytes, which may affect T-cell differentiation and cause long-term effects on the immune functions.

  7. Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T L; Peterson, R S

    2000-02-01

    Task conflict is usually associated with effective decisions, and relationship conflict is associated with poor decisions. The 2 conflict types are typically correlated in ongoing groups, however, which creates a prescriptive dilemma. Three explanations might account for this relationship--misattribution of task conflict as relationship conflict, harsh task conflict tactics triggering relationship conflict, and misattribution of relationship conflict as task conflict. The authors found that intragroup trust moderates the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict in 70 top management teams. This result supports the "misattribution of task conflict" explanation. The authors also found a weak effect that is consistent with the argument that tactical choices drive the association between the 2 conflict types. We infer that trust is a key to gaining the benefits of task conflict without suffering the costs of relationship conflict.

  8. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. Conflict and Ambiguity: Implementing Evolutionary Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sylvester, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Organizational conflict is inevitable but not necessarily counterproductive. In fact the original policy can be improved as the organization undergoes an iterative process of interpretation conflict and refinement.

  10. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  11. Conflict-of-Laws Rules in System of Precepts of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Kosovskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author has considered features of conflict-of-laws rules as the special norms allowing to resolve a conflict question by means of the choice of applicable law. The structure of conflict norm is analysed. Difficulties in use of such specific norms having referential character are revealed and also possible ways of their overcoming are shown. In the conclusion the author emphasizes that presence of a foreign element demands use of the special social mechanism of regulation which is mediated through conflict-of-laws rules.

  12. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  14. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  15. An approach to regulatory compliance with radioactive mixed waste regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.G.; Mihalovich, G.S.; Provencher, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    On May 7, 1990, radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) became subject to the State Of New York hazardous waste regulations. The facility was required to be in full compliance by June 6, 1990. Achievement of this goal was difficult because of the short implementation time frame. Compliance with the hazardous waste regulations also presented some potential conflicts between the hazardous waste requirements and other regulatory requirements specifically applicable to nuclear facilities. The potential conflicts involved construction, operation, and control measures. However, the facility had been working extensively with EPA Region 2 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) on the application of the hazardous waste regulations to the facility. During these preliminary contacts, WVDP identified three issues that related to the potential conflicts: 1. Equivalency of Design and Equipment, 2. Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and 3. The Principle of As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Radiation Exposure. The equivalency of nuclear facility design and equipment to the hazardous waste requirements is based in part on the increased construction criteria for nuclear facilities, the use of remote radiological monitoring for leak detection, and testing of system components that are not accessible to personnel due to high levels of radiation. This paper discusses in detail: 1. The implementation and results of the WVDP's interaction with its regulators, 2. How the regulators were helped to understand the different situations and conditions of nuclear and chemical facilities, and 3. How, by working together, the result was not only mutually advantageous to the NWDP and the agencies, but it also assured that the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment were protected

  16. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  17. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  18. Exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Part 3 is given of the Code of Practice approved by the UK Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. Part 3 gives specific guidance on the application of the Regulations to certain work involving exposure to isotopes of radon and their decay products. Aspects covered in the Regulations include restriction of exposure, dose limits, controlled areas, radiation protection advisers and supervisors, dosimetry and area monitoring. (U.K.)

  19. Why most dieters fail but some succeed: A goal conflict model of eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, W.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.; Papies, E.K.; Aarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of eating regulation often attribute overweight to a malfunction of homeostatic regulation of body weight. With the goal conflict model of eating, we present a new perspective that attributes the difficulty of chronic dieters (i.e., restrained eaters) in regulating their food intake to a

  20. Why Most Dieters Fail but Some Succeed : A Goal Conflict Model of Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; van koningsbruggen, G.M.; Papies, Esther K.; Aarts, H.

    Theories of eating regulation often attribute overweight to a malfunction of homeostatic regulation of body weight. With the goal conflict model of eating, we present a new perspective that attributes the difficult of chronic dieters (i.e., restrained eaters) in regulating their food intake to a

  1. Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Conflict Control on Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition and conflict control on affective information can be regarded as two important emotion regulation and cognitive control processes. The emotional Go/Nogo flanker paradigm was adopted and participant’s event-related potentials (ERPs were analyzed to investigate how response inhibition and conflict control interplayed. The behavioral findings revealed that participants showed higher accuracy to identify happy faces in congruent condition relative to that in incongruent condition. The electrophysiological results manifested that response inhibition and conflict control interplayed during the detection/conflict monitoring stage, and Nogo-N2 was more negative in the incongruent trials than the congruent trials. With regard to the inhibitory control/conflict resolution stage, Nogo responses induced greater frontal P3 and parietal P3 responses than Go responses did. The difference waveforms of N2 and parietal P3 showed that response inhibition and conflict control had distinct processes, and the multiple responses requiring both conflict control and response inhibition processes induced stronger monitoring and resolution processes than conflict control. The current study manifested that response inhibition and conflict control on emotional information required separable neural mechanisms during emotion regulation processes.

  2. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  3. The emotive nature of conflict monitoring in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Blair; Lin, Hause; Milyavskaya, Marina; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control. In this sense, variation in control resembles a form of affect regulation in which control implementation counteracts the aversive experience of conflict. We also highlight emerging evidence proposing that states and dispositions associated with acceptance facilitate control by tuning individuals to the emotive nature of conflict, before proposing avenues for future research, including investigating the role of affect in reinforcement learning and decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  6. Neurovascular conflict in oculomotor imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Agafonovna Totolyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the data of Russian and foreign literature, considers modern approaches to the understanding of neurovascular conflict (NVC term, different causes of its development and realization mechanisms; statistical data are presented on its occurrence in different medical specialties; modern approaches to early diagnosis of neurovascular conflicts are covered. Special attention is drawn to oculomotor imbalances being one of neurovascular conflict manifestations. Based on global experience, approaches to most exact and early diagnosis are described, differences in notion terminology of neurovascular contact and neurovascular conflict are shown. As most effective method for NVC diagnosis, the use of neurovisualization method, that is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (high field MRI, is positioned.

  7. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  8. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.

  9. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  10. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  11. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  12. Repeated short-term stress synergizes the ROS signalling through up regulation of NFkB and iNOS expression induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene and UVB rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-01

    Restraint stress is known to catalyse the pathogenesis of the variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of repeated short-term stress (RRS) on cellular transduction apart from oxidative burden and early tumour promotional biomarkers induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene (TCE) and Ultra-violet radiation (UVB). RRS leads to the increase in the expression of the stress responsive cellular transduction elements NFkB-p65 and activity of iNOS in the epidermal tissues of mice after toxicant exposure. RRS augments the steep depletion of the cellular antioxidant machinery which was evidenced by the marked depletion in GSH (Glutathione and GSH dependant enzymes), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity that were observed at significance level of P stressed animals and down regulation of DT-diaphorase activity (P short-term stress in the toxic response of TCE and UVB radiation.

  13. Cognitive control and conflict adaptation in youth with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; South, Mikle; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2012-04-01

      Youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show deficits in cognitive control processes, potentially contributing to characteristic difficulties monitoring and regulating behavior. Modification of performance following conflict can be measured by examining conflict adaptation, the adjustment of cognitive resources based on previous-trial conflict. The electrophysiological correlates of these processes can be measured using the N2, a stimulus-locked component of the event-related potential (ERP).   High-density ERPs and behavioral data [i.e. response times (RTs) and error rates] were acquired while 28 youth with ASD and 36 typically developing controls completed a modified Eriksen flanker task.   Behaviorally, groups showed similar conflict adaptation effects; youth with ASD showed larger RT slowing on switch trials. For electrophysiology, controls demonstrated larger N2 amplitudes for incongruent (high-conflict) trials following congruent (low-conflict) trials than for incongruent trials following incongruent trials. Importantly, youth with ASD showed no such differences in N2 amplitude based on previous-trial conflict.   Lack of electrophysiological conflict adaptation effects in youth with ASD indicates irregular neural processing associated with conflict adaptation. Individuals with ASD show declines in level of conflict evaluation and adaptation. Future research is necessary to accurately characterize and understand the behavioral implications of these cognitive control deficits relative to diagnostic severity, anxiety, and personality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Conflict control of children with different intellectual levels: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Liu, Jizhong

    2011-02-25

    Conflict control is an important cognitive ability in human behavioral regulation. The Eriksen flanker task was employed to explore the neural correlation between conflict control and intelligence with the aid of event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels participated in the current study (an intellectually gifted group of 20 children vs. an intellectually average group of 21 children, with mean scores of 43 vs. 35.7 in Cattell's Culture Fair Test, respectively). Behavioral results indicate that the gifted children had better conflict control performances, with increased accuracy and faster response speeds than the intellectually average children. Electrophysiological results further show that the gifted children had more efficient N2 activations during conflict monitoring processing, faster P3 responses over frontal regions, and stronger P3 activations over central-parietal regions during attentional control processing. The difference waveform analysis showed that the gifted children had the weakest N2d activations when elicited by multiple conflicts. N2d amplitudes can be used to distinguish a stimulus conflict from a response conflict, and P3d amplitudes can be used to separate multiple conflicts from a single conflict. The results support the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and shed light on the close relationship between conflict control ability and human intelligence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  16. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  19. The Correlation among Neural Dynamic Processing of Conflict Control, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in 10-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Fangfang; Liu, Tongran; Liu, Xiuying; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control is related to goal-directed self-regulation abilities, which is fundamental for human development. Conflict control includes the neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Testosterone and cortisol are essential hormones for the development of cognitive functions. However, there are no studies that have investigated the correlation of these two hormones with conflict control in preadolescents. In this study, we aimed to explore whether testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol ratio worked differently for preadolescent's conflict control processes in varied conflict control tasks. Thirty-two 10-year-old children (16 boys and 16 girls) were enrolled. They were instructed to accomplish three conflict control tasks with different conflict dimensions, including the Flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks, and electrophysiological signals were recorded. Salivary samples were collected from each child. The testosterone and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electrophysiological results showed that the incongruent trials induced greater N2/N450 and P3/SP responses than the congruent trials during neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution in the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The hormonal findings showed that (1) the testosterone/cortisol ratio was correlated with conflict control accuracy and conflict resolution in the Flanker task; (2) the testosterone level was associated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict resolution in the Stroop task; (3) the cortisol level was correlated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict monitoring in the Simon task. In conclusion, in 10-year-old children, the fewer processes a task needs, the more likely there is an association between the T/C ratios and the behavioral and brain response, and the dual-hormone effects on conflict resolution may be testosterone-driven in the Stroop and

  20. The Correlation among Neural Dynamic Processing of Conflict Control, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in 10-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Shangguan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is related to goal-directed self-regulation abilities, which is fundamental for human development. Conflict control includes the neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Testosterone and cortisol are essential hormones for the development of cognitive functions. However, there are no studies that have investigated the correlation of these two hormones with conflict control in preadolescents. In this study, we aimed to explore whether testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol ratio worked differently for preadolescent’s conflict control processes in varied conflict control tasks. Thirty-two 10-year-old children (16 boys and 16 girls were enrolled. They were instructed to accomplish three conflict control tasks with different conflict dimensions, including the Flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks, and electrophysiological signals were recorded. Salivary samples were collected from each child. The testosterone and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electrophysiological results showed that the incongruent trials induced greater N2/N450 and P3/SP responses than the congruent trials during neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution in the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The hormonal findings showed that (1 the testosterone/cortisol ratio was correlated with conflict control accuracy and conflict resolution in the Flanker task; (2 the testosterone level was associated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict resolution in the Stroop task; (3 the cortisol level was correlated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict monitoring in the Simon task. In conclusion, in 10-year-old children, the fewer processes a task needs, the more likely there is an association between the T/C ratios and the behavioral and brain response, and the dual-hormone effects on conflict resolution may be testosterone-driven in

  1. Chronic Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation Exposure Induces Premature Senescence in Human Fibroblasts that Correlates with Up Regulation of Proteins Involved in Protection against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Loseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The risks of non-cancerous diseases associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are at present not validated by epidemiological data, and pose a great challenge to the scientific community of radiation protection research. Here, we show that premature senescence is induced in human fibroblasts when exposed to chronic low dose rate (LDR exposure (5 or 15 mGy/h of gamma rays from a 137Cs source. Using a proteomic approach we determined differentially expressed proteins in cells after chronic LDR radiation compared to control cells. We identified numerous proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress, suggesting that these pathways protect against premature senescence. In order to further study the role of oxidative stress for radiation induced premature senescence, we also used human fibroblasts, isolated from a patient with a congenital deficiency in glutathione synthetase (GS. We found that these GS deficient cells entered premature senescence after a significantly shorter time of chronic LDR exposure as compared to the GS proficient cells. In conclusion, we show that chronic LDR exposure induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts, and propose that a stress induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS is mechanistically involved.

  2. Acrolein Exposure Blocks Down-Regulation of Cytokines and IgE Antibody in a Mucosal Tolerance Model but does not Alter Phenotypic Markers of Allergic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrolein (ACR) is a highly reactive upper airway toxicant that humans are exposed in a variety of environmental situations. Here we examined the effect of ACR exposure on development of immune tolerance in mice. To induce tolerance, female BALB/C mice were intranasally inoculate...

  3. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity

  4. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity.

  5. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  6. Preparing Students for Early Work Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Larson, R. Sam

    2005-01-01

    To improve college students' skills in resolving workplace conflict, the authors studied the types of workplace conflicts that students encounter with peers or supervisors in part-time or seasonal work and with whom they discuss these conflicts. The authors found that most students report conflicts that are process or relational in nature, with…

  7. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  8. Evaluation conflicts in the enterprises activities

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Kovalchuk, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been elaborated the method for quantitative evaluation of level and structure of the interpersonal management conflicts that prevail over the other conflicts in the machine-building enterprises functioning. According to the reasons of appearance investigated interpersonal management conflicts were divided into the following types: informational, behavioral, structural, conflicts of relationships and values.

  9. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  10. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  11. Conflict Management at School: An Unavoidable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondesio, Mike J.

    Conflict management has become an integral part of a headmaster's tasks. Headmasters are not required to suppress or resolve conflict, but to manage it. Since 1976, conflict in black schools has increased, and headmasters have had to manage serious and dangerous situations. Unfortunately, there has been little research in conflict management in…

  12. Managing Conflict with Effective Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dick B.

    Conflict is a basic social process; there is no conceivable way of removing all conflict from an organization. Interpersonal conflict, often created by interdependency of people and tasks within an organization, lowers staff morale and employee productivity and drives people away. Difficult employees who foster conflicts fall into five distinct…

  13. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  14. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  15. Constructive Management of Conflict in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rex C.; Mitchell, Rie R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of important conflict management concepts and strategies for those working in group settings. Presents a brief conceptual basis for understanding conflict and group memebers' behavior when in conflict, followed by specific recommendations for managing and making use of conflict in groups. (JAC)

  16. Assumptions used in determining the radiation exposure according to the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance, and required adjustments in the General Administrative Regulation relating to paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of the amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the need arises to also amend the General Administrative Regulation on calculation of the radiation exposure due to radioactivity release with gaseous or liquid effluents, for the purpose of verification of compliance with the dose limits given in section 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The General Administrative regulation has to be harmonized with European legislation, EURATOM Directive 96/29. The required consultations for decision making have been a task of the working group for 'Anpassung der radiooekologischen Berechnungsgrundlage', of the Radioecology Committee of the SSK. The paper discusses the resulting draft document for amendment presented to and accepted by the SSK Committee. The document is awaiting discussion for final decision among members of the SSK, and between the SSK and representatives of Land governments as well as various bodies representing interests. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Trivariate Modeling of Interparental Conflict and Adolescent Emotional Security: An Examination of Mother-Father-Child Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Cummings, E Mark; Zhang, Zhiyong; Davies, Patrick T

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing the significance of interacting family subsystems, the present study addresses how interparental conflict is linked to adolescent emotional security as a function of parental gender. A total of 272 families with a child at 12.60 years of age (133 boys, 139 girls) were invited to participate each year for three consecutive years. A multi-informant method was used, along with trivariate models to test the associations among mothers, fathers, and their adolescent children's behaviors. The findings from separate models of destructive and constructive interparental conflict revealed intricate linkages among family members. In the model of destructive interparental conflict, mothers and fathers predicted each other's conflict behaviors over time. Moreover, adolescents' exposure to negativity expressed by either parent dampened their emotional security. Consistent with child effects models, adolescent emotional insecurity predicted fathers' destructive conflict behaviors. As for the model of constructive interparental conflict, fathers predicted mothers' conflict behaviors over time. Adolescents' exposure to fathers' constructive conflict behaviors also enhanced their sense of emotional security. Consistent with child effects models, adolescent emotional security predicted mothers' and fathers' constructive conflict behaviors. These findings extended the family and the adolescent literature by indicating that family processes are multiidirectional, involving multiple dyads in the study of parents' and adolescents' functioning. Contributions of these findings to the understanding of interparental conflict and emotional security in adolescence are discussed.

  18. Development process and initial validation of the Ethical Conflict in Nursing Questionnaire-Critical Care Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Ethical conflicts are arising as a result of the growing complexity of clinical care, coupled with technological advances. Most studies that have developed instruments for measuring ethical conflict base their measures on the variables 'frequency' and 'degree of conflict'. In our view, however, these variables are insufficient for explaining the root of ethical conflicts. Consequently, the present study formulates a conceptual model that also includes the variable 'exposure to conflict', as well as considering six 'types of ethical conflict'. An instrument was then designed to measure the ethical conflicts experienced by nurses who work with critical care patients. The paper describes the development process and validation of this instrument, the Ethical Conflict in Nursing Questionnaire Critical Care Version (ECNQ-CCV). The sample comprised 205 nursing professionals from the critical care units of two hospitals in Barcelona (Spain). The ECNQ-CCV presents 19 nursing scenarios with the potential to produce ethical conflict in the critical care setting. Exposure to ethical conflict was assessed by means of the Index of Exposure to Ethical Conflict (IEEC), a specific index developed to provide a reference value for each respondent by combining the intensity and frequency of occurrence of each scenario featured in the ECNQ-CCV. Following content validity, construct validity was assessed by means of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), while Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate the instrument's reliability. All analyses were performed using the statistical software PASW v19. Cronbach's alpha for the ECNQ-CCV as a whole was 0.882, which is higher than the values reported for certain other related instruments. The EFA suggested a unidimensional structure, with one component accounting for 33.41% of the explained variance. The ECNQ-CCV is shown to a valid and reliable instrument for use in critical care units. Its structure is such that the four variables on which our model

  19. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  20. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that