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Sample records for regulate actin assembly

  1. Daam1 regulates fascin for actin assembly in mouse oocyte meiosis.

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    Lu, Yujie; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Meng-Hao; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2017-07-18

    As a formin protein, Daam1 (Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1) is reported to regulate series of cell processes like endocytosis, cell morphology and migration via its effects on actin assembly in mitosis. However, whether Daam1 plays roles in female meiosis remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of Daam1 during mouse oocyte meiosis. Our results indicated that Daam1 localized at the cortex of oocytes, which was similar with actin filaments. After Daam1 morpholino (MO) microinjection, the expression of Daam1 significantly decreased, which resulted in the failure of oocyte polar body extrusion. These results might be due to the defects of actin assembly, since the decreased fluorescence intensity of actin filaments in oocyte cortex and cytoplasm were observed. However, Daam1 knockdown seemed not to affect the meiotic spindle movement. In addition, we found that fascin might be the down effector of Daam1, since the protein expression of fascin decreased after Daam1 knockdown. Thus, our data suggested that Daam1 affected actin assembly during oocyte meiotic division via the regulation of fascin expression.

  2. Cytoplasmic Actin: Purification and Single Molecule Assembly Assays

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    Hansen, Scott D.; Zuchero, J. Bradley; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential to all eukaryotic cells. In addition to playing important structural roles, assembly of actin into filaments powers diverse cellular processes, including cell motility, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Actin polymerization is tightly regulated by its numerous cofactors, which control spatial and temporal assembly of actin as well as the physical properties of these filaments. Development of an in vitro model of actin polymerization from purified components has allowed for great advances in determining the effects of these proteins on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we describe how to use the pyrene actin assembly assay to determine the effect of a protein on the kinetics of actin assembly, either directly or as mediated by proteins such as nucleation or capping factors. Secondly, we show how fluorescently labeled phalloidin can be used to visualize the filaments that are created in vitro to give insight into how proteins regulate actin filament structure. Finally, we describe a method for visualizing dynamic assembly and disassembly of single actin filaments and fluorescently labeled actin binding proteins using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. PMID:23868587

  3. The assembly of MreB, a prokaryotic homolog of actin.

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    Esue, Osigwe; Cordero, Maria; Wirtz, Denis; Tseng, Yiider

    2005-01-28

    MreB, a major component of the bacterial cytoskeleton, exhibits high structural homology to its eukaryotic counterpart actin. Live cell microscopy studies suggest that MreB molecules organize into large filamentous spirals that support the cell membrane and play a key shape-determining function. However, the basic properties of MreB filament assembly remain unknown. Here, we studied the assembly of Thermotoga maritima MreB triggered by ATP in vitro and compared it to the well-studied assembly of actin. These studies show that MreB filament ultrastructure and polymerization depend crucially on temperature as well as the ions present on solution. At the optimal growth temperature of T. maritima, MreB assembly proceeded much faster than that of actin, without nucleation (or nucleation is highly favorable and fast) and with little or no contribution from filament end-to-end annealing. MreB exhibited rates of ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release similar to that of F-actin, however, with a critical concentration of approximately 3 nm, which is approximately 100-fold lower than that of actin. Furthermore, MreB assembled into filamentous bundles that have the ability to spontaneously form ring-like structures without auxiliary proteins. These findings suggest that despite high structural homology, MreB and actin display significantly different assembly properties.

  4. Drosophila homologues of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and the formin diaphanous collaborate by a conserved mechanism to stimulate actin filament assembly.

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    Jaiswal, Richa; Stepanik, Vince; Rankova, Aneliya; Molinar, Olivia; Goode, Bruce L; McCartney, Brooke M

    2013-05-10

    Vertebrate APC collaborates with Dia through its Basic domain to assemble actin filaments. Despite limited sequence homology between the vertebrate and Drosophila APC Basic domains, Drosophila APC1 collaborates with Dia to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. The mechanism of actin assembly is highly conserved over evolution. APC-Dia collaborations may be crucial in a wide range of animal cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a large multidomain protein that regulates the cytoskeleton. Recently, it was shown that vertebrate APC through its Basic domain directly collaborates with the formin mDia1 to stimulate actin filament assembly in the presence of nucleation barriers. However, it has been unclear whether these activities extend to homologues of APC and Dia in other organisms. Drosophila APC and Dia are each required to promote actin furrow formation in the syncytial embryo, suggesting a potential collaboration in actin assembly, but low sequence homology between the Basic domains of Drosophila and vertebrate APC has left their functional and mechanistic parallels uncertain. To address this question, we purified Drosophila APC1 and Dia and determined their individual and combined effects on actin assembly using both bulk fluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that APC1, similar to its vertebrate homologue, bound to actin monomers and nucleated and bundled filaments. Further, Drosophila Dia nucleated actin assembly and protected growing filament barbed ends from capping protein. Drosophila APC1 and Dia directly interacted and collaborated to promote actin assembly in the combined presence of profilin and capping protein. Thus, despite limited sequence homology, Drosophila and vertebrate APCs exhibit highly related activities and mechanisms and directly collaborate with formins. These results suggest that APC-Dia interactions in actin assembly are conserved and may underlie important in vivo functions in a broad

  5. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

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    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

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    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  7. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  8. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

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    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  9. Consequences of Molecular-Scale Non-Equilibrium Activity on the Dynamics and Mechanics of Self-Assembled Actin-Based Structures and Materials

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    Marshall Mccall, Patrick

    Living cells are hierarchically self-organized forms of active soft matter: molecules on the nanometer scale form functional structures and organelles on the micron scale, which then compose cells on the scale of 10s of microns. While the biological functions of intracellular organelles are defined by the composition and properties of the structures themselves, how those bulk properties emerge from the properties and interactions of individual molecules remains poorly understood. Actin, a globular protein which self-assembles into dynamic semi-flexible polymers, is the basic structural material of cells and the major component of many functional organelles. In this thesis, I have used purified actin as a model system to explore the interplay between molecular-scale dynamics and organelle-scale functionality, with particular focus on the role of molecular-scale non-equilibrium activity. One of the most canonical forms of molecular-scale non-equilibrium activity is that of mechanoenzymes, also called motor proteins. These proteins utilized the free energy liberated by hydrolysis of ATP to perform mechanical work, thereby introducing non-equilibrium "active" stresses on the molecular scale. Combining experiments with mathematical modeling, we demonstrate in this thesis that non-equilibrium motor activity is sufficient to drive self-organization and pattern formation of the multimeric actin-binding motor protein Myosin II on 1D reconstituted actomyosin bundles. Like myosin, actin is itself an ATPase. However, nono-equilibrium ATP hydrolysis on actin is known to regulate the stability and assembly kinetics of actin filaments rather than generate active stresses per se. At the level of single actin filaments, the inhomogeneous nucleotide composition generated along the filament length by hydrolysis directs binding of regulatory proteins like cofilin, which mediate filament disassembly and thereby accelerate actin filament turnover. The concequences of this non

  10. Nck adaptor proteins link Tks5 to invadopodia actin regulation and ECM degradation.

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    Stylli, Stanley S; Stacey, T T I; Verhagen, Anne M; Xu, San San; Pass, Ian; Courtneidge, Sara A; Lock, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Invadopodia are actin-based projections enriched with proteases, which invasive cancer cells use to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). The Phox homology (PX)-Src homology (SH)3 domain adaptor protein Tks5 (also known as SH3PXD2A) cooperates with Src tyrosine kinase to promote invadopodia formation but the underlying pathway is not clear. Here we show that Src phosphorylates Tks5 at Y557, inducing it to associate directly with the SH3-SH2 domain adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2 in invadopodia. Tks5 mutants unable to bind Nck show reduced matrix degradation-promoting activity and recruit actin to invadopodia inefficiently. Conversely, Src- and Tks5-driven matrix proteolysis and actin assembly in invadopodia are enhanced by Nck1 or Nck2 overexpression and inhibited by Nck1 depletion. We show that clustering at the plasma membrane of the Tks5 inter-SH3 region containing Y557 triggers phosphorylation at this site, facilitating Nck recruitment and F-actin assembly. These results identify a Src-Tks5-Nck pathway in ECM-degrading invadopodia that shows parallels with pathways linking several mammalian and pathogen-derived proteins to local actin regulation.

  11. Actin filaments – a target for redox regulation

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    Wilson, Carlos; Terman, Jonathan R.; González-Billault, Christian; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-01-01

    Actin and its ability to polymerize into dynamic filaments is critical for the form and function of cells throughout the body. While multiple proteins have been characterized as affecting actin dynamics through non-covalent means, actin and its protein regulators are also susceptible to covalent modifications of their amino acid residues. In this regard, oxidation-reduction (Redox) intermediates have emerged as key modulators of the actin cytoskeleton with multiple different effects on cellular form and function. Here, we review work implicating Redox intermediates in post-translationally altering actin and discuss what is known regarding how these alterations affect the properties of actin. We also focus on two of the best characterized enzymatic sources of these Redox intermediates – the NADPH oxidase NOX and the flavoprotein monooxygenase MICAL – and detail how they have both been identified as altering actin, but share little similarity and employ different means to regulate actin dynamics. Finally, we discuss the role of these enzymes and redox signaling in regulating the actin cytoskeleton in vivo and highlight their importance for neuronal form and function in health and disease. PMID:27309342

  12. WHAMM links actin assembly via the Arp2/3 complex to autophagy.

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    Kast, David J; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is the process by which cytosolic material destined for degradation is enclosed inside a double-membrane cisterna known as the autophagosome and processed for secretion and/or recycling. This process requires a large collection of proteins that converge on certain sites of the ER membrane to generate the autophagosome membrane. Recently, it was shown that actin accumulates around autophagosome precursors and could play a role in this process, but the mechanism and role of actin polymerization in autophagy were unknown. Here, we discuss our recent finding that the nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) WHAMM recruits and activates the Arp2/3 complex for actin assembly at sites of autophagosome formation on the ER. Using high-resolution, live-cell imaging, we showed that WHAMM forms dynamic puncta on the ER that comigrate with several autophagy markers, and propels the spiral movement of these puncta by an Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin comet tail mechanism. In starved cells, WHAMM accumulates at the interface between neighboring autophagosomes, whose number and size increases with WHAMM expression. Conversely, knocking down WHAMM, inhibiting the Arp2/3 complex or interfering with actin polymerization reduces the size and number of autophagosomes. These findings establish a link between Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly and autophagy.

  13. Profilin-Dependent Nucleation and Assembly of Actin Filaments Controls Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

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    Cao, Lingyan; Blanchoin, Laurent; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in plant cells are incredibly dynamic; they undergo incessant remodeling and assembly or disassembly within seconds. These dynamic events are choreographed by a plethora of actin-binding proteins, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we dissect the contribution of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PROFILIN1 (PRF1), a conserved actin monomer-binding protein, to actin organization and single filament dynamics during axial cell expansion of living epidermal cells. We found that reduced PRF1 levels enhanced cell and organ growth. Surprisingly, we observed that the overall frequency of nucleation events in prf1 mutants was dramatically decreased and that a subpopulation of actin filaments that assemble at high rates was reduced. To test whether profilin cooperates with plant formin proteins to execute actin nucleation and rapid filament elongation in cells, we used a pharmacological approach. Here, we used Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin FH2 (SMIFH2), after validating its mode of action on a plant formin in vitro, and observed a reduced nucleation frequency of actin filaments in live cells. Treatment of wild-type epidermal cells with SMIFH2 mimicked the phenotype of prf1 mutants, and the nucleation frequency in prf1-2 mutant was completely insensitive to these treatments. Our data provide compelling evidence that PRF1 coordinates the stochastic dynamic properties of actin filaments by modulating formin-mediated actin nucleation and assembly during plant cell expansion. PMID:26574597

  14. Wnt Signalling Promotes Actin Dynamics during Axon Remodelling through the Actin-Binding Protein Eps8.

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    Eleanna Stamatakou

    Full Text Available Upon arrival at their synaptic targets, axons slow down their growth and extensively remodel before the assembly of presynaptic boutons. Wnt proteins are target-derived secreted factors that promote axonal remodelling and synaptic assembly. In the developing spinal cord, Wnts secreted by motor neurons promote axonal remodelling of NT-3 responsive dorsal root ganglia neurons. Axon remodelling induced by Wnts is characterised by growth cone pausing and enlargement, processes that depend on the re-organisation of microtubules. However, the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt3a regulates the actin cytoskeleton by rapidly inducing F-actin accumulation in growth cones from rodent DRG neurons through the scaffold protein Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1 and the serine-threonine kinase Gsk3β. Importantly, these changes in actin cytoskeleton occurs before enlargement of the growth cones is evident. Time-lapse imaging shows that Wnt3a increases lamellar protrusion and filopodia velocity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of actin assembly demonstrates that Wnt3a increases actin dynamics. Through a yeast-two hybrid screen, we identified the actin-binding protein Eps8 as a direct interactor of Dvl1, a scaffold protein crucial for the Wnt signalling pathway. Gain of function of Eps8 mimics Wnt-mediated axon remodelling, whereas Eps8 silencing blocks the axon remodelling activity of Wnt3a. Importantly, blockade of the Dvl1-Eps8 interaction completely abolishes Wnt3a-mediated axonal remodelling. These findings demonstrate a novel role for Wnt-Dvl1 signalling through Eps8 in the regulation of axonal remodeling.

  15. Mena/VASP and αII-Spectrin complexes regulate cytoplasmic actin networks in cardiomyocytes and protect from conduction abnormalities and dilated cardiomyopathy.

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    Benz, Peter M; Merkel, Carla J; Offner, Kristin; Abeßer, Marco; Ullrich, Melanie; Fischer, Tobias; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Gambaryan, Stepan; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Adham, Ibrahim M; Linke, Wolfgang A; Feller, Stephan M; Fleming, Ingrid; Renné, Thomas; Frantz, Stefan; Unger, Andreas; Schuh, Kai

    2013-08-12

    In the heart, cytoplasmic actin networks are thought to have important roles in mechanical support, myofibrillogenesis, and ion channel function. However, subcellular localization of cytoplasmic actin isoforms and proteins involved in the modulation of the cytoplasmic actin networks are elusive. Mena and VASP are important regulators of actin dynamics. Due to the lethal phenotype of mice with combined deficiency in Mena and VASP, however, distinct cardiac roles of the proteins remain speculative. In the present study, we analyzed the physiological functions of Mena and VASP in the heart and also investigated the role of the proteins in the organization of cytoplasmic actin networks. We generated a mouse model, which simultaneously lacks Mena and VASP in the heart. Mena/VASP double-deficiency induced dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities. In wild-type mice, Mena and VASP specifically interacted with a distinct αII-Spectrin splice variant (SH3i), which is in cardiomyocytes exclusively localized at Z- and intercalated discs. At Z- and intercalated discs, Mena and β-actin localized to the edges of the sarcomeres, where the thin filaments are anchored. In Mena/VASP double-deficient mice, β-actin networks were disrupted and the integrity of Z- and intercalated discs was markedly impaired. Together, our data suggest that Mena, VASP, and αII-Spectrin assemble cardiac multi-protein complexes, which regulate cytoplasmic actin networks. Conversely, Mena/VASP deficiency results in disrupted β-actin assembly, Z- and intercalated disc malformation, and induces dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities.

  16. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

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    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi, E-mail: ats-kawaguchi@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagata, Kyosuke, E-mail: knagata@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  17. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

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    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network

  18. Self-assembly of actin monomers into long filaments: Brownian Dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2009-01-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations are used to study the dynamical process of self-assembly of actin monomers into long filaments containing up to 1000 actin protomers. In order to overcome the large separation of time scales between the diffusive motion of the freemonomers and the relatively slow....../detachment events. When a single filament is allowed to grow in a bath of constant concentration of free ADP-actin monomers, its growth rate increases linearly with the free monomer concentration in quantitative agreement with in vitro experiments. Theresults also show that the waiting time is governed by...

  19. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton-plasma membrane interplay by phosphoinositides.

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    Saarikangas, Juha; Zhao, Hongxia; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane and the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton undergo continuous dynamic interplay that is responsible for many essential aspects of cell physiology. Polymerization of actin filaments against cellular membranes provides the force for a number of cellular processes such as migration, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. Plasma membrane phosphoinositides (especially phosphatidylinositol bis- and trisphosphates) play a central role in regulating the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton by acting as platforms for protein recruitment, by triggering signaling cascades, and by directly regulating the activities of actin-binding proteins. Furthermore, a number of actin-associated proteins, such as BAR domain proteins, are capable of directly deforming phosphoinositide-rich membranes to induce plasma membrane protrusions or invaginations. Recent studies have also provided evidence that the actin cytoskeleton-plasma membrane interactions are misregulated in a number of pathological conditions such as cancer and during pathogen invasion. Here, we summarize the wealth of knowledge on how the cortical actin cytoskeleton is regulated by phosphoinositides during various cell biological processes. We also discuss the mechanisms by which interplay between actin dynamics and certain membrane deforming proteins regulate the morphology of the plasma membrane.

  20. Integrins in cell migration – the actin connection

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    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Choi, Colin Kiwon; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2008-01-01

    The connection between integrins and actin is driving the field of cell migration in new directions. Integrins and actin are coupled through a physical linkage, which provides traction for migration. Recent studies show the importance of this linkage in regulating adhesion organization and development. Actin polymerization orchestrates adhesion assembly near the leading edge of a migrating cell, and the dynamic cross-linking of actin filaments promotes adhesion maturat...

  1. Dendritic Actin Cytoskeleton: Structure, Functions, and Regulations

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    Anja Konietzny

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.

  2. Bacterial actin MreB assembles in complex with cell shape protein RodZ.

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    van den Ent, Fusinita; Johnson, Christopher M; Persons, Logan; de Boer, Piet; Löwe, Jan

    2010-03-17

    Bacterial actin homologue MreB is required for cell shape maintenance in most non-spherical bacteria, where it assembles into helical structures just underneath the cytoplasmic membrane. Proper assembly of the actin cytoskeleton requires RodZ, a conserved, bitopic membrane protein that colocalises to MreB and is essential for cell shape determination. Here, we present the first crystal structure of bacterial actin engaged with a natural partner and provide a clear functional significance of the interaction. We show that the cytoplasmic helix-turn-helix motif of Thermotoga maritima RodZ directly interacts with monomeric as well as filamentous MreB and present the crystal structure of the complex. In vitro and in vivo analyses of mutant T. maritima and Escherichia coli RodZ validate the structure and reveal the importance of the MreB-RodZ interaction in the ability of cells to propagate as rods. Furthermore, the results elucidate how the bacterial actin cytoskeleton might be anchored to the membrane to help constrain peptidoglycan synthesis in the periplasm.

  3. RhoA and RhoC are involved in stromal cell-derived factor-1-induced cell migration by regulating F-actin redistribution and assembly.

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    Luo, Jixian; Li, Dingyun; Wei, Dan; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Lan; Zeng, Xianlu

    2017-12-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling is important to the maintenance and progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by inducing chemotaxis migration. To identify the mechanism of SDF-1 signaling in the migration of T-ALL, Jurkat acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells were used. Results showed that SDF-1 induces Jurkat cell migration by F-actin redistribution and assembly, which is dependent on Rho activity. SDF-1 induced RhoA and RhoC activation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was inhibited by Rho inhibitor. The Rho-dependent ROS production led to subsequent cytoskeleton redistribution and assembly in the process of migration. Additionally, RhoA and RhoC were involved in SDF-1-induced Jurkat cell migration. Taken together, we found a SDF-1/CXCR4-RhoA and RhoC-ROS-cytoskeleton pathway that regulates Jurkat cell migration in response to SDF-1. This work will contribute to a clearer insight into the migration mechanism of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  4. Identification of cation-binding sites on actin that drive polymerization and modulate bending stiffness

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    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; McCullough, Brannon R.; Pierre, Anaëlle; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of actin monomers into filaments and networks plays vital roles throughout eukaryotic biology, including intracellular transport, cell motility, cell division, determining cellular shape, and providing cells with mechanical strength. The regulation of actin assembly and modulation of filament mechanical properties are critical for proper actin function. It is well established that physiological salt concentrations promote actin assembly and alter the overall bending mechanics of assembled filaments and networks. However, the molecular origins of these salt-dependent effects, particularly if they involve nonspecific ionic strength effects or specific ion-binding interactions, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that specific cation binding at two discrete sites situated between adjacent subunits along the long-pitch helix drive actin polymerization and determine the filament bending rigidity. We classify the two sites as “polymerization” and “stiffness” sites based on the effects that mutations at the sites have on salt-dependent filament assembly and bending mechanics, respectively. These results establish the existence and location of the cation-binding sites that confer salt dependence to the assembly and mechanics of actin filaments. PMID:23027950

  5. Intrinsic, Functional, and Structural Properties of β-Thymosins and β-Thymosin/WH2 Domains in the Regulation and Coordination of Actin Self-Assembly Dynamics and Cytoskeleton Remodeling.

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    Renault, L

    2016-01-01

    β-Thymosins are a family of heat-stable multifunctional polypeptides that are expressed as small proteins of about 5kDa (~45 amino acids) almost exclusively in multicellular animals. They were first isolated from the thymus. As full-length or truncated polypeptides, they appear to stimulate a broad range of extracellular activities in various signaling pathways, including tissue repair and regeneration, inflammation, cell migration, and immune defense. However, their cell surface receptors and structural mechanisms of regulations in these multiple pathways remain still poorly understood. Besides their extracellular activities, they belong to a larger family of small, intrinsically disordered actin-binding domains called WH2/β-thymosin domains that have been identified in more than 1800 multidomain proteins found in different taxonomic domains of life and involved in various actin-based motile processes including cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesions, tissue development, intracellular trafficking, or pathogen infections. This review briefly surveys the main recent findings to understand how these small, intrinsically disordered but functional domains can interact with many unrelated partners and can thus integrate and coordinate various intracellular activities in actin self-assembly dynamics and cell signaling pathways linked to their cytoskeleton remodeling. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hem-1 complexes are essential for Rac activation, actin polymerization, and myosin regulation during neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orion D Weiner

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating cells need to make different actin assemblies at the cell's leading and trailing edges and to maintain physical separation of signals for these assemblies. This asymmetric control of activities represents one important form of cell polarity. There are significant gaps in our understanding of the components involved in generating and maintaining polarity during chemotaxis. Here we characterize a family of complexes (which we term leading edge complexes, scaffolded by hematopoietic protein 1 (Hem-1, that organize the neutrophil's leading edge. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family Verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE2 complex, which mediates activation of actin polymerization by Rac, is only one member of this family. A subset of these leading edge complexes are biochemically separable from the WAVE2 complex and contain a diverse set of potential polarity-regulating proteins. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Hem-1-containing complexes in neutrophil-like cells: (a dramatically impairs attractant-induced actin polymerization, polarity, and chemotaxis; (b substantially weakens Rac activation and phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5-tris-phosphate production, disrupting the (phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5-tris-phosphate/Rac/F-actin-mediated feedback circuit that organizes the leading edge; and (c prevents exclusion of activated myosin from the leading edge, perhaps by misregulating leading edge complexes that contain inhibitors of the Rho-actomyosin pathway. Taken together, these observations show that versatile Hem-1-containing complexes coordinate diverse regulatory signals at the leading edge of polarized neutrophils, including but not confined to those involving WAVE2-dependent actin polymerization.

  7. Nephrin regulates lamellipodia formation by assembling a protein complex that includes Ship2, filamin and lamellipodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Venkatareddy

    Full Text Available Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5' inositol phosphatase, Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics.

  8. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  9. WASH and WAVE actin regulators of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family are controlled by analogous structurally related complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Da; Gomez, Timothy S; Metlagel, Zoltan; Umetani, Junko; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Rosen, Michael K; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2010-06-08

    We recently showed that the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family member, WASH, localizes to endosomal subdomains and regulates endocytic vesicle scission in an Arp2/3-dependent manner. Mechanisms regulating WASH activity are unknown. Here we show that WASH functions in cells within a 500 kDa core complex containing Strumpellin, FAM21, KIAA1033 (SWIP), and CCDC53. Although recombinant WASH is constitutively active toward the Arp2/3 complex, the reconstituted core assembly is inhibited, suggesting that it functions in cells to regulate actin dynamics through WASH. FAM21 interacts directly with CAPZ and inhibits its actin-capping activity. Four of the five core components show distant (approximately 15% amino acid sequence identify) but significant structural homology to components of a complex that negatively regulates the WASP family member, WAVE. Moreover, biochemical and electron microscopic analyses show that the WASH and WAVE complexes are structurally similar. Thus, these two distantly related WASP family members are controlled by analogous structurally related mechanisms. Strumpellin is mutated in the human disease hereditary spastic paraplegia, and its link to WASH suggests that misregulation of actin dynamics on endosomes may play a role in this disorder.

  10. Crosstalk between Rac1-mediated actin regulation and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Alejandro; González-Billault, Christian

    2018-02-20

    The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX. How Rac1-mediated signaling ends up promoting actin-related events, NOX-derived ROS, or both is poorly understood. Rac1 regulators, including scaffold proteins, are known to exert tight control over its functions. Hence, evidence of Rac1 regulatory events leading to both actin remodeling and NOX-mediated ROS generation are discussed. Moreover, cellular functions linked to physiological and pathological conditions that exhibit crosstalk between Rac1 outcomes are analyzed, while plausible roles in neuronal functions (and dysfunctions) are highlighted. Together, discussed evidence shed light on cellular mechanisms which requires Rac1 to direct either actin- and/or ROS-related events, helping to understand crucial roles of Rac1 dual functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Eric A.; McMillen, Laura M.; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) for optimal leading edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it doesn’t interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

  12. HIV infection of T cells: actin-in and actin-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Shaw, Stephen

    2009-04-14

    Three studies shed light on the decade-old observation that the actin cytoskeleton is hijacked to facilitate entry of HIV into its target cells. Polymerization of actin is required to assemble high concentrations of CD4 and CXCR4 at the plasma membrane, which promote viral binding and entry in both the simple model of infection by free virus and the more physiologically relevant route of infection through the virological synapse. Three types of actin-interacting proteins-filamin, ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM), and cofilin-are now shown to play critical roles in this process. Filamin binds to both CD4 and CXCR4 in a manner promoted by signaling of the HIV gp120 glycoprotein. ERM proteins attach actin filaments to the membrane and may promote polymerization of actin. Early in the process of viral entry, cofilin is inactivated, which is proposed to facilitate the early assembly of actin filaments, but cofilin is reported to be activated soon thereafter to facilitate postentry events. This complex role of cofilin may help to reconcile the paradox that actin polymerization promotes initial binding and fusion steps but inhibits some subsequent early postentry events.

  13. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu

    2016-12-30

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys 247 and Lys 250 , two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC 50 , delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys247 and Lys250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC50, delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27879315

  15. NHERF1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization through modulation of α-actinin-4 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Licui; Zheng, Junfang; Wang, Qiqi; Song, Ran; Liu, Hua; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Si, Yang; Jiang, Wenguo; He, Junqi

    2016-02-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins, yet the molecular mechanism that regulates its organization and remodeling remains elusive. In this study, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-1 loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments reveal that polymerized actin cytoskeleton (F-actin) in HeLa cells is disorganized by NHERF1, whereas actin protein expression levels exhibit no detectable change. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying actin cytoskeleton disorganization by NHERF1, a combined 2-dimensional electrophoresis-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry approach was used to screen for proteins regulated by NHERF1 in HeLa cells. α-Actinin-4, an actin cross-linking protein, was identified. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed the α-actinin-4 carboxyl-terminal region specifically interacted with the NHERF1 postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens-1 domain. The NHERF1/α-actinin-4 interaction increased α-actinin-4 ubiquitination and decreased its expression levels, resulting in actin cytoskeleton disassembly. Our study identified α-actinin-4 as a novel NHERF1 interaction partner and provided new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton by NHERF1. © FASEB.

  16. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin-MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF-SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin-MRTFs interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 0.4 mT power frequency magnetic field on F-actin assembly of CHL cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Keping; Cai Zhiyin; Zhang Yukun; Xia Nuohong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field on the microfilament (F- actin) assembly of Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Methods: F-actin were marked with immunohistochemical method, then observed under a confocal microscope. The content of ECFRs in the preparation of the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton was measured with Western-blotting. Results: The stress fiber's of CHL cells decreased after exposure to 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field for 30min, as well as after treatment with epidermal growth factor (ECF) of 50nM. Filopodias appeared at the periphery after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. The EGF receptor mass associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton increased after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. Conclusion: 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field induced assembly of F-actin in CHL cells. The change induced by magnetic field would be related to clustering of EGFR induced by magnetic field and passing the signal down. (authors)

  18. Actin-binding protein regulation by microRNAs as a novel microbial strategy to modulate phagocytosis by host cells: the case of N-Wasp and miR-142-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Marion, Sabrina; Pires, David; Santos, Leonor F; Lastrucci, Claire; Carmo, Nuno; Blake, Jonathon; Benes, Vladimir; Griffiths, Gareth; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a successful intracellular pathogen that thrives in macrophages (Mφs). There is a need to better understand how Mtb alters cellular processes like phagolysosome biogenesis, a classical determinant of its pathogenesis. A central feature of this bacteria's strategy is the manipulation of Mφ actin. Here, we examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a potential mechanism in the regulation of actin-mediated events leading to phagocytosis in the context of mycobacteria infection. Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filament assembly to prolong its intracellular survival inside host cells, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine Mφ cell line, J774A.1. This approach identified miR-142-3p as a key candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate that miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and partially down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human Mφs. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human Mφs, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units (CFU) counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filament assembly and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis.

  19. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken’ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding. •Tβ4 activated the MRTF–SRF signaling pathway. •Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent genes. -- Abstract: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin–MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF–SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin–MRTFs interaction

  20. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo@nbiochem.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hayashi, Ken’ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding. •Tβ4 activated the MRTF–SRF signaling pathway. •Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent genes. -- Abstract: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin–MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF–SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin–MRTFs interaction.

  1. Ezrin is down-regulated in diabetic kidney glomeruli and regulates actin reorganization and glucose uptake via GLUT1 in cultured podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Anita A; Koskelainen, Susanna; Hyvönen, Mervi E; Musante, Luca; Lehtonen, Eero; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Tienari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Szalay, Csaba; Révész, Csaba; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A; Hamar, Peter; Holthöfer, Harry; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes and a major cause of end-stage renal disease. To characterize the early pathophysiological mechanisms leading to glomerular podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy, we performed quantitative proteomic profiling of glomeruli isolated from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and controls. Fluorescence-based two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, coupled with mass spectrometry, identified 29 differentially expressed spots, including actin-binding protein ezrin and its interaction partner, NHERF2, which were down-regulated in the streptozotocin group. Knockdown of ezrin by siRNA in cultured podocytes increased glucose uptake compared with control siRNA-transfected cells, apparently by increasing translocation of glucose transporter GLUT1 to the plasma membrane. Knockdown of ezrin also induced actin remodeling under basal conditions, but reduced insulin-stimulated actin reorganization. Ezrin-dependent actin remodeling involved cofilin-1 that is essential for the turnover and reorganization of actin filaments. Phosphorylated, inactive cofilin-1 was up-regulated in diabetic glomeruli, suggesting altered actin dynamics. Furthermore, IHC analysis revealed reduced expression of ezrin in the podocytes of patients with diabetes. Our findings suggest that ezrin may play a role in the development of the renal complication in diabetes by regulating transport of glucose and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Src kinases regulate de novo actin polymerization during exocytosis in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Olivares

    Full Text Available The cortical actin network is dynamically rearranged during secretory processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear how de novo actin polymerization and the disruption of the preexisting actin network control transmitter release. Here we show that in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, both formation of new actin filaments and disruption of the preexisting cortical actin network are induced by Ca2+ concentrations that trigger exocytosis. These two processes appear to regulate different stages of exocytosis; whereas the inhibition of actin polymerization with the N-WASP inhibitor wiskostatin restricts fusion pore expansion, thus limiting the release of transmitters, the disruption of the cortical actin network with cytochalasin D increases the amount of transmitter released per event. Further, the Src kinase inhibitor PP2, and cSrc SH2 and SH3 domains also suppress Ca2+-dependent actin polymerization, and slow down fusion pore expansion without disturbing the cortical F-actin organization. Finally, the isolated SH3 domain of c-Src prevents both the disruption of the actin network and the increase in the quantal release induced by cytochalasin D. These findings support a model where a rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ triggers actin polymerization through a mechanism that involves Src kinases. The newly formed actin filaments would speed up the expansion of the initial fusion pore, whereas the preexisting actin network might control a different step of the exocytosis process.

  3. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  4. Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the central hub of the metabolism machinery, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 has been well studied in lymphocytes. As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive. Rictor is involved in B cell development, especially the peripheral development. However, the role of Rictor on B cell receptor (BCR signaling as well as the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study used B cell-specfic Rictor knockout (KO mice to investigate how Rictor regulates BCR signaling. We found that the key positive and negative BCR signaling molecules, phosphorylated Brutons tyrosine kinase (pBtk and phosphorylated SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (pSHIP, are reduced and enhanced, respectively, in Rictor KO B cells. This suggests that Rictor positively regulates the early events of BCR signaling. We found that the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin is drastically increased in Rictor KO B cells after BCR stimulation through dysregulating the dephosphorylation of ezrin. The high actin-ezrin intensity area restricts the lateral movement of BCRs upon stimulation, consequently reducing BCR clustering and BCR signaling. The reduction in the initiation of BCR signaling caused by actin alteration is associated with a decreased humoral immune response in Rictor KO mice. The inhibition of actin polymerization with latrunculin in Rictor KO B cells rescues the defects of BCR signaling and B cell differentiation. Overall, our study provides a new pathway linking cell metablism to BCR activation, in which Rictor regulates BCR signaling via actin reorganization.

  5. Rho Kinase (ROCK) collaborates with Pak to Regulate Actin Polymerization and Contraction in Airway Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwu; Bhetwal, Bhupal P; Gunst, Susan J

    2018-05-10

    The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation. We find that ROCK regulates airway smooth muscle contraction by activating the serine-threonine kinase Pak, which mediates the activation of Cdc42 and Neuronal-Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp). N-WASP transmits signals from cdc42 to the Arp2/3 complex for the nucleation of actin filaments. These results demonstrate a novel molecular function for ROCK in the regulation of Pak and cdc42 activation that is critical for the processes of actin polymerization and contractility in airway smooth muscle. Rho kinase (ROCK), a RhoA GTPase effector, can regulate the contraction of airway and other smooth muscle tissues. In some tissues, ROCK can inhibit myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase, which increases the phosphorylation of myosin RLC and promotes smooth muscle contraction. ROCK can also regulate cell motility and migration by affecting F-actin dynamics. Actin polymerization is stimulated by contractile agonists in airway smooth muscle tissues and is required for contractile tension development in addition to myosin RLC phosphorylation. We investigated the mechanisms by which ROCK regulates the contractility of tracheal smooth muscle tissues by expressing a kinase inactive mutant of ROCK, ROCK-K121G, in the tissues or by treating them with the ROCK inhibitor, H-1152P. Our results show no role for ROCK in the regulation of non-muscle or smooth muscle myosin RLC phosphorylation during contractile stimulation in this tissue

  6. Actin filaments regulate the adhesion between the plasma membrane and the cell wall of tobacco guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Ren, Jing-Jing; Kong, Lan-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2018-01-01

    During the opening and closing of stomata, guard cells undergo rapid and reversible changes in their volume and shape, which affects the adhesion of the plasma membrane (PM) to the cell wall (CW). The dynamics of actin filaments in guard cells are involved in stomatal movement by regulating structural changes and intracellular signaling. However, it is unclear whether actin dynamics regulate the adhesion of the PM to the CW. In this study, we investigated the relationship between actin dynamics and PM-CW adhesion by the hyperosmotic-induced plasmolysis of tobacco guard cells. We found that actin filaments in guard cells were depolymerized during mannitol-induced plasmolysis. The inhibition of actin dynamics by treatment with latrunculin B or jasplakinolide and the disruption of the adhesion between the PM and the CW by treatment with RGDS peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) enhanced guard cell plasmolysis. However, treatment with latrunculin B alleviated the RGDS peptide-induced plasmolysis and endocytosis. Our results reveal that the actin depolymerization is involved in the regulation of the PW-CW adhesion during hyperosmotic-induced plasmolysis in tobacco guard cells.

  7. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Heldin, Johan [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala SE-751 22 Uppsala (Sweden); Kreuger, Johan [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Aspenström, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.aspenstrom@ki.se [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  8. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina; Heldin, Johan; Kreuger, Johan; Aspenström, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  9. A nucleator arms race: cellular control of actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Kenneth G; Welch, Matthew D

    2010-04-01

    For over a decade, the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin filament formation de novo. However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and dynamics. Newly recognized nucleation-promoting factors, such as WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH), WASP homologue associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM), and junction-mediating regulatory protein (JMY), stimulate ARP2/3 activity at distinct cellular locations. Formin nucleators with additional biochemical and cellular activities have also been uncovered. Finally, the Spire, cordon-bleu and leiomodin nucleators have revealed new ways of overcoming the kinetic barriers to actin polymerization.

  10. Regulation of myosin IIA and filamentous actin during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Kent Fulcher, F.; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin stimulated glucose uptake requires the colocalization of myosin IIA (MyoIIA) and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane for proper GLUT4 fusion. MyoIIA facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) reorganization in various cell types. In adipocytes F-actin reorganization is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. What is not known is whether MyoIIA interacts with F-actin to regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 fusion at the plasma membrane. To elucidate the relationship between MyoIIA and F-actin, we examined the colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation as well as the regulation of this interaction. Our findings demonstrated that MyoIIA and F-actin colocalized at the site of GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of MyoII with blebbistatin impaired F-actin localization at the plasma membrane. Next we examined the regulatory role of calcium in MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization. Reduced calcium or calmodulin levels decreased colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane. While calcium alone can translocate MyoIIA it did not stimulate F-actin accumulation at the plasma membrane. Taken together, we established that while MyoIIA activity is required for F-actin localization at the plasma membrane, it alone is insufficient to localize F-actin to the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Insulin induces colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the cortex in adipocytes. • MyoIIA is necessary but not sufficient to localize F-actin at the cell cortex. • MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization is regulated by calcium and calmodulin

  11. Recruitment Kinetics of Tropomyosin Tpm3.1 to Actin Filament Bundles in the Cytoskeleton Is Independent of Actin Filament Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaduray, Mark A; Masedunskas, Andrius; Bryce, Nicole S; Lucas, Christine A; Warren, Sean C; Timpson, Paul; Stear, Jeffrey H; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that is involved in virtually every cellular process. Most actin filaments in metazoa exist as a co-polymer of actin and tropomyosin (Tpm) and the function of an actin filament is primarily defined by the specific Tpm isoform associated with it. However, there is little information on the interdependence of these co-polymers during filament assembly and disassembly. We addressed this by investigating the recovery kinetics of fluorescently tagged isoform Tpm3.1 into actin filament bundles using FRAP analysis in cell culture and in vivo in rats using intracellular intravital microscopy, in the presence or absence of the actin-targeting drug jasplakinolide. The mobile fraction of Tpm3.1 is between 50% and 70% depending on whether the tag is at the C- or N-terminus and whether the analysis is in vivo or in cultured cells. We find that the continuous dynamic exchange of Tpm3.1 is not significantly impacted by jasplakinolide, unlike tagged actin. We conclude that tagged Tpm3.1 may be able to undergo exchange in actin filament bundles largely independent of the assembly and turnover of actin.

  12. Axon initial segment cytoskeleton comprises a multiprotein submembranous coat containing sparse actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven L.; Korobova, Farida

    2014-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) of differentiated neurons regulates action potential initiation and axon–dendritic polarity. The latter function depends on actin dynamics, but actin structure and functions at the AIS remain unclear. Using platinum replica electron microscopy (PREM), we have characterized the architecture of the AIS cytoskeleton in mature and developing hippocampal neurons. The AIS cytoskeleton assembly begins with bundling of microtubules and culminates in formation of a dense, fibrillar–globular coat over microtubule bundles. Immunogold PREM revealed that the coat contains a network of known AIS proteins, including ankyrin G, spectrin βIV, neurofascin, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, voltage-gated sodium channels, and actin filaments. Contrary to existing models, we find neither polarized actin arrays, nor dense actin meshworks in the AIS. Instead, the AIS contains two populations of sparse actin filaments: short, stable filaments and slightly longer dynamic filaments. We propose that stable actin filaments play a structural role for formation of the AIS diffusion barrier, whereas dynamic actin may promote AIS coat remodeling. PMID:24711503

  13. Pdlim7 Regulates Arf6-Dependent Actin Dynamics and Is Required for Platelet-Mediated Thrombosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Urban

    Full Text Available Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, the absence of Pdlim7 prevents platelets from bundling actin fibers into a concentric ring that defines the round spread shape of activated platelets. Similarly, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of Pdlim7 abolishes the formation of stress fibers needed to adopt the typical elongated fibroblast shape. In addition to revealing a fundamental cell biological role in actin cytoskeletal organization, we also demonstrate a function of Pdlim7 in regulating the cycling between the GTP/GDP-bound states of Arf6. The small GTPase Arf6 is an essential factor required for actin dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and platelet activation. Consistent with our findings of significantly elevated initial F-actin ratios and subsequent morphological aberrations, loss of Pdlim7 causes a shift in balance towards an increased Arf6-GTP level in resting platelets. These findings identify a new Pdlim7-Arf6 axis controlling actin dynamics and implicate Pdlim7 as a primary endogenous regulator of platelet-dependent hemostasis.

  14. Estrogen Regulates Protein Synthesis and Actin Polymerization in Hippocampal Neurons through Different Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Victor; Baudry, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen rapidly modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating selective membrane-associated receptors. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated protein synthesis are two major events required for the consolidation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. Estradiol regulates synaptic plasticity by interacting with both processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we used acute rat hippocampal slices to analyze the mechanisms underlying rapid changes in mTOR activity and actin polymerization elicited by estradiol. Estradiol-induced mTOR phosphorylation was preceded by rapid and transient activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) and by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) degradation. These effects were prevented by calpain and ERK inhibitors. Estradiol-induced mTOR stimulation did not require activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER), as specific ERα and ERβ agonists (PPT and DPN, respectively) failed to mimic this effect, and ER antagonists could not block it. Estradiol rapidly activated both RhoA and p21-activated kinase (PAK). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK), H1152, and a potent and specific PAK inhibitor, PF-3758309, blocked estradiol-induced cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization. ER antagonists also blocked these effects of estrogen. Consistently, both PPT and DPN stimulated PAK and cofilin phosphorylation as well as actin polymerization. Finally, the effects of estradiol on actin polymerization were insensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors, but its stimulation of mTOR activity was impaired by latrunculin A, a drug that disrupts actin filaments. Taken together, our results indicate that estradiol regulates local protein synthesis and cytoskeletal reorganization via different molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. PMID:24611062

  15. Autism-like Deficits in Shank3-Deficient Mice Are Rescued by Targeting Actin Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. Duffney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of the Shank3 gene, which encodes a scaffolding protein at glutamatergic synapses, is a highly prevalent and penetrant risk factor for autism. Using combined behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical, imaging, and molecular approaches, we find that Shank3-deficient mice exhibit autism-like social deficits and repetitive behaviors, as well as the significantly diminished NMDA receptor (NMDAR synaptic function and synaptic distribution in prefrontal cortex. Concomitantly, Shank3-deficient mice have a marked loss of cortical actin filaments, which is associated with the reduced Rac1/PAK activity and increased activity of cofilin, the major actin depolymerizing factor. The social deficits and NMDAR hypofunction are rescued by inhibiting cofilin or activating Rac1 in Shank3-deficient mice and are induced by inhibiting PAK or Rac1 in wild-type mice. These results indicate that the aberrant regulation of synaptic actin filaments and loss of synaptic NMDARs contribute to the manifestation of autism-like phenotypes. Thus, targeting actin regulators provides a strategy for autism treatment.

  16. Coronin 3 involvement in F-actin-dependent processes at the cell cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosentreter, Andre; Hofmann, Andreas; Xavier, Charles-Peter; Stumpf, Maria; Noegel, Angelika A.; Clemen, Christoph S.

    2007-01-01

    The actin interaction of coronin 3 has been mainly documented by in vitro experiments. Here, we discuss coronin 3 properties in the light of new structural information and focus on assays that reflect in vivo roles of coronin 3 and its impact on F-actin-associated functions. Using GFP-tagged coronin 3 fusion proteins and RNAi silencing we show that coronin 3 has roles in wound healing, protrusion formation, cell proliferation, cytokinesis, endocytosis, axonal growth, and secretion. During formation of cell protrusions actin accumulation precedes the focal enrichment of coronin 3 suggesting a role for coronin 3 in events that follow the initial F-actin assembly. Moreover, we show that coronin 3 similar to other coronins interacts with the Arp2/3-complex and cofilin indicating that this family in general is involved in regulating Arp2/3-mediated events

  17. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  18. Actin retrograde flow controls natural killer cell response by regulating the conformation state of SHP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Omri; Ben-Shmuel, Aviad; Kivelevitz, Jessica; Sabag, Batel; Fried, Sophia; Joseph, Noah; Noy, Elad; Biber, Guy; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2018-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results identify ARF as a master regulator of the NK cell immune response. Since actin dynamics occur in multiple cellular processes, this mechanism might also regulate the activity of SHP-1 in additional cellular systems. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 cascade during spine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobunari; Kurisu, Junko; Kengaku, Mineko

    2010-12-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has essential roles in several processes during development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Shh regulates dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons via a novel pathway that directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Shh signaling molecules Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) are expressed in several types of postmitotic neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of Smo induces dendritic spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons independently of Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. Smo interacts with Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, via its cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Inhibition of Tiam1 or Rac1 activity suppresses spine induction by Smo knockdown. Shh induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton independently of transcriptional activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate a novel Shh pathway that regulates the actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation of actin-dependent and actin-independent lipid rafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Kok, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to various detergents and more recently by using detergent-free procedures. The actin cytoskeleton is now recognized as a dynamic regulator of lipid raft stability. We carefully analyzed the effects of the cortical actin-disrupting

  1. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 regulates the actin organization of chondrocytes and chondrocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi; Kitaori, Toshiyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Watanabe, Naoki; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Tanida, Shimei; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Kasahara, Takashi; Shibuya, Hideyuki; Fujii, Nobutaka; Nagasawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ito, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12/PBSF) plays important roles in the biological and physiological functions of haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. This chemokine regulates the formation of multiple organ systems during embryogenesis. However, its roles in skeletal development remain unclear. Here we investigated the roles of SDF-1 in chondrocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that SDF-1 protein was expressed at pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the newly formed endochondral callus of rib fracture as well as in the growth plate of normal mouse tibia by immunohistochemical analysis. Using SDF-1(-/-) mouse embryo, we histologically showed that the total length of the whole humeri of SDF-1(-/-) mice was significantly shorter than that of wild-type mice, which was contributed mainly by shorter hypertrophic and calcified zones in SDF-1(-/-) mice. Actin cytoskeleton of hypertrophic chondrocytes in SDF-1(-/-) mouse humeri showed less F-actin and rounder shape than that of wild-type mice. Primary chondrocytes from SDF-1(-/-) mice showed the enhanced formation of philopodia and loss of F-actin. The administration of SDF-1 to primary chondrocytes of wild-type mice and SDF-1(-/-) mice promoted the formation of actin stress fibers. Organ culture of embryonic metatarsals from SDF-1(-/-) mice showed the growth delay, which was recovered by an exogenous administration of SDF-1. mRNA expression of type X collagen in metatarsals and in primary chondrocytes of SDF-1(-/-) mouse embryo was down-regulated while the administration of SDF-1 to metatarsals recovered. These data suggests that SDF-1 regulates the actin organization and stimulates bone growth by mediating chondrocyte hypertrophy.

  2. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 regulates the actin organization of chondrocytes and chondrocyte hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murata

    Full Text Available Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12/PBSF plays important roles in the biological and physiological functions of haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. This chemokine regulates the formation of multiple organ systems during embryogenesis. However, its roles in skeletal development remain unclear. Here we investigated the roles of SDF-1 in chondrocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that SDF-1 protein was expressed at pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the newly formed endochondral callus of rib fracture as well as in the growth plate of normal mouse tibia by immunohistochemical analysis. Using SDF-1(-/- mouse embryo, we histologically showed that the total length of the whole humeri of SDF-1(-/- mice was significantly shorter than that of wild-type mice, which was contributed mainly by shorter hypertrophic and calcified zones in SDF-1(-/- mice. Actin cytoskeleton of hypertrophic chondrocytes in SDF-1(-/- mouse humeri showed less F-actin and rounder shape than that of wild-type mice. Primary chondrocytes from SDF-1(-/- mice showed the enhanced formation of philopodia and loss of F-actin. The administration of SDF-1 to primary chondrocytes of wild-type mice and SDF-1(-/- mice promoted the formation of actin stress fibers. Organ culture of embryonic metatarsals from SDF-1(-/- mice showed the growth delay, which was recovered by an exogenous administration of SDF-1. mRNA expression of type X collagen in metatarsals and in primary chondrocytes of SDF-1(-/- mouse embryo was down-regulated while the administration of SDF-1 to metatarsals recovered. These data suggests that SDF-1 regulates the actin organization and stimulates bone growth by mediating chondrocyte hypertrophy.

  3. Letrozole regulates actin cytoskeleton polymerization dynamics in a SRC-1 dependent manner in the hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangang; Yu, Yanlan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Li; Qiu, Linli; Zhao, Jikai; Liu, Mengying; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2017-03-01

    In the hippocampus, local estrogens (E 2 ) derived from testosterone that is catalyzed by aromatase play important roles in the regulation of hippocampal neural plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The actin cytoskeleton contributes greatly to hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, whether it is regulated by local E 2 and the related mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first examined the postnatal developmental profiles of hippocampal aromatase and specific proteins responsible for actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Then we used aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) to block local E 2 synthesis and examined the changes of these proteins and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), the predominant coactivator for steroid nuclear receptors. Finally, SRC-1 specific RNA interference was used to examine the effects of SRC-1 on the expression of these actin remodeling proteins. The results showed a V-type profile for aromatase and increased profiles for actin cytoskeleton proteins in both male and female hippocampus without obvious sex differences. LET treatment dramatically decreased the F-actin/G-actin ratio, the expression of Rictor, phospho-AKT (ser473), Profilin-1, phospho-Cofilin (Ser3), and SRC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that LET induced downregulation of these proteins could be reversed by E 2 , and E 2 induced increase of these proteins were significantly suppressed by SRC-1 shRNA interference. These results for the first time clearly demonstrated that local E 2 inhibition could induce aberrant actin polymerization; they also showed an important role of SRC-1 in the mediation of local E 2 action on hippocampal synaptic plasticity by regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endophilin, Lamellipodin, and Mena cooperate to regulate F-actin-dependent EGF-receptor endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehlow, Anne; Soong, Daniel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Bodo, Cristian; Law, Ah-Lai; Perera, Upamali; Krause, Matthias

    2013-10-16

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an essential role during development and diseases including cancer. Lamellipodin (Lpd) is known to control lamellipodia protrusion by regulating actin filament elongation via Ena/VASP proteins. However, it is unknown whether this mechanism supports endocytosis of the EGFR. Here, we have identified a novel role for Lpd and Mena in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of the EGFR. We have discovered that endogenous Lpd is in a complex with the EGFR and Lpd and Mena knockdown impairs EGFR endocytosis. Conversely, overexpressing Lpd substantially increases the EGFR uptake in an F-actin-dependent manner, suggesting that F-actin polymerization is limiting for EGFR uptake. Furthermore, we found that Lpd directly interacts with endophilin, a BAR domain containing protein implicated in vesicle fission. We identified a role for endophilin in EGFR endocytosis, which is mediated by Lpd. Consistently, Lpd localizes to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) just before vesicle scission and regulates vesicle scission. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism in which Lpd mediates EGFR endocytosis via Mena downstream of endophilin.

  5. Binding and assembly of actin filaments by plasma membranes from dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.A.; Luna, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of native, 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled actin to purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes was measured using a sedimentation assay. Binding was saturable only in the presence of the actin capping protein, gelsolin. The binding curves were sigmoidal, indicating positive cooperativity at low actin concentrations. This cooperativity appeared to be due to actin-actin associations during polymerization, since phalloidin converted the curve to a hyperbolic shape. This membrane-bound actin stained with rhodamine-phalloidin and was cross-linked by m-maleimidobenzoyl succinimide ester, a bifunctional cross-linker, into multimers with the same pattern observed for cross-linked F-actin. The authors conclude that D. discoideum plasma membranes bind actin specifically and saturably and that these membranes organize actin into filaments below the normal critical concentration for polymerization. This interaction probably occurs between multiple binding sites on the membrane and the side of the actin filament, and may be related to the clustering of membrane proteins

  6. The F-Actin Binding Protein Cortactin Regulates the Dynamics of the Exocytotic Fusion Pore through its SH3 Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Guerra, María J.; Olivares, María J.; Haro-Acuña, Valentina; Baéz-Matus, Ximena; Vásquez-Navarrete, Jacqueline; Momboisse, Fanny; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa; Cárdenas, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Upon cell stimulation, the network of cortical actin filaments is rearranged to facilitate the neurosecretory process. This actin rearrangement includes both disruption of the preexisting actin network and de novo actin polymerization. However, the mechanism by which a Ca2+ signal elicits the formation of new actin filaments remains uncertain. Cortactin, an actin-binding protein that promotes actin polymerization in synergy with the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP, could play a key role in this mechanism. We addressed this hypothesis by analyzing de novo actin polymerization and exocytosis in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells expressing different cortactin or N-WASP domains, or cortactin mutants that fail to interact with proline-rich domain (PRD)-containing proteins, including N-WASP, or to be phosphorylated by Ca2+-dependent kinases, such as ERK1/2 and Src. Our results show that the activation of nicotinic receptors in chromaffin cells promotes cortactin translocation to the cell cortex, where it colocalizes with actin filaments. We further found that, in association with PRD-containing proteins, cortactin contributes to the Ca2+-dependent formation of F-actin, and regulates fusion pore dynamics and the number of exocytotic events induced by activation of nicotinic receptors. However, whereas the actions of cortactin on the fusion pore dynamics seems to depend on the availability of monomeric actin and its phosphorylation by ERK1/2 and Src kinases, cortactin regulates the extent of exocytosis by a mechanism independent of actin polymerization. Together our findings point out a role for cortactin as a critical modulator of actin filament formation and exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. PMID:28522963

  7. NKCC1 Regulates Migration Ability of Glioblastoma Cells by Modulation of Actin Dynamics and Interacting with Cofilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Schiapparelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. The mechanisms that confer GBM cells their invasive behavior are poorly understood. The electroneutral Na+-K+-2Cl− co-transporter 1 (NKCC1 is an important cell volume regulator that participates in cell migration. We have shown that inhibition of NKCC1 in GBM cells leads to decreased cell migration, in vitro and in vivo. We now report on the role of NKCC1 on cytoskeletal dynamics. We show that GBM cells display a significant decrease in F-actin content upon NKCC1 knockdown (NKCC1-KD. To determine the potential actin-regulatory mechanisms affected by NKCC1 inhibition, we studied NKCC1 protein interactions. We found that NKCC1 interacts with the actin-regulating protein Cofilin-1 and can regulate its membrane localization. Finally, we analyzed whether NKCC1 could regulate the activity of the small Rho-GTPases RhoA and Rac1. We observed that the active forms of RhoA and Rac1 were decreased in NKCC1-KD cells. In summary, we report that NKCC1 regulates GBM cell migration by modulating the cytoskeleton through multiple targets including F-actin regulation through Cofilin-1 and RhoGTPase activity. Due to its essential role in cell migration NKCC1 may serve as a specific therapeutic target to decrease cell invasion in patients with primary brain cancer.

  8. The MARVEL domain protein Nce102 regulates actin organization and invasive growth of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Lois M; Wang, Hong X; Konopka, James B

    2013-11-26

    Invasive growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans into tissues promotes disseminated infections in humans. The plasma membrane is essential for pathogenesis because this important barrier mediates morphogenesis and invasive growth, as well as secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, nutrient import, and other processes. Previous studies showed that the Sur7 tetraspan protein that localizes to MCC (membrane compartment occupied by Can1)/eisosome subdomains of the plasma membrane regulates a broad range of key functions, including cell wall synthesis, morphogenesis, and resistance to copper. Therefore, a distinct tetraspan protein found in MCC/eisosomes, Nce102, was investigated. Nce102 belongs to the MARVEL domain protein family, which is implicated in regulating membrane structure and function. Deletion of NCE102 did not cause the broad defects seen in sur7Δ cells. Instead, the nce102Δ mutant displayed a unique phenotype in that it was defective in forming hyphae and invading low concentrations of agar but could invade well in higher agar concentrations. This phenotype was likely due to a defect in actin organization that was observed by phalloidin staining. In support of this, the invasive growth defect of a bni1Δ mutant that mislocalizes actin due to lack of the Bni1 formin was also reversed at high agar concentrations. This suggests that a denser matrix provides a signal that compensates for the actin defects. The nce102Δ mutant displayed decreased virulence and formed abnormal hyphae in mice. These studies identify novel ways that Nce102 and the physical environment surrounding C. albicans regulate morphogenesis and pathogenesis. The plasma membrane promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans by acting as a protective barrier around the cell and mediating dynamic activities, such as morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, secretion of virulence factors, and nutrient uptake. To better understand how the plasma membrane

  9. Rho-GTPase effector ROCK phosphorylates cofilin in actin-meditated cytokinesis during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Liu, Jun; Dai, Xiao-Xin; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-02-01

    During oocyte meiosis, a spindle forms in the central cytoplasm and migrates to the cortex. Subsequently, the oocyte extrudes a small body and forms a highly polarized egg; this process is regulated primarily by actin. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is involved in various cellular functions, such as stress fiber formation, cell migration, tumor cell invasion, and cell motility. In this study, we investigated possible roles for ROCK in mouse oocyte meiosis. ROCK was localized around spindles after germinal vesicle breakdown and was colocalized with cytoplasmic actin and mitochondria. Disrupting ROCK activity by RNAi or an inhibitor resulted in cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion failure. Time-lapse microscopy showed that this may have been due to spindle migration and cytokinesis defects, as chromosomes segregated but failed to extrude a polar body and then realigned. Actin expression at oocyte membranes and in cytoplasm was significantly decreased after these treatments. Actin caps were also disrupted, which was confirmed by a failure to form cortical granule-free domains. The mitochondrial distribution was also disrupted, which indicated that mitochondria were involved in the ROCK-mediated actin assembly. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Cofilin, a downstream molecule of ROCK, decreased after disrupting ROCK activity. Thus, our results indicated that a ROCK-Cofilin-actin pathway regulated meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during mouse oocyte maturation.

  10. The F-actin modifier villin regulates insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis downstream of islet cell autoantigen 512

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    Hassan Mziaut

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insulin release from pancreatic islet β cells should be tightly controlled to avoid hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. The cortical actin cytoskeleton is a gate for regulated exocytosis of insulin secretory granules (SGs by restricting their mobility and access to the plasma membrane. Prior studies suggest that SGs interact with F-actin through their transmembrane cargo islet cell autoantigen 512 (Ica512 (also known as islet antigen 2/Ptprn. Here we investigated how Ica512 modulates SG trafficking and exocytosis. Methods: Transcriptomic changes in Ica512−/− mouse islets were analyzed. Imaging as well as biophysical and biochemical methods were used to validate if and how the Ica512-regulated gene villin modulates insulin secretion in mouse islets and insulinoma cells. Results: The F-actin modifier villin was consistently downregulated in Ica512−/− mouse islets and in Ica512-depleted insulinoma cells. Villin was enriched at the cell cortex of β cells and dispersed villin−/− islet cells were less round and less deformable. Basal mobility of SGs in villin-depleted cells was enhanced. Moreover, in cells depleted either of villin or Ica512 F-actin cages restraining cortical SGs were enlarged, basal secretion was increased while glucose-stimulated insulin release was blunted. The latter changes were reverted by overexpressing villin in Ica512-depleted cells, but not vice versa. Conclusion: Our findings show that villin controls the size of the F-actin cages restricting SGs and, thus, regulates their dynamics and availability for exocytosis. Evidence that villin acts downstream of Ica512 also indicates that SGs directly influence the remodeling properties of the cortical actin cytoskeleton for tight control of insulin secretion. Keywords: F-actin, Granules, Ica512, Insulin, Secretion, Villin

  11. The actinome of Dictyostelium discoideum in comparison to actins and actin-related proteins from other organisms.

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    Jayabalan M Joseph

    Full Text Available Actin belongs to the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells which harbor usually many conventional actin isoforms as well as actin-related proteins (Arps. To get an overview over the sometimes confusing multitude of actins and Arps, we analyzed the Dictyostelium discoideum actinome in detail and compared it with the genomes from other model organisms. The D. discoideum actinome comprises 41 actins and actin-related proteins. The genome contains 17 actin genes which most likely arose from consecutive gene duplications, are all active, in some cases developmentally regulated and coding for identical proteins (Act8-group. According to published data, the actin fraction in a D. discoideum cell consists of more than 95% of these Act8-type proteins. The other 16 actin isoforms contain a conventional actin motif profile as well but differ in their protein sequences. Seven actin genes are potential pseudogenes. A homology search of the human genome using the most typical D. discoideum actin (Act8 as query sequence finds the major actin isoforms such as cytoplasmic beta-actin as best hit. This suggests that the Act8-group represents a nearly perfect actin throughout evolution. Interestingly, limited data from D. fasciculatum, a more ancient member among the social amoebae, show different relationships between conventional actins. The Act8-type isoform is most conserved throughout evolution. Modeling of the putative structures suggests that the majority of the actin-related proteins is functionally unrelated to canonical actin. The data suggest that the other actin variants are not necessary for the cytoskeleton itself but rather regulators of its dynamical features or subunits in larger protein complexes.

  12. The Actin-Binding Protein α-Adducin Is Required for Maintaining Axon Diameter

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    Sérgio Carvalho Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin-binding protein adducin was recently identified as a component of the neuronal subcortical cytoskeleton. Here, we analyzed mice lacking adducin to uncover the function of this protein in actin rings. α-adducin knockout mice presented progressive axon enlargement in the spinal cord and optic and sciatic nerves, followed by axon degeneration and loss. Using stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy, we show that a periodic subcortical actin cytoskeleton is assembled in every neuron type inspected including retinal ganglion cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In neurons devoid of adducin, the actin ring diameter increased, although the inter-ring periodicity was maintained. In vitro, the actin ring diameter adjusted as axons grew, suggesting the lattice is dynamic. Our data support a model in which adducin activity is not essential for actin ring assembly and periodicity but is necessary to control the diameter of both actin rings and axons and actin filament growth within rings.

  13. The Actin-Binding Protein α-Adducin Is Required for Maintaining Axon Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sérgio Carvalho; Sampaio, Paula; Sousa, Vera Filipe; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana; Pinto-Costa, Rita; Peters, Luanne Laurel; Brites, Pedro; Sousa, Mónica Mendes

    2016-04-19

    The actin-binding protein adducin was recently identified as a component of the neuronal subcortical cytoskeleton. Here, we analyzed mice lacking adducin to uncover the function of this protein in actin rings. α-adducin knockout mice presented progressive axon enlargement in the spinal cord and optic and sciatic nerves, followed by axon degeneration and loss. Using stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy, we show that a periodic subcortical actin cytoskeleton is assembled in every neuron type inspected including retinal ganglion cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In neurons devoid of adducin, the actin ring diameter increased, although the inter-ring periodicity was maintained. In vitro, the actin ring diameter adjusted as axons grew, suggesting the lattice is dynamic. Our data support a model in which adducin activity is not essential for actin ring assembly and periodicity but is necessary to control the diameter of both actin rings and axons and actin filament growth within rings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

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    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  15. Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Caterina; Braïni, Céline; Bugnicourt, Ghislain; Cohen, Floriane; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Gov, Nir S; Villard, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified. It scales with the neurite width, and more precisely with the width of the proximal segment close to the soma. In addition, the IWI is independent of the total number of neurites. These two results suggest a mechanistic model of actin wave production, by which the material conveyed by actin waves is assembled in the soma until it reaches the threshold leading to the initiation and propagation of a new actin wave. Based on these observations, we formulate a predictive theoretical description of actin wave-driven neuronal growth and polarization, which consistently accounts for different sets of experiments.

  16. Direct Interaction of CaVβ with Actin Up-regulates L-type Calcium Currents in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Gabriel; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Guzman, Raul E.; Miranda-Laferte, Erick; Conrad, Rachel; Jordan, Nadine; Schmidt, Silke; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the β-subunit (CaVβ) is required for normal function of cardiac L-type calcium channels, and its up-regulation is associated with heart failure. CaVβ binds to the α1 pore-forming subunit of L-type channels and augments calcium current density by facilitating channel opening and increasing the number of channels in the plasma membrane, by a poorly understood mechanism. Actin, a key component of the intracellular trafficking machinery, interacts with Src homology 3 domains in different proteins. Although CaVβ encompasses a highly conserved Src homology 3 domain, association with actin has not yet been explored. Here, using co-sedimentation assays and FRET experiments, we uncover a direct interaction between CaVβ and actin filaments. Consistently, single-molecule localization analysis reveals streaklike structures composed by CaVβ2 that distribute over several micrometers along actin filaments in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CaVβ2-N3 in HL-1 cells induces an increase in L-type current without altering voltage-dependent activation, thus reflecting an increased number of channels in the plasma membrane. CaVβ mediated L-type up-regulation, and CaVβ-actin association is prevented by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Our study reveals for the first time an interacting partner of CaVβ that is directly involved in vesicular trafficking. We propose a model in which CaVβ promotes anterograde trafficking of the L-type channels by anchoring them to actin filaments in their itinerary to the plasma membrane. PMID:25533460

  17. Angiogenin enhances cell migration by regulating stress fiber assembly and focal adhesion dynamics.

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    Saisai Wei

    Full Text Available Angiogenin (ANG acts on both vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we carried out a co-immunoprecipitation assay in HeLa cells and identified 14 potential ANG-interacting proteins. Among these proteins, β-actin, α-actinin 4, and non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 are stress fiber components and involved in cytoskeleton organization and movement, which prompted us to investigate the mechanism of action of ANG in cell migration. Upon confirmation of the interactions between ANG and the three proteins, further studies revealed that ANG co-localized with β-actin and α-actinin 4 at the leading edge of migrating cells. Down-regulation of ANG resulted in fewer but thicker stress fibers with less dynamics, which was associated with the enlargements of focal adhesions. The focal adhesion kinase activity and cell migration capacity were significantly decreased in ANG-deficient cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the existence of ANG in the cytoplasm optimizes stress fiber assembly and focal adhesion formation to accommodate cell migration. The finding that ANG promoted cancer cell migration might provide new clues for tumor metastasis research.

  18. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Helicobacter pylori-induced migration and invasive growth of gastric epithelial cells

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    Rieder Gabriele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a significant hallmark of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells leading to cell migration and invasive growth. Considering the cellular mechanisms, the type IV secretion system (T4SS and the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA of H. pylori are well-studied initiators of distinct signal transduction pathways in host cells targeting kinases, adaptor proteins, GTPases, actin binding and other proteins involved in the regulation of the actin lattice. In this review, we summarize recent findings of how H. pylori functionally interacts with the complex signaling network that controls the actin cytoskeleton of motile and invasive gastric epithelial cells.

  19. A Requirement for Mena, an Actin Regulator, in Local mRNA Translation in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Marina; Drees, Frauke; Saxena, Tanvi; Lanslots, Erwin; Taliaferro, Matthew J; Tatarakis, Antonios; Burge, Christopher B; Wang, Eric T; Gertler, Frank B

    2017-08-02

    During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct interaction of CaVβ with actin up-regulates L-type calcium currents in HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Gabriel; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Guzman, Raul E; Miranda-Laferte, Erick; Conrad, Rachel; Jordan, Nadine; Schmidt, Silke; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2015-02-20

    Expression of the β-subunit (CaVβ) is required for normal function of cardiac L-type calcium channels, and its up-regulation is associated with heart failure. CaVβ binds to the α1 pore-forming subunit of L-type channels and augments calcium current density by facilitating channel opening and increasing the number of channels in the plasma membrane, by a poorly understood mechanism. Actin, a key component of the intracellular trafficking machinery, interacts with Src homology 3 domains in different proteins. Although CaVβ encompasses a highly conserved Src homology 3 domain, association with actin has not yet been explored. Here, using co-sedimentation assays and FRET experiments, we uncover a direct interaction between CaVβ and actin filaments. Consistently, single-molecule localization analysis reveals streaklike structures composed by CaVβ2 that distribute over several micrometers along actin filaments in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CaVβ2-N3 in HL-1 cells induces an increase in L-type current without altering voltage-dependent activation, thus reflecting an increased number of channels in the plasma membrane. CaVβ mediated L-type up-regulation, and CaVβ-actin association is prevented by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Our study reveals for the first time an interacting partner of CaVβ that is directly involved in vesicular trafficking. We propose a model in which CaVβ promotes anterograde trafficking of the L-type channels by anchoring them to actin filaments in their itinerary to the plasma membrane. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Single molecules of the bacterial actin MreB undergo directed treadmilling motion in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Gitai, Zemer; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W E

    2006-07-18

    The actin cytoskeleton represents a key regulator of multiple essential cellular functions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, these functions depend on the orchestrated dynamics of actin filament assembly and disassembly. However, the dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB have yet to be examined in vivo. In this study, we observed the motion of single fluorescent MreB-yellow fluorescent protein fusions in living Caulobacter cells in a background of unlabeled MreB. With time-lapse imaging, polymerized MreB [filamentous MreB (fMreB)] and unpolymerized MreB [globular MreB (gMreB)] monomers could be distinguished: gMreB showed fast motion that was characteristic of Brownian diffusion, whereas the labeled molecules in fMreB displayed slow, directed motion. This directional movement of labeled MreB in the growing polymer provides an indication that, like actin, MreB monomers treadmill through MreB filaments by preferential polymerization at one filament end and depolymerization at the other filament end. From these data, we extract several characteristics of single MreB filaments, including that they are, on average, much shorter than the cell length and that the direction of their polarized assembly seems to be independent of the overall cellular polarity. Thus, MreB, like actin, exhibits treadmilling behavior in vivo, and the long MreB structures that have been visualized in multiple bacterial species seem to represent bundles of short filaments that lack a uniform global polarity.

  2. Plant villin, lily P-135-ABP, possesses G-actin binding activity and accelerates the polymerization and depolymerization of actin in a Ca2+-sensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Etsuo; Tominaga, Motoki; Mabuchi, Issei; Tsuji, Yasunori; Staiger, Christopher J; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Shimmen, Teruo

    2005-10-01

    From germinating pollen of lily, two types of villins, P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP, have been identified biochemically. Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent actin-filament binding and bundling activities have been demonstrated for both villins previously. Here, we examined the effects of lily villins on the polymerization and depolymerization of actin. P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP present in a crude protein extract prepared from germinating pollen bound to a DNase I affinity column in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Purified P-135-ABP reduced the lag period that precedes actin filament polymerization from monomers in the presence of either Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)-CaM. These results indicated that P-135-ABP can form a complex with G-actin in the presence of Ca(2+) and this complex acts as a nucleus for polymerization of actin filaments. However, the nucleation activity of P-135-ABP is probably not relevant in vivo because the assembly of G-actin saturated with profilin, a situation that mimics conditions found in pollen, was not accelerated in the presence of P-135-ABP. P-135-ABP also enhanced the depolymerization of actin filaments during dilution-mediated disassembly. Growth from filament barbed ends in the presence of Ca(2+)-CaM was also prevented, consistent with filament capping activity. These results suggested that lily villin is involved not only in the arrangement of actin filaments into bundles in the basal and shank region of the pollen tube, but also in regulating and modulating actin dynamics through its capping and depolymerization (or fragmentation) activities in the apical region of the pollen tube, where there is a relatively high concentration of Ca(2+).

  3. Effects of polymerization and nucleotide identity on the conformational dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavin, Alexandre; Hsin, Jen; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-03-04

    The assembly of protein filaments drives many cellular processes, from nucleoid segregation, growth, and division in single cells to muscle contraction in animals. In eukaryotes, shape and motility are regulated through cycles of polymerization and depolymerization of actin cytoskeletal networks. In bacteria, the actin homolog MreB forms filaments that coordinate the cell-wall synthesis machinery to regulate rod-shaped growth and contribute to cellular stiffness through unknown mechanisms. Like actin, MreB is an ATPase and requires ATP to polymerize, and polymerization promotes nucleotide hydrolysis. However, it is unclear whether other similarities exist between MreB and actin because the two proteins share low sequence identity and have distinct cellular roles. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to reveal surprising parallels between MreB and actin structural dynamics. We observe that MreB exhibits actin-like polymerization-dependent structural changes, wherein polymerization induces flattening of MreB subunits, which restructures the nucleotide-binding pocket to favor hydrolysis. MreB filaments exhibited nucleotide-dependent intersubunit bending, with hydrolyzed polymers favoring a straighter conformation. We use steered simulations to demonstrate a coupling between intersubunit bending and the degree of flattening of each subunit, suggesting cooperative bending along a filament. Taken together, our results provide molecular-scale insight into the diversity of structural states of MreB and the relationships among polymerization, hydrolysis, and filament properties, which may be applicable to other members of the broad actin family.

  4. Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alyson S; Nowak, Roberta B; Zhou, Sitong; Giannetto, Michael; Gokhin, David S; Papoin, Julien; Ghiran, Ionita C; Blanc, Lionel; Wan, Jiandi; Fowler, Velia M

    2018-05-08

    The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. MgATP disrupts NMIIA association with the membrane skeleton, consistent with NMIIA motor domains binding to membrane skeleton F-actin and contributing to membrane mechanical properties. In addition, the phosphorylation of the RBC NMIIA heavy and light chains in vivo indicates active regulation of NMIIA motor activity and filament assembly, while reduced heavy chain phosphorylation of membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA indicates assembly of stable filaments at the membrane. Treatment of RBCs with blebbistatin, an inhibitor of NMII motor activity, decreases the number of NMIIA filaments associated with the membrane and enhances local, nanoscale membrane oscillations, suggesting decreased membrane tension. Blebbistatin-treated RBCs also exhibit elongated shapes, loss of membrane curvature, and enhanced deformability, indicating a role for NMIIA contractility in promoting membrane stiffness and maintaining RBC biconcave disk cell shape. As structures similar to the RBC membrane skeleton exist in many metazoan cell types, these data demonstrate a general function for NMII in controlling specialized membrane morphology and mechanical properties through contractile interactions with short F-actin in spectrin-F-actin networks.

  5. Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

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    Cheng Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl/Meckel-Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin

  6. IFT88 influences chondrocyte actin organization and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Wann, A K T; Thompson, C L; Hassen, A; Wang, W; Knight, M M

    2016-03-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule based organelles which control a variety of signalling pathways important in cartilage development, health and disease. This study examines the role of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein, IFT88, in regulating fundamental actin organisation and mechanics in articular chondrocytes. The study used an established chondrocyte cell line with and without hypomorphic mutation of IFT88 (IFT88(orpk)). Confocal microscopy was used to quantify F-actin and myosin IIB organisation. Viscoelastic cell and actin cortex mechanics were determined using micropipette aspiration with actin dynamics visualised in live cells transfected with LifeACT-GFP. IFT88(orpk) cells exhibited a significant increase in acto-myosin stress fibre organisation relative to wild-type (WT) cells in monolayer and an altered response to cytochalasin D. Rounded IFT88(orpk) cells cultured in suspension exhibited reduced cortical actin expression with reduced cellular equilibrium modulus. Micropipette aspiration resulted in reduced membrane bleb formation in IFT88(orpk) cells. Following membrane blebbing, IFT88(orpk) cells exhibited slower reformation of the actin cortex. IFT88(orpk) cells showed increased actin deformability and reduced cortical tension confirming that IFT regulates actin cortex mechanics. The reduced cortical tension is also consistent with the reduced bleb formation. This study demonstrates for the first time that the ciliary protein IFT88 regulates fundamental actin organisation and the stiffness of the actin cortex leading to alterations in cell deformation, mechanical properties and blebbing in an IFT88 chondrocyte cell line. This adds to the growing understanding of the role of primary cilia and IFT in regulating cartilage biology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Assembly properties of the Bacillus subtilis actin, MreB.

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    Mayer, Joshua A; Amann, Kurt J

    2009-02-01

    The bacterial actin MreB has been implicated in a variety of cellular roles including cell shape determination, cell wall synthesis, chromosome condensation and segregation, and the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. Toward elucidating a clearer understanding of how MreB functions inside the bacterial cell, we investigated biochemically the polymerization of MreB from Bacillus subtilis. Light scattering and sedimentation assays revealed pH-, ionic-, cationic-, and temperature-dependent behavior. B. subtilis MreB polymerizes in the presence of millimolar divalent cations in a protein concentration-dependent manner. Polymerization is favored by decreasing pH and inhibited by monovalent salts and low temperatures. Although B. subtilis MreB binds and hydrolyzes both ATP and GTP, it does not require a bound nucleotide for assembly and polymerizes indistinguishably regardless of the nucleotide species bound, with a critical concentration of approximately 900 nM. A number of the presently reported properties of B. subtilis MreB differ significantly from those of T. maritima MreB1 (Bean and Amann [2008]: Biochemistry 47: 826-835), including the nucleotide requirements and temperature and ionic effects on polymerization state. These observations collectively suggest that additional factors interact with MreB to account for its complex dynamic behavior in cells.

  8. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  9. Estrogen and Resveratrol Regulate Rac and Cdc42 Signaling to the Actin Cytoskeleton of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells

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    Nicolas G. Azios

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen and structurally related molecules play critical roles in breast cancer. We reported that resveratrol (50 µM, an estrogen-like phytosterol from grapes, acts in an antiestrogenic manner in breast cancer cells to reduce cell migration and to induce a global and sustained extension of actin structures called filopodia. Herein, we report that resveratrol-induced filopodia formation is time-dependent and concentration-dependent. In contrast to resveratrol at 50 µM, resveratrol at 5 µM acts in a manner similar to estrogen by increasing lamellipodia, as well as cell migration and invasion. Because Rho GTPases regulate the extension of actin structures, we investigated a role for Rac and Cdc42 in estrogen and resveratrol signaling. Our results demonstrate that 50 µM resveratrol decreases Rac and Cdc42 activity, whereas estrogen and 5 µM resveratrol increase Rac activity in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing dominant-negative Cdc42 or dominantnegative Rac retain filopodia response to 50 µM resveratrol. Lamellipodia response to 5 µM resveratrol, estrogen, or epidermal growth factor is inhibited in cells expressing dominant-negative Rac, indicating that Rac regulates estrogen and resveratrol (5 µM signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. These results indicate that signaling to the actin cytoskeleton by low and high concentrations of resveratrol may be differentially regulated by Rac and Cdc42.

  10. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both....... Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed....

  11. Measurement and Analysis of in vitro Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The polymerization of actin underlies force generation in numerous cellular processes. While actin polymerization can occur spontaneously, cells maintain control over this important process by preventing actin filament nucleation and then allowing stimulated polymerization and elongation by several regulated factors. Actin polymerization, regulated nucleation and controlled elongation activities can be reconstituted in vitro, and used to probe the signaling cascades cells use to control when and where actin polymerization occurs. Introducing a pyrene fluorophore allows detection of filament formation by an increase in pyrene fluorescence. This method has been used for many years and continues to be broadly used, owing to its simplicity and flexibility. Here we describe how to perform and analyze these in vitro actin polymerization assays, with an emphasis on extracting useful descriptive parameters from kinetic data. PMID:23868594

  12. Cations Stiffen Actin Filaments by Adhering a Key Structural Element to Adjacent Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ions regulate the assembly and mechanical properties of actin filaments. Recent work using structural bioinformatics and site-specific mutagenesis favors the existence of two discrete and specific divalent cation binding sites on actin filaments, positioned in the long axis between actin subunits. Cation binding at one site drives polymerization, while the other modulates filament stiffness and plays a role in filament severing by the regulatory protein, cofilin. Existing structural methods have not been able to resolve filament-associated cations, and so in this work we turn to molecular dynamics simulations to suggest a candidate binding pocket geometry for each site and to elucidate the mechanism by which occupancy of the “stiffness site” affects filament mechanical properties. Incorporating a magnesium ion in the “polymerization site” does not seem to require any large-scale change to an actin subunit’s conformation. Binding of a magnesium ion in the “stiffness site” adheres the actin DNase-binding loop (D-loop) to its long-axis neighbor, which increases the filament torsional stiffness and bending persistence length. Our analysis shows that bound D-loops occupy a smaller region of accessible conformational space. Cation occupancy buries key conserved residues of the D-loop, restricting accessibility to regulatory proteins and enzymes that target these amino acids. PMID:27146246

  13. SDF1 Reduces Interneuron Leading Process Branching through Dual Regulation of Actin and Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E.; Putt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process. PMID:24695713

  14. SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E; Putt, Mary; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-02

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.

  15. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejedla, M.; Sadi, S.; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, F.N.; Blom, H.; Dráber, Pavel; Aspenstrom, P.; Karlsson, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 15 (2016), s. 2381-2393 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-25159S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cross-linked profilin * arp2/3 complex * f-actin * microfilament system * migrating cells * focal adhesions * cultured-cells * messenger-rna * living cells * protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.685, year: 2016

  16. TrkB-T1 regulates the RhoA signaling and actin cytoskeleton in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, Koji; Homma, Koichi J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Shun; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the truncated TrkB receptor, T1, has been reported to be involved in the control of cell morphology via the regulation of Rho proteins, through which T1 binds Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) 1 and dissociates it in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. However, it is unclear whether T1 signaling regulates the downstream of Rho signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated this question using C6 rat glioma cells, which express T1 endogenously. Rho GDI1 was dissociated from T1 in a BDNF-dependent manner, which also causes decreases in the activities of Rho-signaling molecules such as RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, p21-activated kinase, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase1/2. Moreover, BDNF treatment resulted in the disappearance of stress fibers in the cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA, and in morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, a competitive assay with cyan fluorescent protein fusion proteins of T1-specific sequences reduced the effects of BDNF. These results suggest that T1 regulates the Rho-signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton

  17. Insight into the assembly properties and functional organisation of the magnetotactic bacterial actin-like homolog, MamK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Sonkaria

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB synthesize magnetosomes, which are intracellular vesicles comprising a magnetic particle. A series of magnetosomes arrange themselves in chains to form a magnetic dipole that enables the cell to orient itself along the Earth's magnetic field. MamK, an actin-like homolog of MreB has been identified as a central component in this organisation. Gene deletion, fluorescence microscopy and in vitro studies have yielded mechanistic differences in the filament assembly of MamK with other bacterial cytoskeletal proteins within the cell. With little or no information on the structural and behavioural characteristics of MamK outside the cell, the mamK gene from Magnetospirillium gryphiswaldense was cloned and expressed to better understand the differences in the cytoskeletal properties with its bacterial homologues MreB and acitin. Despite the low sequence identity shared between MamK and MreB (22% and actin (18%, the behaviour of MamK monitored by light scattering broadly mirrored that of its bacterial cousin MreB primarily in terms of its pH, salt, divalent metal-ion and temperature dependency. The broad size variability of MamK filaments revealed by light scattering studies was supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM imaging. Filament morphology however, indicated that MamK conformed to linearly orientated filaments that appeared to be distinctly dissimilar compared to MreB suggesting functional differences between these homologues. The presence of a nucleotide binding domain common to actin-like proteins was demonstrated by its ability to function both as an ATPase and GTPase. Circular dichroism and structural homology modelling showed that MamK adopts a protein fold that is consistent with the 'classical' actin family architecture but with notable structural differences within the smaller domains, the active site region and the overall surface electrostatic potential.

  18. Actin, actin-binding proteins, and actin-related proteins in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Ildikó; Bajusz, Izabella; Bajusz, Csaba; Borkúti, Péter; Vilmos, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Extensive research in the past decade has significantly broadened our view about the role actin plays in the life of the cell and added novel aspects to actin research. One of these new aspects is the discovery of the existence of nuclear actin which became evident only recently. Nuclear activities including transcriptional activation in the case of all three RNA polymerases, editing and nuclear export of mRNAs, and chromatin remodeling all depend on actin. It also became clear that there is a fine-tuned equilibrium between cytoplasmic and nuclear actin pools and that this balance is ensured by an export-import system dedicated to actin. After over half a century of research on conventional actin and its organizing partners in the cytoplasm, it was also an unexpected finding that the nucleus contains more than 30 actin-binding proteins and new classes of actin-related proteins which are not able to form filaments but had evolved nuclear-specific functions. The actin-binding and actin-related proteins in the nucleus have been linked to RNA transcription and processing, nuclear transport, and chromatin remodeling. In this paper, we attempt to provide an overview of the wide range of information that is now available about actin, actin-binding, and actin-related proteins in the nucleus.

  19. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  20. Electrostatics Control Actin Filament Nucleation and Elongation Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H.; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L.; Lamb, Don C.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  1. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment.

  2. Polymerization properties of the Thermotoga maritima actin MreB: roles of temperature, nucleotides, and ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Greg J; Amann, Kurt J

    2008-01-15

    MreB is a bacterial orthologue of actin that affects cell shape, polarity, and chromosome segregation. Although a significant body of work has explored its cellular functions, we know very little about the biochemical behavior of MreB. We have cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified untagged MreB1 from Thermotoga maritima. We have characterized the conditions that regulate its monomer-to-polymer assembly reaction, the critical concentrations of that reaction, the manner in which MreB uses nucleotides, its stability, and the structure of the assembled polymer. MreB requires a bound purine nucleotide for polymerization and rapidly hydrolyzes it following assembly. MreB assembly contains two distinct components, one that does not require divalent cations and one that does, which may comprise the nucleation and elongation phases of assembly, respectively. MreB assembly is strongly favored by increasing temperature or protein concentration but inhibited differentially by high concentrations of monovalent salts. The polymerization rate increases and the bulk critical concentration decreases with increasing temperature, but in contrast to previous reports, MreB is capable of polymerizing across a broad range of temperatures. MreB polymers are shorter and stiffer and scatter more light than eukaryotic actin filaments. Due to rapid ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release, we suggest that most assembled MreB in cells is in the ADP-bound state. Because of only moderate differences between the ATP and ADP critical concentrations, treadmilling may occur, but we do not predict dynamic instability in cells. Because of the relatively low cellular concentration of MreB and the observed structural properties of the polymer, a single MreB assembly may exist in cells.

  3. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward the Structure of Dynamic Membrane-Anchored Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Igor

    2007-01-01

    In the cortex of a motile cell, membrane-anchored actin filaments assemble into structures of varying shape and function. Filopodia are distinguished by a core of bundled actin filaments within finger-like extensions of the membrane. In a recent paper by Medalia et al1 cryo-electron tomography has been used to reconstruct, from filopodia of Dictyostelium cells, the 3-dimensional organization of actin filaments in connection with the plasma membrane. A special arrangement of short filaments converging toward the filopod's tip has been called a “terminal cone”. In this region force is applied for protrusion of the membrane. Here we discuss actin organization in the filopodia of Dictyostelium in the light of current views on forces that are generated by polymerizing actin filaments, and on the resistance of membranes against deformation that counteracts these forces. PMID:19262130

  5. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses.

  6. Agonist-induced PIP(2) hydrolysis inhibits cortical actin dynamics: regulation at a global but not at a micrometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Jacco; Jalink, Kees

    2002-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane has been proposed to locally regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, recent studies that use GFP-tagged pleckstrin homology domains (GFP-PH) as fluorescent PIP(2) sensors suggest that this lipid is enriched in membrane microdomains. Here we report that this concept needs revision. Using three distinct fluorescent GFP-tagged pleckstrin homology domains, we show that highly mobile GFP-PH patches colocalize perfectly with various lipophilic membrane dyes and, hence, represent increased lipid content rather than PIP(2)-enriched microdomains. We show that bright patches are caused by submicroscopical folds and ruffles in the membrane that can be directly visualized at approximately 15 nm axial resolution with a novel numerically enhanced imaging method. F-actin motility is inhibited significantly by agonist-induced PIP(2) breakdown, and it resumes as soon as PIP(2) levels are back to normal. Thus, our data support a role for PIP(2) in the regulation of cortical actin, but they challenge a model in which spatial differences in PIP(2) regulation of the cytoskeleton exist at a micrometer scale.

  7. Involvement of F-Actin in Chaperonin-Containing t-Complex 1 Beta Regulating Mouse Mesangial Cell Functions in a Glucose-Induction Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shuen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 beta (CCT2 in the regulation of mouse mesangial cell (mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration with filamentous/globular-(F/G- actin ratio under high glucose induction. A low CCT2 mMC model induced by treatment of small interference RNA was established. Groups with and without low CCT2 induction examined in normal and high (H glucose conditions revealed the following major results: (1 low CCT2 or H glucose showed the ability to attenuate F/G-actin ratio; (2 groups with low F/G-actin ratio all showed less cell contraction; (3 suppression of CCT2 may reduce the proliferation and migration which were originally induced by H glucose. In conclusion, CCT2 can be used as a specific regulator for mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration affected by glucose, which mechanism may involve the alteration of F-actin, particularly for cell contraction.

  8. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D [Department of Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, 7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1600 (United States)], E-mail: montemcd@ucmail.uc.edu

    2009-02-25

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present.

  9. Disruption of microtubule network rescues aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Henmi

    Full Text Available A large GTPase dynamin, which is required for endocytic vesicle formation, regulates the actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with cortactin. Dynamin2 mutants impair the formation of actin comets, which are induced by Listeria monocytogenes or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. However, the role of dynamin2 in the regulation of the actin comet is still unclear. Here we show that aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells were rescued by disrupting of microtubule networks. Depletion of dynamin2, but not cortactin, significantly reduced the length and the speed of actin comets induced by Listeria. This implies that dynamin2 may regulate the actin comet in a cortactin-independent manner. As dynamin regulates microtubules, we investigated whether perturbation of microtubules would rescue actin comet formation in dynamin2-depleted cells. Treatment with taxol or colchicine created a microtubule-free space in the cytoplasm, and made no difference between control and dynamin2 siRNA cells. This suggests that the alteration of microtubules by dynamin2 depletion reduced the length and the speed of the actin comet.

  10. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  11. Loss of PTB or negative regulation of Notch mRNA reveals distinct zones of Notch and actin protein accumulation in Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric S Wesley

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1 the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2 PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3 the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions.

  12. Loss of PTB or Negative Regulation of Notch mRNA Reveals Distinct Zones of Notch and Actin Protein Accumulation in Drosophila Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Cedric S.; Guo, Heng; Chaudhry, Kanita A.; Thali, Markus J.; Yin, Jerry C.; Clason, Todd; Wesley, Umadevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB) protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1) the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2) PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3) the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions. PMID:21750738

  13. Distinct functional interactions between actin isoforms and nonsarcomeric myosins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Müller

    Full Text Available Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. These interactions support a wide range of cellular processes including cytokinesis, maintenance of cell polarity, cell adhesion, migration, and mechano-electrical transduction. To elucidate differences in the ability of isoactins to bind and stimulate the enzymatic activity of individual myosin isoforms, we characterized the interactions of human skeletal muscle α-actin, cytoplasmic β-actin, and cytoplasmic γ-actin with human myosin-7A and nonmuscle myosins-2A, -2B and -2C1. In the case of nonmuscle myosins-2A and -2B, the interaction with either cytoplasmic actin isoform results in 4-fold greater stimulation of myosin ATPase activity than was observed in the presence of α-skeletal muscle actin. Nonmuscle myosin-2C1 is most potently activated by β-actin and myosin-7A by γ-actin. Our results indicate that β- and γ-actin isoforms contribute to the modulation of nonmuscle myosin-2 and myosin-7A activity and thereby to the spatial and temporal regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. FRET-based analyses show efficient copolymerization abilities for the actin isoforms in vitro. Experiments with hybrid actin filaments show that the extent of actomyosin coupling efficiency can be regulated by the isoform composition of actin filaments.

  14. Nano-assembly of nanodiamonds by conjugation to actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Carlo; Say, Jana M; Rastogi, Ishan D; Cordina, Nicole M; Volz, Thomas; Brown, Louise J

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) are remarkable objects. They possess unique mechanical and optical properties combined with high surface areas and controllable surface reactivity. They are non-toxic and hence suited for use in biological environments. NDs are also readily available and commercially inexpensive. Here, the exceptional capability of controlling and tailoring their surface chemistry is demonstrated. Small, bright diamond nanocrystals (size ˜30 nm) are conjugated to protein filaments of actin (length ˜3-7 µm). The conjugation to actin filaments is extremely selective and highly target-specific. These unique features, together with the relative simplicity of the conjugation-targeting method, make functionalised nanodiamonds a powerful and versatile platform in biomedicine and quantum nanotechnologies. Applications ranging from using NDs as superior biological markers to, potentially, developing novel bottom-up approaches for the fabrication of hybrid quantum devices that would bridge across the bio/solid-state interface are presented and discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Bacterial Actin MamK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyamak, Ertan; Kollman, Justin; Agard, David A.; Komeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    It is now recognized that actin-like proteins are widespread in bacteria and, in contrast to eukaryotic actins, are highly diverse in sequence and function. The bacterial actin, MamK, represents a clade, primarily found in magnetotactic bacteria, that is involved in the proper organization of subcellular organelles, termed magnetosomes. We have previously shown that MamK from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 (AMB-1) forms dynamic filaments in vivo. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie MamK dynamics and function, we have now studied the in vitro properties of MamK. We demonstrate that MamK is an ATPase that, in the presence of ATP, assembles rapidly into filaments that disassemble once ATP is depleted. The mutation of a conserved active site residue (E143A) abolishes ATPase activity of MamK but not its ability to form filaments. Filament disassembly depends on both ATPase activity and potassium levels, the latter of which results in the organization of MamK filaments into bundles. These data are consistent with observations indicating that accessory factors are required to promote filament disassembly and for spatial organization of filaments in vivo. We also used cryo-electron microscopy to obtain a high resolution structure of MamK filaments. MamK adopts a two-stranded helical filament architecture, but unlike eukaryotic actin and other actin-like filaments, subunits in MamK strands are unstaggered giving rise to a unique filament architecture. Beyond extending our knowledge of the properties and function of MamK in magnetotactic bacteria, this study emphasizes the functional and structural diversity of bacterial actins in general. PMID:23204522

  16. Prolactin promotes breast cancer cell migration through actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Ludovico da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of prolactin on breast cancer development and progression is debated. Breast cancer progression largely depends on cell movement and on the ability to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. In this process, actin-binding proteins are requested to achieve fibrillar actin de-polymerization and relocation at the cell membrane. Kinases such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK are later required to form actin/vinculin-enriched structures called focal adhesion complexes, which mediate firm adhesion to the extracellular matrix. These controllers are regulated by c-Src, which forms multiprotein signaling complexes with membrane receptors and is regulated by a number of hormones, including prolactin. We here show that breast cancer cells exposed to prolactin display an elevated c-Src expression and phosphorylation. In parallel, increased moesin and FAK expression and phosphorylation are found. These molecular changes are associated to relocation to the plasma membrane of cytoskeletal actin fibers and to increased horizontal cell movement. In conclusion, prolactin regulates actin remodeling and enhances breast cancer cell movement. This finding broadens the understanding of prolactin actions on breast cancer cells, highlighting new pathways that may be relevant to on breast cancer progression.

  17. Lipid-linked cell wall precursors regulate membrane association of bacterial actin MreB

    OpenAIRE

    Schirner, Kathrin; Eun, Ye-Jin; Dion, Mike; Luo, Yun; Helmann, John D.; Garner, Ethan C.; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary The bacterial actin homolog MreB, which is critical for rod shape determination, forms filaments that rotate around the cell width on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. What determines filament association with the membranes or with other cell wall elongation proteins is not known. Using specific chemical and genetic perturbations while following MreB filament motion, we find that MreB membrane association is an actively regulated process that depends on the presence of li...

  18. The actin regulator coronin-1A is mutated in a thymic egress deficient mouse strain and in a T?B+NK+ SCID patient

    OpenAIRE

    Shiow, Lawrence R.; Roadcap, David W.; Paris, Kenneth; Watson, Susan R.; Grigorova, Irina L.; Lebet, Tonya; An, Jinping; Xu, Ying; Jenne, Craig N.; F?ger, Niko; Sorensen, Ricardo U.; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Bear, James E.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Cyster, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Mice carrying the recessive peripheral T cell deficiency (Ptcd) locus have a block in thymic egress but the mechanism responsible is undefined. Here we found that Ptcd T cells have an intrinsic migration defect, impaired lymphoid tissue trafficking and irregularly shaped protrusions. Characterization of the Ptcd locus revealed an E26K point mutation within the actin regulator coronin-1A (Coro1a) that enhanced its inhibition of the actin regulator Arp2/3 and resulted in its mislocalization fro...

  19. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  20. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  1. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L.; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R.; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J.; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  2. The nature of the globular- to fibrous-actin transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Aihara, Tomoki; Maéda, Yuichiro; Narita, Akihiro

    2009-01-22

    Actin plays crucial parts in cell motility through a dynamic process driven by polymerization and depolymerization, that is, the globular (G) to fibrous (F) actin transition. Although our knowledge about the actin-based cellular functions and the molecules that regulate the G- to F-actin transition is growing, the structural aspects of the transition remain enigmatic. We created a model of F-actin using X-ray fibre diffraction intensities obtained from well oriented sols of rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin to 3.3 A in the radial direction and 5.6 A along the equator. Here we show that the G- to F-actin conformational transition is a simple relative rotation of the two major domains by about 20 degrees. As a result of the domain rotation, the actin molecule in the filament is flat. The flat form is essential for the formation of stable, helical F-actin. Our F-actin structure model provides the basis for understanding actin polymerization as well as its molecular interactions with actin-binding proteins.

  3. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomibuchi, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Uyeda, Taro Q.P. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Takeyuki, E-mail: tw007@nasu.bio.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Department of Judo Therapy, Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  4. Regulation of retinoschisin secretion in Weri-Rb1 cells by the F-actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko Kitamura

    Full Text Available Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS, an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process.

  5. Regulation of Retinoschisin Secretion in Weri-Rb1 Cells by the F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Eiko; Gribanova, Yekaterina E.; Farber, Debora B.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process. PMID:21738583

  6. Filament formation of the Escherichia coli actin-related protein, MreB, in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Mishra, Mithilesh; Murata-Hori, Maki; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2007-02-06

    Proteins structurally related to eukaryotic actins have recently been identified in several prokaryotic organisms. These actin-like proteins (MreB and ParM) and the deviant Walker A ATPase (SopA) play a key role in DNA segregation and assemble into polymers in vitro and in vivo. MreB also plays a role in cellular morphogenesis. Whereas the dynamic properties of eukaryotic actins have been extensively characterized, those of bacterial actins are only beginning to emerge. We have established the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cellular model for the functional analysis of the Escherichia coli actin-related protein MreB. We show that MreB organizes into linear bundles that grow in a symmetrically bidirectional manner at 0.46 +/- 0.03 microm/min, with new monomers and/or oligomers being added along the entire length of the bundle. Organization of linear arrays was dependent on the ATPase activity of MreB, and their alignment along the cellular long axis was achieved by sliding along the cortex of the cylindrical part of the cell. The cell ends appeared to provide a physical barrier for bundle elongation. These experiments provide new insights into the mechanism of assembly and organization of the bacterial actin cytoskeleton.

  7. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stefen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

  10. Capu and Spire Assemble a Cytoplasmic Actin~Mesh that Maintains Microtubule Organization in the Drosophila Oocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, K.; Raposo, A.A.S.F.; Niccoli, T.

    2007-01-01

    Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin. Here, we show that Cappuccino and Spire organize an isotropic mesh of actin...

  11. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  12. Profilin as a regulator of the membrane-actin cytoskeleton interface in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian eSun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Membrane structures and cytoskeleton dynamics are intimately inter-connected in the eukaryotic cell. Recently, the molecular mechanisms operating at this interface have been progressively addressed. Many experiments have revealed that the actin cytoskeleton can interact with membranes through various discrete membrane domains. The actin-binding protein, profilin has been proven to inhibit actin polymerization and to promote F-actin elongation. This is dependent on many factors, such as the profilin/G-actin ratio and the ionic environment of the cell. Additionally, profilin has specific domains that interact with phosphoinositides and poly-L-proline rich proteins; theoretically, this gives profilin the opportunity to interact with membranes, and a large number of experiments have confirmed this possibility. In this article, we summarize recent findings in plant cells, and discuss the evidence of the connections among actin cytoskeleton, profilin and biomembranes through direct or indirect relationships.

  13. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  14. Cholesterol modulates the volume-regulated anion current in Ehrlich-Lettre ascites cells via effects on Rho and F-actin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K

    2006-01-01

    swollen cells, this reduction was prevented by cholesterol depletion, which also increased isotonic Rho activity. Thrombin, which stimulates Rho and causes actin polymerization, potentiated VRAC in modestly swollen cells. VRAC activity was unaffected by inclusion of a water-soluble PtdIns(4,5)P(2......) analogue or a PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-blocking antibody in the pipette, or neomycin treatment to sequester PtdIns(4,5)P(2). It is suggested that in ELA cells, F-actin and Rho-Rho kinase modulate VRAC magnitude and activation rate, respectively, and that cholesterol depletion potentiates VRAC at least in part......The mechanisms controlling the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the modulation of VRAC by cellular cholesterol and the potential involvement of F-actin, Rho, Rho kinase, and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2...

  15. Surfing pathogens and the lessons learned for actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, F; Way, M

    2001-01-01

    A number of unrelated bacterial species as well as vaccinia virus (ab)use the process of actin polymerization to facilitate and enhance their infection cycle. Studies into the mechanism by which these pathogens hijack and control the actin cytoskeleton have provided many interesting insights into the regulation of actin polymerization in migrating cells. This review focuses on what we have learnt from the actin-based motilities of Listeria, Shigella and vaccinia and discusses what we would still like to learn from our nasty friends, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Rickettsia

  16. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  17. Espins and the actin cytoskeleton of hair cell stereocilia and sensory cell microvilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Zheng, Lili; Loomis, Patricia A.; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The espins are novel actin-bundling proteins that are produced in multiple isoforms from a single gene. They are present at high concentration in the parallel actin bundle of hair cell stereocilia and are the target of deafness mutations in mice and humans. Espins are also enriched in the microvilli of taste receptor cells, solitary chemoreceptor cells, vomeronasal sensory neurons and Merkel cells, suggesting that espins play important roles in the microvillar projections of vertebrate sensory cells. Espins are potent actin-bundling proteins that are not inhibited by Ca2+. In cells, they efficiently elongate parallel actin bundles and, thereby, help determine the steady-state length of microvilli and stereocilia. Espins bind actin monomer via their WH2 domain and can assemble actin bundles in cells. Certain espin isoforms can also bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, profilins or SH3 proteins. These biological activities distinguish espins from other actin-bundling proteins and may make them well-suited to sensory cells. PMID:16909209

  18. Initiation of DNA replication requires actin dynamics and formin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisis, Nikolaos; Krasinska, Liliana; Harker, Bethany; Urbach, Serge; Rossignol, Michel; Camasses, Alain; Dewar, James; Morin, Nathalie; Fisher, Daniel

    2017-11-02

    Nuclear actin regulates transcriptional programmes in a manner dependent on its levels and polymerisation state. This dynamics is determined by the balance of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, formin- and redox-dependent filament polymerisation. Here, using Xenopus egg extracts and human somatic cells, we show that actin dynamics and formins are essential for DNA replication. In proliferating cells, formin inhibition abolishes nuclear transport and initiation of DNA replication, as well as general transcription. In replicating nuclei from transcriptionally silent Xenopus egg extracts, we identified numerous actin regulators, and disruption of actin dynamics abrogates nuclear transport, preventing NLS (nuclear localisation signal)-cargo release from RanGTP-importin complexes. Nuclear formin activity is further required to promote loading of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto chromatin, as well as initiation and elongation of DNA replication. Therefore, actin dynamics and formins control DNA replication by multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-11-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2506-2512, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stochastic Severing of Actin Filaments by Actin Depolymerizing Factor/Cofilin Controls the Emergence of a Steady Dynamical Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jeremy; Berro, Julien; Michelot, Alphée; Blanchoin, Laurent; Martiel, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Actin dynamics (i.e., polymerization/depolymerization) powers a large number of cellular processes. However, a great deal remains to be learned to explain the rapid actin filament turnover observed in vivo. Here, we developed a minimal kinetic model that describes key details of actin filament dynamics in the presence of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin. We limited the molecular mechanism to 1), the spontaneous growth of filaments by polymerization of actin monomers, 2), the ageing of actin subunits in filaments, 3), the cooperative binding of ADF/cofilin to actin filament subunits, and 4), filament severing by ADF/cofilin. First, from numerical simulations and mathematical analysis, we found that the average filament length, 〈L〉, is controlled by the concentration of actin monomers (power law: 5/6) and ADF/cofilin (power law: −2/3). We also showed that the average subunit residence time inside the filament, 〈T〉, depends on the actin monomer (power law: −1/6) and ADF/cofilin (power law: −2/3) concentrations. In addition, filament length fluctuations are ∼20% of the average filament length. Moreover, ADF/cofilin fragmentation while modulating filament length keeps filaments in a high molar ratio of ATP- or ADP-Pi versus ADP-bound subunits. This latter property has a protective effect against a too high severing activity of ADF/cofilin. We propose that the activity of ADF/cofilin in vivo is under the control of an affinity gradient that builds up dynamically along growing actin filaments. Our analysis shows that ADF/cofilin regulation maintains actin filaments in a highly dynamical state compatible with the cytoskeleton dynamics observed in vivo. PMID:18065447

  1. Regulated assembly of a supramolecular centrosome scaffold in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, J. B.; Wueseke, O.; Viscardi, V.

    2015-01-01

    are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, PCM assembly requires the coiled-coil protein SPD-5. We found that recombinant SPD-5 could polymerize to form micrometer-sized porous networks in vitro. Network assembly was accelerated by two conserved regulators that control PCM assembly in vivo, Polo...

  2. Antibodies to actin in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzmann Mathias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, autoreactive antibodies directed against red blood cells are up-regulated, leading to erythrocyte death. Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs induce AIHA of both the warm and cold types. The aim of this study was to identify the target autoantigens of warm autoreactive IgG antibodies. Sera from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs were screened for autoreactivity. Results Actin-reactive antibodies were found in the sera of 95% of all animals tested. The reactivity was species-specific, i.e. reactivity with porcine actin was significantly higher than with rabbit actin. Sera of animals previously immunised with the M. suis adhesion protein MSG1 showed reactivity with actin prior to infection with M. suis indicating that molecular mimicry is involved in the specific autoreactive mechanism. A potentially cross-reactive epitope was detected. Conclusions This is the first report of autoreactive anti-actin antibodies involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

  3. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  5. Actin grips: circular actin-rich cytoskeletal structures that mediate the wrapping of polymeric microfibers by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Desiree; Park, DoYoung; Anghelina, Mirela; Pécot, Thierry; Machiraju, Raghu; Xue, Ruipeng; Lannutti, John J; Thomas, Jessica; Cole, Sara L; Moldovan, Leni; Moldovan, Nicanor I

    2015-06-01

    Interaction of endothelial-lineage cells with three-dimensional substrates was much less studied than that with flat culture surfaces. We investigated the in vitro attachment of both mature endothelial cells (ECs) and of less differentiated EC colony-forming cells to poly-ε-capro-lactone (PCL) fibers with diameters in 5-20 μm range ('scaffold microfibers', SMFs). We found that notwithstanding the poor intrinsic adhesiveness to PCL, both cell types completely wrapped the SMFs after long-term cultivation, thus attaining a cylindrical morphology. In this system, both EC types grew vigorously for more than a week and became increasingly more differentiated, as shown by multiplexed gene expression. Three-dimensional reconstructions from multiphoton confocal microscopy images using custom software showed that the filamentous (F) actin bundles took a conspicuous ring-like organization around the SMFs. Unlike the classical F-actin-containing stress fibers, these rings were not associated with either focal adhesions or intermediate filaments. We also demonstrated that plasma membrane boundaries adjacent to these circular cytoskeletal structures were tightly yet dynamically apposed to the SMFs, for which reason we suggest to call them 'actin grips'. In conclusion, we describe a particular form of F-actin assembly with relevance for cytoskeletal organization in response to biomaterials, for endothelial-specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo, and for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A glycolytic metabolon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is stabilized by F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araiza-Olivera, Daniela; Chiquete-Felix, Natalia; Rosas-Lemus, Mónica; Sampedro, José G; Peña, Antonio; Mujica, Adela; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2013-08-01

    In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolytic pathway, 11 enzymes catalyze the stepwise conversion of glucose to two molecules of ethanol plus two CO₂ molecules. In the highly crowded cytoplasm, this pathway would be very inefficient if it were dependent on substrate/enzyme diffusion. Therefore, the existence of a multi-enzymatic glycolytic complex has been suggested. This complex probably uses the cytoskeleton to stabilize the interaction of the various enzymes. Here, the role of filamentous actin (F-actin) in stabilization of a putative glycolytic metabolon is reported. Experiments were performed in isolated enzyme/actin mixtures, cytoplasmic extracts and permeabilized yeast cells. Polymerization of actin was promoted using phalloidin or inhibited using cytochalasin D or latrunculin. The polymeric filamentous F-actin, but not the monomeric globular G-actin, stabilized both the interaction of isolated glycolytic pathway enzyme mixtures and the whole fermentation pathway, leading to higher fermentation activity. The associated complexes were resistant against inhibition as a result of viscosity (promoted by the disaccharide trehalose) or inactivation (using specific enzyme antibodies). In S. cerevisiae, a glycolytic metabolon appear to assemble in association with F-actin. In this complex, fermentation activity is enhanced and enzymes are partially protected against inhibition by trehalose or by antibodies. © 2013 FEBS.

  7. Decidable and undecidable arithmetic functions in actin filament networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is very sensitive to its environment, and reacts to stimuli with appropriate motions. Both the sensory and motor stages of these reactions are explained by hydrodynamic processes, based on fluid dynamics, with the participation of actin filament networks. This paper is devoted to actin filament networks as a computational medium. The point is that actin filaments, with contributions from many other proteins like myosin, are sensitive to extracellular stimuli (attractants as well as repellents), and appear and disappear at different places in the cell to change aspects of the cell structure—e.g. its shape. By assembling and disassembling actin filaments, some unicellular organisms, like Amoeba proteus, can move in response to various stimuli. As a result, these organisms can be considered a simple reversible logic gate—extracellular signals being its inputs and motions its outputs. In this way, we can implement various logic gates on amoeboid behaviours. These networks can embody arithmetic functions within p-adic valued logic. Furthermore, within these networks we can define the so-called diagonalization for deducing undecidable arithmetic functions.

  8. Bacterial motility complexes require the actin-like protein, MreB and the Ras homologue, MglA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Emilia M F; Mouhamar, Fabrice; Nan, Beiyan; Ducret, Adrien; Dai, David; Zusman, David R; Mignot, Tâm

    2010-01-20

    Gliding motility in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses two motility engines: S-motility powered by type-IV pili and A-motility powered by uncharacterized motor proteins and focal adhesion complexes. In this paper, we identified MreB, an actin-like protein, and MglA, a small GTPase of the Ras superfamily, as essential for both motility systems. A22, an inhibitor of MreB cytoskeleton assembly, reversibly inhibited S- and A-motility, causing rapid dispersal of S- and A-motility protein clusters, FrzS and AglZ. This suggests that the MreB cytoskeleton is involved in directing the positioning of these proteins. We also found that a DeltamglA motility mutant showed defective localization of AglZ and FrzS clusters. Interestingly, MglA-YFP localization mimicked both FrzS and AglZ patterns and was perturbed by A22 treatment, consistent with results indicating that both MglA and MreB bind to motility complexes. We propose that MglA and the MreB cytoskeleton act together in a pathway to localize motility proteins such as AglZ and FrzS to assemble the A-motility machineries. Interestingly, M. xanthus motility systems, like eukaryotic systems, use an actin-like protein and a small GTPase spatial regulator.

  9. Title: Cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development and diseasesubtitle: Actin associated proteins in periventricular heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewei eLian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton regulates many important cellular processes in the brain, including cell division and proliferation, migration, and cytokinesis and differentiation. These developmental processes can be regulated through actin dependent vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. Disruption in the actin cytoskeleton in the brain gives rise to periventricular heterotopia (PH, a malformation of cortical development, characterized by abnormal neurons clustered deep in the brain along the lateral ventricles. This disorder can give rise to seizures, dyslexia and psychiatric disturbances. Anatomically, PH is characterized by a smaller brain (impaired proliferation, heterotopia (impaired initial migration and disruption along the neuroependymal lining (impaired cell-cell adhesion. Genes causal for PH have also been implicated in actin-dependent processes. The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development.

  10. Troponin C Mutations Partially Stabilize the Active State of Regulated Actin and Fully Stabilize the Active State When Paired with Δ14 TnT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Tamatha; Johnson, Dylan; Pinto, Jose R; Chalovich, Joseph M

    2017-06-13

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin-associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. The extent of activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca 2+ and activating cross-bridges (i.e., S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration stabilizes the most active state (M state) of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex (regulated actin). Ca 2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin, and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I. Cardiac dysfunction is also associated with mutations of troponin C (TnC). Troponin C mutants A8V, C84Y, and D145E increase the Ca 2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity. We show that these mutants change the distribution of regulated actin states. The A8V and C84Y TnC mutants decreased the inactive B state distribution slightly at low Ca 2+ concentrations, but the D145E mutants had no effect on that state. All TnC mutants increased the level of the active M state compared to that of the wild type, at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration. Troponin complexes that contained two mutations that stabilize the active M state, A8V TnC and Δ14 TnT, appeared to be completely in the active state in the presence of only Ca 2+ . Because Ca 2+ gives full activation, in this situation, troponin must be capable of positioning tropomyosin in the active M state without the need for rigor myosin binding.

  11. Spatially restricted actin-regulatory signaling contributes to synapse morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel A.; Cahill, Michael E.; Tulisiak, Christopher T.; Geinisman, Yuri; Penzes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines is organized into microdomains, but how signaling molecules that regulate actin are spatially governed is incompletely understood. Here we examine how the localization of the RacGEF kalirin-7, a well-characterized regulator of actin in spines, varies as a function of postsynaptic density (PSD) area and spine volume. Using serial section electron microscopy (EM), we find that extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, expression of kalirin-7 varies directly with synapse size and spine volume. Moreover, we find that overall expression levels of kalirin-7 differ in spines bearing perforated and non-perforated synapses, due primarily to extrasynaptic pools of kalirin-7 expression in the former. Overall, our findings indicate that kalirin-7 is differentially compartmentalized in spines as a function of both synapse morphology and spine size. PMID:22458534

  12. Tetraspanin CD9 regulates cell contraction and actin arrangement via RhoA in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Herr

    Full Text Available The most prevalent cardiovascular diseases arise from alterations in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC morphology and function. Tetraspanin CD9 has been previously implicated in regulating vascular pathologies; however, insight into how CD9 may regulate adverse VSMC phenotypes has not been provided. We utilized a human model of aortic smooth muscle cells to understand the consequences of CD9 deficiency on VSMC phenotypes. Upon knocking down CD9, the cells developed an abnormally small and rounded morphology. We determined that this morphological change was due to a lack of typical parallel actin arrangement. We also found similar total RhoA but decreased GTP-bound (active RhoA levels in CD9 deficient cells. As a result, cells lacking a full complement of CD9 were less contractile than their control treated counterparts. Upon restoration of RhoA activity in the CD9 deficient cells, the phenotype was reversed and cell contraction was restored. Conversely, inhibition of RhoA activity in the control cells mimicked the CD9-deficient cell phenotype. Thus, alteration in CD9 expression was sufficient to profoundly disrupt cellular actin arrangement and endogenous cell contraction by interfering with RhoA signaling. This study provides insight into how CD9 may regulate previously described vascular smooth muscle cell pathophysiology.

  13. Actin genes and their expression in pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Du, Jiangli; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2018-04-01

    Actin is a multi-functional gene family that can be divided into muscle-type actins and non-muscle-type actins. In this study, 37 unigenes encoding actins were identified from RNA-Seq data of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. According to phylogenetic analysis, four and three cDNAs belong to cytoplasmic- and heart-type actins and were named LvActinCT and LvActinHT, respectively. 10 cDNAs belong to the slow-type skeletal muscle actins, and 18 belong to the fast-type skeletal muscle actins; they were designated LvActinSSK and LvActinFSK, respectively. Some muscle actin genes formed gene clusters in the genome. Multiple alternative transcription starts sites (ATSSs) were found for LvActinCT1. Based on the early developmental expression profile, almost all LvActins were highly expressed between the early limb bud and post-larval stages. Using LvActinSSK5 as probes, slow-type muscle was localized in pleopod muscle and superficial ventral muscle. We also found three actin genes that were down-regulated in the hemocytes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)- and Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. This study provides valuable information on the actin gene structure of shrimp, furthers our understanding of the shrimp muscle system and helps us develop strategies for disease control and sustainable shrimp farming.

  14. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-07-20

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate-bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA-MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein-cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. © 2015 Treuner-Lange et al.

  15. WHAMM Directs the Arp2/3 Complex to the ER for Autophagosome Biogenesis through an Actin Comet Tail Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, David J; Zajac, Allison L; Holzbaur, Erika L F; Ostap, E Michael; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-06-29

    Nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) control the spatio-temporal activity of Arp2/3 complex in cells]. Thus, WASP and the WAVE complex direct the formation of branched actin networks at the leading edge during cell motility and endo/exocytosis, whereas the WASH complex is involved in endosomal transport. Less understood are WHAMM and JMY, two NPFs with similar domain architecture. JMY is found in the nucleus and the cytosol and is involved in transcriptional regulation, cell motility, and trans-Golgi transport. WHAMM was reported to bind microtubules and to be involved in ER to cis-Golgi transport. Here, we show that WHAMM directs the activity of Arp2/3 complex for autophagosome biogenesis through an actin-comet tail motility mechanism. Macroautophagy--the process by which cytosolic material is engulfed into autophagosomes for degradation and/or recycling--was recently shown to involve actin, but the mechanism is unknown. We found that WHAMM forms puncta that colocalize and comigrate with the autophagy markers LC3, DFCP1, and p62 through a WHAMM-dependent actin-comet tail mechanism. Under starvation, WHAMM and actin are observed at the interface between neighboring autophagosomes, whose number and size increase with WHAMM expression. Interfering with actin polymerization, inhibiting Arp2/3 complex, knocking down WHAMM, or blocking its interaction with Arp2/3 complex through mutagenesis all inhibit comet tail formation and reduce the size and number of autophagosomes. Finally, JMY shows similar localization to WHAMM and could be involved in similar processes. These results reveal a link between Arp2/3-complex-dependent actin assembly and autophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  17. Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Kloc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization and negatively regulates cell motility via regulation of RhoA
    expression. We studied the organization of actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton and the expression of TCTP, p53,
    cyclin A, RhoA and actin in HIO180 non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells, and OVCAR3 and SKOV3 (expressing
    low level of inducible p53 ovarian epithelial cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Immunostaining
    and ultrastructural analyses illustrated a dramatic difference in the organization of the cytokeratin and actin
    filaments in non-transformed versus cancer cell lines. We also determined that there is an inverse relationship between
    the level of TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. This previously unidentified
    negative relationship between TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A may suggest that this interaction is linked
    with the high aggressiveness of ovarian cancers.The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization

  18. Actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar); Skin lesion - actinic keratosis ... Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight. You are more likely to develop it if you: Have fair ...

  19. MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction regulates the actin cytoskeleton through the downregulation of WAVE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Ueno, M; Liu, D; Masuya, D; Nakano, J; Yokomise, H; Nakagawa, T; Miyake, M

    2006-10-19

    Motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) is involved in cell motility. We studied the change in the actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of actin-related protein (Arp) 2 and Arp3 and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family according to MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction into HT1080 cells. The frequency of cells with lamellipodia was significantly lower in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells than in control HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction affected the subcellular localization of Arp2 and Arp3 proteins. Furthermore, MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction induced a downregulation of WAVE2 expression (PMRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody inhibited downregulation of WAVE2 in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction. Furthermore, downregulation of WAVE2 by transfection of WAVE2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) mimicked the morphological effects of MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction and suppressed cell motility. However, transfection of each siRNA for Wnt1, Wnt2b1 or Wnt5a did not affect WAVE2 expression. Transfection of WAVE2-specific siRNA also did not affect expressions of these Wnts. These results indicate that MRP-1/CD9 regulates the actin cytoskeleton by downregulating of the WAVE2, through the Wnt-independent signal pathway.

  20. Distortion of the Actin A-Triad Results in Contractile Disinhibition and Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera C. Viswanathan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the movement of tropomyosin over the thin filament surface, which blocks or exposes myosin binding sites on actin. Findings suggest that electrostatic contacts, particularly those between K326, K328, and R147 on actin and tropomyosin, establish an energetically favorable F-actin-tropomyosin configuration, with tropomyosin positioned in a location that impedes actomyosin associations and promotes relaxation. Here, we provide data that directly support a vital role for these actin residues, termed the A-triad, in tropomyosin positioning in intact functioning muscle. By examining the effects of an A295S α-cardiac actin hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing mutation, over a range of increasingly complex in silico, in vitro, and in vivo Drosophila muscle models, we propose that subtle A-triad-tropomyosin perturbation can destabilize thin filament regulation, which leads to hypercontractility and triggers disease. Our efforts increase understanding of basic thin filament biology and help unravel the mechanistic basis of a complex cardiac disorder.

  1. Higher-order assemblies of BAR domain proteins for shaping membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-06-01

    Most cellular organelles contain lipid bilayer membranes. The earliest characterization of cellular organelles was performed by electron microscopy observation of such membranes. However, the precise mechanisms for shaping the membrane in particular subcellular organelles is poorly understood. Classically, the overall cellular shape, i.e. the shape of the plasma membrane, was thought to be governed by the reorganization of cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. The plasma membrane contains various submicron structures such as clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia and lamellipodia. These subcellular structures are either invaginations or protrusions and are associated with the cytoskeleton. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that there are membrane-binding proteins that cooperates with cytoskeleton in shaping of plasma membrane organelles. Proteins with the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain connect a variety of membrane shapes to actin filaments. The BAR domains themselves bend the membranes by their rigidity and then mold the membranes into tubules through their assembly as spiral polymers, which are thought to be involved in the various submicron structures. Membrane tubulation by polymeric assembly of the BAR domains is supposed to be regulated by binding proteins, binding lipids and the mechanical properties of the membrane. This review gives an overview of BAR protein assembly, describes the significance of the assembly and discusses how to study the assembly in the context of membrane and cellular morphology. The technical problems encountered in microscopic observation of BAR domain assembly are also discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mediator binds to boundaries of chromosomal interaction domains and to proteins involved in DNA looping, RNA metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereji, Razvan V; Bharatula, Vasudha; Elfving, Nils; Blomberg, Jeanette; Larsson, Miriam; Morozov, Alexandre V; Broach, James R; Björklund, Stefan

    2017-09-06

    Mediator is a multi-unit molecular complex that plays a key role in transferring signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. We have combined biochemical purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator from chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in order to reveal Mediator occupancy on DNA genome-wide, and to identify proteins interacting specifically with Mediator on the chromatin template. Tandem mass spectrometry of proteins in immunoprecipitates of mediator complexes revealed specific interactions between Mediator and the RSC, Arp2/Arp3, CPF, CF 1A and Lsm complexes in chromatin. These factors are primarily involved in chromatin remodeling, actin assembly, mRNA 3'-end processing, gene looping and mRNA decay, but they have also been shown to enter the nucleus and participate in Pol II transcription. Moreover, we have found that Mediator, in addition to binding Pol II promoters, occupies chromosomal interacting domain (CID) boundaries and that Mediator in chromatin associates with proteins that have been shown to interact with CID boundaries, such as Sth1, Ssu72 and histone H4. This suggests that Mediator plays a significant role in higher-order genome organization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Developmental expression of the alpha-skeletal actin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Freek J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which exerts a broad range of functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher vertebrates, six primary actin isoforms can be distinguished: alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth muscle, gamma-smooth muscle, beta-cytoplasmic and gamma-cytoplasmic isoactin. Expression of these actin isoforms during vertebrate development is highly regulated in a temporal and tissue-specific manner, but the mechanisms and the specific differences are currently not well understood. All members of the actin multigene family are highly conserved, suggesting that there is a high selective pressure on these proteins. Results We present here a model for the evolution of the genomic organization of alpha-skeletal actin and by molecular modeling, illustrate the structural differences of actin proteins of different phyla. We further describe and compare alpha-skeletal actin expression in two developmental stages of five vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, snake, salamander and fish. Our findings confirm that alpha-skeletal actin is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the heart of all five species. In addition, we identify many novel non-muscular expression domains including several in the central nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that the high sequence homology of alpha-skeletal actins is reflected by similarities of their 3 dimensional protein structures, as well as by conserved gene expression patterns during vertebrate development. Nonetheless, we find here important differences in 3D structures, in gene architectures and identify novel expression domains for this structural and functional important gene.

  4. Lipid-linked cell wall precursors regulate membrane association of bacterial actin MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirner, Kathrin; Eun, Ye-Jin; Dion, Mike; Luo, Yun; Helmann, John D; Garner, Ethan C; Walker, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial actin homolog MreB, which is crucial for rod shape determination, forms filaments that rotate around the cell width on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. What determines filament association with the membranes or with other cell wall elongation proteins is not known. Using specific chemical and genetic perturbations while following MreB filament motion, we find that MreB membrane association is an actively regulated process that depends on the presence of lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors. When precursors are depleted, MreB filaments disassemble into the cytoplasm, and peptidoglycan synthesis becomes disorganized. In cells that lack wall teichoic acids but continue to make peptidoglycan, dynamic MreB filaments are observed, although their presence is not sufficient to establish a rod shape. We propose that the cell regulates MreB filament association with the membrane, allowing rapid and reversible inactivation of cell wall enzyme complexes in response to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis.

  5. Feedback Interactions of Polymerized Actin with the Cell Membrane: Waves, Pulses, and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders

    Polymerized filaments of the protein actin have crucial functions in cell migration, and in bending the cell membrane to drive endocytosis or the formation of protrusions. The nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments are controlled by upstream agents in the cell membrane, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex to form new branches on pre-existing filaments. But polymerized actin (F-actin) also feeds back on the assembly of NPFs. We explore the effects of the resulting feedback loop of F-actin and NPFs on two phenomena: actin pulses that drive endocytosis in yeast, and actin waves traveling along the membrane of several cell types. In our model of endocytosis in yeast, the actin network is grown explicitly in three dimensions, exerts a negative feedback interaction on localized patch of NPFs in the membrane, and bends the membrane by exerting a distribution of forces. This model explains observed actin and NPF pulse dynamics, and the effects of several interventions including i) NPF mutations, ii) inhibition of actin polymerization, and iii) deletion of a protein that allows F-actin to bend the cell membrane. The model predicts that mutation of the active region of an NPF will enhance the accumulation of that NPF, and we confirm this prediction by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. For actin waves, we treat a similar model, with NPFs distributed over a larger region of the cell membrane. This model naturally generates actin waves, and predicts a transition from wave behavior to spatially localized oscillations when NPFs are confined to a small region. We also predict a transition from waves to static polarization as the negative-feedback coupling between F-actin and the NPFs is reduced. Supported by NIGMS Grant R01 GM107667.

  6. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  7. LL-37 induces polymerization and bundling of actin and affects actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Sol

    Full Text Available Actin exists as a monomer (G-actin which can be polymerized to filaments F-actin that under the influence of actin-binding proteins and polycations bundle and contribute to the formation of the cytoskeleton. Bundled actin from lysed cells increases the viscosity of sputum in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. The human host defense peptide LL-37 was previously shown to induce actin bundling and was thus hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenicity of this disease. In this work, interactions between actin and the cationic LL-37 were studied by optical, proteolytic and surface plasmon resonance methods and compared to those obtained with scrambled LL-37 and with the cationic protein lysozyme. We show that LL-37 binds strongly to CaATP-G-actin while scrambled LL-37 does not. While LL-37, at superstoichiometric LL-37/actin concentrations polymerizes MgATP-G-actin, at lower non-polymerizing concentrations LL-37 inhibits actin polymerization by MgCl(2 or NaCl. LL-37 bundles Mg-F-actin filaments both at low and physiological ionic strength when in equimolar or higher concentrations than those of actin. The LL-37 induced bundles are significantly less sensitive to increase in ionic strength than those induced by scrambled LL-37 and lysozyme. LL-37 in concentrations lower than those needed for actin polymerization or bundling, accelerates cleavage of both monomer and polymer actin by subtilisin. Our results indicate that the LL-37-actin interaction is partially electrostatic and partially hydrophobic and that a specific actin binding sequence in the peptide is responsible for the hydrophobic interaction. LL-37-induced bundles, which may contribute to the accumulation of sputum in cystic fibrosis, are dissociated very efficiently by DNase-1 and also by cofilin.

  8. The ADF/Cofilin-Pathway and Actin Dynamics in Podocyte Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beina Teng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ADF/cofilins are the major regulators of actin dynamics in mammalian cells. The activation of ADF/cofilins is controlled by a variety of regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of ADF/cofilin may result in loss of a precisely organized actin cytoskeletal architecture and can reduce podocyte migration and motility. Recent studies suggest that cofilin-1 can be regulated through several extracellular signals and slit diaphragm proteins. Cofilin knockdown and knockout animal models show dysfunction of glomerular barrier and filtration with foot process effacement and loss of secondary foot processes. This indicates that cofilin-1 is necessary for modulating actin dynamics in podocytes. Podocyte alterations in actin architecture may initiate or aid the progression of a large variety of glomerular diseases, and cofilin activity is required for reorganization of an intact filtration barrier. Since almost all proteinuric diseases result from a similar phenotype with effacement of the foot processes, we propose that cofilin-1 is at the centre stage of the development of proteinuria and thus may be an attractive drug target for antiproteinuric treatment strategies.

  9. The bacterial actin MreB rotates, and rotation depends on cell-wall assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teeffelen, Sven; Wang, Siyuan; Furchtgott, Leon; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Gitai, Zemer

    2011-09-20

    Bacterial cells possess multiple cytoskeletal proteins involved in a wide range of cellular processes. These cytoskeletal proteins are dynamic, but the driving forces and cellular functions of these dynamics remain poorly understood. Eukaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics are often driven by motor proteins, but in bacteria no motors that drive cytoskeletal motion have been identified to date. Here, we quantitatively study the dynamics of the Escherichia coli actin homolog MreB, which is essential for the maintenance of rod-like cell shape in bacteria. We find that MreB rotates around the long axis of the cell in a persistent manner. Whereas previous studies have suggested that MreB dynamics are driven by its own polymerization, we show that MreB rotation does not depend on its own polymerization but rather requires the assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall. The cell-wall synthesis machinery thus either constitutes a novel type of extracellular motor that exerts force on cytoplasmic MreB, or is indirectly required for an as-yet-unidentified motor. Biophysical simulations suggest that one function of MreB rotation is to ensure a uniform distribution of new peptidoglycan insertion sites, a necessary condition to maintain rod shape during growth. These findings both broaden the view of cytoskeletal motors and deepen our understanding of the physical basis of bacterial morphogenesis.

  10. Actin cytoskeleton modulates calcium signaling during maturation of starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Keiichiro; Chun, Jong T; Puppo, Agostina; Gragnaniello, Gianni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2008-08-15

    Before successful fertilization can occur, oocytes must undergo meiotic maturation. In starfish, this can be achieved in vitro by applying 1-methyladenine (1-MA). The immediate response to 1-MA is the fast Ca2+ release in the cell cortex. Here, we show that this Ca2+ wave always initiates in the vegetal hemisphere and propagates through the cortex, which is the space immediately under the plasma membrane. We have observed that alteration of the cortical actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin-A and jasplakinolide can potently affect the Ca2+ waves triggered by 1-MA. This indicates that the cortical actin cytoskeleton modulates Ca2+ release during meiotic maturation. The Ca2+ wave was inhibited by the classical antagonists of the InsP(3)-linked Ca2+ signaling pathway, U73122 and heparin. To our surprise, however, these two inhibitors induced remarkable actin hyper-polymerization in the cell cortex, suggesting that their inhibitory effect on Ca2+ release may be attributed to the perturbation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In post-meiotic eggs, U73122 and jasplakinolide blocked the elevation of the vitelline layer by uncaged InsP(3), despite the massive release of Ca2+, implying that exocytosis of the cortical granules requires not only a Ca2+ rise, but also regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton of starfish oocytes plays critical roles both in generating Ca2+ signals and in regulating cortical granule exocytosis.

  11. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  12. The RhoGAP Stard13 controls insulin secretion through F-actin remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Naumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Actin cytoskeleton remodeling is necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. A mechanistic understanding of actin dynamics in the islet is paramount to a better comprehension of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we investigate the Rho GTPase regulator Stard13 and its role in F-actin cytoskeleton organization and islet function in adult mice. Methods: We used Lifeact-EGFP transgenic animals to visualize actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in vivo in the mouse islets. Furthermore, we applied this model to study actin cytoskeleton and insulin secretion in mutant mice deleted for Stard13 selectively in pancreatic cells. We isolated transgenic islets for 3D-imaging and perifusion studies to measure insulin secretion dynamics. In parallel, we performed histological and morphometric analyses of the pancreas and used in vivo approaches to study glucose metabolism in the mouse. Results: In this study, we provide the first genetic evidence that Stard13 regulates insulin secretion in response to glucose. Postnatally, Stard13 expression became restricted to the mouse pancreatic islets. We showed that Stard13 deletion results in a marked increase in actin polymerization in islet cells, which is accompanied by severe reduction of insulin secretion in perifusion experiments. Consistently, Stard13-deleted mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for the RhoGAP protein Stard13 in the interplay between actin cytoskeletal remodeling and insulin secretion. Keywords: F-actin, Insulin secretion, Islet, Pancreas, Lifeact, Stard13

  13. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  14. Lasp-1 regulates podosome function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Stölting

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells form a variety of adhesive structures to connect with their environment and to regulate cell motility. In contrast to classical focal adhesions, podosomes, highly dynamic structures of different cell types, are actively engaged in matrix remodelling and degradation. Podosomes are composed of an actin-rich core region surrounded by a ring-like structure containing signalling molecules, motor proteins as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Lasp-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, actin-binding protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. This multidomain protein is predominantely present at focal adhesions, however, a second pool of Lasp-1 molecules is also found at lamellipodia and vesicle-like microdomains in the cytosol.In this report, we show that Lasp-1 is a novel component and regulator of podosomes. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of Lasp-1 in the podosome ring structure, where it colocalizes with zyxin and vinculin. Life cell imaging experiments demonstrate that Lasp-1 is recruited in early steps of podosome assembly. A siRNA-mediated Lasp-1 knockdown in human macrophages affects podosome dynamics as well as their matrix degradation capacity. In summary, our data indicate that Lasp-1 is a novel component of podosomes and is involved in the regulation of podosomal function.

  15. When fat is not bad: the regulation of actin dynamics by phospholipid signaling molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Staiger, Ch. J.; Potocký, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, JAN 2014 (2014) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19073S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : actin * actin-binding proteins * capping protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  16. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  17. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm.

  18. Rho proteins − the key regulators of cytoskeleton in the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rho proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. They are thought to be crucial regulators of multiple signal transduction pathways that influence a wide range of cellular functions, including migration, membrane trafficking, adhesion, polarity and cell shape changes. Thanks to their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho GTPases are known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis progression. These proteins are required for formation and rigidity of the cortex during mitotic cell rounding, mitotic spindle formation and attachment of the spindle microtubules to the kinetochore. In addition, during cytokinesis, they are involved in promoting division plane determination, contractile ring and cleavage furrow formation and abscission. They are also known as regulators of cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transition. Thus, the signal transduction pathways in which Rho proteins participate, appear to connect dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to cell cycle progression. We review the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Rho GTPase signaling regulates remodeling of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in order to control cell division progression.

  19. Rapid and dynamic arginylation of the leading edge β-actin is required for cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyk, Iuliia; Leu, Nicolae A; Vedula, Pavan; Kurosaka, Satoshi; Kashina, Anna

    2018-04-01

    β-actin plays key roles in cell migration. Our previous work demonstrated that β-actin in migratory non-muscle cells is N-terminally arginylated and that this arginylation is required for normal lamellipodia extension. Here, we examined the function of β-actin arginylation in cell migration. We found that arginylated β-actin is concentrated at the leading edge of lamellipodia and that this enrichment is abolished after serum starvation as well as in contact-inhibited cells in confluent cultures, suggesting that arginylated β-actin at the cell leading edge is coupled to active migration. Arginylated actin levels exhibit dynamic changes in response to cell stimuli, lowered after serum starvation and dramatically elevating within minutes after cell stimulation by readdition of serum or lysophosphatidic acid. These dynamic changes require active translation and are not seen in confluent contact-inhibited cell cultures. Microinjection of arginylated actin antibodies into cells severely and specifically inhibits their migration rates. Together, these data strongly suggest that arginylation of β-actin is a tightly regulated dynamic process that occurs at the leading edge of locomoting cells in response to stimuli and is integral to the signaling network that regulates cell migration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Role of Active Contraction and Tropomodulins in Regulating Actin Filament Length and Sarcomere Structure in Developing Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelet, Lise; Parker, Matthew O; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Ashworth, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Whilst it is recognized that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1 (ts25) ) which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors) in the muscle and pharmacological immobilization of embryos with a reversible anesthetic (Tricaine), allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anesthetized fish) and recovery of movement (reversal of anesthetic treatment). The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17 and 24 hours post-fertilization, hpf) on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localization of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 & 4 (Tmod) in fish aged from 17 hpf until 42 hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post-fertilization (dpf). Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf) resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralyzed fish by 42 hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organization is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localization of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  1. Comparisons of actin filament disruptors and Rho kinase inhibitors as potential antiglaucoma medications

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Baohe; Kaufman, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in the trabecular meshwork play a crucial role in the regulation of trabecular outflow resistance. The actin filament disruptors and Rho kinase inhibitors affect the dynamics of the actomyosin system by either disrupting the actin filaments or inhibiting the Rho kinase-activated cellular contractility. Both approaches induce similar morphological changes and resistance decreases in the trabecular outflow pathway, and thus both have potential as antiglaucoma ...

  2. Triptolide disrupts the actin-based Sertoli-germ cells adherens junctions by inhibiting Rho GTPases expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin [Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Lu-yong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: brookming@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.

  3. Triptolide disrupts the actin-based Sertoli-germ cells adherens junctions by inhibiting Rho GTPases expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang; Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin; Zhang, Lu-yong; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.

  4. Chronophin activation is necessary in Doxorubicin-induced actin cytoskeleton alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Park, Jeen Woo; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Sooyoung; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2017-06-01

    Although doxorubicin (Dox)-induced oxidative stress is known to be associated with cytotoxicity, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Genotoxic stress not only generates free radicals, but also affects actin cytoskeleton stability. We showed that Dox-induced RhoA signaling stimulated actin cytoskeleton alterations, resulting in central stress fiber disruption at early time points and cell periphery cortical actin formation at a later stage, in HeLa cells. Interestingly, activation of a cofilin phosphatase, chronophin (CIN), was initially evoked by Dox-induced RhoA signaling, resulting in a rapid phosphorylated cofilin turnover leading to actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In addition, a novel interaction between CIN and 14-3-3ζ was detected in the absence of Dox treatment. We demonstrated that CIN activity is quite contrary to 14-3-3ζ binding, and the interaction leads to enhanced phosphorylated cofilin levels. Therefore, initial CIN activation regulation could be critical in Dox-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling through RhoA/cofilin signaling. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(6): 335-340].

  5. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:24346024

  6. Organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton during dendritic spine morphological remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Giannone, Grégory

    2016-08-01

    In the central nervous system, most excitatory post-synapses are small subcellular structures called dendritic spines. Their structure and morphological remodeling are tightly coupled to changes in synaptic transmission. The F-actin cytoskeleton is the main driving force of dendritic spine remodeling and sustains synaptic plasticity. It is therefore essential to understand how changes in synaptic transmission can regulate the organization and dynamics of actin binding proteins (ABPs). In this review, we will provide a detailed description of the organization and dynamics of F-actin and ABPs in dendritic spines and will discuss the current models explaining how the actin cytoskeleton sustains both structural and functional synaptic plasticity.

  7. Persistent inhibition of pore-based cell migration by sub-toxic doses of miuraenamide, an actin filament stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Christina; Rüdiger, Daniel; Förster, Florian; von Blume, Julia; Yu, Peng; Kuster, Bernhard; Kazmaier, Uli; Vollmar, Angelika M; Zahler, Stefan

    2017-11-27

    Opposed to tubulin-binding agents, actin-binding small molecules have not yet become part of clinical tumor treatment, most likely due to the fear of general cytotoxicity. Addressing this problem, we investigated the long-term efficacy of sub-toxic doses of miuraenamide, an actin filament stabilizing natural compound, on tumor cell (SKOV3) migration. No cytotoxic effects or persistent morphological changes occurred at a concentration of miuraenamide of 20 nM. After 72 h treatment with this concentration, nuclear stiffness was increased, causing reduced migration through pores in a Boyden chamber, while cell migration and chemotaxis per se were unaltered. A concomitant time-resolved proteomic approach showed down regulation of a protein cluster after 56 h treatment. This cluster correlated best with the Wnt signaling pathway. A further analysis of the actin associated MRTF/SRF signaling showed a surprising reduction of SRF-regulated proteins. In contrast to acute effects of actin-binding compounds on actin at high concentrations, long-term low-dose treatment elicits much more subtle but still functionally relevant changes beyond simple destruction of the cytoskeleton. These range from biophysical parameters to regulation of protein expression, and may help to better understand the complex biology of actin, as well as to initiate alternative regimes for the testing of actin-targeting drugs.

  8. Actin is an essential component of plant gravitropic signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Limbach, Christoph

    2003-08-01

    A role of the actin cytoskeleton in the different phases of gravitropism in higher plant organs seems obvious, but experimental evidence is still inconclusive and contradictory. In gravitropically tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata, however, it is well documented that actin is an essential component of the tip-growth machinery and is involved either in the cellular mechanisms that lead to gravity sensing and in the processes of the graviresponses that result in the reorientation of the growth direction. All these processes depend on a complexly organized and highly dynamic organization of actin filaments whose diverse functions are coordinated by numerous associated proteins. Actin filaments and myosins mediate the transport of secretory vehicles to the growing tip and precisely control the delivery of cell wall material. In addition, both cell types use a very efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. The studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the essential role of actin in plant gravity sensing and the gravitropic responses. A unique actin-organizing center exists in the tip of characean rhizoids and protonemata which is associated with and dynamically regulated by a specific set of actin-dynamizing proteins. It is concluded that this highly dynamic apical actin array is an essential prerequisite for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented tip growth.

  9. Cadherin adhesion, tissue tension, and noncanonical Wnt signaling regulate fibronectin matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzamba, Bette J; Jakab, Karoly R; Marsden, Mungo; Schwartz, Martin A; DeSimone, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    In this study we demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling regulates morphogenesis in Xenopus embryos in part through the assembly of the fibronectin (FN) matrix. We outline a regulatory pathway that includes cadherin adhesion and signaling through Rac and Pak, culminating in actin reorganization, myosin contractility, and tissue tension, which, in turn, directs the correct spatiotemporal localization of FN into a fibrillar matrix. Increased mechanical tension promotes FN fibril assembly in the blastocoel roof (BCR), while reduced BCR tension inhibits matrix assembly. These data support a model for matrix assembly in tissues where cell-cell adhesions play an analogous role to the focal adhesions of cultured cells by transferring to integrins the tension required to direct FN fibril formation at cell surfaces.

  10. Actin-interacting Protein 1 Promotes Disassembly of Actin-depolymerizing Factor/Cofilin-bound Actin Filaments in a pH-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazumi; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Tatsumi, Hitoshi; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-03-04

    Actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) is a conserved WD repeat protein that promotes disassembly of actin filaments when actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is present. Although AIP1 is known to be essential for a number of cellular events involving dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, the regulatory mechanism of the function of AIP1 is unknown. In this study, we report that two AIP1 isoforms from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, known as UNC-78 and AIPL-1, are pH-sensitive in enhancement of actin filament disassembly. Both AIP1 isoforms only weakly enhance disassembly of ADF/cofilin-bound actin filaments at an acidic pH but show stronger disassembly activity at neutral and basic pH values. However, a severing-defective mutant of UNC-78 shows pH-insensitive binding to ADF/cofilin-decorated actin filaments, suggesting that the process of filament severing or disassembly, but not filament binding, is pH-dependent. His-60 of AIP1 is located near the predicted binding surface for the ADF/cofilin-actin complex, and an H60K mutation of AIP1 partially impairs its pH sensitivity, suggesting that His-60 is involved in the pH sensor for AIP1. These biochemical results suggest that pH-dependent changes in AIP1 activity might be a novel regulatory mechanism of actin filament dynamics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. [The coiled bodies and satellite microbodies of the oocyte nuclei in hibernating Rana temporaria frogs contain actin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, A G; Kvasov, I D; Khaĭtlina, S Iu; Parfenov, V N

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of preparation of dispersed nuclei content in oocytes of III-IV stages of oogenesis, in terms of Dumont (1972), from hibernating grass frogs using monoclonal antibodies against actin, revealed two types of intranuclear structures containing this protein: coiled bodies (CB) and satellite microbodies (SM). Staining of these preparations with Rhodamin-phalloidin, known specifically to interact with fibrillar actin, did not reveal it in these structures. Results of our biochemical studies, using protease ESP32 specifically cutting only globular actin, are suggesting that both CB and SM contain globular actin. Gall et al. (1975) proposed that CB may be involved in assembling and sorting of small nuclear RNA for the three main RNA processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, and histone pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. Our finding of actin in CB allows a suggestion on actin involvement in the transport of RNA processing complexes from CB to some actual places where processing of RNA takes place. According to our previous data (Tsvetkov, Parfenov., 1994), SM participate in the karyosphere capsule formation. This process is preceded by SM fusion triggered presumably by actin.

  12. Mechanical coupling between transsynaptic N-cadherin adhesions and actin flow stabilizes dendritic spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Garcia, Mikael; Czöndör, Katalin; Perrais, David; Tessier, Béatrice; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of neuronal dendritic spines is a critical indicator of synaptic function. It is regulated by several factors, including the intracellular actin/myosin cytoskeleton and transcellular N-cadherin adhesions. To examine the mechanical relationship between these molecular components, we performed quantitative live-imaging experiments in primary hippocampal neurons. We found that actin turnover and structural motility were lower in dendritic spines than in immature filopodia and increased upon expression of a nonadhesive N-cadherin mutant, resulting in an inverse relationship between spine motility and actin enrichment. Furthermore, the pharmacological stimulation of myosin II induced the rearward motion of actin structures in spines, showing that myosin II exerts tension on the actin network. Strikingly, the formation of stable, spine-like structures enriched in actin was induced at contacts between dendritic filopodia and N-cadherin–coated beads or micropatterns. Finally, computer simulations of actin dynamics mimicked various experimental conditions, pointing to the actin flow rate as an important parameter controlling actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together these data demonstrate that a clutch-like mechanism between N-cadherin adhesions and the actin flow underlies the stabilization of dendritic filopodia into mature spines, a mechanism that may have important implications in synapse initiation, maturation, and plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:25568337

  13. Effects of BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide), an inhibitor for myosin-actin interaction, on myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscle cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Maiko; Sato, Naruki; Obinata, Takashi

    2006-11-01

    Actin filaments align around myosin filaments in the correct polarity and in a hexagonal arrangement to form cross-striated structures. It has been postulated that this myosin-actin interaction is important in the initial phase of myofibrillogenesis. It was previously demonstrated that an inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction, BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime), suppresses myofibril formation in muscle cells in culture. However, further study showed that BDM also exerts several additional effects on living cells. In this study, we further examined the role of actin-myosin interaction in myofibril assembly in primary cultures of chick embryonic skeletal muscle by applying a more specific inhibitor, BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide), of myosin ATPase and actin-myosin interaction. The assembly of sarcomeric structures from myofibrillar proteins was examined by immunocytochemical methods with the application of BTS to myotubes just after fusion. Addition of BTS (10-50 microM) significantly suppressed the organization of actin and myosin into cross-striated structures. BTS also interfered in the organization of alpha-actinin, C-protein (or MyBP-C), and connectin (or titin) into ordered striated structures, though the sensitivity was less. Moreover, when myotubes cultured in the presence of BTS were transferred to a control medium, sarcomeric structures were formed in 2-3 days, indicating that the inhibitory effect of BTS on myotubes is reversible. These results show that actin-myosin interaction plays a critical role in the process of myofibrillogenesis.

  14. The integrin-actin connection, an eternal love affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Fässler, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Integrin receptors connect the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. This interaction can be viewed as a cyclical liaison, which develops again and again at new adhesion sites only to cease at sites of de-adhesion. Recent work has demonstrated that multidomain proteins play crucial roles...... in the integrin-actin connection by providing a high degree of regulation adjusted to the needs of the cell. In this review we present several examples of this paradigm and with special emphasis on the ILK-PINCH-parvin complex, which amply demonstrates how structural and signalling functions are linked together....

  15. Activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D R; Carson, J A; Stewart, L N; Booth, F W

    1998-11-01

    Little is known concerning promoter regulation of genes in regenerating skeletal muscles. In young rats, recovery of muscle mass and protein content is complete within 21 days. During the initial 5-10 days of regeneration, mRNA abundance for IGF-I, myogenin and MyoD have been shown to be dramatically increased. The skeletal alpha-actin promoter contains E box and serum response element (SRE) regulatory regions which are directly or indirectly activated by myogenin (or MyoD) and IGF-I proteins, respectively. We hypothesized that the skeletal alpha-actin promoter activity would increase during muscle regeneration, and that this induction would occur before muscle protein content returned to normal. Total protein content and the percentage content of skeletal alpha-actin protein was diminished at 4 and 8 days and re-accumulation had largely occurred by 16 days post-bupivacaine injection. Skeletal alpha-actin mRNA per whole muscle was decreased at day 8, and thereafter returned to control values. During regeneration at day 8, luciferase activity (a reporter of promoter activity) directed by -424 skeletal alpha-actin and -99 skeletal alpha-actin promoter constructs was increased by 700% and 250% respectively; however, at day 16, skeletal alpha-actin promoter activities were similar to control values. Thus, initial activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter is associated with regeneration of skeletal muscle, despite not being sustained during the later stages of regrowth. The proximal SRE of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter was not sufficient to confer a regeneration-induced promoter activation, despite increased serum response factor protein binding to this regulatory element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Skeletal alpha-actin promoter induction during regeneration is due to a combination of regulatory elements, at least including the SRE and E box.

  16. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  17. Covalent and non-covalent chemical engineering of actin for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Mansson, Alf

    2017-11-15

    The cytoskeletal filaments are self-assembled protein polymers with 8-25nm diameters and up to several tens of micrometres length. They have a range of pivotal roles in eukaryotic cells, including transportation of intracellular cargoes (primarily microtubules with dynein and kinesin motors) and cell motility (primarily actin and myosin) where muscle contraction is one example. For two decades, the cytoskeletal filaments and their associated motor systems have been explored for nanotechnological applications including miniaturized sensor systems and lab-on-a-chip devices. Several developments have also revolved around possible exploitation of the filaments alone without their motor partners. Efforts to use the cytoskeletal filaments for applications often require chemical or genetic engineering of the filaments such as specific conjugation with fluorophores, antibodies, oligonucleotides or various macromolecular complexes e.g. nanoparticles. Similar conjugation methods are also instrumental for a range of fundamental biophysical studies. Here we review methods for non-covalent and covalent chemical modifications of actin filaments with focus on critical advantages and challenges of different methods as well as critical steps in the conjugation procedures. We also review potential uses of the engineered actin filaments in nanotechnological applications and in some key fundamental studies of actin and myosin function. Finally, we consider possible future lines of investigation that may be addressed by applying chemical conjugation of actin in new ways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generic concept to program the time domain of self-assemblies with a self-regulation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Thomas; Steppert, Ann-Kathrin; Lopez, Catalina Molano; Zhu, Baolei; Walther, Andreas

    2015-04-08

    Nature regulates complex structures in space and time via feedback loops, kinetically controlled transformations, and under energy dissipation to allow non-equilibrium processes. Although man-made static self-assemblies realize excellent control over hierarchical structures via molecular programming, managing their temporal destiny by self-regulation is a largely unsolved challenge. Herein, we introduce a generic concept to control the time domain by programming the lifetimes of switchable self-assemblies in closed systems. We conceive dormant deactivators that, in combination with fast promoters, enable a unique kinetic balance to establish an autonomously self-regulating, transient pH-state, whose duration can be programmed over orders of magnitude-from minutes to days. Coupling this non-equilibrium state to pH-switchable self-assemblies allows predicting their assembly/disassembly fate in time, similar to a precise self-destruction mechanism. We demonstrate a platform approach by programming self-assembly lifetimes of block copolymers, nanoparticles, and peptides, enabling dynamic materials with a self-regulation functionality.

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household...

  20. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in H1299 cancer cells by actin-associated protein cofilin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Sheu, T.-J.; Keng, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Cofilin is an actin-associated protein that belongs to the actin depolymerization factor/cofilin family and is important for regulation of actin dynamics. Cofilin can import actin monomers into the nucleus under certain stress conditions, however the biological effects of nuclear transport are unclear. In this study, we found that over-expression of cofilin led to increased radiation sensitivity in human non-small lung cancer H1299 cells. Cell survival as determined by colony forming assay showed that cells over-expressing cofilin were more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) than normal cells. To determine whether the DNA repair capacity was altered in cofilin over-expressing cells, comet assays were performed on irradiated cells. Repair of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation was detected in cofilin over-expressing cells after 24 h of recovery. Consistent with this observation, the key components for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, including Rad51, Rad52, and Ku70/Ku80, were down-regulated in cofilin over-expressing cells after IR exposure. These findings suggest that cofilin can influence radiosensitivity by altering DNA repair capacity

  1. STK35L1 associates with nuclear actin and regulates cell cycle and migration of endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Goyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells are essential for repair of injured endothelium and angiogenesis. Cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors play an important role in vascular tissue injury and wound healing. Previous studies suggest a link between the cell cycle and cell migration: cells present in the G(1 phase have the highest potential to migrate. The molecular mechanism linking these two processes is not understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we explored the function of STK35L1, a novel Ser/Thr kinase, localized in the nucleus and nucleolus of endothelial cells. Molecular biological analysis identified a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and nucleolar localization sequences in the N-terminal part of STK35L1. Nuclear actin was identified as a novel binding partner of STK35L1. A class III PDZ binding domains motif was identified in STK35L1 that mediated its interaction with actin. Depletion of STK35L1 by siRNA lead to an accelerated G(1 to S phase transition after serum-stimulation of endothelial cells indicating an inhibitory role of the kinase in G(1 to S phase progression. Cell cycle specific genes array analysis revealed that one gene was prominently downregulated (8.8 fold in STK35L1 silenced cells: CDKN2A alpha transcript, which codes for p16(INK4a leading to G(1 arrest by inhibition of CDK4/6. Moreover in endothelial cells seeded on Matrigel, STK35L1 expression was rapidly upregulated, and silencing of STK35L1 drastically inhibited endothelial sprouting that is required for angiogenesis. Furthermore, STK35L1 depletion profoundly impaired endothelial cell migration in two wound healing assays. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that by regulating CDKN2A and inhibiting G1- to S-phase transition STK35L1 may act as a central kinase linking the cell cycle and migration of endothelial cells. The interaction of STK35L1 with nuclear

  2. All-Round Manipulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina Stella, Alberto; Turville, Stuart

    2018-02-05

    While significant progress has been made in terms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, treatment does not represent a cure and remains inaccessible to many people living with HIV. Continued mechanistic research into the viral life cycle and its intersection with many aspects of cellular biology are not only fundamental in the continued fight against HIV, but also provide many key observations of the workings of our immune system. Decades of HIV research have testified to the integral role of the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and spreading the infection. Here, we review how the virus uses different strategies to manipulate cellular actin networks and increase the efficiency of various stages of its life cycle. While some HIV proteins seem able to bind to actin filaments directly, subversion of the cytoskeleton occurs indirectly by exploiting the power of actin regulatory proteins, which are corrupted at multiple levels. Furthermore, this manipulation is not restricted to a discrete class of proteins, but rather extends throughout all layers of the cytoskeleton. We discuss prominent examples of actin regulators that are exploited, neutralized or hijacked by the virus, and address how their coordinated deregulation can lead to changes in cellular behavior that promote viral spreading.

  3. Munc18-1-regulated stage-wise SNARE assembly underlying synaptic exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Rebane, Aleksander A; Yang, Guangcan; Xi, Zhiqun; Kang, Yuhao; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-12-23

    Synaptic-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins couple their stage-wise folding/assembly to rapid exocytosis of neurotransmitters in a Munc18-1-dependent manner. The functions of the different assembly stages in exocytosis and the role of Munc18-1 in SNARE assembly are not well understood. Using optical tweezers, we observed four distinct stages of assembly in SNARE N-terminal, middle, C-terminal, and linker domains (or NTD, MD, CTD, and LD, respectively). We found that SNARE layer mutations differentially affect SNARE assembly. Comparison of their effects on SNARE assembly and on exocytosis reveals that NTD and CTD are responsible for vesicle docking and fusion, respectively, whereas MD regulates SNARE assembly and fusion. Munc18-1 initiates SNARE assembly and structures t-SNARE C-terminus independent of syntaxin N-terminal regulatory domain (NRD) and stabilizes the half-zippered SNARE complex dependent upon the NRD. Our observations demonstrate distinct functions of SNARE domains whose assembly is intimately chaperoned by Munc18-1.

  4. GTPase activity, structure, and mechanical properties of filaments assembled from bacterial cytoskeleton protein MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esue, Osigwe; Wirtz, Denis; Tseng, Yiider

    2006-02-01

    MreB, a major component of the recently discovered bacterial cytoskeleton, displays a structure homologous to its eukaryotic counterpart actin. Here, we study the assembly and mechanical properties of Thermotoga maritima MreB in the presence of different nucleotides in vitro. We found that GTP, not ADP or GDP, can mediate MreB assembly into filamentous structures as effectively as ATP. Upon MreB assembly, both GTP and ATP release the gamma phosphate at similar rates. Therefore, MreB is an equally effective ATPase and GTPase. Electron microscopy and quantitative rheology suggest that the morphologies and micromechanical properties of filamentous ATP-MreB and GTP-MreB are similar. In contrast, mammalian actin assembly is favored in the presence of ATP over GTP. These results indicate that, despite high structural homology of their monomers, T. maritima MreB and actin filaments display different assembly, morphology, micromechanics, and nucleotide-binding specificity. Furthermore, the biophysical properties of T. maritima MreB filaments, including high rigidity and propensity to form bundles, suggest a mechanism by which MreB helical structure may be involved in imposing a cylindrical architecture on rod-shaped bacterial cells.

  5. The effect of membrane-regulated actin polymerization on a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    KAUST Repository

    Kimpton, L. S.; Whiteley, J. P.; Waters, S. L.; Oliver, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    travelling-wave solutions with biologically plausible actin network profiles in two simple models that enforce polymerization or depolymerization of the actin network at the ends of the travelling, 1D strip of cytoplasm. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published

  6. Phosphorylation of actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) by tyrosine kinase p56lck modulates actin filament cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Sharma, C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2004-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) is a phosphoprotein present in the periphery of the cytoplasm where it can cross-link actin filaments, associate with lipid membranes, and bind to membrane surface receptors. Given its function and localization in the cell, we decided to investigate the possibility of whether it serves as substrate for p56lck, a lymphocyte-specific member of the src family of protein tyrosine kinases associated with cell surface glycoproteins. The interaction of p56lck with membrane glycoproteins is important for cell development and functional activation. Here, we show that purified p56lck interacts and catalyzes in vitro kinase reactions. Tyrosine phosphorylation by p56lck is restricted to a single peptide of labeled ABP-280 shown by protease digest. The addition of phorbol ester to cells results in the inhibition of phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck. These results show a decrease in phosphorylation suggesting conformationally induced regulation. Dynamic light scattering confirmed increased actin filament cross-linking due to phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck.

  7. In silico reconstitution of actin-based symmetry breaking and motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Dayel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells assemble viscoelastic networks of crosslinked actin filaments to control their shape, mechanical properties, and motility. One important class of actin network is nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and drives both membrane protrusion at the leading edge of motile cells and intracellular motility of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These networks can be reconstituted in vitro from purified components to drive the motility of spherical micron-sized beads. An Elastic Gel model has been successful in explaining how these networks break symmetry, but how they produce directed motile force has been less clear. We have combined numerical simulations with in vitro experiments to reconstitute the behavior of these motile actin networks in silico using an Accumulative Particle-Spring (APS model that builds on the Elastic Gel model, and demonstrates simple intuitive mechanisms for both symmetry breaking and sustained motility. The APS model explains observed transitions between smooth and pulsatile motion as well as subtle variations in network architecture caused by differences in geometry and conditions. Our findings also explain sideways symmetry breaking and motility of elongated beads, and show that elastic recoil, though important for symmetry breaking and pulsatile motion, is not necessary for smooth directional motility. The APS model demonstrates how a small number of viscoelastic network parameters and construction rules suffice to recapture the complex behavior of motile actin networks. The fact that the model not only mirrors our in vitro observations, but also makes novel predictions that we confirm by experiment, suggests that the model captures much of the essence of actin-based motility in this system.

  8. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  9. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  10. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin or polymeric form (F-actin. Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin.

  11. T lymphocyte migration: an action movie starring the actin and associated actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc eDupré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a dynamic filament meshwork that builds the architecture of the cell to sustain its fundamental properties. This physical structure is characterized by a continuous remodeling, which allows cells to accomplish complex motility steps such as directed migration, crossing of biological barriers and interaction with other cells. T lymphocytes excel in these motility steps to ensure their immune surveillance duties. In particular, actin cytoskeleton remodeling is key to facilitate the journey of T lymphocytes through distinct tissue environments and to tune their stop and go behavior during the scanning of antigen-presenting cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling during T lymphocyte motility have been only partially unraveled, since the function of many actin regulators has not yet been assessed in these cells. Our review aims to integrate the current knowledge into a comprehensive picture of how the actin cytoskeleton drives T lymphocyte migration. We will present the molecular actors that control actin cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as their role in the different T lymphocyte motile steps. We will also highlight which challenges remain to be addressed experimentally and which approaches appear promising to tackle them.

  12. T Lymphocyte Migration: An Action Movie Starring the Actin and Associated Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Loïc; Houmadi, Raïssa; Tang, Catherine; Rey-Barroso, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a dynamic filament meshwork that builds the architecture of the cell to sustain its fundamental properties. This physical structure is characterized by a continuous remodeling, which allows cells to accomplish complex motility steps such as directed migration, crossing of biological barriers, and interaction with other cells. T lymphocytes excel in these motility steps to ensure their immune surveillance duties. In particular, actin cytoskeleton remodeling is a key to facilitate the journey of T lymphocytes through distinct tissue environments and to tune their stop and go behavior during the scanning of antigen-presenting cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling during T lymphocyte motility have been only partially unraveled, since the function of many actin regulators has not yet been assessed in these cells. Our review aims to integrate the current knowledge into a comprehensive picture of how the actin cytoskeleton drives T lymphocyte migration. We will present the molecular actors that control actin cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as their role in the different T lymphocyte motile steps. We will also highlight which challenges remain to be addressed experimentally and which approaches appear promising to tackle them.

  13. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Pedersen, Line Hjortshøj; Byg, Luise

    2010-01-01

    Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin d...... dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton....

  14. A new F-actin structure in fungi: actin ring formation around the cell nucleus of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, Marie; Kawamoto, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    The F-actin cytoskeleton of Cryptococcus neoformans is known to comprise actin cables, cortical patches and cytokinetic ring. Here, we describe a new F-actin structure in fungi, a perinuclear F-actin collar ring around the cell nucleus, by fluorescent microscopic imaging of rhodamine phalloidin-stained F-actin. Perinuclear F-actin rings form in Cryptococcus neoformans treated with the microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole or with the drug solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or grown in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium, but they are absent in cells treated with Latrunculin A. Perinuclear F-actin rings may function as 'funicular cabin' for the cell nucleus, and actin cables as intracellular 'funicular' suspending nucleus in the central position in the cell and moving nucleus along the polarity axis along actin cables.

  15. Cofilin phosphorylation is elevated after F-actin disassembly induced by Rac1 depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linna; Li, Jing; Zhang, Liwang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Xiang; Brakebusch, Cord; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Xinyou

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is essential to keratinocyte function. Rac1 regulates cytoskeletal reorganization through signaling pathways such as the cofilin cascade. Cofilin severs actin filaments after activation by dephosphorylation. Rac1 was knocked out in mouse keratinocytes and it was found that actin filaments disassembled. In the epidermis of mice in which Rac1 was knocked out only in keratinocytes, cofilin phosphorylation was aberrantly elevated, corresponding to repression of the phosphatase slingshot1 (SSH1). These effects were independent of the signaling pathways for p21-activated kinase/LIM kinase (Pak/LIMK), protein kinase C, or protein kinase D or generation of reactive oxygen species. Similarly, when actin polymerization was specifically inhibited or Rac1 was knocked down, cofilin phosphorylation was enhanced and SSH1 was repressed. Repression of SSH1 partially blocked actin depolymerization induced by Rac1 depletion. Therefore, aberrant cofilin phosphorylation that induces actin polymerization might be a consequence of actin disassembly induced by the absence of Rac1. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Gamma interferon-induced guanylate binding protein 1 is a novel actin cytoskeleton remodeling factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Schubert, Dirk W; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies.

  17. Cofilin is a pH sensor for actin free barbed end formation: role of phosphoinositide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Christian; Barreiro, Gabriela; Dominguez, Laura; Chen, Xiaoming; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John; Kelly, Mark J S; Jacobson, Matthew P; Barber, Diane L

    2008-12-01

    Newly generated actin free barbed ends at the front of motile cells provide sites for actin filament assembly driving membrane protrusion. Growth factors induce a rapid biphasic increase in actin free barbed ends, and we found both phases absent in fibroblasts lacking H(+) efflux by the Na-H exchanger NHE1. The first phase is restored by expression of mutant cofilin-H133A but not unphosphorylated cofilin-S3A. Constant pH molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) reveal pH-sensitive structural changes in the cofilin C-terminal filamentous actin binding site dependent on His133. However, cofilin-H133A retains pH-sensitive changes in NMR spectra and severing activity in vitro, which suggests that it has a more complex behavior in cells. Cofilin activity is inhibited by phosphoinositide binding, and we found that phosphoinositide binding is pH-dependent for wild-type cofilin, with decreased binding at a higher pH. In contrast, phosphoinositide binding by cofilin-H133A is attenuated and pH insensitive. These data suggest a molecular mechanism whereby cofilin acts as a pH sensor to mediate a pH-dependent actin filament dynamics.

  18. Time-sequential observation of spindle and phragmoplast orientation in BY-2 cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Kei H; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Precise division plane determination is essential for plant development. At metaphase, a dense actin microfilament meshwork appears on both sides of the cell center, forming a characteristic cortical actin microfilament twin peak pattern in BY-2 cells. We previously reported a strong correlation between altered cortical actin microfilament patterning and an oblique mitotic spindle orientation, implying that these actin microfilament twin peaks play a role in the regulation of mitotic spindle orientation. In the present study, time-sequential observation was used to reveal the progression from oblique phragmoplast to oblique cell plate orientation in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. In contrast to cells with normal actin microfilament twin peaks, oblique phragmoplast reorientation was rarely observed in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. These results support the important roles of cortical actin microfilament patterning in division plane orientation.

  19. Cofilin phosphorylation is elevated after F-actin disassembly induced by Rac1 depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Linna; Li, Jing; Zhang, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is essential to keratinocyte function. Rac1 regulates cytoskeletal reorganization through signaling pathways such as the cofilin cascade. Cofilin severs actin filaments after activation by dephosphorylation. Rac1 was knocked out in mouse keratinocytes and it was found...... that actin filaments disassembled. In the epidermis of mice in which Rac1 was knocked out only in keratinocytes, cofilin phosphorylation was aberrantly elevated, corresponding to repression of the phosphatase slingshot1 (SSH1). These effects were independent of the signaling pathways for p21-activated kinase....../LIM kinase (Pak/LIMK), protein kinase C, or protein kinase D or generation of reactive oxygen species. Similarly, when actin polymerization was specifically inhibited or Rac1 was knocked down, cofilin phosphorylation was enhanced and SSH1 was repressed. Repression of SSH1 partially blocked actin...

  20. Dynamic release of nuclear RanGTP triggers TPX2-dependent microtubule assembly during the apoptotic execution phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David K; Wilde, Andrew; Lane, Jon D

    2009-03-01

    During apoptosis, the interphase microtubule network is dismantled then later replaced by a novel, non-centrosomal microtubule array. These microtubules assist in the peripheral redistribution of nuclear fragments in the apoptotic cell; however, the regulation of apoptotic microtubule assembly is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule assembly depends upon the release of nuclear RanGTP into the apoptotic cytoplasm because this process is blocked in apoptotic cells overexpressing dominant-negative GDP-locked Ran (T24N). Actin-myosin-II contractility provides the impetus for Ran release and, consequently, microtubule assembly is blocked in blebbistatin- and Y27632-treated apoptotic cells. Importantly, the spindle-assembly factor TPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2), colocalises with apoptotic microtubules, and siRNA silencing of TPX2, but not of the microtubule motors Mklp1 and Kid, abrogates apoptotic microtubule assembly. These data provide a molecular explanation for the assembly of the apoptotic microtubule network, and suggest important similarities with the process of RanGTP- and TPX2-mediated mitotic spindle formation.

  1. Actin filaments as tension sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Vitold E; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H

    2012-02-07

    The field of mechanobiology has witnessed an explosive growth over the past several years as interest has greatly increased in understanding how mechanical forces are transduced by cells and how cells migrate, adhere and generate traction. Actin, a highly abundant and anomalously conserved protein, plays a large role in forming the dynamic cytoskeleton that is so essential for cell form, motility and mechanosensitivity. While the actin filament (F-actin) has been viewed as dynamic in terms of polymerization and depolymerization, new results suggest that F-actin itself may function as a highly dynamic tension sensor. This property may help explain the unusual conservation of actin's sequence, as well as shed further light on actin's essential role in structures from sarcomeres to stress fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Egekvist, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists. Methods: A multicenter, non-interventional, c......Objectives: The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists. Methods: A multicenter, non...... and currently suspected in 9.4% of AK-affected anatomical regions. Lesions of AK were located primarily on the face (38.6%), scalp (12.8%), and hands (11.2%). Actinic keratosis commonly presented with multiple AK lesions (38.6%) and field cancerization (38.5%). The treatments used most frequently were...

  3. Dimensionality controls cytoskeleton assembly and metabolism of fibroblast cells in response to rigidity and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ochsner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various physical parameters, including substrate rigidity, size of adhesive islands and micro-and nano-topographies, have been shown to differentially regulate cell fate in two-dimensional (2-D cell cultures. Cells anchored in a three-dimensional (3-D microenvironment show significantly altered phenotypes, from altered cell adhesions, to cell migration and differentiation. Yet, no systematic analysis has been performed that studied how the integrated cellular responses to the physical characteristics of the environment are regulated by dimensionality (2-D versus 3-D.Arrays of 5 or 10 microm deep microwells were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The actin cytoskeleton was compared for single primary fibroblasts adhering either to microfabricated adhesive islands (2-D or trapped in microwells (3-D of controlled size, shape, and wall rigidity. On rigid substrates (Young's Modulus = 1 MPa, cytoskeleton assembly within single fibroblast cells occurred in 3-D microwells of circular, rectangular, square, and triangular shapes with 2-D projected surface areas (microwell bottom surface area and total surface areas of adhesion (microwell bottom plus wall surface area that inhibited stress fiber assembly in 2-D. In contrast, cells did not assemble a detectable actin cytoskeleton in soft 3-D microwells (20 kPa, regardless of their shapes, but did so on flat, 2-D substrates. The dependency on environmental dimensionality was also reflected by cell viability and metabolism as probed by mitochondrial activities. Both were upregulated in 3-D cultured cells versus cells on 2-D patterns when surface area of adhesion and rigidity were held constant.These data indicate that cell shape and rigidity are not orthogonal parameters directing cell fate. The sensory toolbox of cells integrates mechanical (rigidity and topographical (shape and dimensionality information differently when cell adhesions are confined to 2-D or occur in a 3-D space.

  4. Implications of treadmilling for the stability and polarity of actin and tubulin polymers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, M W

    1980-07-01

    In this report, we examine how the cell can selectively stabilize anchored filaments and suppress spontaneous filament assembly. Because microtubules and actin filaments have an organized distribution in cells, the cell must have a mechanism for suppressing spontaneous and random polymerization. Though the mechanism for suppressing spontaneous polymerization is unknown, an unusual property of these filaments has been demonstrated recently, i.e., under steady-stae conditions, in vitro actin filaments and microtubules can exhibit a flux of subunits through the polymers called "treadmilling." In vivo, however, most, if not all, of these polymers are attached at one end to specific structures and treadmilling should not occur. The function of treadmilling in vivo is, therefore, unclear at present. However, as shown here, the same physicochemical property of coupling assembly to ATP or GTP hydrolysis that leads to treadmilling in vitro can act to selectively stabilize anchored polymers in vivo. I show here that the theory of treadmilling implies that the concentration of subunits necessary for assembly of the nonanchored polymer will in general be higher than the concentration necessary for the assembly of polymers anchored with a specific polarity. This disparity in the monomer concentrations required for assembly can lead to a selective stabilization of anchored polymers and complete suppression of spontaneous polymerization at apparent equilibrium in vivo. It is possible, therefore, that the phenomenon of treadmilling is an in vitro manifestation of a mechanism designed to use ATP or GTP hydrolysis to control the spatial organization of filaments in the cell.

  5. Increased actin polymerization and stabilization interferes with neuronal function and survival in the AMPKγ mutant Loechrig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Cook

    Full Text Available loechrig (loe mutant flies are characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, behavioral deficits, and early death. The mutation is due to a P-element insertion in the gene for the γ-subunit of the trimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK complex, whereby the insertion affects only one of several alternative transcripts encoding a unique neuronal isoform. AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that regulates a plethora of signaling pathways, including cholesterol and isoprenoid synthesis via its downstream target hydroxy-methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA reductase. We recently showed that loe interferes with isoprenoid synthesis and increases the prenylation and thereby activation of RhoA. During development, RhoA plays an important role in neuronal outgrowth by activating a signaling cascade that regulates actin dynamics. Here we show that the effect of loe/AMPKγ on RhoA prenylation leads to a hyperactivation of this signaling pathway, causing increased phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizating factor cofilin and accumulation of filamentous actin. Furthermore, our results show that the resulting cytoskeletal changes in loe interfere with neuronal growth and disrupt axonal integrity. Surprisingly, these phenotypes were enhanced by expressing the Slingshot (SSH phosphatase, which during development promotes actin depolymerization by dephosphorylating cofilin. However, our studies suggest that in the adult SSH promotes actin polymerization, supporting in vitro studies using human SSH1 that suggested that SSH can also stabilize and bundle filamentous actin. Together with the observed increase in SSH levels in the loe mutant, our experiments suggest that in mature neurons SSH may function as a stabilization factor for filamentous actin instead of promoting actin depolymerization.

  6. The actin-binding protein capulet genetically interacts with the microtubule motor kinesin to maintain neuronal dendrite homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M B Medina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurons require precise cytoskeletal regulation within neurites, containing microtubule tracks for cargo transport in axons and dendrites or within synapses containing organized actin. Due to the unique architecture and specialized function of neurons, neurons are particularly susceptible to perturbation of the cytoskeleton. Numerous actin-binding proteins help maintain proper cytoskeletal regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a Drosophila forward genetic screen, we identified a mutation in capulet--encoding a conserved actin-binding protein--that causes abnormal aggregates of actin within dendrites. Through interaction studies, we demonstrate that simultaneous genetic inactivation of capulet and kinesin heavy chain, a microtubule motor protein, produces elongate cofilin-actin rods within dendrites but not axons. These rods resemble actin-rich structures induced in both mammalian neurodegenerative and Drosophila Alzheimer's models, but have not previously been identified by loss of function mutations in vivo. We further demonstrate that mitochondria, which are transported by Kinesin, have impaired distribution along dendrites in a capulet mutant. While Capulet and Cofilin may biochemically cooperate in certain circumstances, in neuronal dendrites they genetically antagonize each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study is the first molecularly defined loss of function demonstration of actin-cofilin rods in vivo. This study suggests that simultaneous, seemingly minor perturbations in neuronal dendrites can synergize producing severe abnormalities affecting actin, microtubules and mitochondria/energy availability in dendrites. Additionally, as >90% of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's cases are sporadic this study suggests mechanisms by which multiple mutations together may contribute to neurodegeneration instead of reliance on single mutations to produce disease.

  7. Polycation induced actin bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations an...

  8. Divergent regulation of the sarcomere and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevzov, Galina; Fath, Thomas; Vrhovski, Bernadette; Vlahovich, Nicole; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hook, Jeff; Joya, Josephine E; Lemckert, Frances; Puttur, Franz; Lin, Jim J-C; Hardeman, Edna C; Wieczorek, David F; O'Neill, Geraldine M; Gunning, Peter W

    2008-01-04

    The existence of a feedback mechanism regulating the precise amounts of muscle structural proteins, such as actin and the actin-associated protein tropomyosin (Tm), in the sarcomeres of striated muscles is well established. However, the regulation of nonmuscle or cytoskeletal actin and Tms in nonmuscle cell structures has not been elucidated. Unlike the thin filaments of striated muscles, the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells is intrinsically dynamic. Given the differing requirements for the structural integrity of the actin thin filaments of the sarcomere compared with the requirement for dynamicity of the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells, we postulated that different regulatory mechanisms govern the expression of sarcomeric versus cytoskeletal Tms, as key regulators of the properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Comprehensive analyses of tissues from transgenic and knock-out mouse lines that overexpress the cytoskeletal Tms, Tm3 and Tm5NM1, and a comparison with sarcomeric Tms provide evidence for this. Moreover, we show that overexpression of a cytoskeletal Tm drives the amount of filamentous actin.

  9. Morphological changes of plasma membrane and protein assembly during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Aiko; Sakai, Nobuaki; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Imaoka, Yuka; Itagaki, Yoshitsuna; Suzuki, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) proceeds through a series of morphological changes of the plasma membrane induced by a number of protein components. Although the spatiotemporal assembly of these proteins has been elucidated by fluorescence-based techniques, the protein-induced morphological changes of the plasma membrane have not been fully clarified in living cells. Here, we visualize membrane morphology together with protein localizations during CME by utilizing high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) combined with a confocal laser scanning unit. The plasma membrane starts to invaginate approximately 30 s after clathrin starts to assemble, and the aperture diameter increases as clathrin accumulates. Actin rapidly accumulates around the pit and induces a small membrane swelling, which, within 30 s, rapidly covers the pit irreversibly. Inhibition of actin turnover abolishes the swelling and induces a reversible open–close motion of the pit, indicating that actin dynamics are necessary for efficient and irreversible pit closure at the end of CME. PMID:29723197

  10. Tailor-made ezrin actin binding domain to probe its interaction with actin in-vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Shrivastava

    Full Text Available Ezrin, a member of the ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin protein family, is an Actin-plasma membrane linker protein mediating cellular integrity and function. In-vivo study of such interactions is a complex task due to the presence of a large number of endogenous binding partners for both Ezrin and Actin. Further, C-terminal actin binding capacity of the full length Ezrin is naturally shielded by its N-terminal, and only rendered active in the presence of Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 or phosphorylation at the C-terminal threonine. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the design, expression and purification of constructs, combining the Ezrin C-terminal actin binding domain, with functional elements such as fusion tags and fluorescence tags to facilitate purification and fluorescence microscopy based studies. For the first time, internal His tag was employed for purification of Ezrin actin binding domain based on in-silico modeling. The functionality (Ezrin-actin interaction of these constructs was successfully demonstrated by using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. This design can be extended to other members of the ERM family as well.

  11. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in "ventral F-actin waves" that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the ex...

  12. Actinic keratosis among seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, M; Kuechmeister, B; Ohnemus, U; Baur, X; Moll, I

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of UV-induced actinic keratosis and further skin lesions. A newly developed questionnaire about lifetime UV radiation exposure was completed by 514 seafarers. An experienced dermatologist inspected the whole-body skin status of all participants. The questionnaire revealed a pre-employment UV radiation exposure in 104 seafarers, sunbed use in 26 subjects and a median work-related UV radiation exposure at sea of 20 years. The diagnosis of actinic keratoses was made in 94 seafarers and the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers in 48 seafarers (28 basal cell carcinoma, 11 squamous cell carcinoma, 9 malignant melanoma). After age standardisation according to a European reference population, the male European seafarers in this study had a 1.80-fold increased risk of actinic keratosis. Actinic keratoses [OR 1.03 (1.01-1.05)] and squamous cell carcinoma [OR 1.07 (1.01-1.13)] were related to the duration of seafaring time in years. A significant association was also found between actinic keratosis/squamous cell carcinoma and sunlight exposure during home leave [OR 1.67 (1.03-2.81) and OR 6.19 (1.18-32.40)]. Furthermore, the engine room personnel-especially the technical officers-were at higher risk of developing actinic keratosis. Due to the high prevalence of actinic keratosis especially among older seafarers with fair skin, with longer duration of seafaring employment at sea and with higher UV exposure during home leave, more intensive advice should be given on sun protection both at sea and ashore.

  13. Green fluorescent protein-mtalin causes defects in actin organization and cell expansion in Arabidopsis and inhibits actin depolymerizing factor's actin depolymerizing activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Anthony, R.G.; Hussey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to an actin binding domain is a commonly used method for live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton. One of these chimeric proteins is GFP-mTalin (GFP fused to the actin binding domain of mouse talin). Although it has been demonstrated that

  14. Cortactin involvement in the keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 promotion of migration and cortical actin assembly in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, Simona; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Picardo, Mauro; Marchese, Cinzia; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10/KGF2) regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by binding to the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR). KGF induces keratinocyte motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement, whereas a direct role of FGF10 on keratinocyte migration is not clearly established. Here we analyzed the motogenic activity of FGF10 and KGF on human keratinocytes. Migration assays and immunofluorescence of actin cytoskeleton revealed that FGF10 is less efficient than KGF in promoting migration and exerts a delayed effect in inducing lamellipodia and ruffles formation. Both growth factors promoted phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation of cortactin, an F-actin binding protein involved in cell migration; however, FGF10-induced cortactin phosphorylation was reduced, more transient and delayed with respect to that promoted by KGF. Cortactin phosphorylation induced by both growth factors was Src-dependent, while its membrane translocation and cell migration were blocked by either Src and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that both pathways are involved in KGF- and FGF10-dependent motility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of cortactin inhibited KGF- and FGF10-induced migration. These results indicate that cortactin is involved in keratinocyte migration promoted by both KGF and FGF10

  15. Cytoskeletal actin dynamics shape a ramifying actin network underpinning immunological synapse formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzsche, Marco; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Chang, Veronica T.

    2017-01-01

    optical microscopes to analyze resting and activated T cells, we show that, following contact formation with activating surfaces, these cells sequentially rearrange their cortical actin across the entire cell, creating a previously unreported ramifying actin network above the immunological synapse...

  16. Mesoscopic model of actin-based propulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available Two theoretical models dominate current understanding of actin-based propulsion: microscopic polymerization ratchet model predicts that growing and writhing actin filaments generate forces and movements, while macroscopic elastic propulsion model suggests that deformation and stress of growing actin gel are responsible for the propulsion. We examine both experimentally and computationally the 2D movement of ellipsoidal beads propelled by actin tails and show that neither of the two models can explain the observed bistability of the orientation of the beads. To explain the data, we develop a 2D hybrid mesoscopic model by reconciling these two models such that individual actin filaments undergoing nucleation, elongation, attachment, detachment and capping are embedded into the boundary of a node-spring viscoelastic network representing the macroscopic actin gel. Stochastic simulations of this 'in silico' actin network show that the combined effects of the macroscopic elastic deformation and microscopic ratchets can explain the observed bistable orientation of the actin-propelled ellipsoidal beads. To test the theory further, we analyze observed distribution of the curvatures of the trajectories and show that the hybrid model's predictions fit the data. Finally, we demonstrate that the model can explain both concave-up and concave-down force-velocity relations for growing actin networks depending on the characteristic time scale and network recoil. To summarize, we propose that both microscopic polymerization ratchets and macroscopic stresses of the deformable actin network are responsible for the force and movement generation.

  17. Polycation induced actin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E; Reisler, Emil

    2011-04-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon the addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations and the neutralization of repulsive interactions of negative charges on actin. The attractive forces between the filaments are strong, as shown by the low (in nanomolar range) critical concentration of their bundling at low ionic strength. These bundles are sensitive to ionic strength and disassemble partially in 100 mM NaCl, but both the dissociation and ionic strength sensitivity can be countered by higher polycation concentrations. Cys374 residues of actin monomers residing on neighboring filaments in the bundles can be cross-linked by the short span (5.4Å) MTS-1 (1,1-methanedyl bismethanethiosulfonate) cross-linker, which indicates a tight packing of filaments in the bundles. The interfilament cross-links, which connect monomers located on oppositely oriented filaments, prevent disassembly of bundles at high ionic strength. Cofilin and the polysaccharide polyanion heparin disassemble lysozyme induced actin bundles more effectively than the polylysine-induced bundles. The actin-lysozyme bundles are pathologically significant as both proteins are found in the pulmonary airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Their bundles contribute to the formation of viscous mucus, which is the main cause of breathing difficulties and eventual death in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The actin multigene family of Paramecium tetraurelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Erika

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paramecium tetraurelia pilot genome project, the subsequent sequencing of a Megabase chromosome as well as the Paramecium genome project aimed at gaining insight into the genome of Paramecium. These cells display a most elaborate membrane trafficking system, with distinct, predictable pathways in which actin could participate. Previously we had localized actin in Paramecium; however, none of the efforts so far could proof the occurrence of actin in the cleavage furrow of a dividing cell, despite the fact that actin is unequivocally involved in cell division. This gave a first hint that Paramecium may possess actin isoforms with unusual characteristics. The genome project gave us the chance to search the whole Paramecium genome, and, thus, to identify and characterize probably all actin isoforms in Paramecium. Results The ciliated protozoan, P. tetraurelia, contains an actin multigene family with at least 30 members encoding actin, actin-related and actin-like proteins. They group into twelve subfamilies; a large subfamily with 10 genes, seven pairs and one trio with > 82% amino acid identity, as well as three single genes. The different subfamilies are very distinct from each other. In comparison to actins in other organisms, P. tetraurelia actins are highly divergent, with identities topping 80% and falling to 30%. We analyzed their structure on nucleotide level regarding the number and position of introns. On amino acid level, we scanned the sequences for the presence of actin consensus regions, for amino acids of the intermonomer interface in filaments, for residues contributing to ATP binding, and for known binding sites for myosin and actin-specific drugs. Several of those characteristics are lacking in several subfamilies. The divergence of P. tetraurelia actins and actin-related proteins between different P. tetraurelia subfamilies as well as with sequences of other organisms is well represented in a phylogenetic

  19. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by ... The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known.Diclofenac is also available as ...

  20. Bacterial actin MreB forms antiparallel double filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Fusinita; Izoré, Thierry; Bharat, Tanmay Am; Johnson, Christopher M; Löwe, Jan

    2014-05-02

    Filaments of all actin-like proteins known to date are assembled from pairs of protofilaments that are arranged in a parallel fashion, generating polarity. In this study, we show that the prokaryotic actin homologue MreB forms pairs of protofilaments that adopt an antiparallel arrangement in vitro and in vivo. We provide an atomic view of antiparallel protofilaments of Caulobacter MreB as apparent from crystal structures. We show that a protofilament doublet is essential for MreB's function in cell shape maintenance and demonstrate by in vivo site-specific cross-linking the antiparallel orientation of MreB protofilaments in E. coli. 3D cryo-EM shows that pairs of protofilaments of Caulobacter MreB tightly bind to membranes. Crystal structures of different nucleotide and polymerisation states of Caulobacter MreB reveal conserved conformational changes accompanying antiparallel filament formation. Finally, the antimicrobial agents A22/MP265 are shown to bind close to the bound nucleotide of MreB, presumably preventing nucleotide hydrolysis and destabilising double protofilaments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02634.001. Copyright © 2014, van den Ent et al.

  1. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI PROMOTER β-ACTIN DARI IKAN KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2016-11-01

    Promoter as gene expression regulator is one of the factors affecting the successful of transgenesis. Isolation and characterization of β -actin promoter (ktBA from humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis towards generation of autotransgenic grouper have been conducted.  β -actin promoter has high activity in muscle. Sequence of ktBA promoter was isolated by using degenerate PCR method. Sequencing was performed using ABI PRISM 3100 machine. Analysis of sequences was conducted using BLAST, GENETYX version 7 and TFBind softwares. DNA fragment of PCR amplification product digested from the vector cloning was then ligated with pEGFPN1 to generate pktBA-GFP construct. The construct was microinjected into one-cell stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos to test the ktBA promoter activity. EGFP gene expression was observed by fluorescence microscope. The result of sequence analysis showed that the length of DNA fragment obtained is about 1.6 kb and containing the evolutionary conserved sequences of transcription factor for β -actin promoter including CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes. Furthermore, ktBA sequence in pktBA-EGFP construct could drove GFP expression in muscle of zebrafish embryos injected with the construct. The results suggested that PCR amplification product is the regulator sequence of humpback grouper β -actin gene. Autotransgenic grouper can be then produced by changing GFP gene fragment of pktBA-EGFP construct with genes from grouper encoding important traits in aquaculture.

  2. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  3. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the ‘molecular clutch’ description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of major sperm protein, which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton. (paper)

  4. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria monocyto......Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...... of downstream ERK1/2- and AKT-dependent signalling in response to the natural ligand Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). The regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics was further confirmed by the induction of actin stress fibres in HeLa expressing the active enzyme but not the catalytic mutant UCH-L1(C90S...

  5. Non-Straub type actin from molluscan catch muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelud' ko, Nikolay S., E-mail: sheludko@stl.ru; Girich, Ulyana V.; Lazarev, Stanislav S.; Vyatchin, Ilya G.

    2016-05-27

    We have developed a method of obtaining natural actin from smooth muscles of the bivalves on the example of the Crenomytilus grayanus catch muscle. The muscles were previously rigorized to prevent a loss of thin filaments during homogenization and washings. Thin filaments were isolated with a low ionic strength solution in the presence of ATP and sodium pyrophosphate. Surface proteins of thin filaments-tropomyosin, troponin, calponin and some minor actin-binding proteins-were dissociated from actin filaments by increasing the ionic strength to 0.6 M KCL. Natural fibrillar actin obtained in that way depolymerizes easily in low ionic strength solutions commonly used for the extraction of Straub-type actin from acetone powder. Purification of natural actin was carried out by the polymerization–depolymerization cycle. The content of inactivated actin remaining in the supernatant is much less than at a similar purification of Straub-type actin. A comparative investigation was performed between the natural mussel actin and the Straub-type rabbit skeletal actin in terms of the key properties of actin: polymerization, activation of Mg-ATPase activity of myosin, and the electron-microscopic structure of actin polymers. -- Highlights: •We developed method of repolymerizable invertebrate smooth muscle actin obtaining. •Our method does not involve use of denaturating agents, which could modify proteins. •Viscosity and polymerization rate of actin, gained that way, is similar to Straub one. •Electron microscopy showed that repolymerized mussel actin is similar to Straub one. •Repolymerized mussel actin has greater ATPase activating capacity, than Straub actin.

  6. TGF1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Almalki, Sami

    2018-01-01

    MSC cultures using DNA microarrays. In total, 1932 genes were upregulated, and 1298 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGFβl treatment was associated with an enrichment of genes in the skeletal and extracellular matrix categories and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton....... To investigate further, we examined the actin cytoskeleton following treatment with TGFβ1 and/or cytochalasin D. Interestingly, cytochalasin D treatment of hMSCs enhanced adipogenic differentiation but inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Global gene expression profiling revealed a significant enrichment...... of pathways related to osteogenesis and adipogenesis and of genes regulated by both TGFβ1 and cytochalasin D. Our study demonstrates that TGFβ1 enhances hMSC commitment to either the osteogenic or adipogenic lineages by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton....

  7. Chorein Sensitivity of Actin Polymerization, Cell Shape and Mechanical Stiffness of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial cell stiffness plays a key role in endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. Actin polymerization and distribution of microfilaments is essential for mechanical cell stiffness. Chorein, a protein encoded by the VPS13A gene, defective in chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc, is involved in neuronal cell survival as well as cortical actin polymerization of erythrocytes and blood platelets. Chorein is expressed in a wide variety of further cells, yet nothing is known about the impact of chorein on cells other than neurons, erythrocytes and platelets. The present study explored whether chorein is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and addressed the putative role of chorein in the regulation of cytoskeletal architecture, stiffness and survival of those cells. Methods: In HUVECs with or without silencing of the VPS13A gene, VPS13A mRNA expression was determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR, cytoskeletal organization visualized by confocal microscopy, G/F actin ratio and phosphorylation status of focal adhesion kinase quantified by western blotting, cell death determined by flow cytometry, mechanical properties studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM and cell morphology analysed by scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM. Results: VPS13A mRNA expression was detectable in HUVECs. Silencing of the VPS13A gene attenuated the filamentous actin network, decreased the ratio of soluble G-actin over filamentous F-actin, reduced cell stiffness and changed cell morphology as compared to HUVECs silenced with negative control siRNA. These effects were paralleled by a significant decrease in FAK phosphorylation following VPS13A silencing. Moreover, silencing of the VPS13A gene increased caspase 3 activity and induced necrosis in HUVECs. Conclusions: Chorein is a novel regulator of cytoskeletal architecture, cell shape, mechanical stiffness and survival of vascular endothelial cells.

  8. Study on the regulation of focal adesions and cortical actin by matrix nanotopography in 3D environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingjing; Lin, Keng-Hui; Chew, Lock Yue

    2017-11-01

    Matrix nanotopography plays an important role in regulating cell behaviors by providing spatial as well as mechanical cues for cells to sense. It has been proposed that nanoscale topography is possible to modulate the tensions which direct the formation of cytoskeleton and the organization of the membrane receptor within the cell, which in turn regulate intracellular mechanical and biochemical signaling. With current studies on this topic being performed mainly in 2D platforms, the question on how nanotopography can influence cell bahaviors in 3D environments has yet to be addressed. In this paper, we explored this question by placing cells in 3D hollow spherical polydimethylsiloxane scaffolds. After culturing rat embryonic fibroblast cells in two kinds of scaffold, one with smooth surface and the other with numerous nano-spikes, we observed that cells in the smooth scaffold have more anchoring sites and more focal adhesions than in the etched scaffold. Moreover, we found the presence of correlation between cortical actin, the important component for supporting cell attachment, and local cell geometry.

  9. Dia-Interacting Protein (DIP) Imposes Migratory Plasticity in mDia2-Dependent Tumor Cells in Three-Dimensional Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Meghan M.; Lei, Jun; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L.; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cells rely upon membrane pliancy to escape primary lesions and invade secondary metastatic sites. This process relies upon localized assembly and disassembly cycles of F-actin that support and underlie the plasma membrane. Dynamic actin generates both spear-like and bleb structures respectively characterizing mesenchymal and amoeboid motility programs utilized by metastatic cells in three-dimensional matrices. The molecular mechanism and physiological trigger(s) driving membrane plasticity are poorly understood. mDia formins are F-actin assembly factors directing membrane pliancy in motile cells. mDia2 is functionally coupled with its binding partner DIP, regulating cortical actin and inducing membrane blebbing in amoeboid cells. Here we show that mDia2 and DIP co-tether to nascent blebs and this linkage is required for bleb formation. DIP controls mesenchymal/amoeboid cell interconvertability, while CXCL12 induces assembly of mDia2:DIP complexes to bleb cortices in 3D matrices. These results demonstrate how DIP-directed mDia2-dependent F-actin dynamics regulate morphological plasticity in motile cancer cells. PMID:23024796

  10. Dia-interacting protein (DIP imposes migratory plasticity in mDia2-dependent tumor cells in three-dimensional matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan M Wyse

    Full Text Available Tumor cells rely upon membrane pliancy to escape primary lesions and invade secondary metastatic sites. This process relies upon localized assembly and disassembly cycles of F-actin that support and underlie the plasma membrane. Dynamic actin generates both spear-like and bleb structures respectively characterizing mesenchymal and amoeboid motility programs utilized by metastatic cells in three-dimensional matrices. The molecular mechanism and physiological trigger(s driving membrane plasticity are poorly understood. mDia formins are F-actin assembly factors directing membrane pliancy in motile cells. mDia2 is functionally coupled with its binding partner DIP, regulating cortical actin and inducing membrane blebbing in amoeboid cells. Here we show that mDia2 and DIP co-tether to nascent blebs and this linkage is required for bleb formation. DIP controls mesenchymal/amoeboid cell interconvertability, while CXCL12 induces assembly of mDia2:DIP complexes to bleb cortices in 3D matrices. These results demonstrate how DIP-directed mDia2-dependent F-actin dynamics regulate morphological plasticity in motile cancer cells.

  11. Transport of Ebolavirus Nucleocapsids Is Dependent on Actin Polymerization: Live-Cell Imaging Analysis of Ebolavirus-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Herwig, Astrid; Becker, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Transport of ebolavirus (EBOV) nucleocapsids from perinuclear viral inclusions, where they are formed, to the site of budding at the plasma membrane represents an obligatory step of virus assembly. Until now, no live-cell studies on EBOV nucleocapsid transport have been performed, and participation of host cellular factors in this process, as well as the trajectories and speed of nucleocapsid transport, remain unknown. Live-cell imaging of EBOV-infected cells treated with different inhibitors of cellular cytoskeleton was used for the identification of cellular proteins involved in the nucleocapsid transport. EBOV nucleocapsids were visualized by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled nucleocapsid viral protein 30 (VP30) in EBOV-infected cells. Incorporation of the fusion protein VP30-GFP into EBOV nucleocapsids was confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Importantly, VP30-GFP fluorescence was readily detectable in the densely packed nucleocapsids inside perinuclear viral inclusions and in the dispersed rod-like nucleocapsids located outside of viral inclusions. Live-cell imaging of EBOV-infected cells revealed exit of single nucleocapsids from the viral inclusions and their intricate transport within the cytoplasm before budding at the plasma membrane. Nucleocapsid transport was arrested upon depolymerization of actin filaments (F-actin) and inhibition of the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex, and it was not altered upon depolymerization of microtubules or inhibition of N-WASP. Actin comet tails were often detected at the rear end of nucleocapsids. Marginally located nucleocapsids entered filopodia, moved inside, and budded from the tip of these thin cellular protrusions. Live-cell imaging of EBOV-infected cells revealed actin-dependent long-distance transport of EBOV nucleocapsids before budding at the cell surface. These findings provide useful insights into EBOV assembly and have potential application in the development

  12. Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Tomba, Caterina; Bra?ni, C?line; Bugnicourt, Ghislain; Cohen, Floriane; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Gov, Nir S.; Villard, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time betwe...

  13. Sirtuin1 Maintains Actin Cytoskeleton by Deacetylation of Cortactin in Injured Podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motonishi, Shuta; Wada, Takehiko; Ishimoto, Yu; Ohse, Takamoto; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kubota, Naoto; Shimizu, Akira; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the renoprotective effect of sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that contributes to cellular regulation. However, the pathophysiologic role of SIRT1 in podocytes remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of SIRT1 in podocytes. We first established podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (SIRT1pod−/−) mice. We then induced glomerular disease by nephrotoxic serum injection. The increase in urinary albumin excretion and BUN and the severity of glomerular injury were all significantly greater in SIRT1pod−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence showed a significant decrease in podocyte-specific proteins in SIRT1pod−/− mice, and electron microscopy showed marked exacerbation of podocyte injury, including actin cytoskeleton derangement in SIRT1pod−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Protamine sulfate-induced podocyte injury was also exacerbated by podocyte-specific SIRT1 deficiency. In vitro, actin cytoskeleton derangement in H2O2-treated podocytes became prominent when the cells were pretreated with SIRT1 inhibitors. Conversely, this H2O2-induced derangement was ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. Furthermore, SIRT1 activation deacetylated the actin-binding and -polymerizing protein cortactin in the nucleus and facilitated deacetylated cortactin localization in the cytoplasm. Cortactin knockdown or inhibition of the nuclear export of cortactin induced actin cytoskeleton derangement and dissociation of cortactin from F-actin, suggesting the necessity of cytoplasmic cortactin for maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT1 protects podocytes and prevents glomerular injury by deacetylating cortactin and thereby, maintaining actin cytoskeleton integrity. PMID:25424328

  14. Unconventional actin conformations localize on intermediate filaments in mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Unconventional actin conformations colocalize with vimentin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. → These conformations are detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 ('lower dimer') and 2G2 ('nuclear actin'), but not C4 (monomeric actin). → Mitotic unconventional actin cables are independent of filamentous actin or microtubules. → Unconventional actin colocalizes with vimentin on a nocodazole-induced perinuclear dense mass of cables. -- Abstract: Different structural conformations of actin have been identified in cells and shown to reside in distinct subcellular locations of cells. In this report, we describe the localization of actin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. Actin was detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 and 2G2, but not with the anti-actin antibody C4. Actin contained in this structure is independent of microtubules and actin filaments, and colocalizes with vimentin. Taking advantage of intermediate filament collapse into a perinuclear dense mass of cables when microtubules are depolymerized, we were able to relocalize actin to such structures. We hypothesize that phosphorylation of intermediate filaments at mitosis entry triggers the recruitment of different actin conformations to mitotic intermediate filaments. Storage and partition of the nuclear actin and antiparallel 'lower dimer' actin conformations between daughter cells possibly contribute to gene transcription and transient actin filament dynamics at G1 entry.

  15. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus (∼10 -6 N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability

  16. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  17. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  18. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Force Exertion and Transmission in Cross-Linked Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Samantha

    Cells are responsive to external cues in their environment telling them to proliferate or migrate within their surrounding tissue. Sensing of cues that are mechanical in nature, such stiffness of a tissue or forces transmitted from other cells, is believed to involve the cytoskeleton of a cell. The cytoskeleton is a complex network of proteins consisting of polymers that provide structural support, motor proteins that remodel these structures, and many others. We do not yet have a complete understanding of how cytoskeletal components respond to either internal or external mechanical force and stiffness. Such an understanding should involve mechanisms by which constituent molecules, such as motor proteins, are responsive to mechanics. Additionally, physical models of how forces are transmitted through biopolymer networks are necessary. My research has focused on networks formed by the cytoskeletal filament actin and the molecular motor protein myosin II. Actin filaments form networks and bundles that form a structural framework of the cell, and myosin II slides actin filaments. In this thesis, we show that stiffness of an elastic load that opposes myosin-generated actin sliding has a very sharp effect on the myosin force output in simulations. Secondly, we show that the stiffness and connectivity of cytoskeletal filaments regulates the contractility and anisotropy of network deformations that transmit force on material length scales. Together, these results have implications for predicting and interpreting the deformations and forces in biopolymeric active materials.

  20. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpula, Esa-Pekka [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kursula, Inari, E-mail: inari.kursula@helmholtz-hzi.de [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-16

    In this review, current structural understanding of the apicomplexan glideosome and actin regulation is described. Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective.

  1. Boron nitride nanotube-mediated stimulation modulates F/G-actin ratio and mechanical properties of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; das Neves, Ricardo Pires; Ciofani, Gianni; Canale, Claudio; Nitti, Simone; Mattoli, Virgilio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Ferreira, Lino; Menciassi, Arianna

    2014-02-01

    F/G-actin ratio modulation is known to have an important role in many cell functions and in the regulation of specific cell behaviors. Several attempts have been made in the latest decades to finely control actin production and polymerization, in order to promote certain cell responses. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of modulating F/G-actin ratio and mechanical properties of normal human dermal fibroblasts by using boron nitride nanotubes dispersed in the culture medium and by stimulating them with ultrasound transducers. Increasing concentrations of nanotubes were tested with the cells, without any evidence of cytotoxicity up to 10 μg/ml concentration of nanoparticles. Cells treated with nanoparticles and ultrasound stimulation showed a significantly higher F/G-actin ratio in comparison with the controls, as well as a higher Young's modulus. Assessment of Cdc42 activity revealed that actin nucleation/polymerization pathways, involving Rho GTPases, are probably influenced by nanotube-mediated stimulation, but they do not play a primary role in the significant increase of F/G-actin ratio of treated cells, such effect being mainly due to actin overexpression.

  2. Live cell imaging of actin dynamics in dexamethasone-treated porcine trabecular meshwork cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is important for controlling outflow of the aqueous humor. In some reports, dexamethasone (DEX) increased the aqueous humor outflow resistance and induced unusual actin structures, such as cross-linked actin networks (CLAN), in TM cells. However, the functions and dynamics of CLAN in TM cells are not completely known, partly because actin stress fibers have been observed only in fixed cells. We conducted live-cell imaging of the actin dynamics in TM cells with or without DEX treatment. An actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct with a modified insect virus was transfected into porcine TM cells. Time-lapse imaging of live TM cells treated with 25 μM Y-27632 and 100 nM DEX was performed using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Fluorescent images were recorded every 15 s for 30 min after Y-27632 treatment or every 30 min for 72 h after DEX treatment. The GFP-actin was expressed in 22.7 ± 10.9% of the transfected TM cells. In live TM cells, many actin stress fibers were observed before the Y-27632 treatment. Y-27632 changed the cell shape and decreased stress fibers in a time-dependent manner. In fixed cells, CLAN-like structures were seen in 26.5 ± 1.7% of the actin-GFP expressed PTM cells treated with DEX for 72 h. In live imaging, there was 28% CLAN-like structure formation at 72 h after DEX treatment, and the lifetime of CLAN-like structures increased after DEX treatment. The DEX-treated cells with CLAN-like structures showed less migration than DEX-treated cells without CLAN-like structures. Furthermore, the control cells (without DEX treatment) with CLAN-like structures also showed less migration than the control cells without CLAN-like structures. These results suggested that CLAN-like structure formation was correlated with cell migration in TM cells. Live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton provides valuable information on the actin dynamics in TM

  3. Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    Full Text Available Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1∶10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs, drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization.

  4. An F-actin-depleted zone is present at the hyphal tip of invasive hyphae of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suei, S; Garrill, A

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) in invasive and noninvasive hyphae of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa was investigated. Eighty six percent of noninvasive hyphae had F-actin in the tip region compared to only 9% of invasive hyphae. The remaining 91% of the invasive hyphae had no obvious tip high concentration of F-actin staining; instead they had an F-actin-depleted zone in this region, although some F-actin, possibly associated with the Spitzenkörper, remained at the tip. The size of the F-actin-depleted zone in invasive hyphae increased with an increase in agar concentration. The membrane stain FM 4-64 reveals a slightly larger accumulation of vesicles at the tips of invasive hyphae relative to noninvasive hyphae, although this difference is unlikely to be sufficient to account for the exclusion of F-actin from the depleted zone. Antibodies raised against the actin filament-severing protein cofilin from both yeast and human cells localize to the tips of invasive hyphae. The human cofilin antibody shows a more random distribution in noninvasive hyphae locating primarily at the hyphal periphery but with some diffuse cytoplasmic staining. This antibody also identifies a single band at 21 kDa in immunoblots of whole hyphal fractions. These data suggest that a protein with epitopic similarity to cofilin may function in F-actin dynamics that underlie invasive growth. The F-actin-depleted zone may play a role in the regulation of tip yielding to turgor pressure, thus increasing the protrusive force necessary for invasive growth.

  5. Actin expression in some Platyhelminthe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, A; Panara, F; Di Rosa, I; Simoncelli, F; Gabbiani, G; Pascolini, R

    1994-10-01

    Actin expression in some Platyhelminthe species was demonstrated by western-blotting and immunocytochemical analysis using two distinct anti-actin antibodies: the anti-total actin that reacts against all actin isoforms of higher vertebrates and the anti-alpha SM-1 that recognizes the alpha-smooth muscle (alpha SM) isotype of endothermic vertebrates (Skalli et al., 1986). Western-blotting experiments showed that all species tested, including some free-living Platyhelminthes (Tricladida and Rhabdocoela) and the parasitic Fasciola hepatica, were stained by anti-total actin antibody while only Dugesidae and Dendrocoelidae showed a positive immunoreactivity against anti-alpha SM-1. These results were confirmed by cytochemical immunolocalization using both avidin biotin conjugated peroxidase reaction on paraffin sections, and immunogold staining on Lowicryl 4KM embedded specimens. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of Platyhelminthes phylogeny.

  6. Actin dynamics and the elasticity of cytoskeletal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a cell depends on its cytoskeleton, which includes an actin network. This network is transient and depends upon the continual polymerization and depolymerization of actin. The degradation of an actin network, and a corresponding reduction in cell stiffness, can indicate the presence of disease. Numerical simulations will be invaluable for understanding the physics of these systems and the correlation between actin dynamics and elasticity. Here we develop a model that is capable of generating actin network structures. In particular, we develop a model of actin dynamics which considers the polymerization, depolymerization, nucleation, severing, and capping of actin filaments. The structures obtained are then fed directly into a mechanical model. This allows us to qualitatively assess the effects of changing various parameters associated with actin dynamics on the elasticity of the material.

  7. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation

  8. Managing actinic keratosis in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Nicola; Tidman, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Actinic, or solar, keratosis is caused by chronic ultraviolet-induced damage to the epidermis. In the UK, 15-23% of individuals have actinic keratosis lesions. Risk factors include: advanced age; male gender; cumulative sun exposure or phototherapy; Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I-II; long-term immuno-suppression and genetic syndromes e.g. xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism. Actinic keratoses are regarded by some authorities as premalignant lesions that may transform into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and by others as in situ SCC that may progress to an invasive stage. The risk of malignant change appears low; up to 0.5% per lesion per year. Up to 20-30% of lesions may spontaneously regress but in the absence of any reliable prognostic clinical indicators regarding malignant potential active treatment is considered appropriate. Actinic keratosis lesions may present as discrete hyperkeratotic papules, cutaneous horns, or more subtle flat lesions on sun-exposed areas of skin. The single most helpful diagnostic sign is an irregularly roughened surface texture: a sandpaper-like feel almost always indicates actinic damage. Dermatoscopy can be helpful in excluding signs of basal cell carcinoma when actinic keratosis is non-keratotic. It is always important to consider the possibility of SCC. The principal indication for referral to secondary care is the possibility of cutaneous malignancy. However, widespread and severe actinic damage in patients who are immunosuppressed is also a reason for referral.

  9. Bioinformatics study of the mangrove actin genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wasilah, M.; Sumardi

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the bioinformatics methods to analyze eight actin genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, subcellular localization, similarity, and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of eight mangroves showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of eight mangrove actin genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure for BgActl, KcActl, RsActl, and A. corniculatum Act. In contrast to this observation, the remaining actin genes were random coil > extended chain structure > a helix. This study, therefore, shown the prediction of secondary structure was performed for necessary structural information. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide or mitochondrial target were too small, indicated that no chloroplast or mitochondrial transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove actin genes. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove actin genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove actin gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Three groups of mangrove actin genes were formed, the first group contains B. gymnorrhiza BgAct and R. stylosa RsActl. The second cluster which consists of 5 actin genes the largest group, and the last branch consist of one gene, B. sexagula Act. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant actin genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  10. Apatite-mediated actin dynamics in resorbing osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltel, Frédéric; Destaing, Olivier; Bard, Frédéric; Eichert, Diane; Jurdic, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for osteoclasts main function, bone resorption. Two different organizations of actin have been described in osteoclasts, the podosomes belt corresponding to numerous F-actin columns arranged at the cell periphery, and the sealing zone defined as a unique large band of actin. To compare the role of these two different actin organizations, we imaged osteoclasts on various substrata: glass, dentin, and apatite. Using primary osteoclasts expressing GFP-actin, we found that podosome belts and sealing zones, both very dynamic actin structures, were present in mature osteoclasts; podosome belts were observed only in spread osteoclasts adhering onto glass, whereas sealing zone were seen in apico-basal polarized osteoclasts adherent on mineralized matrix. Dynamic observations of several resorption cycles of osteoclasts seeded on apatite revealed that 1) podosomes do not fuse together to form the sealing zone; 2) osteoclasts alternate successive stationary polarized resorption phases with a sealing zone and migration, nonresorption phases without any specific actin structure; and 3) apatite itself promotes sealing zone formation though c-src and Rho signaling. Finally, our work suggests that apatite-mediated sealing zone formation is dependent on both c-src and Rho whereas apico-basal polarization requires only Rho.

  11. SPARC Interacts with Actin in Skeletal Muscle in Vitro and in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Jepsen, Pia Lørup; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to actin. This interaction is present in regenerating myofibers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and compartment syndrome. Analysis of the α-, β-, and γ-actin isoforms in SPARC knockout myoblasts reveals a changed expression pattern with dominance of γ-actin. In SPARC knockout......The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed...... intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds...

  12. Probing friction in actin-based motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcy, Yann; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Prost, Jacques; Sykes, Cecile

    2007-01-01

    Actin dynamics are responsible for cell protrusion and certain intracellular movements. The transient attachment of the actin filaments to a moving surface generates a friction force that resists the movement. We probe here the dynamics of these attachments by inducing a stick-slip behavior via micromanipulation of a growing actin comet. We show that general principles of adhesion and friction can explain our observations

  13. Loss of γ-cytoplasmic actin triggers myofibroblast transition of human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Li, Chao; Naydenov, Nayden G; Kuemmerle, John F; Dugina, Vera; Chaponnier, Christine; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells and myofibroblasts plays an important role in tumor progression and tissue fibrosis. Such epithelial plasticity is accompanied by dramatic reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton, although mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal effects on epithelial transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we observed that selective siRNA-mediated knockdown of γ-cytoplasmic actin (γ-CYA), but not β-cytoplasmic actin, induced epithelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EMyT) of different epithelial cells. The EMyT manifested by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and other contractile proteins, along with inhibition of genes responsible for cell proliferation. Induction of EMyT in γ-CYA-depleted cells depended on activation of serum response factor and its cofactors, myocardial-related transcriptional factors A and B. Loss of γ-CYA stimulated formin-mediated actin polymerization and activation of Rho GTPase, which appear to be essential for EMyT induction. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated, unique role of γ-CYA in regulating epithelial phenotype and suppression of EMyT that may be essential for cell differentiation and tissue fibrosis. © 2014 Lechuga, Baranwal, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  15. Characterizing interaction forces between actin and proteins of the tropomodulin family reveals the presence of the N-terminal actin-binding site in leiomodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Baran; Colpan, Mert; Gray, Kevin T; Abu-Lail, Nehal I; Kostyukova, Alla S

    2018-01-15

    Tropomodulin family of proteins includes several isoforms of tropomodulins (Tmod) and leiomodins (Lmod). These proteins can sequester actin monomers or nucleate actin polymerization. Although it is known that their actin-binding properties are isoform-dependent, knowledge on how they vary in strengths of interactions with G-actin is missing. While it is confirmed in many studies that Tmods have two actin-binding sites, information on number and location of actin-binding sites in Lmod2 is controversial. We used atomic force microscopy to study interactions between G-actin and proteins of the tropomodulin family. Unbinding forces between G-actin and Tmod1, Tmod2, Tmod3, or Lmod2 were quantified. Our results indicated that Tmod1 and Tmod3 had unimodal force distributions, Tmod2 had a bimodal distribution and Lmod2 had a trimodal distribution. The number of force distributions correlates with the proteins' abilities to sequester actin or to nucleate actin polymerization. We assigned specific unbinding forces to the individual actin-binding sites of Tmod2 and Lmod2 using mutations that destroy actin-binding sites of Tmod2 and truncated Lmod2. Our results confirm the existence of the N-terminal actin-binding site in Lmod2. Altogether, our data demonstrate how the differences between the number and the strength of actin-binding sites of Tmod or Lmod translate to their functional abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  17. RNase L Interacts with Filamin A To Regulate Actin Dynamics and Barrier Function for Viral Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Dayal, Shubham; Naji, Merna; Ezelle, Heather J.; Zeng, Chun; Zhou, Aimin; Hassel, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actin cytoskeleton and its network of associated proteins constitute a physical barrier that viruses must circumvent to gain entry into cells for productive infection. The mechanisms by which the physical signals of infection are sensed by the host to activate an innate immune response are not well understood. The antiviral endoribonuclease RNase L is ubiquitously expressed in a latent form and activated upon binding 2-5A, a unique oligoadenylate produced during viral infections. We provide evidence that RNase L in its inactive form interacts with the actin-binding protein Filamin A to modulate the actin cytoskeleton and inhibit virus entry. Cells lacking either RNase L or Filamin A displayed increased virus entry which was exacerbated in cells lacking both proteins. RNase L deletion mutants that reduced Filamin A interaction displayed a compromised ability to restrict virus entry, supporting the idea of an important role for the RNase L-Filamin A complex in barrier function. Remarkably, both the wild type and a catalytically inactive RNase L mutant were competent to reduce virus entry when transfected into RNase L-deficient cells, indicating that this novel function of RNase L is independent of its enzymatic activity. Virus infection and RNase L activation disrupt its association with Filamin A and release RNase L to mediate its canonical nuclease-dependent antiviral activities. The dual functions of RNase L as a constitutive component of the actin cytoskeleton and as an induced mediator of antiviral signaling and effector functions provide insights into its mechanisms of antiviral activity and opportunities for the development of novel antiviral agents. PMID:25352621

  18. Plasmin enzymatic activity in the presence of actin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusova E. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the changes in the plasmin activity towards substrates with high and low molecular mass in the presence of actin. Methods. The proteins used for this investigation were obtained by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration. The plasmin enzymatic activity was determined by a turbidimetric assay and a chromogenic substrate-based assay. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biotin-avidin-phosphatase system were used to study the interaction of plasminogen and its fragments with actin. Results. It was shown that G-actin causes 1.5-fold decrease in the rate of polymeric fibrin hydrolysis by plasmin and Glu-plasminogen activated by the tissue plasminogen activator. However, actin did not impede plasmin autolysis and had no influence on its amidase activity. We have studied an interaction of biotinylated Glu-plasminogen and its fragments (kringle 1-3, kringle 4 and mini-plasminogen with immobilized G-actin. Glu-plasminogen and kringle 4 had a high affinity towards actin (C50 is 113 and 117 nM correspondingly. Mini-plasminogen and kringe 4 did not bind to actin. A similar affinity of Glu-plasminogen and kringle 1-3 towards actin proves the involvement of the kringle 1-3 lysine-binding sites of the native plasminogen form in the actin interaction. Conclusions. Actin can modulate plasmin specificity towards high molecular mass substrates through its interaction with lysine-binding sites of the enzyme kringle domains. Actin inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin is due to its competition with fibrin for thelysine binding sites of plasminogen/plasmin.

  19. The fidelity of synaptonemal complex assembly is regulated by a signaling mechanism that controls early meiotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nicola; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Barroso, Consuelo; Tognetti, Silvia; Lightfoot, James; Telecan, Oana; Encheva, Vesela; Faull, Peter; Hanni, Simon; Furger, Andre; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Speck, Christian; Martinez-Perez, Enrique

    2014-11-24

    Proper chromosome segregation during meiosis requires the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) between homologous chromosomes. However, the SC structure itself is indifferent to homology, and poorly understood mechanisms that depend on conserved HORMA-domain proteins prevent ectopic SC assembly. Although HORMA-domain proteins are thought to regulate SC assembly as intrinsic components of meiotic chromosomes, here we uncover a key role for nuclear soluble HORMA-domain protein HTP-1 in the quality control of SC assembly. We show that a mutant form of HTP-1 impaired in chromosome loading provides functionality of an HTP-1-dependent checkpoint that delays exit from homology search-competent stages until all homolog pairs are linked by the SC. Bypassing of this regulatory mechanism results in premature meiotic progression and licensing of homology-independent SC assembly. These findings identify nuclear soluble HTP-1 as a regulator of early meiotic progression, suggesting parallels with the mode of action of Mad2 in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  1. Intracellular Peptide Self-Assembly: A Biomimetic Approach for in Situ Nanodrug Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Hu, Xiaomu; Wei, Weichen; Liang, Gaolin

    2018-04-18

    Most nanodrugs are preprepared by encapsulating or loading the drugs with nanocarriers (e.g., dendrimers, liposomes, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles). However, besides the low bioavailability and fast excretion of the nanodrugs in vivo, nanocarriers often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in biology where it plays important roles and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. Inspired by some cellular nanostructures (e.g., actin filaments, microtubules, vesicles, and micelles) in biological systems which are formed via molecular self-assembly, in recent decades, scientists have utilized self-assembly of oligomeric peptide under specific physiological or pathological environments to in situ construct nanodrugs for lesion-targeted therapies. On one hand, peptide-based nanodrugs always have some excellent intrinsic chemical (specificity, intrinsic bioactivity, biodegradability) and physical (small size, conformation) properties. On the other hand, stimuli-regulated intracellular self-assembly of nanodrugs is quite an efficient way to accumulate the drugs in lesion location and can realize an in situ slow release of the drugs. In this review article, we provided an overview on recent design principles for intracellular peptide self-assembly and illustrate how these principles have been applied for the in situ preparation of nanodrugs at the lesion location. In the last part, we list some challenges underlying this strategy and their possible solutions. Moreover, we envision the future possible theranostic applications of this strategy.

  2. Mechanics model for actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  3. The Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Binds to the Cytoplasmic Domain of N-Cadherin and Regulates the Cadherin–Actin Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Janne; Arregui, Carlos; Leung, TinChung; Lilien, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Cadherin-mediated adhesion depends on the association of its cytoplasmic domain with the actin-containing cytoskeleton. This interaction is mediated by a group of cytoplasmic proteins: α-and β- or γ- catenin. Phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues plays a role in controlling this association and, therefore, cadherin function. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, bound to the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, is responsible for removing tyrosine-bound phosphate residues from β-catenin, thus maintaining the cadherin–actin connection (Balsamo et al., 1996). Here we report the molecular cloning of the cadherin-associated tyrosine phosphatase and identify it as PTP1B. To definitively establish a causal relationship between the function of cadherin-bound PTP1B and cadherin-mediated adhesion, we tested the effect of expressing a catalytically inactive form of PTP1B in L cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin. We find that expression of the catalytically inactive PTP1B results in reduced cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, cadherin is uncoupled from its association with actin, and β-catenin shows increased phosphorylation on tyrosine residues when compared with parental cells or cells transfected with the wild-type PTP1B. Both the transfected wild-type and the mutant PTP1B are found associated with N-cadherin, and recombinant mutant PTP1B binds to N-cadherin in vitro, indicating that the catalytically inactive form acts as a dominant negative, displacing endogenous PTP1B, and rendering cadherin nonfunctional. Our results demonstrate a role for PTP1B in regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:9786960

  4. Titin-Actin Interaction: PEVK-Actin-Based Viscosity in a Large Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin exhibits an interaction between its PEVK segment and the actin filament resulting in viscosity, a speed dependent resistive force, which significantly influences diastolic filling in mice. While diastolic disease is clinically pervasive, humans express a more compliant titin (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.5–1.0 than mice (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.2. To examine PEVK-actin based viscosity in compliant titin-tissues, we used pig cardiac tissue that expresses titin isoforms similar to that in humans. Stretch-hold experiments were performed at speeds from 0.1 to 10 lengths/s from slack sarcomere lengths (SL to SL of 2.15 μm. Viscosity was calculated from the slope of stress-relaxation vs stretch speed. Recombinant PEVK was added to compete off native interactions and this found to reduce the slope by 35%, suggesting that PEVK-actin interactions are a strong contributor of viscosity. Frequency sweeps were performed at frequencies of 0.1–400 Hz and recombinant protein reduced viscous moduli by 40% at 2.15 μm and by 50% at 2.25 μm, suggesting a SL-dependent nature of viscosity that might prevent SL ``overshoot’’ at long diastolic SLs. This study is the first to show that viscosity is present at physiologic speeds in the pig and supports the physiologic relevance of PEVK-actin interactions in humans in both health and disease.

  5. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Agnieszka N.; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I.

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  6. In vitro contraction of cytokinetic ring depends on myosin II but not on actin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Kashiwazaki, Jun; Takagi, Tomoko; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Huang, Yinyi; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Mabuchi, Issei

    2013-07-01

    Cytokinesis in many eukaryotes involves the contraction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring. However, the detailed mechanism of contractile ring contraction is not fully understood. Here, we establish an experimental system to study contraction of the ring to completion in vitro. We show that the contractile ring of permeabilized fission yeast cells undergoes rapid contraction in an ATP- and myosin-II-dependent manner in the absence of other cytoplasmic constituents. Surprisingly, neither actin polymerization nor its disassembly is required for contraction of the contractile ring, although addition of exogenous actin-crosslinking proteins blocks ring contraction. Using contractile rings generated from fission yeast cytokinesis mutants, we show that not all proteins required for assembly of the ring are required for its contraction in vitro. Our work provides the beginnings of the definition of a minimal contraction-competent cytokinetic ring apparatus.

  7. EZH2-mediated α-actin methylation needs lncRNA TUG1, and promotes the cortex cytoskeleton formation in VSMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Kong, Peng; Zhang, Fan; Shu, Ya-Nan; Nie, Xi; Dong, Li-Hua; Lin, Yan-Ling; Xie, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Han, Mei

    2017-06-15

    Recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in vascular homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions development. But still very few literatures elucidate the regulatory mechanism of non-coding RNAs in this biological process. Here we identified lncRNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and got 4612bp nucleotide sequence. The expression level of TUG1 RNA was increased in synthetic VSMCs by real-time PCR analysis. Meanwhile, the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) (TUG1 binding protein) increased in cytoplasm of VSMCs under the same conditions. Immunofluoresce analysis displayed the colocalization of EZH2 with α-actin in cytoplasm and F-actin in cell edge ruffles. This leads us to hypothesize the existence of cytoplasmic TUG1/EZH2/α-actin complex. Using RNA pull down assay, we found that TUG1 interacted with both EZH2 and α-actin. Disruption of TUG1 abolished the interaction of EZH2 with α-actin, and accelerated depolymerization of F-actin in VSMCs. Based on EZH2 methyltransferase activity and the potential methylation sites in α-actin structure, we revealed that α-actin was lysine-methylated. Furthermore, the methylation of α-actin was inhibited by knockdown of TUG1. In conclusion, these findings partly suggested that EZH2-mediated methylation of α-actin may be dependent on TUG1, and thereby promotes cortex F-actin polymerization in synthetic VSMCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Phactr3/scapinin, a member of protein phosphatase 1 and actin regulator (phactr family, interacts with the plasma membrane via basic and hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Itoh

    Full Text Available Proteins that belong to the protein phosphatase 1 and actin regulator (phactr family are involved in cell motility and morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms that regulate the actin cytoskeleton are poorly understood. We have previously shown that phactr3, also known as scapinin, localizes to the plasma membrane, including lamellipodia and membrane ruffles. In the present study, experiments using deletion and point mutants showed that the basic and hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus play crucial roles in the localization to the plasma membrane. A BH analysis (http://helixweb.nih.gov/bhsearch is a program developed to identify membrane-binding domains that comprise basic and hydrophobic residues in membrane proteins. We applied this program to phactr3. The results of the BH plot analysis agreed with the experimentally determined region that is responsible for the localization of phactr3 to the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments showed that the N-terminal itself binds to liposomes and acidic phospholipids. In addition, we showed that the interaction with the plasma membrane via the N-terminal membrane-binding sequence is required for phactr3-induced morphological changes in Cos7 cells. The membrane-binding sequence in the N-terminus is highly conserved in all members of the phactr family. Our findings may provide a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms that allow phactr proteins to regulate cell morphogenesis.

  9. The apical actin fringe contributes to localized cell wall deposition and polarized growth in the lily pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in Arabidopsis roots under stress and during gravitropic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhvanov, Gregory; Medvedev, Sergei; Suslov, Dmitry; Demidchik, Vadim

    Among environmental factors, gravity vector is the only one which is constant in direction and accompanies the whole plant ontogenesis. That said, gravity vector can be considered as an essential factor for correct development of plants. Gravitropism is a plant growth response against changing its position relative to the gravity vector. It is well estableshed that gravitropism is directed by auxin redistribution across the gravistimulated organ. In addition to auxin, actin cytoskeleton was shown to be involved in gravitropism at different stages: gravity perception, signal transduction and gravitropic bending formation. However, the relationship between IAA and actin is still under discussion. In this work we studied rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton during root gravitropic response. Actin microfilaments were visualized in vivo in GFP-fABD2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and their angle distribution was acquired from MicroFilament Analyzer software. The curvature of actin microfilaments in root elongation zone was shown to be increased within 30-60 min of gravistimulation, the fraction of axially oriented microfilaments decreased with a concomitant increase in the fraction of oblique and transversally oriented microfilaments. In particular, the fraction of transversally oriented microfilaments (i.e. parallel to the gravity vector) increased 3-5 times. Under 10 min of sub-lethal salt stress impact, actin microfilament orientations widened from an initial axial orientation to a set of peaks at 15(°) , 45(°) and 90(°) . We conclude that the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements observed are associated with the regulation of basic mechanisms of cell extension growth by which the gravitropic bending is formed. Having common stress-related features, gravity-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is slower but results in higher number of g-vector-parallel microfilaments when compared to salt stress-induced rearrangement. Also, differences in gravistimulated root

  11. The N-terminal tropomyosin- and actin-binding sites are important for leiomodin 2's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thu; Moroz, Natalia; Pappas, Christopher T; Novak, Stefanie M; Tolkatchev, Dmitri; Wooldridge, Dayton; Mayfield, Rachel M; Helms, Gregory; Gregorio, Carol C; Kostyukova, Alla S

    2016-08-15

    Leiomodin is a potent actin nucleator related to tropomodulin, a capping protein localized at the pointed end of the thin filaments. Mutations in leiomodin-3 are associated with lethal nemaline myopathy in humans, and leiomodin-2-knockout mice present with dilated cardiomyopathy. The arrangement of the N-terminal actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites in leiomodin is contradictory and functionally not well understood. Using one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and the pointed-end actin polymerization assay, we find that leiomodin-2, a major cardiac isoform, has an N-terminal actin-binding site located within residues 43-90. Moreover, for the first time, we obtain evidence that there are additional interactions with actin within residues 124-201. Here we establish that leiomodin interacts with only one tropomyosin molecule, and this is the only site of interaction between leiomodin and tropomyosin. Introduction of mutations in both actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites of leiomodin affected its localization at the pointed ends of the thin filaments in cardiomyocytes. On the basis of our new findings, we propose a model in which leiomodin regulates actin poly-merization dynamics in myocytes by acting as a leaky cap at thin filament pointed ends. © 2016 Ly, Moroz, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L.; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Ardura, Juan A.; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. PMID:27008860

  13. Actin polymerisation at the cytoplasmic face of eukaryotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Watine Brigitte

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised in living interphase cells. Results Using a fluorescent conjugate of the actin binding drug cytochalasin D (CD-BODIPY we provide evidence that polymerising actin accumulates in vicinity to the NE. In addition, both transiently expressed fluorescent actin and cytoplasmic micro-injection of fluorescent actin resulted in accumulation of actin at the NE-membrane. Consistent with the idea that the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes can support this novel pool of perinuclear actin polymerisation we show that isolated, intact, differentiated primary hepatocyte nuclei support actin polymerisation in vitro. Further this phenomenon was inhibited by treatments hindering steric access to outer-nuclear-membrane proteins (e.g. wheat germ agglutinin, anti-nesprin and anti-nucleoporin antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that actin polymerisation occurs around interphase nuclei of living cells at the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes.

  14. Hypertrophic stimulation increases beta-actin dynamics in adult feline cardiomyocytes.

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    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The myocardium responds to hemodynamic stress through cellular growth and organ hypertrophy. The impact of cytoskeletal elements on this process, however, is not fully understood. While alpha-actin in cardiomyocytes governs muscle contraction in combination with the myosin motor, the exact role of beta-actin has not been established. We hypothesized that in adult cardiomyocytes, as in non-myocytes, beta-actin can facilitate cytoskeletal rearrangement within cytoskeletal structures such as Z-discs. Using a feline right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO model, we measured the level and distribution of beta-actin in normal and pressure overloaded myocardium. Resulting data demonstrated enriched levels of beta-actin and enhanced translocation to the Triton-insoluble cytoskeletal and membrane skeletal complexes. In addition, RVPO in vivo and in vitro hypertrophic stimulation with endothelin (ET or insulin in isolated adult cardiomyocytes enhanced the content of polymerized fraction (F-actin of beta-actin. To determine the localization and dynamics of beta-actin, we adenovirally expressed GFP-tagged beta-actin in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. The ectopically expressed beta-actin-GFP localized to the Z-discs, costameres, and cell termini. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP measurements of beta-actin dynamics revealed that beta-actin at the Z-discs is constantly being exchanged with beta-actin from cytoplasmic pools and that this exchange is faster upon hypertrophic stimulation with ET or insulin. In addition, in electrically stimulated isolated adult cardiomyocytes, while beta-actin overexpression improved cardiomyocyte contractility, immunoneutralization of beta-actin resulted in a reduced contractility suggesting that beta-actin could be important for the contractile function of adult cardiomyocytes. These studies demonstrate the presence and dynamics of beta-actin in the adult cardiomyocyte and reinforce its usefulness in measuring

  15. Extracellular Actin Is a Receptor for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. A. Raymond

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15 using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM, and that M. hyopneumoniae binds to the extracellular β-actin exposed on the surface of these cells. Consistent with this hypothesis we show: (i monoclonal antibodies that target β-actin significantly block the ability of M. hyopneumoniae to adhere and colonize PK-15 cells; (ii microtiter plate binding assays show that M. hyopneumoniae cells bind to monomeric G-actin in a dose dependent manner; (iii more than 100 M. hyopneumoniae proteins were recovered from affinity-chromatography experiments using immobilized actin as bait; and (iv biotinylated monomeric actin binds directly to M. hyopneumoniae proteins in ligand blotting studies. Specifically, we show that the P97 cilium adhesin possesses at least two distinct actin-binding regions, and binds monomeric actin with nanomolar affinity. Taken together, these observations suggest that actin may be an important receptor for M. hyopneumoniae within the swine lung and will aid in the future development of intervention strategies against this devastating pathogen. Furthermore, our observations have wider implications for extracellular actin as an important bacterial receptor.

  16. Extracellular Actin Is a Receptor for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Madhkoor, Ranya; Schleicher, Ina; Uphoff, Cord C; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Rohde, Manfred; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M. hyopneumoniae binds to the extracellular β-actin exposed on the surface of these cells. Consistent with this hypothesis we show: (i) monoclonal antibodies that target β-actin significantly block the ability of M. hyopneumoniae to adhere and colonize PK-15 cells; (ii) microtiter plate binding assays show that M. hyopneumoniae cells bind to monomeric G-actin in a dose dependent manner; (iii) more than 100 M. hyopneumoniae proteins were recovered from affinity-chromatography experiments using immobilized actin as bait; and (iv) biotinylated monomeric actin binds directly to M. hyopneumoniae proteins in ligand blotting studies. Specifically, we show that the P97 cilium adhesin possesses at least two distinct actin-binding regions, and binds monomeric actin with nanomolar affinity. Taken together, these observations suggest that actin may be an important receptor for M. hyopneumoniae within the swine lung and will aid in the future development of intervention strategies against this devastating pathogen. Furthermore, our observations have wider implications for extracellular actin as an important bacterial receptor.

  17. Biphasic interactions between a cationic dendrimer and actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Florence, Alexander T

    2010-12-01

    Gene delivery systems face the problem not only of the route toward the cell and tissues in question, but also of the molecularly crowded environment of both the cytoplasm and the nucleus itself. One of the physical barriers in the cytoplasm for diffusing nanoparticles is an actin network. Here, we describe the finding that a self-fluorescent sixth generation cationic dendrimer (6 nm in diameter) interacts reversibly and possibly electrostatically with actin filaments in vitro. Not only does this interaction slow the diffusion of the dendrimer but it also affects actin polymerization in a biphasic manner. At low concentrations the dendrimer behaves like a G-binding actin protein, retarding actin polymerization, whereas at high concentrations the dendrimer acts as a nucleating protein accelerating the polymerization. Thus in vivo the diffusion of a dendrimer carrier such as this has both physical and chemical elements: by decreasing polymerization it might accelerate its own transport, and by enhancing actin polymerization retard it. This finding suggests that such a dendrimer may have a role as an anticancer agent through its inhibitory effect on actin polymerization.

  18. Actin dynamics at focal adhesions: a common endpoint and putative therapeutic target for proteinuric kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Sanja; Schiffer, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Proteinuria encompasses diverse causes including both genetic diseases and acquired forms such as diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy. The basis of proteinuria is a disturbance in size selectivity of the glomerular filtration barrier, which largely depends on the podocyte: a terminally differentiated epithelial cell type covering the outer surface of the glomerulus. Compromised podocyte structure is one of the earliest signs of glomerular injury. The phenotype of diverse animal models and podocyte cell culture firmly established the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton in maintaining functional podocyte structure. Podocyte foot processes, actin-based membrane extensions, contain 2 molecularly distinct "hubs" that control actin dynamics: a slit diaphragm and focal adhesions. Although loss of foot processes encompasses disassembly of slit diaphragm multiprotein complexes, as long as cells are attached to the glomerular basement membrane, focal adhesions will be the sites in which stress due to filtration flow is counteracted by forces generated by the actin network in foot processes. Numerous studies within last 20 years have identified actin binding and regulatory proteins as well as integrins as essential components of signaling and actin dynamics at focal adhesions in podocytes, suggesting that some of them may become novel, druggable targets for proteinuric kidney diseases. Here we review evidence supporting the idea that current treatments for chronic kidney diseases beneficially and directly target the podocyte actin cytoskeleton associated with focal adhesions and suggest that therapeutic reagents that target the focal adhesion-regulated actin cytoskeleton in foot processes have potential to modernize treatments for chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clarin-1, encoded by the Usher Syndrome III causative gene, forms a membranous microdomain: possible role of clarin-1 in organizing the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Zhou, Yun; Hajkova, Dagmar; Miyagi, Masaru; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Geng, Ruishuang; Alagramam, Kumar N; Isosomppi, Juha; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Flannery, John G; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2009-07-10

    Clarin-1 is the protein product encoded by the gene mutated in Usher syndrome III. Although the molecular function of clarin-1 is unknown, its primary structure predicts four transmembrane domains similar to a large family of membrane proteins that include tetraspanins. Here we investigated the role of clarin-1 by using heterologous expression and in vivo model systems. When expressed in HEK293 cells, clarin-1 localized to the plasma membrane and concentrated in low density compartments distinct from lipid rafts. Clarin-1 reorganized actin filament structures and induced lamellipodia. This actin-reorganizing function was absent in the modified protein encoded by the most prevalent North American Usher syndrome III mutation, the N48K form of clarin-1 deficient in N-linked glycosylation. Proteomics analyses revealed a number of clarin-1-interacting proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, focal adhesions, cell migration, tight junctions, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with the hypothesized role of clarin-1 in actin organization, F-actin-enriched stereocilia of auditory hair cells evidenced structural disorganization in Clrn1(-/-) mice. These observations suggest a possible role for clarin-1 in the regulation and homeostasis of actin filaments, and link clarin-1 to the interactive network of Usher syndrome gene products.

  20. Small molecules CK-666 and CK-869 inhibit actin-related protein 2/3 complex by blocking an activating conformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Byron; Han, Min Suk; Helgeson, Luke A; Nolen, Brad J

    2013-05-23

    Actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex is a seven-subunit assembly that nucleates branched actin filaments. Small molecule inhibitors CK-666 and CK-869 bind to Arp2/3 complex and inhibit nucleation, but their modes of action are unknown. Here, we use biochemical and structural methods to determine the mechanism of each inhibitor. Our data indicate that CK-666 stabilizes the inactive state of the complex, blocking movement of the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits into the activated filament-like (short pitch) conformation, while CK-869 binds to a serendipitous pocket on Arp3 and allosterically destabilizes the short pitch Arp3-Arp2 interface. These results provide key insights into the relationship between conformation and activity in Arp2/3 complex and will be critical for interpreting the influence of the inhibitors on actin filament networks in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes.

  2. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  3. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  4. The Nance-Horan syndrome protein encodes a functional WAVE homology domain (WHD) and is important for co-ordinating actin remodelling and maintaining cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P; Coccia, Margherita; Tang, Hao R; Kanuga, Naheed; Machesky, Laura M; Bailly, Maryse; Cheetham, Michael E; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2010-06-15

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder, characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and mental retardation. Null mutations in a novel gene, NHS, cause the syndrome. The NHS gene appears to have multiple isoforms as a result of alternative transcription, but a cellular function for the NHS protein has yet to be defined. We describe NHS as a founder member of a new protein family (NHS, NHSL1 and NHSL2). Here, we demonstrate that NHS is a novel regulator of actin remodelling and cell morphology. NHS localizes to sites of cell-cell contact, the leading edge of lamellipodia and focal adhesions. The N-terminus of isoforms NHS-A and NHS-1A, implicated in the pathogenesis of NHS, have a functional WAVE homology domain that interacts with the Abi protein family, haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell protein 300 (HSPC300), Nap1 and Sra1. NHS knockdown resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that NHS controls cell morphology by maintaining the integrity of the circumferential actin ring and controlling lamellipod formation. NHS knockdown led to a striking increase in cell spreading. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of NHS inhibited lamellipod formation. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and localized actin polymerization into branched actin filaments at the plasma membrane are essential for mediating changes in cell shape, migration and cell contact. Our data identify NHS as a new regulator of actin remodelling. We suggest that NHS orchestrates actin regulatory protein function in response to signalling events during development.

  5. The Nance–Horan syndrome protein encodes a functional WAVE homology domain (WHD) and is important for co-ordinating actin remodelling and maintaining cell morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P.; Coccia, Margherita; Tang, Hao R.; Kanuga, Naheed; Machesky, Laura M.; Bailly, Maryse; Cheetham, Michael E.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

    2010-01-01

    Nance–Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder, characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and mental retardation. Null mutations in a novel gene, NHS, cause the syndrome. The NHS gene appears to have multiple isoforms as a result of alternative transcription, but a cellular function for the NHS protein has yet to be defined. We describe NHS as a founder member of a new protein family (NHS, NHSL1 and NHSL2). Here, we demonstrate that NHS is a novel regulator of actin remodelling and cell morphology. NHS localizes to sites of cell–cell contact, the leading edge of lamellipodia and focal adhesions. The N-terminus of isoforms NHS-A and NHS-1A, implicated in the pathogenesis of NHS, have a functional WAVE homology domain that interacts with the Abi protein family, haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell protein 300 (HSPC300), Nap1 and Sra1. NHS knockdown resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that NHS controls cell morphology by maintaining the integrity of the circumferential actin ring and controlling lamellipod formation. NHS knockdown led to a striking increase in cell spreading. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of NHS inhibited lamellipod formation. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and localized actin polymerization into branched actin filaments at the plasma membrane are essential for mediating changes in cell shape, migration and cell contact. Our data identify NHS as a new regulator of actin remodelling. We suggest that NHS orchestrates actin regulatory protein function in response to signalling events during development. PMID:20332100

  6. Stress generation by myosin minifilaments in actin bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasanayake, Nilushi L; Carlsson, Anders E

    2013-01-01

    Forces and stresses generated by the action of myosin minifilaments are analyzed in idealized computer-generated actin bundles, and compared to results for isotropic actin networks. The bundles are generated as random collections of actin filaments in two dimensions with constrained orientations, crosslinked and attached to two fixed walls. Myosin minifilaments are placed on actin filament pairs and allowed to move and deform the network so that it exerts forces on the walls. The vast majority of simulation runs end with contractile minifilament stress, because minifilaments rotate into energetically stable contractile configurations. This process is aided by the bending and stretching of actin filaments, which accomodate minifilament rotation. Stresses for bundles are greater than those for isotropic networks, and antiparallel filaments generate more tension than parallel filaments. The forces transmitted by the actin network to the walls of the simulation cell often exceed the tension in the minifilament itself. (paper)

  7. A pH-Regulated Quality Control Cycle for Surveillance of Secretory Protein Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Stefano; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Caserta, Imma R.; Fagioli, Claudio; Mossuto, Maria F.; Fornili, Arianna; van Anken, Eelco; Degano, Massimo; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary To warrant the quality of the secretory proteome, stringent control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, preventing the release of nonnative products. Incompletely assembled oligomeric proteins that are deemed correctly folded must rely on additional quality control mechanisms dedicated to proper assembly. Here we unveil how ERp44 cycles between cisGolgi and ER in a pH-regulated manner, patrolling assembly of disulfide-linked oligomers such as IgM and adiponectin. At neutral, ER-equivalent pH, the ERp44 carboxy-terminal tail occludes the substrate-binding site. At the lower pH of the cisGolgi, conformational rearrangements of this peptide, likely involving protonation of ERp44’s active cysteine, simultaneously unmask the substrate binding site and −RDEL motif, allowing capture of orphan secretory protein subunits and ER retrieval via KDEL receptors. The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles. PMID:23685074

  8. Cdc42-dependent actin dynamics controls maturation and secretory activity of dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna M; Stutte, Susanne; Hogl, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration, and proliferation. To further study the molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell (DC) regulation by Cdc42, we used Cdc42-deficient DCs. Cdc42 defici...

  9. NADPH oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species, the actin cytoskeleton, and rho GTPases in cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Thompson, Kerry; Hynes, Ailish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Rho GTPases are historically known to be central regulators of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. This affects many processes including cell migration. In addition, members of the Rac subfamily are known to be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through...... mediating cytoskeletal reorganization. Critical Issues: The role of the actin cytoskeleton in providing a scaffold for components of the Nox complex needs to be examined in the light of these new advances. During cell migration, Rho GTPases, ROS, and cytoskeletal organization appear to function as a complex...... compartments. This in conjunction with the analysis of tissues lacking specific Rho GTPases, and Nox components will facilitate a detailed examination of the interactions of these structures with the actin cytoskeleton. In combination with the analysis of ROS production, including its subcellular location...

  10. Beta adrenergic overstimulation impaired vascular contractility via actin-cytoskeleton disorganization in rabbit cerebral artery.

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    Hyoung Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Beta adrenergic overstimulation may increase the vascular damage and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of beta adrenergic overstimulation in cerebrovascular dysfunctions are not well known. We investigated the possible cerebrovascular dysfunction response to isoproterenol induced beta-adrenergic overstimulation (ISO in rabbit cerebral arteries (CAs. METHODS: ISO was induced in six weeks aged male New Zealand white rabbit (0.8-1.0 kg by 7-days isoproterenol injection (300 μg/kg/day. We investigated the alteration of protein expression in ISO treated CAs using 2DE proteomics and western blot analysis. Systemic properties of 2DE proteomics result were analyzed using bioinformatics software. ROS generation and following DNA damage were assessed to evaluate deteriorative effect of ISO on CAs. Intracellular Ca(2+ level change and vascular contractile response to vasoactive drug, angiotensin II (Ang II, were assessed to evaluate functional alteration of ISO treated CAs. Ang II-induced ROS generation was assessed to evaluated involvement of ROS generation in CA contractility. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis revealed remarkably decreased expression of cytoskeleton organizing proteins (e.g. actin related protein 1A and 2, α-actin, capping protein Z beta, and vimentin and anti-oxidative stress proteins (e.g. heat shock protein 9A and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 in ISO-CAs. As a cause of dysregulation of actin-cytoskeleton organization, we found decreased level of RhoA and ROCK1, which are major regulators of actin-cytoskeleton organization. As functional consequences of proteomic alteration, we found the decreased transient Ca(2+ efflux and constriction response to angiotensin II and high K(+ in ISO-CAs. ISO also increased basal ROS generation and induced oxidative damage in CA; however, it decreased the Ang II-induced ROS generation rate. These results indicate that ISO disrupted actin cytoskeleton proteome network

  11. INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANICS OF CYTOKINETIC RING ASSEMBLY USING 3D MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidone, Tamara Carla; Tang, Haosu; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    During fission yeast cytokinesis, actin filaments nucleated by cortical formin Cdc12 are captured by myosin motors bound to a band of cortical nodes. The myosin motors exert forces that pull nodes together into a contractile ring. Cross-linking interactions help align actin filaments and nodes into a single bundle. Mutations in the myosin motor domain and changes in the concentration of cross-linkers alpha-actinin and fimbrin alter the morphology of the condensing network, leading to clumps, rings or extended meshworks. How the contractile tension developing during ring formation depends on the interplay between network morphology, myosin motor activity, cross-linking and actin filament turnover remains to be elucidated. We addressed this question using a 3D computational model in which semiflexible actin filaments (represented as beads connected by springs) grow from formins, can be captured by myosin in neighboring nodes, and get cross-linked with one another through an attractive interaction. We identify regimes of tension generation between connected nodes under a wide set of conditions regarding myosin dynamics and strength of cross-linking between actin filaments. We find conditions that maximize circumferential tension, correlate them with network morphology and propose experiments to test these predictions. This work addresses "Morphogenesis of soft and living matter" using computational modeling to simulate cytokinetic ring assembly from the key molecular mechanisms of viscoelastic cross-linked actin networks that include active molecular motors.

  12. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  13. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  14. Changes in Actin Organization During the Cytotoxic Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radosevic, K.; Radosevic, Katarina; van Leeuwen, Anne Marie T.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Figdor, Carl; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Changes in organization of F-actin during the cytotoxic process between NK and K562 cells have been observed and studied using confpcal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. An increase in F-actin content and orientation of F-actin towards the target cell have been

  15. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation by Tandem W Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Tian, Xia; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus, once formed, rapidly polymerizes into filament, thus making it impossible to capture stable multisubunit actin nucleus. Here, we report an effective double-mutant strategy to stabilize actin nucleus by preventing further polymerization. Employing this strategy, we solved the crystal structure of AMPPNP-actin in complex with the first two tandem W domains of Cordon-bleu (Cobl), a potent actin filament nucleator. Further sequence comparison and functional studies suggest that the nucleation mechanism of Cobl is probably shared by the p53 cofactor JMY, but not Spire. Moreover, the double-mutant strategy opens the way for atomic mechanistic study of actin nucleation and polymerization. PMID:23727244

  16. Every day I'm rufflin': Calcium sensing and actin dynamics in the growth factor-independent membrane ruffling of professional phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan

    2017-04-03

    Professional phagocytes continuously extend dynamic, actin-driven membrane protrusions. These protrusions, often referred to as membrane ruffles, serve a critical role in the essential phagocyte processes of macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. Small GTPases, such as RAC1/2, spatially and temporally regulate membrane ruffle formation. We have recently shown that extracellular calcium regulates the elaboration of membrane ruffles primarily through the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) at the plasma membrane. RAC1/2 guanine nucleotide exchange factors harbouring polybasic stretches are recruited by PtdOH to sites of ruffle formation. Here we discuss our findings and offer perspectives on how the regulation of dynamic actin structures at the plasma membrane by small GTPases is a critical component of phagocyte function.

  17. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  18. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro

  19. Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, Hanna; Heinrich, Doris; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties

  20. Chronic Actinic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD is characterized by persistent eczema-like lesions, mainly on sun-exposed sites, induced by ultraviolet B, sometimes ultraviolet A, and occasionally visible light. CAD is a rare photodermatitis. It is often associated with contact allergens including airborne allergens such as fragrances, plant antigens and topical medications. A 62 year old farmer is applied with eczematous lesions restricted to sun-exposed areas. Clinical findings and histopathologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic actinic dermatitis. The patient also had contact allergy to multiple allergens. We present this case to emphasize the significance of patch test on CAD treatment and the success of topical tacrolimus and azathioprine.

  1. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  2. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  3. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. p53 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling to suppress tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keigo; Ebata, Takahiro; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Tobiume, Kei; Wolf, Steven John; Kawauchi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cells possess unique characteristics such as invasiveness, the ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inherent stemness. Cell morphology is altered during these processes and this is highly dependent on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is, therefore, important for determination of cell fate. Mutations within the TP53 (tumor suppressor p53) gene leading to loss or gain of function (GOF) of the protein are often observed in aggressive cancer cells. Here, we highlight the roles of p53 and its GOF mutants in cancer cell invasion from the perspective of the actin cytoskeleton; in particular its reorganization and regulation by cell adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins. We emphasize the multiple functions of p53 in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to the extracellular microenvironment, and oncogene activation. Such an approach provides a new perspective in the consideration of novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  5. Morphodynamics of the Actin-Rich Cytoskeleton in Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the anaerobic protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, the third most deadly parasitic disease worldwide. This highly motile eukaryotic cell invades human tissues and constitutes an excellent experimental model of cell motility and cell shape deformation. The absence of extranuclear microtubules in Entamoeba histolytica means that the actin-rich cytoskeleton takes on a crucial role in not only amoebic motility but also other processes sustaining pathogenesis, such as the phagocytosis of human cells and the parasite's resistance of host immune responses. Actin is highly conserved among eukaryotes, although diverse isoforms exist in almost all organisms studied to date. However, E. histolytica has a single actin protein, the structure of which differs significantly from those of its human homologs. Here, we studied the expression, structure and dynamics of actin in E. histolytica. We used molecular and cellular approaches to evaluate actin gene expression during intestinal invasion by E. histolytica trophozoites. Based on a three-dimensional structural bioinformatics analysis, we characterized protein domains differences between amoebic actin and human actin. Fine-tuned molecular dynamics simulations enabled us to examine protein motion and refine the three-dimensional structures of both actins, including elements potentially accounting for differences changes in the affinity properties of amoebic actin and deoxyribonuclease I. The dynamic, multifunctional nature of the amoebic cytoskeleton prompted us to examine the pleiotropic forms of actin structures within live E. histolytica cells; we observed the cortical cytoskeleton, stress fibers, “dot-like” structures, adhesion plates, and macropinosomes. In line with these data, a proteomics study of actin-binding proteins highlighted the Arp2/3 protein complex as a crucial element for the development of macropinosomes and adhesion plaques.

  6. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682

  7. p95-APP1 links membrane transport to Rac-mediated reorganization of actin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cesare, A; Paris, S; Albertinazzi, C

    2000-01-01

    Motility requires protrusive activity at the cellular edge, where Rho family members regulate actin dynamics. Here we show that p95-APP1 (ArfGAP-putative, Pix-interacting, paxillin-interacting protein 1), a member of the GIT1/PKL family, is part of a complex that interacts with Rac. Wild-type and...

  8. Molecular and cellular characterization of the tomato pollen profilin, LePro1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xi Yu

    Full Text Available Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells. We previously cloned a profilin gene, designated as LePro1 from tomato pollen. To understand its biological role, in the present study, we investigated the temporal and spatial expression of LePro1 during pollen development and found that the transcript was only detected at late stages during microsporogenesis and pollen maturation. Using antisense RNA, we successfully knocked down the expression of LePro1 in tomato plants using stable transformation, and obtained two antisense lines, A2 and A3 showing significant down-regulation of LePro1 in pollen resulting in poor pollen germination and abnormal pollen tube growth. A disorganized F-actin distribution was observed in the antisense pollen. Down-regulation of LePro1 also appeared to affect hydration of pollen deposited on the stigma and arrested pollen tube elongation in the style, thereby affecting fertilization. Our results suggest that LePro1 in conjunction with perhaps other cytoskeletal proteins, plays a regulatory role in the proper organization of F-actin in tomato pollen tubes through promoting actin assembly. Down-regulation of LePro1 leads to interruption of actin assembly and disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton thus arresting pollen tube growth. Based on the present and previous studies, it is likely that a single transcript of profilin gives rise to multiple forms displaying multifunctionality in tomato pollen.

  9. Coordination of membrane and actin cytoskeleton dynamics during filopodia protrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Yang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge protrusion of migrating cells involves tightly coordinated changes in the plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. It remains unclear whether polymerizing actin filaments push and deform the membrane, or membrane deformation occurs independently and is subsequently stabilized by actin filaments. To address this question, we employed an ability of the membrane-binding I-BAR domain of IRSp53 to uncouple the membrane and actin dynamics and to induce filopodia in expressing cells. Using time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy of IRSp53-I-BAR-expressing B16F1 melanoma cells, we demonstrate that cells are not able to protrude or maintain durable long extensions without actin filaments in their interior, but I-BAR-dependent membrane deformation can create a small and transient space at filopodial tips that is subsequently filled with actin filaments. Moreover, the expressed I-BAR domain forms a submembranous coat that may structurally support these transient actin-free protrusions until they are further stabilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Actin filaments in the I-BAR-induced filopodia, in contrast to normal filopodia, do not have a uniform length, are less abundant, poorly bundled, and display erratic dynamics. Such unconventional structural organization and dynamics of actin in I-BAR-induced filopodia suggests that a typical bundle of parallel actin filaments is not necessary for generation and mechanical support of the highly asymmetric filopodial geometry. Together, our data suggest that actin filaments may not directly drive the protrusion, but only stabilize the space generated by the membrane deformation; yet, such stabilization is necessary for efficient protrusion.

  10. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  11. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  12. The effect of membrane-regulated actin polymerization on a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    KAUST Repository

    Kimpton, L. S.

    2014-07-23

    Two-phase flow models have been widely used to model cell motility and we have previously demonstrated that even the simplest, stripped-down, 1D model displays many observed features of cell motility [Kimpton, L.S., Whiteley, J.P., Waters, S.L., King, J.R. & Oliver, J.M. (2013) Multiple travelling-wave solutions in a minimal model for cell motility. Math. Med. Biol. 30, 241 - 272]. In this paper, we address a limitation of the previous model.We show that the two-phase flow framework can exhibit travelling-wave solutions with biologically plausible actin network profiles in two simple models that enforce polymerization or depolymerization of the actin network at the ends of the travelling, 1D strip of cytoplasm. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  13. Actin and dynamin recruitment and the lack thereof at exo- and endocytotic sites in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmy, Felix

    2009-06-01

    Protein recruitment during endocytosis is well characterized in fibroblasts. Since fibroblasts do not engage in regulated exocytosis, only information about protein recruitment during constitutive endocytosis is provided. Furthermore, the cortical actin of fibroblasts is characterized by stress fibers rather than a thick cortical meshwork. A cell model, which differs in these features, could provide insight into the heterogeneity of protein recruitment to constitutive and exocytosis coupled endocytotic areas. Therefore, this study investigates the sequence of protein recruitment in PC12 cells, a well documented exocytotic cell model with thick actin cortex. Using real time total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy it was found that at the plasma membrane steady, but not transient, dynamin-1-EGFP or -mCherry fluorescence spots that rapidly dimmed coincided with markers for constitutive endocytotic such as clathrin-LC-dsRed and transferrin-receptor-pHluorin. Clathrin-LC-dsRed and dynamin-1-EGFP were further used to determine the temporal sequence of protein recruitment to areas of constitutive endocytosis. mCherry- and EGFP-beta-actin, Arp-3-EGFP and EGFP-mAbp1 were slowly recruited before the dynamin-1-mCherry fluorescence dimmed, but their fluorescence peaked after the loss of clathrin-LC-dsRed commenced. Furthermore, mCherry-beta-actin fluorescence increased before exocytosis, indicating redistribution prior to release. Also, no average dynamin-1-mCherry recruitment was observed within 50 s to regions of exocytosis marked by NPY-mGFP. This indicates that the temporal-spatial coupling between regulated exo-and endocytosis is rather limited in PC12 cells. Furthermore, the time course of the protein recruitment to constitutive endocytotic sites might depend on the subcellular morphology such as the size of the actin cortex.

  14. Cyclooxygenase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase reorganize the actin cytoskeleton for motility in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Honor L; Jacobson, Bruce S

    2003-08-01

    The adhesion of a cell to its surrounding matrix is a key determinant in many aspects of cell behavior. Adhesion consists of distinct stages : attachment, cell spreading, motility, and/or immobilization. Interrelated signaling pathways regulate these stages, and many adhesion-related signals control the architecture of the cytoskeleton. The various cytoskeletal organizations then give rise to the specific stages of adhesion. It has been shown that arachidonic acid acts at a signaling branch point during cell attachment. Arachidonic acid is metabolized via lipoxygenase to activate actin polymerization and cell spreading. It is also metabolized by cyclooxygenase to generate small actin bundles. We have used confocal microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence to investigate the structure of these cyclooxygenase dependent actin bundles in HeLa cells. We have also employed cell migration assays and pharmacological modulation of cyclooxygenase and downstream signals. The results indicate that cyclooxygenase and PKA stimulate the formation of actin bundles that contain myosin II and associate with small focal adhesions. In addition, we demonstrate that this cytoskeletal organization correlates with increased cell motility. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The Apical Actin Fringe Contributes to Localized Cell Wall Deposition and Polarized Growth in the Lily Pollen Tube1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. PMID:25037212

  16. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP 2 and PIP 3 to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  17. Actin dynamics, architecture, and mechanics in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoin, Laurent; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Sykes, Cécile; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Tight coupling between biochemical and mechanical properties of the actin cytoskeleton drives a large range of cellular processes including polarity establishment, morphogenesis, and motility. This is possible because actin filaments are semi-flexible polymers that, in conjunction with the molecular motor myosin, can act as biological active springs or "dashpots" (in laymen's terms, shock absorbers or fluidizers) able to exert or resist against force in a cellular environment. To modulate their mechanical properties, actin filaments can organize into a variety of architectures generating a diversity of cellular organizations including branched or crosslinked networks in the lamellipodium, parallel bundles in filopodia, and antiparallel structures in contractile fibers. In this review we describe the feedback loop between biochemical and mechanical properties of actin organization at the molecular level in vitro, then we integrate this knowledge into our current understanding of cellular actin organization and its physiological roles.

  18. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dov, Nadav [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  19. TGFβ1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Elsafadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGFβ1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGFβ-mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGFβ1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays. In total, 1932 genes were upregulated, and 1298 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGFβl treatment was associated with an enrichment of genes in the skeletal and extracellular matrix categories and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate further, we examined the actin cytoskeleton following treatment with TGFβ1 and/or cytochalasin D. Interestingly, cytochalasin D treatment of hMSCs enhanced adipogenic differentiation but inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Global gene expression profiling revealed a significant enrichment of pathways related to osteogenesis and adipogenesis and of genes regulated by both TGFβ1 and cytochalasin D. Our study demonstrates that TGFβ1 enhances hMSC commitment to either the osteogenic or adipogenic lineages by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan, E-mail: jan.gettemans@vib-ugent.be

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  1. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. → Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. → Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. → The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  2. The 5’cap of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is required for virion attachment to the actin/ER network during early infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Tilsner, Jens; Bell, Karen

    to the motile cortical actin/ER network within minutes of injection. Granule movement on actin/ER was arrested by actin inhibitors indicating actindependent RNA movement. The 5’ methylguanosine TMV cap was shown to be required for vRNA anchoring to the ER. TMV vRNA lacking the 5’cap failed to form granules...... the fluorescent vRNA pool nor co-injected GFP left the injected trichome, indicating that the synthesis of unlabelled progeny viral (v)RNA is required to initiate cell-cell movement, and that virus movement is not accompanied by passive plasmodesmatal gating. Cy3-vRNA formed granules that became anchored...... on the same ER-bound granules, indicating that TMV virions may become attached to the ER prior to uncoating of the viral genome....

  3. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  4. Incorporation of β-actin loading control into zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, Natasha; Yan, MengJie; Jurasz, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Gelatin zymography and immunoblot are widely used gel electrophoresis techniques to study matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Zymography is exquisitely sensitive but offers no loading control to ensure equal sample loading. Immunoblot is a 100-1000-fold less sensitive, but allows for the probing of a sample loading control such as β-actin to ensure accurate protein loading. In this report, we describe two simple protocols that combine gelatin zymography to study MMP-2 and -9 levels with an in-gel β-actin immunoblot loading control, thus combining sensitivity and accuracy in a single assay. The protocols incorporate the loading of molecular weight markers to demarcate MMP-2/-9 from the β-actin. The first protocol utilizes the overlay of a 10% zymography gel over a 5% Tris-Glycine separating gel from which the β-actin is transferred. The second protocol involves the direct transfer of the β-actin from a single 10% zymography gel.

  5. Bacterial subversion of host actin dynamics at the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabeo, Rey

    2011-10-01

    Invasion of non-phagocytic cells by a number of bacterial pathogens involves the subversion of the actin cytoskeletal remodelling machinery to produce actin-rich cell surface projections designed to engulf the bacteria. The signalling that occurs to induce these actin-rich structures has considerable overlap among a diverse group of bacteria. The molecular organization within these structures act in concert to internalize the invading pathogen. This dynamic process could be subdivided into three acts - actin recruitment, engulfment, and finally, actin disassembly/internalization. This review will present the current state of knowledge of the molecular processes involved in each stage of bacterial invasion, and provide a perspective that highlights the temporal and spatial control of actin remodelling that occurs during bacterial invasion. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Amphidinolide H, a novel type of actin-stabilizing agent isolated from dinoflagellate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shin-ya; Feng Jue; Kira, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of novel cytotoxic marine macrolide, amphidinolide H (Amp-H), on actin dynamics was investigated in vitro. Amp-H attenuated actin depolymerization induced by diluting F-actin. This effect remained after washing out of unbound Amp-H by filtration. In the presence of either Amp-H or phalloidin, lag phase, which is the rate-limiting step of actin polymerization, was shortened. Phalloidin decreased the polymerization-rate whereas Amp-H did not. Meanwhile, the effects of both compounds were the same when barbed end of actin was capped by cytochalasin D. Quartz crystal microbalance system revealed interaction of Amp-H with G-actin and F-actin. Amp-H also enhanced the binding of phalloidin to F-actin. We concluded that Amp-H stabilizes actin in a different manner from that of phalloidin and serves as a novel pharmacological tool for analyzing actin-mediated cell function

  7. The preliminary observation of the changes of β-actin,coagulant and inflammatory factors in mice serum induced by γ rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingzhi; Wang Jia; Cheng Ying; Li Mingjuan; Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    In order to learn the effect of β-actin in acute radiation injury, the changeable pattern with time of plasma β-actin, PT, APTT, FIB and IL-8 in mice spleen tissue exposed to 6 Gy γ-rays radiation was investigated.Blood and spleen were collected at immediate, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 d after irradiation, respectively. The contents of blood β-actin were detected by magnetic bead separation enzyme-linked immunosorbent. An STAGO blood coagulation instrument was used to determine PT, APTT and FIB. DNA expression of IL-8 was detected by real time-PCR analyzer. The results show that the level of β-actin in serum of irradiated mice is higher than that of normal control group at all different post-irradiation time points although the change of β-actin in serum of irradiated mice with time schedule shows a pattern which increases within 1d and declines beyond 1d. The trend of the changes in plasma PT, APTT, FIB and in spleen IL-8 and time pattern of these changes are similar to that in plasma β-actin in irradiated mice. The difference in values and the time phase between plasma β-actin and other indexes is the reaching time of peak values and the declining levels of the values. These results are valuable for studying the role of β-actin in acute radiation sickness pathology process and can be used to explore new factors influencing and regulating pathology process. (authors)

  8. The cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana influences actin network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Frances; Poulet, Axel; McKenna, Joseph; Sassmann, Stefan; Graumann, Katja; Deeks, Michael; Runions, John

    2017-07-20

    In plant cells, molecular connections link the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton to form a continuum. It is hypothesized that the cell wall provides stable anchor points around which the actin cytoskeleton remodels. Here we use live cell imaging of fluorescently labelled marker proteins to quantify the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine the impact of disrupting connections within the continuum. Labelling of the actin cytoskeleton with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fimbrin actin-binding domain 2 (FABD2) resulted in a network composed of fine filaments and thicker bundles that appeared as a highly dynamic remodelling meshwork. This differed substantially from the GFP-Lifeact-labelled network that appeared much more sparse with thick bundles that underwent 'simple movement', in which the bundles slightly change position, but in such a manner that the structure of the network was not substantially altered during the time of observation. Label-dependent differences in actin network morphology and remodelling necessitated development of two new image analysis techniques. The first of these, 'pairwise image subtraction', was applied to measurement of the more rapidly remodelling actin network labelled with GFP-FABD2, while the second, 'cumulative fluorescence intensity', was used to measure bulk remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton when labelled with GFP-Lifeact. In each case, these analysis techniques show that the actin cytoskeleton has a decreased rate of bulk remodelling when the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin continuum is disrupted either by plasmolysis or with isoxaben, a drug that specifically inhibits cellulose deposition. Changes in the rate of actin remodelling also affect its functionality, as observed by alteration in Golgi body motility. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. WICH, a member of WASP-interacting protein family, cross-links actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masayoshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    In yeast, Verprolin plays an important role in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. There are three mammalian homologues of Verprolin, WIP, CR16, and WICH, and all of them bind actin and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and/or neural-WASP. Here, we describe a novel function of WICH. In vitro co-sedimentation analysis revealed that WICH not only binds to actin filaments but also cross-links them. Fluorescence and electron microscopy detected that this cross-linking results in straight bundled actin filaments. Overexpression of WICH alone in cultured fibroblast caused the formation of thick actin fibers. This ability of WICH depended on its own actin cross-linking activity. Importantly, the actin cross-linking activity of WICH was modified through a direct association with N-WASP. Taken together, these data suggest that WICH induces a bundled form of actin filament with actin cross-linking activity and the association with N-WASP suppresses that activity. WICH thus appears to be a novel actin bundling protein

  10. Studying protein assembly with reversible Brownian dynamics of patchy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Heinrich C. R.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of protein complexes like virus shells, the centriole, the nuclear pore complex, or the actin cytoskeleton is strongly determined by their spatial structure. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that the reversible nature of protein assembly is also an essential element for their biological function. Here we introduce a computational approach for the Brownian dynamics of patchy particles with anisotropic assemblies and fully reversible reactions. Different particles stochastically associate and dissociate with microscopic reaction rates depending on their relative spatial positions. The translational and rotational diffusive properties of all protein complexes are evaluated on-the-fly. Because we focus on reversible assembly, we introduce a scheme which ensures detailed balance for patchy particles. We then show how the macroscopic rates follow from the microscopic ones. As an instructive example, we study the assembly of a pentameric ring structure, for which we find excellent agreement between simulation results and a macroscopic kinetic description without any adjustable parameters. This demonstrates that our approach correctly accounts for both the diffusive and reactive processes involved in protein assembly

  11. Studying protein assembly with reversible Brownian dynamics of patchy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Heinrich C. R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schwarz, Ulrich S., E-mail: ulrich.schwarz@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); BioQuant, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    Assembly of protein complexes like virus shells, the centriole, the nuclear pore complex, or the actin cytoskeleton is strongly determined by their spatial structure. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that the reversible nature of protein assembly is also an essential element for their biological function. Here we introduce a computational approach for the Brownian dynamics of patchy particles with anisotropic assemblies and fully reversible reactions. Different particles stochastically associate and dissociate with microscopic reaction rates depending on their relative spatial positions. The translational and rotational diffusive properties of all protein complexes are evaluated on-the-fly. Because we focus on reversible assembly, we introduce a scheme which ensures detailed balance for patchy particles. We then show how the macroscopic rates follow from the microscopic ones. As an instructive example, we study the assembly of a pentameric ring structure, for which we find excellent agreement between simulation results and a macroscopic kinetic description without any adjustable parameters. This demonstrates that our approach correctly accounts for both the diffusive and reactive processes involved in protein assembly.

  12. A peek into tropomyosin binding and unfolding on the actin filament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin is a prototypical coiled coil along its length with subtle variations in structure that allow interactions with actin and other proteins. Actin binding globally stabilizes tropomyosin. Tropomyosin-actin interaction occurs periodically along the length of tropomyosin. However, it is not well understood how tropomyosin binds actin. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tropomyosin's periodic binding sites make differential contributions to two components of actin binding, cooperativity and affinity, and can be classified as primary or secondary sites. We show through mutagenesis and analysis of recombinant striated muscle alpha-tropomyosins that primary actin binding sites have a destabilizing coiled-coil interface, typically alanine-rich, embedded within a non-interface recognition sequence. Introduction of an Ala cluster in place of the native, more stable interface in period 2 and/or period 3 sites (of seven increased the affinity or cooperativity of actin binding, analysed by cosedimentation and differential scanning calorimetry. Replacement of period 3 with period 5 sequence, an unstable region of known importance for cooperative actin binding, increased the cooperativity of binding. Introduction of the fluorescent probe, pyrene, near the mutation sites in periods 2 and 3 reported local instability, stabilization by actin binding, and local unfolding before or coincident with dissociation from actin (measured using light scattering, and chain dissociation (analyzed using circular dichroism. CONCLUSIONS: This, and previous work, suggests that regions of tropomyosin involved in binding actin have non-interface residues specific for interaction with actin and an unstable interface that is locally stabilized upon binding. The destabilized interface allows residues on the coiled-coil surface to obtain an optimal conformation for interaction with actin by increasing the number of local substates that the side chains can sample. We suggest

  13. Forecast of actin-binding proteins as the oncotarget in osteosarcoma - a review of mechanism, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yucheng; Yu, Wei; Cai, Hongliu; Lu, Anwei

    2018-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone malignant tumor with a high rate of lung metastasis and principally emerges in children and adolescents. Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy is widely used around the world, a high rate of chemoresistance occurs and frequently generates a poor prognosis. Therefore, finding a new appropriate prognostic marker for OS is a valuable research direction, which will give patients a better chance to receive proper therapy. Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) are a group of proteins that interact with actin cytoskeleton and play a crucial role in the regulation of the cell motility and morphology in eukaryotes. Meanwhile, ABPs also act as a bridge between the cytomembrane and nucleus, which transmit the outside-in and inside-out signals in cytoplasm. Furthermore, ABPs alter the dynamic structure of actin and regulate the invasion and metastasis of cancer. Hence, ABPs have a wide application in predicting the prognosis, and may be new targets, in tumor therapy. This review focuses on a series of ABPs and discusses their modulatory functions. It provides a new insight into the classification of ABPs' functions in the process of invasion and metastasis in OS and illuminates the potential ability in predicting the prognosis of OS patients.

  14. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Mehlen, André; Vetter, Guillaume; Yatskou, Mikalai; Muller, Arnaud; Chalmel, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Friederich, Evelyne; Vallar, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Background The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI) allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that

  15. Cellular target of weak magnetic fields: ionic conduction along actin filaments of microvilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Joachim; Lange, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    The interaction of weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) with living cells is a most important but still unresolved biophysical problem. For this interaction, thermal and other types of noise appear to cause severe restrictions in the action of weak signals on relevant components of the cell. A recently presented general concept of regulation of ion and substrate pathways through microvilli provides a possible theoretical basis for the comprehension of physiological effects of even extremely low magnetic fields. The actin-based core of microfilaments in microvilli is proposed to represent a cellular interaction site for magnetic fields. Both the central role of F-actin in Ca2+ signaling and its polyelectrolyte nature eliciting specific ion conduction properties render the microvillar actin filament bundle an ideal interaction site for magnetic and electric fields. Ion channels at the tip of microvilli are connected with the cytoplasm by a bundle of microfilaments forming a diffusion barrier system. Because of its polyelectrolyte nature, the microfilament core of microvilli allows Ca2+ entry into the cytoplasm via nonlinear cable-like cation conduction through arrays of condensed ion clouds. The interaction of ion clouds with periodically applied EMFs and field-induced cation pumping through the cascade of potential barriers on the F-actin polyelectrolyte follows well-known physical principles of ion-magnetic field (MF) interaction and signal discrimination as described by the stochastic resonance and Brownian motor hypotheses. The proposed interaction mechanism is in accord with our present knowledge about Ca2+ signaling as the biological main target of MFs and the postulated extreme sensitivity for coherent excitation by very low field energies within specific amplitude and frequency windows. Microvillar F-actin bundles shielded by a lipid membrane appear to function like electronic integration devices for signal-to-noise enhancement; the influence of coherent signals

  16. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  17. Automated detection of actinic keratoses in clinical photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Samuel C; Sinnya, Sudipta; Tan, Jean-Marie; Morze, Conrad; Sahebian, Azadeh; Soyer, H Peter; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis is known to have intra- and inter-observer variability, and there is currently no non-invasive and objective measure to diagnose these lesions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if automatically detecting and circumscribing actinic keratoses in clinical photographs is feasible. Photographs of the face and dorsal forearms were acquired in 20 volunteers from two groups: the first with at least on actinic keratosis present on the face and each arm, the second with no actinic keratoses. The photographs were automatically analysed using colour space transforms and morphological features to detect erythema. The automated output was compared with a senior consultant dermatologist's assessment of the photographs, including the intra-observer variability. Performance was assessed by the correlation between total lesions detected by automated method and dermatologist, and whether the individual lesions detected were in the same location as the dermatologist identified lesions. Additionally, the ability to limit false positives was assessed by automatic assessment of the photographs from the no actinic keratosis group in comparison to the high actinic keratosis group. The correlation between the automatic and dermatologist counts was 0.62 on the face and 0.51 on the arms, compared to the dermatologist's intra-observer variation of 0.83 and 0.93 for the same. Sensitivity of automatic detection was 39.5% on the face, 53.1% on the arms. Positive predictive values were 13.9% on the face and 39.8% on the arms. Significantly more lesions (p<0.0001) were detected in the high actinic keratosis group compared to the no actinic keratosis group. The proposed method was inferior to assessment by the dermatologist in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value. However, this pilot study used only a single simple feature and was still able to achieve sensitivity of detection of 53.1% on the arms.This suggests that image analysis is

  18. An unusual dimeric structure and assembly for TLR4 regulator RP105-MD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-il; Hong, Minsun; Wilson, Ian A [Scripps

    2011-11-16

    RP105-MD-1 modulates the TLR4-MD-2-mediated, innate immune response against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The crystal structure of the bovine 1:1 RP105-MD-1 complex bound to a putative endogenous lipid at 2.9 Å resolution shares a similar overall architecture to its homolog TLR4-MD-2 but assembles into an unusual 2:2 homodimer that differs from any other known TLR-ligand assembly. The homodimer is assembled in a head-to-head orientation that juxtaposes the N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of the two RP105 chains, rather than the usual tail-to-tail configuration of C-terminal LRRs in ligand-activated TLR dimers, such as TLR1-TRL2, TLR2-TLR6, TLR3-TLR3 and TLR4-TLR4. Another unusual interaction is mediated by an RP105-specific asparagine-linked glycan, which wedges MD-1 into the co-receptor binding concavity on RP105. This unique mode of assembly represents a new paradigm for TLR complexes and suggests a molecular mechanism for regulating LPS responses.

  19. How capping protein enhances actin filament growth and nucleation on biomimetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Carlsson, Anders E

    2015-11-25

    Capping protein (CP), which caps the growing ends of actin filaments, accelerates actin-based motility. Recent experiments on biomimetic beads have shown that CP also enhances the rate of actin filament nucleation. Proposed explanations for these phenomena include (i) the actin funneling hypothesis (AFH), in which the presence of CP increases the free-actin concentration, and (ii) the monomer gating model, in which CP binding to actin filament barbed ends makes more monomers available for filament nucleation. To establish how CP increases the rates of filament elongation and nucleation on biomimetic beads, we perform a quantitative modeling analysis of actin polymerization, using rate equations that include actin filament nucleation, polymerization and capping, as modified by monomer depletion near the surface of the bead. With one adjustable parameter, our simulation results match previously measured time courses of polymerized actin and filament number. The results support a version of the AFH where CP increases the local actin monomer concentration at the bead surface, but leaves the global free-actin concentration nearly constant. Because the rate of filament nucleation increases with the monomer concentration, the increased local monomer concentration enhances actin filament nucleation. We derive a closed-form formula for the characteristic CP concentration where the local free-actin concentration reaches half the bulk value, and find it to be comparable to the global Arp2/3 complex concentration. We also propose an experimental protocol for distinguishing branching nucleation of filaments from spontaneous nucleation.

  20. Role of cyclic nucleotide-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics:Ca(2+](i and force suppression in forskolin-pretreated porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Hocking

    Full Text Available Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC. However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca(2+]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm.

  1. Mapping of the mouse actin capping protein {alpha} subunit genes and pseudogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.C.; Korshunova, Y.O.; Cooper, J.A. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Capping protein (CP), a heterodimer of {alpha} and {beta} subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three {alpha} isoforms ({alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3) produced from different genes, whereas lower organisms have only one gene and one isoform. We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the a subunits of mouse CP and found three {alpha}1 genes, two of which are pseudogenes, and a single gene for both {alpha}2 and {alpha}3. Their chromosomal locations were identified by interspecies backcross mapping. The {alpha}1 gene (Cappa1) mapped to Chromosome 3 between D3Mit11 and D3Mit13. The {alpha}1 pseudogenes (Cappa1-ps1 and Cappa1-ps2) mapped to Chromosomes 1 and 9, respectively. The {alpha}2 gene (Cappa2) mapped to Chromosome 6 near Ptn. The {alpha}3 gene (Cappa3) also mapped to Chromosome 6, approximately 68 cM distal from Cappa2 near Kras2. One mouse mutation, de, maps in the vicinity of the {alpha}1 gene. No known mouse mutations map to regions near the {alpha}2 or {alpha}3 genes. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-11-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes. © 2015 Hughes, Oudin, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Uncoupling PIP2-calmodulin regulation of Kv7.2 channels by an assembly destabilizing epileptogenic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Araitz; Gomis-Perez, Carolina; Bernardo-Seisdedos, Ganeko; Alaimo, Alessandro; Malo, Covadonga; Aldaregia, Juncal; Lopez-Robles, Carlos; Areso, Pilar; Butz, Elisabeth; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2015-11-01

    We show that the combination of an intracellular bi-partite calmodulin (CaM)-binding site and a distant assembly region affect how an ion channel is regulated by a membrane lipid. Our data reveal that regulation by phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2) and stabilization of assembled Kv7.2 subunits by intracellular coiled-coil regions far from the membrane are coupled molecular processes. Live-cell fluorescence energy transfer measurements and direct binding studies indicate that remote coiled-coil formation creates conditions for different CaM interaction modes, each conferring different PIP2 dependency to Kv7.2 channels. Disruption of coiled-coil formation by epilepsy-causing mutation decreases apparent CaM-binding affinity and interrupts CaM influence on PIP2 sensitivity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. The effect of pyrene labelling on the thermal stability of actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasi, Szulamit; Papp, Gabor; Bugyi, Beata; Barko, Szilvia; Orban, Jozsef; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Visegrady, Balazs

    2006-01-01

    The ability of actin to form filaments is fundamental to its biological function and often characterised by various methods in vitro. One of the most frequently used methods capitalises on the observation that the fluorescence emission of a pyrene label on the Cys-374 residue of actin is enhanced by a factor of ∼20 during polymerisation. This method inherently involves the chemical modification of actin monomers with pyrene. It was reported earlier that the pyrene labelling of actin monomers has only small effect on the polymerisation and depolymerisation rates of actin, indicating that the method is suitable to characterise the effect of actin-binding proteins or peptides on the polymerisation kinetics. In our present work we tested the effect of the pyrene labelling on the thermal denaturation of actin filaments by using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By recording the heat denaturation profiles of unlabelled and pyrene labelled actin filaments we observed that pyrene labelling shifted the melting point (T m ) of actin filaments from 66 to 68 deg. C. A similar effect was detected in the presence of equimolar concentration of phalloidin where the T m shifted from 79 to 82 deg. C. We concluded that the observed pyrene labelling induced differences of the thermal denaturation of actin filaments were small. The DSC results, therefore, confirmed that the methods based on the measurements of pyrene intensity during actin polymerisation are suitable to characterise the polymerisation kinetics of actin under in vitro conditions

  5. The effects of near-UV radiation on elasmobranch lens cytoskeletal actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, S; Rafferty, N S; Scholz, D L; Lowe, K

    1992-08-01

    The role of near-UV radiation as a cytoskeletal actin-damaging agent was investigated. Two procedures were used to analyse fresh smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) eye lenses that were incubated for up to 22 hr in vitro, with elasmobranch Ringer's medium, and with or without exposure to a near-UV lamp (emission principally at 365 nm; irradiance of 2.5 mW cm-2). These were observed histologically using phalloidin-rhodamine specific staining and by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, solutions of purified polymerized rabbit muscle actin were exposed to the same UV conditions and depolymerization was assayed by ultracentrifugation and high-pressure liquid chromatography. While the two actins studied do differ very slightly in some amino acid sequences, they would react physically nearly identically. The results showed that dogfish lenses developed superficial opacities due to near-UV exposure. Whole mounts of lens epithelium exhibited breakdown of actin filaments in the basal region of the cells within 18 hr of UV exposure. TEM confirmed the breakdown of actin filaments due to UV exposure. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting positively identified actin in these cells. Direct exposure of purified polymerized muscle actin in polymerizing buffer led to an increase in actin monomer of approximately 25% in the UV-exposed solutions within 3-18 hr, whether assayed by ultracentrifugation or HPLC. The above indicates that elasmobranch lens epithelial cells contain UV-labile actin filaments, and that near-UV radiation, as is present in the sunlit environment, can break down the actin structure in these cells. Furthermore, breakdown of purified polymerized muscle actin does occur due to near-UV light exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Evolutionarily conserved sites in yeast tropomyosin function in cell polarity, transport and contractile ring formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Cranz-Mileva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropomyosin is a coiled-coil protein that binds and regulates actin filaments. The tropomyosin gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cdc8, is required for formation of actin cables, contractile rings, and polar localization of actin patches. The roles of conserved residues were investigated in gene replacement mutants. The work validates an evolution-based approach to identify tropomyosin functions in living cells and sites of potential interactions with other proteins. A cdc8 mutant with near-normal actin affinity affects patch polarization and vacuole fusion, possibly by affecting Myo52p, a class V myosin, function. The presence of labile residual cell attachments suggests a delay in completion of cell division and redistribution of cell patches following cytokinesis. Another mutant with a mild phenotype is synthetic negative with GFP-fimbrin, inferring involvement of the mutated tropomyosin sites in interaction between the two proteins. Proteins that assemble in the contractile ring region before actin do so in a mutant cdc8 strain that cannot assemble condensed actin rings, yet some cells can divide. Of general significance, LifeAct-GFP negatively affects the actin cytoskeleton, indicating caution in its use as a biomarker for actin filaments.

  7. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Actinic Keratosis Pathogenesis Update and New Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Melis, Marcello; Faina, Valentina; Romaniello, Federico; Didona, Dario; Cardone, Michele; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Actinic keratosis is a common premalignant skin lesion. Because of its increasing incidence, several efforts have been made to earlier detectection and to improve knowledge on photocarcinogenic pathways of keratinocytes. As a consequence, recently new discoveries have been done in this field. Starting from our previous review on actinic keratosis, we reviewed the literature focusing on pathogenesis and new patents in order to highlight the most recent progresses in diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Although several efforts have been done in the field of photodamaged skin, new upgrades in diagnosis and therapy are needed to detect superficial actinic keratosis earlier, to improve the disease free survival of patient and to better treat the field cancerization.

  9. Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, Jindřiška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Jiřina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga

    2014-06-01

    Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1 mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200 nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  11. Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic classification, and exon-intron structure characterisation of the tubulin and actin genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, Nikolay; Pirko, Yaroslav; Galinousky, Dmitry; Postovoitova, Anastasiia; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2018-06-08

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a valuable food and fiber crop cultivated for its quality fiber and seed oil. α-, β-, γ-tubulins and actins are the main structural proteins of the cytoskeleton. α- and γ-tubulin and actin genes have not been characterized yet in the flax genome. In this study, we have identified 6 α-tubulin genes, 13 β-tubulin genes, 2 γ-tubulin genes, and 15 actin genes in the flax genome and analysed the phylogenetic relationships between flax and A. thaliana tubulin and actin genes. Six α-tubulin genes are represented by 3 paralogous pairs, among 13 β-tubulin genes 7 different isotypes can be distinguished, 6 of which are encoded by two paralogous genes each. γ-tubulin is represented by a paralogous pair of genes one of which may be not functional. Fifteen actin genes represent 7 paralogous pairs - 7 actin isotypes and a sequentially duplicated copy of one of the genes of one of the isotypes. Exon-intron structure analysis has shown intron length polymorphism within the β-tubulin genes and intron number variation among the α-tubulin gene: 3 or 4 introns are found in two or four genes, respectively. Intron positioning occurs at conservative sites, as observed in numerous other plant species. Flax actin genes show both intron length polymorphisms and variation in the number of intron that may be 2 or 3. These data will be useful to support further studies on the specificity, functioning, regulation and evolution of the flax cytoskeleton proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.

  13. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  14. F-actin distribution and function during sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R

    1998-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is induced from the G1 phase of the cell cycle by nitrogen starvation and the presence of mating pheromones. We describe the distribution of F-actin during sexual differentiation. Cortical F-actin dots have previously been shown to be restricted...... to one end of the rod shaped cell during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Within half an hour of nitrogen starvation the distribution of cortical F-actin dots switched from being monopolar to bipolar. This was then reversed as the F-actin cytoskeleton repolarized so that cortical F-actin dots accumulated...

  15. The alternatively-included 11a sequence modifies the effects of Mena on actin cytoskeletal organization and cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michele; Mondal, Chandrani; Carmona, Guillaume; McClain, Leslie M; Riquelme, Daisy N; Tadros, Jenny; Ma, Duan; Vasile, Eliza; Condeelis, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2016-10-17

    During tumor progression, alternative splicing gives rise to different Mena protein isoforms. We analyzed how Mena11a, an isoform enriched in epithelia and epithelial-like cells, affects Mena-dependent regulation of actin dynamics and cell behavior. While other Mena isoforms promote actin polymerization and drive membrane protrusion, we find that Mena11a decreases actin polymerization and growth factor-stimulated membrane protrusion at lamellipodia. Ectopic Mena11a expression slows mesenchymal-like cell motility, while isoform-specific depletion of endogenous Mena11a in epithelial-like tumor cells perturbs cell:cell junctions and increases membrane protrusion and overall cell motility. Mena11a can dampen membrane protrusion and reduce actin polymerization in the absence of other Mena isoforms, indicating that it is not simply an inactive Mena isoform. We identify a phosphorylation site within 11a that is required for some Mena11a-specific functions. RNA-seq data analysis from patient cohorts demonstrates that the difference between mRNAs encoding constitutive Mena sequences and those containing the 11a exon correlates with metastasis in colorectal cancer, suggesting that 11a exon exclusion contributes to invasive phenotypes and leads to poor clinical outcomes.

  16. Self-Assembly of Hierarchical DNA Nanotube Architectures with Well-Defined Geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Tyler D; Mohammed, Abdul M; Agrawal, Deepak K; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-02-28

    An essential motif for the assembly of biological materials such as actin at the scale of hundreds of nanometers and beyond is a network of one-dimensional fibers with well-defined geometry. Here, we demonstrate the programmed organization of DNA filaments into micron-scale architectures where component filaments are oriented at preprogrammed angles. We assemble L-, T-, and Y-shaped DNA origami junctions that nucleate two or three micron length DNA nanotubes at high yields. The angles between the nanotubes mirror the angles between the templates on the junctions, demonstrating that nanoscale structures can control precisely how micron-scale architectures form. The ability to precisely program filament orientation could allow the assembly of complex filament architectures in two and three dimensions, including circuit structures, bundles, and extended materials.

  17. Topical Imiquimod in the Treatment of Conjunctival Actinic Keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Megan A; Giacometti, Joseph N; Servat, Javier; Materin, Miguel A; Levin, Flora

    Conjunctival actinic keratosis is rare and difficult to treat, as recurrences are common. Imiquimod, an immune response modulator, is currently Food and Drug Administration-approved for cutaneous actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinomas. Emerging reports have shown it to be effective in treating some periocular and conjunctival lesions. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old white man with recurrent actinic keratosis involving the pretarsal conjunctiva, which was successfully treated with 5% topical imiquimod following previous failure with cryotherapy and interferon α-2b. The patient had ocular irritation that resolved on cessation of treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of conjunctival actinic keratosis being treated with and successfully eradicated by topical imiquimod.

  18. miR-181c-BRK1 axis plays a key role in actin cytoskeleton-dependent T cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shok Ping; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Ramsay, Alan G; Darling, David; Gäken, Joop; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs are short endogenous noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in a diverse range of cellular processes. The miR-181 family is important in T cell development, proliferation, and activation. In this study, we have identified BRK1 as a potential target of miR-181c using a dual selection functional assay and have showed that miR-181c regulates BRK1 by translational inhibition. Given the importance of miR-181 in T cell function and the potential role of BRK1 in the involvement of WAVE2 complex and actin polymerization in T cells, we therefore investigated the influence of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell function. Stimulation of PBMC derived CD3 + T cells resulted in reduced miR-181c expression and up-regulation of BRK1 protein expression, suggesting that miR-181c-BRK1 axis is important in T cell activation. We further showed that overexpression of miR-181c or suppression of BRK1 resulted in inhibition of T cell activation and actin polymerization coupled with defective lamellipodia generation and immunological synapse formation. Additionally, we found that BRK1 silencing led to reduced expressions of other proteins in the WAVE2 complex, suggesting that the impairment of T cell actin dynamics was a result of the instability of the WAVE2 complex following BRK1 depletion. Collectively, we demonstrated that miR-181c reduces BRK1 protein expression level and highlighted the important role of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell activation and actin polymerization-mediated T cell functions. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Dynamin1 is a novel target for IRSp53 protein and works with mammalian enabled (Mena) protein and Eps8 to regulate filopodial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ai Mei; Sem, Kai Ping; Wright, Graham Daniel; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail

    2014-08-29

    Filopodia are dynamic actin-based structures that play roles in processes such as cell migration, wound healing, and axonal guidance. Cdc42 induces filopodial formation through IRSp53, an Inverse-Bin-Amphiphysins-Rvs (I-BAR) domain protein. Previous work from a number of laboratories has shown that IRSp53 generates filopodia by coupling membrane protrusion with actin dynamics through its Src homology 3 domain binding partners. Here, we show that dynamin1 (Dyn1), the large guanosine triphosphatase, is an interacting partner of IRSp53 through pulldown and Förster resonance energy transfer analysis, and we explore its role in filopodial formation. In neuroblastoma cells, Dyn1 localizes to filopodia, associated tip complexes, and the leading edge just behind the anti-capping protein mammalian enabled (Mena). Dyn1 knockdown reduces filopodial formation, which can be rescued by overexpressing wild-type Dyn1 but not the GTPase mutant Dyn1-K44A and the loss-of-function actin binding domain mutant Dyn1-K/E. Interestingly, dynasore, an inhibitor of Dyn GTPase, also reduced filopodial number and increased their lifetime. Using rapid time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that Dyn1 and Mena localize to filopodia only during initiation and assembly. Dyn1 actin binding domain mutant inhibits filopodial formation, suggesting a role in actin elongation. In contrast, Eps8, an actin capping protein, is seen most strongly at filopodial tips during disassembly. Taken together, the results suggest IRSp53 partners with Dyn1, Mena, and Eps8 to regulate filopodial dynamics. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Actin cytoskeleton of chemotactic amoebae operates close to the onset of oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, Christian; Negrete, Jose; Bae, Albert J.; Sandmann, Rabea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external stimuli is an essential property of many motile eukaryotic cells. Here, we report evidence that the actin machinery of chemotactic Dictyostelium cells operates close to an oscillatory instability. When averaging the actin response of many cells to a short pulse of the chemoattractant cAMP, we observed a transient accumulation of cortical actin reminiscent of a damped oscillation. At the single-cell level, however, the response dynamics ranged from short, strongly damped responses to slowly decaying, weakly damped oscillations. Furthermore, in a small subpopulation, we observed self-sustained oscillations in the cortical F-actin concentration. To substantiate that an oscillatory mechanism governs the actin dynamics in these cells, we systematically exposed a large number of cells to periodic pulse trains of different frequencies. Our results indicate a resonance peak at a stimulation period of around 20 s. We propose a delayed feedback model that explains our experimental findings based on a time-delay in the regulatory network of the actin system. To test the model, we performed stimulation experiments with cells that express GFP-tagged fusion proteins of Coronin and actin-interacting protein 1, as well as knockout mutants that lack Coronin and actin-interacting protein 1. These actin-binding proteins enhance the disassembly of actin filaments and thus allow us to estimate the delay time in the regulatory feedback loop. Based on this independent estimate, our model predicts an intrinsic period of 20 s, which agrees with the resonance observed in our periodic stimulation experiments. PMID:23431176

  1. Nuclear actin filaments recruit cofilin and actin-related protein 3, and their formation is connected with a mitotic block

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, Alžběta; Kalasová, Ilona; Yamazaki, S.; Uličná, Lívia; Harata, M.; Hozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-152 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk LD12063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : nuclear actin * transcription * mitosis * actin-related protein 3 * cofilin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2013

  2. Clinical Response to Ingenol Mebutate in Patients With Actinic Keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; Flórez, Á; Feal, C; Peón, G; Abalde, M T; Salgado-Boquete, L; de la Torre, C

    2015-12-01

    Cryotherapy is the most common treatment for actinic keratosis, but its effect is limited to individual lesions. Several topical drugs, however, are available that, in addition to treating individual actinic keratoses, target field cancerization and thereby act on subclinical lesions. Examples are 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, and ingenol mebutate. We report on 17 patients with actinic keratoses treated with ingenol mebutate and describe our findings on treatment effectiveness, adherence, and tolerance. Complete and partial response rates were 35% and 53%, respectively. Ninety-four percent of patients fully adhered to treatment and 18% developed severe local reactions. Ingenol mebutate is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis. Although it has a similar rate of local reactions to other treatments available for actinic keratosis, its short treatment regimen favors better adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayarre, Javier; Sanchez, David; Sanchez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Terron, Maria C.; Llorca, Oscar; Perez-Sala, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -PGJ 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ) and PGA 1 in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA 1 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ 2 or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ 2 at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles

  4. Actin-based gravity-sensing mechanisms in unicellular plant model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Markus; Limbach, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth in single-celled rhizoids and protonemata of the characean algae. It is well known that the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. Numerous actin-binding proteins control apical actin polymerization and the dynamic remodeling of the actin arrangement. An actomyosin-based system mediates the delivery and incorporation of secretory vesicles at the growing tip and coordinates the tip-high gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium which is required for local exocytosis. Additionally, the actomyosin system precisely controls the position of statoliths and, upon a change in orientation relative to the gravity vector, directs sedimenting statoliths to the confined graviperception sites of the plasma membrane where gravitropic signalling is initiated. The upward growth response of protonemata is preceded by an actin-dependent relocalization of the Ca2+-gradient to the upper flank. The downward growth response of rhizoids, however, is caused by differential growth of the opposite flankes due to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium limited to the plasma membrane area where statoliths are sedimented. Thus, constant actin polymerization in the growing tip and the spatiotemporal control of actin remodeling are essential for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids and protonemata.

  5. Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 regulates the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in cirrhotic livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, L.X. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zeng, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Liu, X.J.; Liang, X.M.; Zhou, Y.B. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-09-06

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  6. Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 regulates the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in cirrhotic livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Wang, L.X.; Zeng, J.P.; Liu, X.J.; Liang, X.M.; Zhou, Y.B.

    2013-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis

  7. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Regulation of nucleolus assembly by non-coding RNA polymerase II transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-05-03

    The nucleolus is a nuclear subcompartment for tightly regulated rRNA production and ribosome subunit biogenesis. It also acts as a cellular stress sensor and can release enriched factors in response to cellular stimuli. Accordingly, the content and structure of the nucleolus change dynamically, which is particularly evident during cell cycle progression: the nucleolus completely disassembles during mitosis and reassembles in interphase. Although the mechanisms that drive nucleolar (re)organization have been the subject of a number of studies, they are only partly understood. Recently, we identified Alu element-containing RNA polymerase II transcripts (aluRNAs) as important for nucleolar structure and rRNA synthesis. Integrating these findings with studies on the liquid droplet-like nature of the nucleolus leads us to propose a model on how RNA polymerase II transcripts could regulate the assembly of the nucleolus in response to external stimuli and during cell cycle progression.

  9. Dual effect of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) displayed on actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancíková, M; Vozárová, G; Lesko, J; Golais, F

    1999-10-01

    Pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) was shown to possess transforming activity as well as transformation repressing activity in in vitro systems. In order to better understand these phenomena we studied actin cytoskeleton and its alterations induced by PRGF using normal human fibroblasts VH-10 and transformed cell line HeLa. For specific detection of filamentous actin cells were stained with phalloidin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin. PRGF was applied to VH-10 cells for various length of time from 10 min up to 48 h. The effect was very fast and changes in actin filament composition could be detected already after 10 min. In comparison to untreated cells the staining of treated cells was more diffuse and a number of actin microfilaments in individual stress fibers became reduced. After 30 min thick short actin bundles appeared in the perinuclear region. A 24-h exposure resulted in a large reduction of actin bundles. After additional 24 h a partial restoration of actin cytoskeleton in cells was observed. In transformed HeLa cells PRGF induced opposite process than in normal cells: the number of filamentous actin structures increased. We hypothesise that PRGF may act as a transcription-like factor and may initiate changes in gene expression which consequently result in actin cytoskeleton alterations.

  10. Multi-protein assemblies underlie the mesoscale organization of the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Sinem K.; Honigmann, Alf; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; Lang, Thorsten; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins have uneven distributions in the plasma membrane. Broadly speaking, this may be caused by mechanisms specific to each protein, or may be a consequence of a general pattern that affects the distribution of all membrane proteins. The latter hypothesis has been difficult to test in the past. Here, we introduce several approaches based on click chemistry, through which we study the distribution of membrane proteins in living cells, as well as in membrane sheets. We found that the plasma membrane proteins form multi-protein assemblies that are long lived (minutes), and in which protein diffusion is restricted. The formation of the assemblies is dependent on cholesterol. They are separated and anchored by the actin cytoskeleton. Specific proteins are preferentially located in different regions of the assemblies, from their cores to their edges. We conclude that the assemblies constitute a basic mesoscale feature of the membrane, which affects the patterning of most membrane proteins, and possibly also their activity. PMID:25060237

  11. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin Induces Actin Filament Remodeling in Human Airway Epithelial Model Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Sabine; Eiffler, Ina; Schönberg, Alfrun; Müller, Christian; Hochgräfe, Falko; Beule, Achim G; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Exposure of cultured human airway epithelial model cells (16HBE14o-, S9) to Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla) induces changes in cell morphology and cell layer integrity that are due to the inability of the cells to maintain stable cell-cell or focal contacts and to properly organize their actin cytoskeletons. The aim of this study was to identify Hla-activated signaling pathways involved in regulating the phosphorylation level of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. We used recombinant wild-type hemolysin A (rHla) and a variant of Hla (rHla-H35L) that is unable to form functional transmembrane pores to treat immortalized human airway epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, S9) as well as freshly isolated human nasal tissue. Our results indicate that rHla-mediated changes in cofilin phosphorylation require the formation of functional Hla pores in the host cell membrane. Formation of functional transmembrane pores induced hypophosphorylation of cofilin at Ser3, which was mediated by rHla-induced attenuation of p21-activated protein kinase and LIM kinase activities. Because dephosphorylation of pSer3-cofilin results in activation of this actin-depolymerizing factor, treatment of cells with rHla resulted in loss of actin stress fibers from the cells and destabilization of cell shape followed by the appearance of paracellular gaps in the cell layers. Activation of protein kinase A or activation of small GTPases (Rho, Rac, Cdc42) do not seem to be involved in this response.

  12. Engineering Circular Gliding of Actin Filaments Along Myosin-Patterned DNA Nanotube Rings To Study Long-Term Actin-Myosin Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Appukutty, Abhinav J; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2016-09-27

    Nature has evolved molecular motors that are critical in cellular processes occurring over broad time scales, ranging from seconds to years. Despite the importance of the long-term behavior of molecular machines, topics such as enzymatic lifetime are underexplored due to the lack of a suitable approach for monitoring motor activity over long time periods. Here, we developed an "O"-shaped Myosin Empowered Gliding Assay (OMEGA) that utilizes engineered micron-scale DNA nanotube rings with precise arrangements of myosin VI to trap gliding actin filaments. This circular gliding assay platform allows the same individual actin filament to glide over the same myosin ensemble (50-1000 motors per ring) multiple times. First, we systematically characterized the formation of DNA nanotubes rings with 4, 6, 8, and 10 helix circumferences. Individual actin filaments glide along the nanotube rings with high processivity for up to 12.8 revolutions or 11 min in run time. We then show actin gliding speed is robust to variation in motor number and independent of ring curvature within our sample space (ring diameter of 0.5-4 μm). As a model application of OMEGA, we then analyze motor-based mechanical influence on "stop-and-go" gliding behavior of actin filaments, revealing that the stop-to-go transition probability is dependent on motor flexibility. Our circular gliding assay may provide a closed-loop platform for monitoring long-term behavior of broad classes of molecular motors and enable characterization of motor robustness and long time scale nanomechanical processes.

  13. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Overview of Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) Microscopy and Its Electroporation-Based Version with Efficient Labeling and Improved Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Sawako; Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Live-cell single-molecule imaging was introduced more than a decade ago, and has provided critical information on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the motion of plasma membrane proteins, and dynamics of molecular motor proteins. Actin remodeling has been the best target for this approach because actin and its associated proteins stop diffusing when assembled, allowing visualization of single-molecules of fluorescently-labeled proteins in a state specific manner. The approach based on this simple principle is called Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) microscopy. For instance, spatiotemporal regulation of actin polymerization and lifetime distribution of actin filaments can be monitored directly by tracking actin SiMS. In combination with fluorescently labeled probes of various actin regulators, SiMS microscopy has contributed to clarifying the processes underlying recycling, motion and remodeling of the live-cell actin network. Recently, we introduced an electroporation-based method called eSiMS microscopy, with high efficiency, easiness and improved spatiotemporal precision. In this review, we describe the application of live-cell single-molecule imaging to cellular actin dynamics and discuss the advantages of eSiMS microscopy over previous SiMS microscopy. PMID:28684722

  15. Overview of Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) Microscopy and Its Electroporation-Based Version with Efficient Labeling and Improved Spatiotemporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Sawako; Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-07-06

    Live-cell single-molecule imaging was introduced more than a decade ago, and has provided critical information on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the motion of plasma membrane proteins, and dynamics of molecular motor proteins. Actin remodeling has been the best target for this approach because actin and its associated proteins stop diffusing when assembled, allowing visualization of single-molecules of fluorescently-labeled proteins in a state specific manner. The approach based on this simple principle is called Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) microscopy. For instance, spatiotemporal regulation of actin polymerization and lifetime distribution of actin filaments can be monitored directly by tracking actin SiMS. In combination with fluorescently labeled probes of various actin regulators, SiMS microscopy has contributed to clarifying the processes underlying recycling, motion and remodeling of the live-cell actin network. Recently, we introduced an electroporation-based method called eSiMS microscopy, with high efficiency, easiness and improved spatiotemporal precision. In this review, we describe the application of live-cell single-molecule imaging to cellular actin dynamics and discuss the advantages of eSiMS microscopy over previous SiMS microscopy.

  16. Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampathkumar, A.; Gutierrez, R.; McFarlane, H.E.; Bringmann, M.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.; Samuels, L.; Ketelaar, T.; Ehrhardt, D.W.; Persson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In

  17. Cell stress promotes the association of phosphorylated HspB1 with F-actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Clarke

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the small heat shock protein, HspB1, has a direct influence on the dynamics of cytoskeletal elements, in particular, filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization. In this study we have assessed the influence of HspB1 phosphorylation on its interaction(s with F-actin. We first determined the distribution of endogenous non-phosphorylated HspB1, phosphorylated HspB1 and F-actin in neuroendocrine PC12 cells by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We then investigated a potential direct interaction between HspB1 with F-actin by precipitating F-actin directly with biotinylated phalloidin followed by Western analyses; the reverse immunoprecipitation of HspB1 was also carried out. The phosphorylation influence of HspB1 in this interaction was investigated by using pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK. In control cells, HspB1 interacts with F-actin as a predominantly non-phosphorylated protein, but subsequent to stress there is a redistribution of HspB1 to the cytoskeletal fraction and a significantly increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin. Our data demonstrate HspB1 is found in a complex with F-actin both in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms, with an increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin after heat stress. Overall, our study combines both cellular and biochemical approaches to show cellular localization and direct demonstration of an interaction between endogenous HspB1 and F-actin using methodolgy that specifically isolates F-actin.

  18. Cooperative and non-cooperative conformational changes of F-actin induced by cofilin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Tomoki; Oda, Toshiro, E-mail: toda@spring8.or.jp

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Mobility of MTSL attached to C374 in F-actin became high upon addition of cofilin. •Change of motility of MTSL attached to C374 with cofilin-binding was cooperative. •Mobility of MTSL attached to V43C in F-actin became high upon addition of cofilin. •Change of motility of MTSL attached to V43C with cofilin-binding was linear. -- Abstract: Cofilin is an actin-binding protein that promotes F-actin depolymerization. It is well-known that cofilin-coated F-actin is more twisted than naked F-actin, and that the protomer is more tilted. However, the means by which the local changes induced by the binding of individual cofilin proteins proceed to the global conformational changes of the whole F-actin molecule remain unknown. Here we investigated the cofilin-induced changes in several parts of F-actin, through site-directed spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses of recombinant actins containing single reactive cysteines. We found that the global, cooperative conformational changes induced by cofilin-binding, which were detected by the spin-label attached to the Cys374 residue, occurred without the detachment of the D-loop in subdomain 2 from the neighboring protomer. The two processes of local and global changes do not necessarily proceed in sequence.

  19. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumant S Tanwar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔG<0 that is further enhanced by the oligomerization of Pr55Gag. The change in enthalpy (ΔH widens sequentially from: (1 Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2 Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3 Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly.

  20. Tumor suppressors TSC1 and TSC2 differentially modulate actin cytoskeleton and motility of mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Goncharova

    Full Text Available TSC1 and TSC2 mutations cause neoplasms in rare disease pulmonary LAM and neuronal pathfinding in hamartoma syndrome TSC. The specific roles of TSC1 and TSC2 in actin remodeling and the modulation of cell motility, however, are not well understood. Previously, we demonstrated that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate the activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, stress fiber formation and cell adhesion in a reciprocal manner. Here, we show that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have decreased migration compared to littermate-derived Tsc1(+/+ MEFs. Migration of Tsc1(-/- MEFs with re-expressed TSC1 was comparable to Tsc1(+/+ MEF migration. In contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed an increased migration compared to Tsc2(+/+ MEFs that were abrogated by TSC2 re-expression. Depletion of TSC1 and TSC2 using specific siRNAs in wild type MEFs and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts also showed that TSC1 loss attenuates cell migration while TSC2 loss promotes cell migration. Morphological and immunochemical analysis demonstrated that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have a thin protracted shape with a few stress fibers; in contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed a rounded morphology and abundant stress fibers. Expression of TSC1 in either Tsc1(-/- or Tsc2(-/- MEFs promoted stress fiber formation, while TSC2 re-expression induced stress fiber disassembly and the formation of cortical actin. To assess the mechanism(s by which TSC2 loss promotes actin re-arrangement and cell migration, we explored the role of known downstream effectors of TSC2, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Increased migration of Tsc2(-/- MEFs is inhibited by siRNA mTOR and siRNA Rictor, but not siRNA Raptor. siRNA mTOR or siRNA Rictor promoted stress fiber disassembly in TSC2-null cells, while siRNA Raptor had little effect. Overexpression of kinase-dead mTOR induced actin stress fiber disassembly and suppressed TSC2-deficient cell migration. Our data demonstrate that TSC1 and TSC2 differentially regulate actin stress fiber formation and cell migration, and that only TSC2 loss promotes

  1. Cortical Actin Flow in T Cells Quantified by Spatio-temporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy of Structured Illumination Microscopy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, George; Pandžić, Elvis; Cope, Andrew; Wiseman, Paul; Owen, Dylan

    2015-12-17

    Filamentous-actin plays a crucial role in a majority of cell processes including motility and, in immune cells, the formation of a key cell-cell interaction known as the immunological synapse. F-actin is also speculated to play a role in regulating molecular distributions at the membrane of cells including sub-membranous vesicle dynamics and protein clustering. While standard light microscope techniques allow generalized and diffraction-limited observations to be made, many cellular and molecular events including clustering and molecular flow occur in populations at length-scales far below the resolving power of standard light microscopy. By combining total internal reflection fluorescence with the super resolution imaging method structured illumination microscopy, the two-dimensional molecular flow of F-actin at the immune synapse of T cells was recorded. Spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) was then applied, which generates quantifiable results in the form of velocity histograms and vector maps representing flow directionality and magnitude. This protocol describes the combination of super-resolution imaging and STICS techniques to generate flow vectors at sub-diffraction levels of detail. This technique was used to confirm an actin flow that is symmetrically retrograde and centripetal throughout the periphery of T cells upon synapse formation.

  2. TSPAN7, effector of actin nucleation required for dendritic cell-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménager, Mickaël M

    2017-06-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have essential roles in early detection of pathogens and activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Whereas human DCs are resistant to productive HIV-1 replication, they have a unique ability to take up virus and transmit it efficiently to T lymphocytes. By doing that, HIV-1 may evade, at least in part, the first line of defense of the immune system, exploiting DCs instead to facilitate rapid infection of a large pool of immune cells. While performing an shRNA screen in human primary monocyte-derived DCs, to gain insights into this cell biological process, we discovered the role played by tetraspanin-7 (TSPAN7). This member of the tetraspanin family appears to be a positive regulator of actin nucleation and stabilization, through the ARP2/3 complex. By doing so, TSPAN7 limits HIV-1 endocytosis and maintains viral particles on actin-rich dendrites for an efficient transfer toward T lymphocytes. While studying the function of TSPAN7 in the control of actin nucleation, we also discovered the existence in DCs of two opposing forces at the plasma membrane: actin nucleation, a protrusive force which seems to counterbalance actomyosin contraction. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  4. Interactions between globular proteins and F-actin in isotonic saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, S; Minton, A P

    1991-10-05

    Solutions of each of three different globular proteins (cytochrome c, chromophorically labeled serum albumin, and chromophorically labeled aldolase), mixed with another unlabeled globular protein or with fibrous actin, were prepared in pH 8.0 Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.15 M NaCl. Each solution was centrifuged at low speed, at 5 degrees C, until unassociated globular protein in solution achieved sedimentation equilibrium. Individual absorbance gradients of both macrosolutes in the mixtures subsequent to centrifugation were obtained via optical scans of the centrifuge tubes at two wavelengths. The gradients of each macrosolute in mixtures of two globular proteins revealed no association of globular proteins under the conditions of these experiments, but perturbation of the gradients of serum albumin, aldolase, and cytochrome c in the presence of F-actin indicated association of all three globular proteins with F-actin. Perturbation of actin gradients in the presence of serum albumin and aldolase suggested partial depolymerization of the F-actin by the globular protein. Analysis of the data with a simple phenomenological model relating free globular protein, bound globular protein, and total actin concentration provided estimates of the respective equilibrium constants for association of serum albumin and aldolase with F-actin, under the conditions of these experiments, of the order of 0.1 microM-1.

  5. Actin is closely associated with RNA polymerase II and involved in activation of gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaojuan; Zeng Xianlu; Huang Baiqu; Hao, Shui

    2004-01-01

    Biochemical and morphological studies have demonstrated the presence of actin in the nucleus of different eukaryotic cells, whereas its role remains unclear. In this work, we studied the interaction and the functional relationship between nuclear actin and RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). The immunofluorescence study demonstrated a clear co-localization of nuclear actin with RNAP II in HeLa cells. Meanwhile, actin can be immunoprecipitated by anti-RNAP II antibody, indicating that they could interact with each other. Treatment of cells with α-amanitin induced the formation of actin bundle network in the nucleoplasm. Blocking of the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) by cytochalasin B modified the distribution of actin. Although the actin content remained unchanged in resting and concanavalinA stimulated mouse lymphocytes, the actin content in the nuclei showed a progressive increase after stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody against actin blocked RNA synthesis in a eukaryotic in vitro transcription system. These observations implicate that nuclear actin interacts with RNAP II and may have function on the RNAP II-mediated transcription

  6. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity. (topical review)

  7. Ultrastructural localization of actin and actin-binding proteins in the nucleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dingová, Hana; Fukalová, Jana; Maninová, Miloslava; Philimonenko, Vlada; Hozák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 3 (2009), s. 425-434 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : nuclear actin * ultrastructure * actin–binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2009

  8. Regulation of actomyosin ATPase activity by troponin-tropomyosin: effect of the binding of the myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) ATP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.E.; Williams, D.L. Jr.; Eisenberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the authors' model of regulation, the observed lack of cooperativity in the binding of myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) with bound ATP to the troponin-tropomyosin-actin complex (regulated actin) is explained by S-1 ATP having about the same affinity for the conformation of the regulated actin that activates the myosin ATPase activity (turned-on form) and the conformation that does not activate the myosin ATPase activity (turned-off form). This predicts that, in the absence of Ca 2+ , S-1 ATP should not turn on the regulated actin filament. In the present study, they tested this prediction by using either unmodified S-1 or S-1 chemically modified with N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM S-1) so that functionally it acts like S-1 ATP, although it does not hydrolyze ATP. [ 14 C]pPDM and [ 32 P]ATP were used as tracers. They found that, in the absence of Ca 2+ , neither S-1 ATP nor pPDM S-1 ATP significantly turns on the ATPase activity of the regulated complex of actin and S-1 (acto S-1). In contrast, in the presence of Ca 2+ , pPDM S-1 ATP binding almost completely turns on the regulated acto S-1 ATPase activity. These results can be explained by their original cooperativity model, with pPDM S-1 ATP binding only ≅ 2 fold more strongly to the turned-on form that to the turned-off form of regulated actin. However, the results are not consistent with our alternative model, which predicts that if pPDM S-1 ATP binds to actin in the absence of Ca 2+ but does not turn on the ATPase activity, then it should also turn on the ATPase activity in the presence of Ca 2+

  9. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined the effect of direct modulation of actin microfilament dynamics on adipocyte differentiation. Stabilizing actin filaments in hMSCs by siRNA-mediated knock down of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs: Cofilin 1 (CFL1 and Destrin (DSTN or treating the cells by Phalloidin reduced adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4. In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1 which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating hMSCs by Cytochalasin D inhibited ERK and Smad2 signaling and this was associated with enhanced adipocyte differentiation. On the other hand, Phalloidin enhanced ERK and Smad2 signaling, but inhibited adipocyte differentiation which was rescued by ERK specific chemical inhibitor U0126. Our data provide a link between restructuring of hMSCs cytoskeleton and hMSCs lineage commitment and differentiation. Keywords: Actin cytoskeleton, Actin depolymerizing factors, Adipocyte differentiation, Human stromal stem cells

  10. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation increases the rate of NG108-15 cell migration via actin depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Peter; Campbell, Shirley; Bilodeau, Lyne; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Roberge, Claude; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Payet, Marcel Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to induce migration in neuronal cell types. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show here that Ang II induces acceleration in NG108-15 cell migration. This effect was antagonized by PD123319, a selective AT2 receptor antagonist, but not by DUP753, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, and was mimicked by the specific AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112. This Ang II-induced acceleration was not sensitive to the inhibition of previously described signaling pathways of the AT2 receptor, guanylyl cyclase/cyclic GMP or p42/p44 mapk cascades, but was abolished by pertussis toxin treatment and involved PP2A activation. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that Ang II or CGP42112 decreased the amount of filamentous actin at the leading edge of the cells. This decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in globular actin levels. Regulation of actin turnover in actin-based motile systems is known to be mainly under the control of the actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin. Basal migration speed decreased by 77.2% in cofilin-1 small interfering RNA-transfected NG108-15 cells, along with suppression of the effect of Ang II. In addition, the Ang II-induced increase in cell velocity was abrogated in serum-free medium as well as by genistein or okadaic acid treatment in a serum-containing medium. Such results indicate that the AT2 receptor increases the migration speed of NG108-15 cells and involves a tyrosine kinase activity, followed by phosphatase activation, which may be of the PP2A type. Therefore, the present study identifies actin depolymerization and cofilin as new targets of AT2 receptor action, in the context of cellular migration.

  11. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  12. Live cell imaging of mitochondrial movement along actin cables in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Gay, Anna Card; Huckaba, Thomas M; Pon, Liza A

    2004-11-23

    Mitochondrial inheritance is essential for cell division. In budding yeast, mitochondrial movement from mother to daughter requires (1) actin cables, F-actin bundles that undergo retrograde movement during elongation from buds into mother cells; (2) the mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex implicated in linking mitochondria to actin cables; and (3) Arp2/3 complex-mediated force generation on mitochondria. We observed three new classes of mitochondrial motility: anterograde movement at velocities of 0.2-0.33 microm/s, retrograde movement at velocities of 0.26-0.51 microm/s, and no net anterograde or retrograde movement. In all cases, motile mitochondria were associated with actin cables undergoing retrograde flow at velocities of 0.18-0.62 microm/s. Destabilization of actin cables or mutations of the mitochore blocked all mitochondrial movements. In contrast, mutations in the Arp2/3 complex affected anterograde but not retrograde mitochondrial movements. Actin cables are required for movement of mitochondria, secretory vesicles, mRNA, and spindle alignment elements in yeast. We provide the first direct evidence that one of the proposed cargos use actin cables as tracks. In the case of mitochondrial inheritance, anterograde movement drives transfer of the organelle from mothers to buds, while retrograde movement contributes to retention of the organelle in mother cells. Interaction of mitochondria with actin cables is required for anterograde and retrograde movement. In contrast, force generation on mitochondria is required only for anterograde movement. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism in which actin cables serve as "conveyor belts" that drive retrograde organelle movement.

  13. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchenbuechler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  14. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque

  15. Release of muscle α-actin into serum after intensive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martínez-Amat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effects of high-level matches on serum alpha actin and other muscle damage markers in teams of rugby and handball players. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 23 sportsmen: 13 rugby players and 10 handball players. One sample was drawn with the player at rest before the match and one immediately after the match. Immunoassays were used to determine troponin I, troponin T, LDH, and myoglobin concentrations. Western blot and densitometry were used to measure α-actin concentrations. Muscle injury was defined by a total CK value of > 500 IU/L (Rosalki method. Results: Mean pre- and post-match serum alpha-actin values were, respectively, 7.16 and 26.47 μg/ml in the handball group and 1.24 and 20.04 μg/ml in the rugby team. CPK, LDH and myoglobin but not troponin 1 levels also significantly differed between these time points. According to these results, large amounts of α-actin are released into peripheral blood immediately after intense physical effort. Possible cross-interference between skeletal and cardiac muscle damage can be discriminated by the combined use of α-actin and troponin I. Conclusion: The significant increase in alpha-actin after a high-level match may be a reliable marker for the early diagnosis and hence more effective treatment of muscle injury.

  16. Gamma Interferon-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 Is a Novel Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin a...

  17. Fine-tuning of actin dynamics by the HSPB8-BAG3 chaperone complex facilitates cytokinesis and contributes to its impact on cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Alice Anaïs; Fuchs, Margit; Luthold, Carole; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques; Lavoie, Josée N

    2017-07-01

    The small heat shock protein HSPB8 and its co-chaperone BAG3 are proposed to regulate cytoskeletal proteostasis in response to mechanical signaling in muscle cells. Here, we show that in dividing cells, the HSPB8-BAG3 complex is instrumental to the accurate disassembly of the actin-based contractile ring during cytokinesis, a process required to allow abscission of daughter cells. Silencing of HSPB8 markedly decreased the mitotic levels of BAG3 in HeLa cells, supporting its crucial role in BAG3 mitotic functions. Cells depleted of HSPB8 were delayed in cytokinesis, remained connected via a disorganized intercellular bridge, and exhibited increased incidence of nuclear abnormalities that result from failed cytokinesis (i.e., bi- and multi-nucleation). Such phenotypes were associated with abnormal accumulation of F-actin at the intercellular bridge of daughter cells at telophase. Remarkably, the actin sequestering drug latrunculin A, like the inhibitor of branched actin polymerization CK666, normalized F-actin during cytokinesis and restored proper cell division in HSPB8-depleted cells, implicating deregulated actin dynamics as a cause of abscission failure. Moreover, this HSPB8-dependent phenotype could be corrected by rapamycin, an autophagy-promoting drug, whereas it was mimicked by drugs impairing lysosomal function. Together, the results further support a role for the HSPB8-BAG3 chaperone complex in quality control of actin-based structure dynamics that are put under high tension, notably during cell cytokinesis. They expand a so-far under-appreciated connection between selective autophagy and cellular morphodynamics that guide cell division.

  18. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here, we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. Intriguingly, our genetic data suggest that SAS-7 is required for daughter centrioles to become competent for duplication, and for mother centrioles to maintain this competence. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20353.001 PMID:28092264

  19. Actinic cell effects after radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, C.M.L.; Bergmann, A.; Chaves, C.B.P.; Thuler, L.C.S.; Araújo Junior, M.L.C.; Souza, S.A.L. de

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It is very common for patients with cervical cancer to be referred to the radiotherapy when the disease is in advanced stages, this fact determines high rates of locoregional recurrence. Radiation treatment causes actinic morphological changes, not only in neoplastic epithelial cells, but also in normal cells. These changes induced by radiation, often make difficult the differential diagnosis of the residual lesion, resulting in a dilemma in cytopathological follow-up. Objective: To describe the actinic cytopathologic changes in patients submitted to radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methodology: The re-evaluation of cytopathologic smears and description of actinic cytopathic effects were performed. This information was complemented by the cytopathological report of the smears, available in the archives of the Division of Pathology (DIPAT) / INCA. Results: The most frequent cytopathological changes observed were: nuclear activation, cytoplasmic enhancement, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, eosinophilia, polychromasia, multinucleated giant cells, binucleation, nuclear vacuolisation, prominent nucleoli, as well as presence of leukocyte exudate. Conclusion: The cytopathological diagnosis of tumor persistence or recurrence after radiotherapy is always a great challenge for the professional, even the experienced one. Studies and reports in the literature on actinic cytopathologic changes and radiotherapy are scarce

  20. A Gly65Val substitution in an actin, GhACT_LI1, disrupts cell polarity and membrane anchoring of F-actin resulting in dwarf, lintless Li1 cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actin polymerizes to form the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hi...

  1. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  2. Actinic reticuloid. Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the case of actinic reticuloid - the rare dermatosis which clinical presentation is similar to atopic dermatitis, T-cell lymphoma. Good treatment effect was obtained by long cycles (2 cycles for 3 months of hydroxychloroquine and sun protective therapy included sunscreens SPF 50, nicotinic acid, sun-safe clothes which blocked ultraviolet radiation without any glucocorticosteroid drugs and cytostatic treatment.

  3. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  4. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  5. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  6. Dynamics of actin-based movement by Rickettsia rickettsii in vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, R A; Grieshaber, S S; Van Kirk, L S; Devin, C J

    1999-08-01

    Actin-based motility (ABM) is a virulence mechanism exploited by invasive bacterial pathogens in the genera Listeria, Shigella, and Rickettsia. Due to experimental constraints imposed by the lack of genetic tools and their obligate intracellular nature, little is known about rickettsial ABM relative to Listeria and Shigella ABM systems. In this study, we directly compared the dynamics and behavior of ABM of Rickettsia rickettsii and Listeria monocytogenes. A time-lapse video of moving intracellular bacteria was obtained by laser-scanning confocal microscopy of infected Vero cells synthesizing beta-actin coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Analysis of time-lapse images demonstrated that R. rickettsii organisms move through the cell cytoplasm at an average rate of 4.8 +/- 0.6 micrometer/min (mean +/- standard deviation). This speed was 2.5 times slower than that of L. monocytogenes, which moved at an average rate of 12.0 +/- 3.1 micrometers/min. Although rickettsiae moved more slowly, the actin filaments comprising the actin comet tail were significantly more stable, with an average half-life approximately three times that of L. monocytogenes (100.6 +/- 19.2 s versus 33.0 +/- 7.6 s, respectively). The actin tail associated with intracytoplasmic rickettsiae remained stationary in the cytoplasm as the organism moved forward. In contrast, actin tails of rickettsiae trapped within the nucleus displayed dramatic movements. The observed phenotypic differences between the ABM of Listeria and Rickettsia may indicate fundamental differences in the mechanisms of actin recruitment and polymerization.

  7. A Novel Actinic Keratosis Field Assessment Scale for Grading Actinic Keratosis Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Cerio, Rino; Dirschka, Thomas; Nart, Ignasi Figueras; Lear, John T; Peris, Ketty; de Casas, Andrés Ruiz; Kaleci, Shaniko; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2017-10-02

    Actinic keratosis (AK) lesions are surrounded by field cancerization (areas of subclinical, non-visible sun damage). Existing AK grading tools rely on AK counts, which are not reproducible. An Actinic Keratosis Field Assessment Scale (AK-FAS) for grading the severity of AK/field was developed. Standardized photographs of patients representing the full range of AK severity were collected. Six investigators independently rated each photograph according to 3 criteria: AK area (total skin area affected by AK lesions), hyperkeratosis and sun damage. Inter-rater reproducibility was good for all 3 criteria. Validation of the AK-FAS showed good reproducibility for AK area and hyperkeratosis, even for dermatologists untrained on use of the scale. In conclusion, the AK-FAS is objective, easy to use and implement, and reproducible. It incorporates assessment of the entire field affected by AK instead of relying on lesion counts. Use of the AK-FAS may standardize AK diagnosis, making it relevant to routine clinical practice.

  8. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja eStrelnikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  9. Investigating sub-spine actin dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons with super-resolution optical imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedakumar Tatavarty

    Full Text Available Morphological changes in dendritic spines represent an important mechanism for synaptic plasticity which is postulated to underlie the vital cognitive phenomena of learning and memory. These morphological changes are driven by the dynamic actin cytoskeleton that is present in dendritic spines. The study of actin dynamics in these spines traditionally has been hindered by the small size of the spine. In this study, we utilize a photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM-based single-molecule tracking technique to analyze F-actin movements with approximately 30-nm resolution in cultured hippocampal neurons. We were able to observe the kinematic (physical motion of actin filaments, i.e., retrograde flow and kinetic (F-actin turn-over dynamics of F-actin at the single-filament level in dendritic spines. We found that F-actin in dendritic spines exhibits highly heterogeneous kinematic dynamics at the individual filament level, with simultaneous actin flows in both retrograde and anterograde directions. At the ensemble level, movements of filaments integrate into a net retrograde flow of approximately 138 nm/min. These results suggest a weakly polarized F-actin network that consists of mostly short filaments in dendritic spines.

  10. Investigating sub-spine actin dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons with super-resolution optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Kim, Eun-Ji; Rodionov, Vladimir; Yu, Ji

    2009-11-09

    Morphological changes in dendritic spines represent an important mechanism for synaptic plasticity which is postulated to underlie the vital cognitive phenomena of learning and memory. These morphological changes are driven by the dynamic actin cytoskeleton that is present in dendritic spines. The study of actin dynamics in these spines traditionally has been hindered by the small size of the spine. In this study, we utilize a photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM)-based single-molecule tracking technique to analyze F-actin movements with approximately 30-nm resolution in cultured hippocampal neurons. We were able to observe the kinematic (physical motion of actin filaments, i.e., retrograde flow) and kinetic (F-actin turn-over) dynamics of F-actin at the single-filament level in dendritic spines. We found that F-actin in dendritic spines exhibits highly heterogeneous kinematic dynamics at the individual filament level, with simultaneous actin flows in both retrograde and anterograde directions. At the ensemble level, movements of filaments integrate into a net retrograde flow of approximately 138 nm/min. These results suggest a weakly polarized F-actin network that consists of mostly short filaments in dendritic spines.

  11. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    -100 from cells overexpressing ADAM12 than from control cells. Collectively, these results show that surface expression of ADAM12 impairs the function of beta1 integrins and, consequently, alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. These events may be necessary...

  12. The C-terminus SH3-binding domain of Kv1.3 is required for the actin-mediated immobilization of the channel via cortactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Peter; Martin, Geoffrey V.; Chimote, Ameet A.; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Takimoto, Koichi; Conforti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels play a pivotal role in the activation and migration of T-lymphocytes. These functions are accompanied by the channels' polarization, which is essential for associated downstream events. However, the mechanisms that govern the membrane movement of Kv1.3 channels remain unclear. F-actin polymerization occurs concomitantly to channel polarization, implicating the actin cytoskeleton in this process. Here we show that cortactin, a factor initiating the actin network, controls the membrane mobilization of Kv1.3 channels. FRAP with EGFP-tagged Kv1.3 channels demonstrates that knocking down cortactin decreases the actin-based immobilization of the channels. Using various deletion and mutation constructs, we show that the SH3 motif of Kv1.3 mediates the channel immobilization. Proximity ligation assays indicate that deletion or mutation of the SH3 motif also disrupts interaction of the channel with cortactin. In T-lymphocytes, the interaction between HS1 (the cortactin homologue) and Kv1.3 occurs at the immune synapse and requires the channel's C-terminal domain. These results show that actin dynamics regulates the membrane motility of Kv1.3 channels. They also provide evidence that the SH3 motif of the channel and cortactin plays key roles in this process. PMID:25739456

  13. Real-world approach to actinic keratosis management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirschka, Thomas; Gupta, Girish; Micali, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a chronic skin disease in which multiple clinical and subclinical lesions co-exist across large areas of sun-exposed skin, resulting in field cancerisation. Lesions require treatment because of their potential to transform into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This arti......Actinic keratosis (AK) is a chronic skin disease in which multiple clinical and subclinical lesions co-exist across large areas of sun-exposed skin, resulting in field cancerisation. Lesions require treatment because of their potential to transform into invasive squamous cell carcinoma...

  14. Malignant progressive tumor cell clone exhibits significant up-regulation of cofilin-2 and 27-kDa modified form of cofilin-1 compared to regressive clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Takao; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    QR-32 is a regressive murine fibrosarcoma cell clone which cannot grow when they are transplanted in mice; QRsP-11 is a progressive malignant tumor cell clone derived from QR-32 which shows strong tumorigenicity. A recent study showed there to be differentially expressed up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in these cells, which were identified by proteomic differential display analyses by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Cofilins are small proteins of less than 20 kDa. Their function is the regulation of actin assembly. Cofilin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein, and regulates actin dynamics by means of binding to actin filaments. Cofilin-1 plays roles in cell migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Cofilin-2 is also a small protein, but it is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. There are many reports showing the positive correlation between the level of cofilin-1 and cancer progression. We have also reported an increased expression of cofilin-1 in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to adjacent paired normal tissues. On the other hand, cofilin-2 was significantly less expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Therefore, the present study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by western blotting. Cofilin-2 was significantly up-regulated in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the difference of the intensities of the bands of cofilin-1 (18 kDa) in QR-32 and QRsP-11 was not significant. However, bands of 27 kDa showed a quite different intensity between QR-32 and QRsP-11, with much higher intensities in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 (p<0.001). These results suggested that the 27-kDa protein recognized by the antibody against cofilin-1 is a possible biomarker for progressive tumor cells.

  15. Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrujna Patel

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data show that the expression of actin-tracking probes significantly impacts on axonal and dendrite growth these neurons. Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a pBABE promoter, caused a significant decrease in total axon length, while another Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a CAG promoter, decreased the length and complexity of dendritic trees. Utr261-EGFP resulted in increased dendritic branching but Utr230-EGFP only accumulated in cell soma, without labelling any neurites. Lifeact-7-mEGFP and F-tractin-EGFP in a pEGFP-C1 vector, under the control of a CMV promoter, caused only minor changes in neuronal morphology as detected by Sholl analysis. The results of this study demonstrate the effects that filamentous actin tracking probes can have on the axonal and dendritic compartments of neuronal cells and emphasise the care that must be taken when interpreting data from experiments using these probes.

  16. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... the effect of direct modulation of actin microfilament dynamics on adipocyte differentiation. Stabilizing actin filaments in hMSCs by siRNA-mediated knock down of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) or treating the cells by Phalloidin reduced adipocyte...

  17. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  18. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, R; Philp, N; Safer, D; Chintapalli, J; Hoffman, R; Collins, L; Nachmias, V T

    1997-01-01

    In several cell types, short-term increases in the concentration of the G-actin-sequestering peptide thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4) cause the disassembly of F-actin bundles. To determine the extent of cell adaptability to these reductions in F-actin, we overexpressed Tbeta4 in NIH 3T3 cells. In cell lines with Tbeta4 levels twice those of vector controls, G-actin increased approximately twofold as expected. However, F-actin did not decrease as in short-term experiments but rather also increased approximately twofold so that the G-F ratio remained constant. Surprisingly, the cytoskeletal proteins myosin IIA, alpha-actinin, and tropomyosin also increased nearly twofold. These increases were specific; DNA, total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, profilin, and actin depolymerizing factor levels were unchanged in the overexpressing cells. The Tbeta4 lines spread more fully and adhered to the dish more strongly than vector controls; this altered phenotype correlated with a twofold increase in talin and alpha5-integrin and a nearly threefold increase in vinculin. Focal adhesions, detected by indirect immunofluorescence with antivinculin, were increased in size over the controls. Northern blotting showed that mRNAs for both beta-actin and vinculin were increased twofold in the overexpressing lines. We conclude that 1) NIH 3T3 cells adapt to increased levels of G-actin sequestered by increased Tbeta4 by increasing their total actin so that the F-actin/G-actin ratio remains constant; 2) these cells coordinately increase several cytoskeletal and adhesion plaque proteins; and 3) at least for actin and vinculin, this regulation is at the transcriptional level. We therefore propose that the proteins of this multimember interacting complex making up the actin-based cytoskeleton, are coordinately regulated by factors that control the expression of several proteins. The mechanism may bear similarities to the control of synthesis of another multimember interacting complex, the myofibril of

  19. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis

  20. Fertile assembly for a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by liquid sodium, with regulation of the cooling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradal, L.; Berte, M.; Chiarelli, C.

    1985-01-01

    The assembly has a casing in which are arranged the fertile elements, the liquid sodium flowing through the casing along these elements. It includes several apertured diaphragms transverse to the rods to regulate the liquid sodium flow rate. At least one diaphragm, in its central part around its aperture, of a material soluble in liquid sodium, such as copper. The invention applies, more particularly, to fast neutron nuclear reactor having a heterogeneous core. The coolant flow can increase with time to match the increased power generated by the fertile assembly along its life [fr

  1. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  2. Actin and myosin contribute to mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A.; He, J.; Mao, C. C.; Bailey, L. J.; Di Re, M.; Sembongi, H.; Kazak, L.; Dzionek, K.; Holmes, J. B.; Cluett, T. J.; Harbour, M. E.; Fearnley, I. M.; Crouch, R. J.; Conti, M. A.; Adelstein, R. S.; Walker, J. E.; Holt, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA maintenance and segregation are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast. We found two cytoskeletal proteins among six proteins tightly associated with rat liver mitochondrial DNA: non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and β-actin. In human cells, transient gene silencing of MYH9 (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA), or the closely related MYH10 gene (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB), altered the topology and increased the copy number of mitochondrial DNA; and the latter effect was enhanced when both genes were targeted simultaneously. In contrast, genetic ablation of non-muscle myosin IIB was associated with a 60% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, compared to control cells. Gene silencing of β-actin also affected mitochondrial DNA copy number and organization. Protease-protection experiments and iodixanol gradient analysis suggest some β-actin and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA reside within human mitochondria and confirm that they are associated with mitochondrial DNA. Collectively, these results strongly implicate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PMID:21398640

  3. Fuel assemblies for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease errors in the flow rate distribution of coolants by resiliently inserting a flow regulation rod having a variable flow regulation element formed at the upper portion along the axial direction in the entrance nozzle of a fuel assembly. Constitution: A plurality of orifice aperture are formed to the entrance nozzle of a fuel assembly and an aperture for inserting a flow regulation rod is formed to the top end of the entrance nozzle. A fixed flow regulation element A and a variable flow regulation element B supported coaxially with the nozzle by a support ring are disposed to the inside of the nozzle. The element B is urged by the resilient urging spring to the element A and connected by way of support lever to the flow regulation rod. While on the other hand, the top end of the nozzle is inserted through the partition wall between a high pressure coolant chamber and a low pressure coolant chamber. An aperture for hydrodynamically supporting the fuel assembly is provided by way of a frame and a flow regulation rod that stands vertically from the low pressure coolant chamber is disposed to the center of the frame. In the fuel assembly, the flow regulation rod inserted from the aperture at the top end of the nozzle pushes the element B upwardly to thereby maintain a flow passage of the coolant between the elements A and B. (Seki, T.)

  4. The Effect of Experimental Hyperthyroidism on Characteristics of Actin-Myosin Interaction in Fast and Slow Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, G V; Shchepkin, D V; Bershitsky, S Y

    2018-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of the failure of contractile function of skeletal muscles caused by oxidative damage to myosin in hyperthyroidism is not fully understood. Using an in vitro motility assay, we studied the effect of myosin damage caused by oxidative stress in experimental hyperthyroidism on the actin-myosin interaction and its regulation by calcium. We found that hyperthyroidism-induced oxidation of myosin is accompanied by a decrease in the sliding velocity of the regulated thin filaments in the in vitro motility assay, and this effect is increased with the duration of the pathological process.

  5. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Belyy

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia.

  6. Plant vegetative and animal cytoplasmic actins share functional competence for spatial development with protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Roy, Eileen; Meagher, Richard B

    2012-05-01

    Actin is an essential multifunctional protein encoded by two distinct ancient classes of genes in animals (cytoplasmic and muscle) and plants (vegetative and reproductive). The prevailing view is that each class of actin variants is functionally distinct. However, we propose that the vegetative plant and cytoplasmic animal variants have conserved functional competence for spatial development inherited from an ancestral protist actin sequence. To test this idea, we ectopically expressed animal and protist actins in Arabidopsis thaliana double vegetative actin mutants that are dramatically altered in cell and organ morphologies. We found that expression of cytoplasmic actins from humans and even a highly divergent invertebrate Ciona intestinalis qualitatively and quantitatively suppressed the root cell polarity and organ defects of act8 act7 mutants and moderately suppressed the root-hairless phenotype of act2 act8 mutants. By contrast, human muscle actins were unable to support prominently any aspect of plant development. Furthermore, actins from three protists representing Choanozoa, Archamoeba, and green algae efficiently suppressed all the phenotypes of both the plant mutants. Remarkably, these data imply that actin's competence to carry out a complex suite of processes essential for multicellular development was already fully developed in single-celled protists and evolved nonprogressively from protists to plants and animals.

  7. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A; Fraser, Mark E; Scott, Jordan L; Soni, Smita P; Jones, Keaton R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R; Stahelin, Robert V

    2015-09-01

    Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. Copyright © 2015, American

  8. FIMBRIN1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-11-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes.

  9. The actin homologue MreB organizes the bacterial cell membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strahl, H.; Burmann, F.; Hamoen, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic cortical actin cytoskeleton creates specific lipid domains, including lipid rafts, which determine the distribution of many membrane proteins. Here we show that the bacterial actin homologue MreB displays a comparable activity. MreB forms membrane-associated filaments that coordinate

  10. Dynamic multiprotein assemblies shape the spatial structure of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Jang, Hyunbum

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling underlies critical cellular decisions. Coordination, efficiency as well as fail-safe mechanisms are key elements. How the cell ensures that these hallmarks are at play are important questions. Cell signaling is often viewed as taking place through discrete and cross-talking pathways; oftentimes these are modularized to emphasize distinct functions. While simple, convenient and clear, such models largely neglect the spatial structure of cell signaling; they also convey inter-modular (or inter-protein) spatial separation that may not exist. Here our thesis is that cell signaling is shaped by a network of multiprotein assemblies. While pre-organized, the assemblies and network are loose and dynamic. They contain transiently-associated multiprotein complexes which are often mediated by scaffolding proteins. They are also typically anchored in the membrane, and their continuum may span the cell. IQGAP1 scaffolding protein which binds proteins including Raf, calmodulin, Mek, Erk, actin, and tens more, with actin shaping B-cell (and likely other) membrane-anchored nanoclusters and allosterically polymerizing in dynamic cytoskeleton formation, and Raf anchoring in the membrane along with Ras, provides a striking example. The multivalent network of dynamic proteins and lipids, with specific interactions forming and breaking, can be viewed as endowing gel-like properties. Collectively, this reasons that efficient, productive and reliable cell signaling takes place primarily through transient, preorganized and cooperative protein-protein interactions spanning the cell rather than stochastic, diffusion-controlled processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ADAMTS9-Regulated Pericellular Matrix Dynamics Governs Focal Adhesion-Dependent Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM. : Mead et al. identify a proteolytic mechanism that actively maintains a pericellular microenvironment conducive to uterine smooth muscle activation prior to parturition. They show that pericellular matrix proteolysis by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is crucial for maintenance of focal adhesions in uterine smooth muscle cells, and its absence impairs parturition. Keywords: metalloprotease, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, proteoglycan, myometrium, parturition, uterus, focal adhesion, proteolysis, interference reflection microscopy

  12. Coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo dermatitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ju Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinic prurigo is a rare and acquired idiopathic photodermatosis. It usually shows childhood onset and female predominance. Here, we present an unusual case of a male patient with coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo-induced allergic contact dermatitis. He was initially diagnosed with actinic prurigo. However, after detailed examination of the distribution of the rash, careful collection of his history, and interpretation of the results of histopathologic analysis, photo test, patch test, and photopatch test, coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo-induced allergic contact dermatitis associated with cocamidopropyl betaine was diagnosed. The rash improved after appropriate use of sunscreen and avoidance of shampoo containing this allergen. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of concurrent photodermatitis and contact dermatitis. Keywords: Actinic prurigo, Cocamidopropyl betaine, Contact dermatitis, Photosensitivity, Shampoo dermatitis

  13. Stretch-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is regulated by Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian; Richter, Erik A; Jensen, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Rac1 regulates stretch-stimulated (i.e. mechanical stress) glucose transport in muscle. Actin depolymerization decreases stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Rac1 is a required part of the mechanical stress-component of the contraction-stimulus to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. An alternative to the canonical insulin signalling pathway for glucose transport is muscle contraction/exercise. Mechanical stress is an integrated part of the muscle contraction/relaxation cycle, and passive stretch stimulates muscle glucose transport. However, the signalling mechanism regulating stretch-stimulated glucose transport is not well understood. We recently reported that the actin cytoskeleton regulating GTPase, Rac1, was activated in mouse muscle in response to stretching. Rac1 is a regulator of contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, however, its role in stretch-stimulated glucose transport and signalling is unknown. We therefore investigated whether stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle required Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We used muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice as well as pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In addition, the role of Rac1 in contraction-stimulated glucose transport during conditions without mechanical load on the muscles was evaluated in loosely hanging muscles and muscles in which cross-bridge formation was blocked by the myosin ATPase inhibitors BTS and Blebbistatin. Knockout as well as pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced stretch-stimulated glucose transport by 30-50% in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle. The actin depolymerizing agent latrunculin B similarly decreased glucose transport in response to stretching by 40-50%. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose transport by 30-40% in tension developing muscle but did not affect contraction-stimulated glucose transport in

  14. A critical comparison of the current view of Ca signaling with the novel concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus; Gartzke, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    A detailed comparative survey on the current idea of Ca signaling and the alternative concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling is given. The two hypotheses differ in one central aspect - the mechanism of Ca storage. The current theory rests on the assumption of Ca-accumulating vesicles derived from the endoplasmic/ sarcoplasmic reticulum, which are equipped with an ATP-dependent Ca pump and IP3- or ryanodine-sensitive Ca-release channels/receptors. The alternative hypothesis proceeds from the idea of Ca storage at the high-affinity binding sites of F-actin subunits. Several prominent features of Ca signaling, which are not adequately described by the current concept, are inherent properties of the F-actin system and its dynamic state of treadmilling. F-actin is the only known biological Ca-binding system that has been proven by in vitro experiments to work within the physiological range of Ca concentrations and the only system that meets all necessary conditions to function as receptor-operated Ca store and as a coupling device between the Ca store and the store-operated Ca influx pathway. The most important properties of Ca signaling, such as store-channel coupling, quantal Ca release, spiking and oscillations, biphasic and "phasic" uptake kinetics, and Ca-induced Ca release, turn out to be systematic features of the new concept but remain unexplained by the classical vesicle storage hypothesis. A number of novel findings, specifically recent reports about direct effects of actin-specific toxins on Ca stores, have strengthened the new concept. The concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling combined with the notion of microvillar regulation of ion and substrate fluxes opens new aspects and far-reaching consequences, not only for cellular Ca signaling but also for various other cell functions, and represents an opportunity to connect several fields of cell physiology on the basis of a common mechanism.

  15. Liquid nitrogen for the treatment of actinic keratosis: a longitudinal assessment.</