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Sample records for regular voluntary exercise

  1. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  2. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  3. Regular voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and cell proliferation accompanied by increases in cerebral IGF-1 and GST activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sanae; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohno, Makoto; Mikami, Toshio

    2010-08-25

    Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function, neurogenesis, and antioxidants in stressed mice are unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and increases in antioxidant capacity. Stressed mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), which consisted of 12h immobilization daily and feeding in a small cage, for 8 weeks. Exercised mice were allowed free access to a running wheel during their exposure to CRS. At the 6th week, cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Daily voluntary exercise restored stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and the hippocampal cell proliferation of newborn cells but not cell survival. Voluntary exercise increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex and liver, respectively. In addition, CRS resulted in a significant increase in the number of 4-hydrosynonenal (4-HNE)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; whereas, voluntary exercise inhibited it and enhanced glutathione s-transferases (GST) activity in the brain. These findings suggest that voluntary exercise attenuated the stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This exercise-induced improvement was attributed to exercise-induced enhancement of IGF-1 protein and GST activity in the brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Swimming exercise attenuates psychological dependence and voluntary methamphetamine consumption in methamphet- amine withdrawn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Damghani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that regular swimming exercise reduced voluntary METH consumption in animal models of craving by reducing anxiety, OCD, and depression in the METH-withdrawn rats. Thus, physical training may be ameliorating some of the withdrawal behavioral consequences of METH.

  5. The Effect of Exercise in PCOS Women Who Exercise Regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi; Alleyassin; Aghahosseini; Tabatabaeefar; Amini

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women who exercise regularly. Methods All women under age 45 from an industrial company who had past history of exercising more than 6 months enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prevalence of PCOS and comparison of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS subgroups was done. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM consensus criteri...

  6. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa) load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should......Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim...... of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  7. Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in a Rat Model: Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular exercise at moderate intensity reduces cardiovascular risks. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a major role in cardiac remodeling, facilitating physiological adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of voluntary physical exercise on the MMP-2 enzyme activity and to investigate the cardiac performance by measurement of angina susceptibility of the heart, the basal blood pressure, the surviving aorta ring contraction, and the cardiac infarct size after I/R-induced injury. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and exercising groups. After a 6-week period, the serum level of MMP-2, basal blood pressure, cardiac angina susceptibility (the ST segment depression provoked by epinephrine and 30 s later phentolamine, AVP-induced heart perfusion and aorta ring contraction, infarct size following 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, and coronary effluent MMP-2 activity were measured. Results. Voluntary wheel-running exercise decreased both the sera (64 kDa and 72 kDa and the coronary effluent (64 kDa MMP-2 level, reduced the development of ST depression, improved the isolated heart perfusion, and decreased the ratio of infarct size. Conclusion. 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training preserved the heart against cardiac injury. This protective mechanism might be associated with the decreased activity of MMP-2.

  8. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline B van de Weert-van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28 days, mice were intranasally infected with P. aeruginosa. Our study showed that regular exercise resulted in a higher sickness severity score and bacterial (P. aeruginosa loads in the lungs. The phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils from spleen and lungs was not affected. Although regular moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should be encouraged to engage in exercise and physical activities with caution requires further research.

  9. The Effect of Exercise in PCOS Women Who Exercise Regularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Afsaneh; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Tabatabaeefar, Leila; Amini, Mehrnoosh

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women who exercise regularly. All women under age 45 from an industrial company who had past history of exercising more than 6 months enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prevalence of PCOS and comparison of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS subgroups was done. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM consensus criteria and exclusion of related disorders. The prevalence of PCOS in was 8.8%; 95% CI: 8.5%-9.1%. In obese subjects, mean BMI differed significantly between PCOS and non-PCOS women (29.3 ±3.3 kg/m(2) vs. 27.8 ± 2 kg/m(2), P=0.03). In lean subjects, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS women (21.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2) vs. 21.2 ± 2 kg/m(2), P>0.05). Obese PCOS patients show more difficulty in losing weight by exercise than lean PCOS patients. The role of hormonal alterations and PCOS per se in the responsiveness of weight loss to exercise remains to be determined.

  10. The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirandi, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…

  11. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  12. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Maj-brit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise.......Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...

  13. Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Yuksel, Oguz; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Gumus, Hikmet; Karakilic, Aslı; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Kandis, Sevim; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-05-29

    We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the open arms of elevated plus maze test; both which are indicators of low anxiety levels. Our results suggest that decrease in anxiolytic behavior due to regular voluntary exercise may be associated with locally produced brain irisin. White adipose tissue irisin levels also correlated very strongly with low anxiety. However, no serum irisin increase was detected, ruling out the possibility of increased peripheral irisin levels affecting the brain via the bloodstream. Further research is necessary to explain the mechanisms of which peripheral and central irisin effects anxiety and the brain region affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  15. Genetics of regular exercise and sedentary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eco J C; Bartels, Meike; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lightfoot, J Timothy; Thomis, Martine

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three major conclusions: First, individual differences in physical activity traits are significantly influenced by genetic factors, but genetic contribution varies strongly over age, with heritability of leisure time exercise behavior ranging from 27% to 84% and heritability of sedentary behaviors ranging from 9% to 48%. Second, candidate gene approaches based on animal or human QTLs or on biological relevance (e.g., dopaminergic or cannabinoid activity in the brain, or exercise performance influencing muscle physiology) have not yet yielded the necessary evidence to specify the genetic mechanisms underlying the heritability of physical activity traits. Third, there is significant genetic modulation of the beneficial effects of daily physical activity patterns on strength and endurance improvements and on health-related parameters like body mass index. Further increases in our understanding of the genetic determinants of sedentary and exercise behaviors as well as the genetic modulation of their effects on fitness and health will be key to meaningful future intervention on these behaviors.

  16. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that

  17. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, Apc Min/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female Apc Min/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the Apc Min/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In Apc Min/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E 2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  18. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrom, Maj-Briit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection ...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise....

  19. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for voluntary rehydration in horses during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, S; Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K; Lindholm, A

    1996-07-01

    To avoid dehydration and a decrease in performance capacity in horses, fluid and electrolyte losses need to be compensated for during long distance rides as well as on other occasions when sweat losses are high during exercise. Thirteen endurance-trained horses, age 5-14 years, were used to compare 3 strategies of voluntary rehydration during prolonged exercise, offering 1) water, 2) water after administering salt paste (3 x 30 g of NaCl) per os and 3) 0.9% saline. The ride covered 62 km and consisted of 3 rounds, of 20, 22 and 20 km, respectively. During the first 20 km, no fluid was offered to any of the horses. Thereafter, fluid was repeatedly offered from buckets at the 'vet gates' and at fluid stations situated in the middle of the rounds. Fluid intake and bodyweight were measured during the ride and up until 3 b after the ride. The low heart rates and unchanged plasma glucose concentration indicated that the work load was moderate. Total fluid intake was significantly higher in the saline group than in the water group or the salt paste group. The total plasma protein concentration (TPP) fell below resting values in the saline group post exercise, indicating an increase in plasma volume. No changes in TPP were seen in the other groups. Plasma sodium concentration during the ride increased in the salt paste group but not in the saline drinking horses despite their higher NaCl intake. The water group had an increased plasma aldosterone concentration post exercise, indicating that sodium-conserving mechanisms had been activated. Plasma potassium concentration decreased in all treatments from pre- to post ride. It was concluded, that drinking saline solution during and after exercise is a good strategy for rehydration since this group showed the fastest recovery of their bodyweight losses. The persistently elevated plasma sodium concentration in the salt paste group during the ride, is indicative of a disturbance in the fluid distribution between the body fluid

  1. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  2. Feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy, and voluntary exercise participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok; Buckworth, Janet; Focht, Brian; Ko, Bomna

    2013-12-01

    This study used a path analysis approach to examine the relationship between feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy beliefs, and exercise participation. A cross-sectional mailing survey design was used to measure feelings of physical and mental energy, task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs, and voluntary moderate and vigorous exercise participation in 368 healthy, full-time undergraduate students (mean age = 21.43 ± 2.32 years). The path analysis revealed that the hypothesized path model had a strong fit to the study data. The path model showed that feelings of physical energy had significant direct effects on task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs as well as exercise behaviors. In addition, scheduling self-efficacy had direct effects on moderate and vigorous exercise participation. However, there was no significant direct relationship between task self-efficacy and exercise participation. The path model also revealed that scheduling self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between feelings of physical energy and exercise participation.

  3. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  4. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  5. Exercise and food compensation: exploring diet-related beliefs and behaviors of regular exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Simone; Wansink, Brian; Zehnder, Lorena

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet. Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants' food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants' dietary patterns. Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.

  6. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REGULAR EXERCISING IN ELDERLY WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Novak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to evaluate the long-term effects of regular physical activity for elderly women (over 65 years old on their functional physical fitness. At the beginning, 32 women (69.68 ± 3.83 years were included into an exercise (experimental group and 32 women (70.75 ± 3.67 years into a control group, who were not included into active exercise. The exercise took place at the Rudolf Maister School Centre in Kamnik and lasted for five years. It was performed intensively twice a week for 60 minutes from October 2006 to June 2007 and once a week for 60 minutes from October 2007 to June 2011. The Fullerton test battery was used to measure motor skills related to strength, power, flexibility, balance, endurance, speed and coordination. The first set of measurements for the members of the exercise group was taken in October 2006, the second after 6 months of exercise in July 2007 and the third in July 2011, including 20 women from the same exercise group who were still actively participating after four years. The measurements for the control group were only performed in October 2006 and July 2011, when 17 women from the same control group had their measurements taken again. The results of the Fullerton test battery showed a significant (p < 0.05 improvement in all tests after half a year of adapted exercise; additionally, significant (p < 0.05 progress was also noted in most tests following 4.5 years of exercising. Moreover, the exercise group, in comparison with the control group, also performed significantly (p < 0.001 better in most of the tests. Exercise can have a significant impact on the improvement of the motor skills of the elderly, which may result in the independent performance of all basic hygiene tasks as well as dressing, household and domestic work, shopping and other tasks related to freedom of movement, expansion of living space and an independent and autonomous life without the assistance of others.

  7. Voluntary Exercise Improves Performance of a Discrimination Task through Effects on the Striatal Dopamine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a…

  8. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 ) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H 2 O 2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  9. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  10. Voluntary exercise improves insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Richard L.; Jeon, Justin Y.; Liu, Fen-Fen; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Exercise promotes weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Obesity correlates with increased production of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn, contributes to systemic insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that exercise mitigates this inflammatory response, thereby improving insulin sensitivity, we developed a model of voluntary exercise in mice made obese by feeding of a high fat/high suc...

  11. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential effects of voluntary and forced exercise on stress responses after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L; Taylor, Anna N

    2012-05-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed with acute exercise, at post-injury days 0-4 and 7-11, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release were measured in rats running voluntarily or exposed to two daily 20-min periods of forced running wheel exercise. Forced, but not voluntary exercise, continuously elevated CORT. ACTH levels were initially elevated with forced exercise, but decreased by post-injury day 7 in the control, but not the FPI animals. As previously reported, voluntary exercise did not increase BDNF in the FPI group as it did in the control animals. Forced exercise did not increase levels of BDNF in any group. It did, however, decrease hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the control group. The results suggest that exercise regimens with strong stress responses may not be beneficial during the early post-injury period.

  13. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Lori D; Burger, Laura L; Cuttitta, Ashley J; Michele, Daniel E; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8-9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1-6 of running (10-15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Regular exercisers have stronger pelvic floor muscles than nonregular exercisers at midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2018-04-01

    Today all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity on most days of the week in addition to performing strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. The objectives of the study were to compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥30 minutes 3 or more times per week) and nonexercisers at midpregnancy. Furthermore, another objective was to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (±1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, with a mean age of 28.6 years (range, 19-40 years) and prepregnancy body mass index of 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD, 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high-precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using an independent-sample Student t test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for prepregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy, and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. The significance value was set to P ≤ .05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger (mean 6.4 cm H 2 O [95% confidence interval, 1.7-11.2]) and more enduring (mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec [95% confidence interval, 42.2-75.7]) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor

  15. [Fall risk assessment in regular exercising elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Kawashima, Yumiko; Iwata, Akiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Igata, Akihiro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Fall prevention is important for elderly people to maintain their functional independence. We made a longitudinal fall-risk assessment using our "Fall-predicting score" of women who are 60 years or older and who exercised regularly. We sent "fall-predicting questionnaires" to 632 elderly women aged 60 years or older (mean 65.0+/-4.3), members of "Miishima gymnastics program", and asked about their fall history of falling in the past year in 2004 and 2005. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the future risk factor of falling in 2005. The number of people who fell was 134 (21.2%) in 2004 and 121 (19.1%) in 2005. The number of people who fell decreased in the seventh decade, but increased in the eighth decade, and members for 6-10 years showed most decreased fall rates. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, falls in 2004, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", and "walk steep slope around the house" were significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005". Logistic regression analysis of non-fallers in 2004 showed that age and "tripping" were the significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005", and the analysis of people who fell in 2004 showed that age, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", "walk steep slope around the house", and "taking more than 5 medicines" were significant independent risk factors for falls in 2005. In regular exercising elderly women, exercise appears to prevent falls in people in the seventh decade and in the members of 6-10 years. Age, past history of falls, and fall-predicting questionnaire were important risk predictors of future falls.

  16. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jubeau

    Full Text Available Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS, corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP. Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01 and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001 at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body but also on exercise intensity and/or duration.

  17. Differential Effects of Voluntary and Forced Exercise on Stress Responses after Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, Grace S.; Tio, Delia L.; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L.; Taylor, Anna N.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed ...

  18. Ventricular action potential adaptation to regular exercise: role of β-adrenergic and KATP channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinrui; Fitts, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Regular exercise training is known to affect the action potential duration (APD) and improve heart function, but involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) subtypes and/or the ATP-sensitive K + (K ATP ) channel is unknown. To address this, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel-running or control groups; they were anesthetized after 6-8 wk of training, and myocytes were isolated. Exercise training significantly increased APD of apex and base myocytes at 1 Hz and decreased APD at 10 Hz. Ca 2+ transient durations reflected the changes in APD, while Ca 2+ transient amplitudes were unaffected by wheel running. The nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol shortened the myocyte APD, an effect reduced by wheel running. The isoproterenol-induced shortening of APD was largely reversed by the selective β 1 -AR blocker atenolol, but not the β 2 -AR blocker ICI 118,551, providing evidence that wheel running reduced the sensitivity of the β 1 -AR. At 10 Hz, the K ATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide prolonged the myocyte APD more in exercise-trained than control rats, implicating a role for this channel in the exercise-induced APD shortening at 10 Hz. A novel finding of this work was the dual importance of altered β 1 -AR responsiveness and K ATP channel function in the training-induced regulation of APD. Of physiological importance to the beating heart, the reduced response to adrenergic agonists would enhance cardiac contractility at resting rates, where sympathetic drive is low, by prolonging APD and Ca 2+ influx; during exercise, an increase in K ATP channel activity would shorten APD and, thus, protect the heart against Ca 2+ overload or inadequate filling. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our data demonstrated that regular exercise prolonged the action potential and Ca 2+ transient durations in myocytes isolated from apex and base regions at 1-Hz and shortened both at 10-Hz stimulation. Novel findings were that wheel running shifted the

  19. Effects of contraction duration on low-frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically induced exercise of quadriceps muscle in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkevicius, A; Skurvydas, A; Povilonis, E; Quistorff, B; Lexell, J

    1998-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if low-frequency fatigue (LFF) dependent on the duration of repeated muscle contractions and to compare LFF in voluntary and electrically induced exercise. Male subjects performed three 9-min periods of repeated isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction with contraction plus relaxation periods of 30 plus 60 s, 15 plus 30 s and 5 plus 10 s in protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same exercise protocols were repeated using feedback-controlled electrical stimulation at 40% maximal tetanic torque. Before and 15 min after each exercise period, knee extension torque at 1, 7, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 Hz was assessed. During voluntary exercise, electromyogram root mean square (EMGrms) of the vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. The 20-Hz torque:100-Hz torque (20:100 Hz torque) ratio was reduced more after electrically induced than after voluntary exercise (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio was gradually (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio and the increase in EMGrms were greater in protocol 1 (P exercise and that the electrically induced exercise produced a more pronounced LFF compared to voluntary exercise of submaximal intensity. It is suggested that compensatory recruitment of faster-contracting motor units is an additional factor affecting the severity of LFF during voluntary exercise.

  20. Voluntary exercise prevents cisplatin-induced muscle wasting during chemotherapy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight......% (PExercise training may...

  1. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...

  2. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayler D Sheahan

    Full Text Available Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. In uninjured, adult C57BL/6J mice, 1 to 4 weeks of exercise training did not alter nociceptive thresholds, lumbar dorsal root ganglia neuronal excitability, or hindpaw intraepidermal innervation. Further, exercise training failed to attenuate formalin-induced spontaneous pain. Lastly, 2 weeks of exercise training was ineffective in reversing spared nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity or in improving muscle wasting or hindpaw denervation. These findings indicate that in contrast to rodent forced exercise paradigms, short durations of voluntary wheel running do not improve pain-like symptoms in mouse models of acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; King, Monique; Skein, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of hot conditions on the acute recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance and physiological responses following intermittent exercise. Seven youth male and six female team-sport athletes performed two sessions separated by 7 d, involving a 30-min exercise protocol and 60-min passive recovery in either 22 degrees C or 33 degrees C and 40% relative humidity. The exercise protocol involved a 20-s maximal sprint every 5 min, separated by constant-intensity exercise at 100 W on a cycle ergometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and a resting evoked twitch (Pf) of the right knee extensors were assessed before and immediately following exercise and again 15, 30, and 60 min postexercise, and capillary blood was obtained at the same time points to measure lactate, pH, and HCO3. During and following exercise, core temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. No differences (P=0.73 to 0.95) in peak power during repeated sprints were present between conditions. Postexercise MVC was reduced (Pheat (83+/-10 vs 74+/-11% recovered). Both heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher (Precovery in the heat. Capillary blood values did not differ between conditions at any time point, whereas sessional RPE was higher 60 min postexercise in the heat. The current data suggests that passive recovery in warm temperatures not only delays cardiovascular and thermal recovery, but may also slow the recovery of MVC and RPE.

  4. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-12-02

    This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary exercise improves high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A; Demuro, Giovanna; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T; Benoit, Stephen C; Obici, Silvana

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of exercise as primary prevention of obesity is the subject of intense investigation. Here, we show that voluntary exercise in a mouse strain susceptible to diet-induced obesity (C57B6J) decreases fat mass and increases energy expenditure. In addition, exercise attenuates obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Using FosB immunoreactivity as a marker of chronic neuronal activation, we found that exercise activates leptin receptor-positive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, involved in homeostatic control of energy balance. FosB immunoreactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is decreased in sedentary mice exposed to HFD but is increased in exercised mice independent of adiposity. To determine whether the antiobesity effects of voluntary exercise improve central nervous system (CNS) leptin action, we measured the anorectic and weight reducing effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin in sedentary and exercised mice exposed to HFD (EH), as well as in sedentary mice that have been calorie restricted (SR) to match the fat mass of EH mice. ICV leptin was ineffective in lowering food intake and body weight (BW) in sedentary mice exposed to HFD mice. The anorectic potency of leptin was partially restored in EH and SR groups. However, ICV leptin significantly lowered BW in EH but not SR mice. Thus, exercise leads to the maintenance of a lower BW and leaner composition, as well as to improved CNS leptin action, independent of fat mass. These results support the notion that physical exercise directly influences the responsiveness of the CNS circuits involved in energy homeostasis by allowing the defense of a lowered BW.

  6. Voluntary Exercise Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Wasting during Chemotherapy in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo

    2014-01-01

    , food intake as well as muscle mass, strength and signalling. Mice were treated weekly with 4 mg/kg cisplatin or saline for 6 weeks, and randomized to voluntary wheel running or not. Cisplatin treatment induced loss of body weight (29.8%, P ... as anorexia, impaired muscle strength (22.5% decrease, P wheel running during treatment attenuated body weight...... loss by 50% (P wheel running, nor was glucose tolerance improved. Exercise...

  7. Voluntary exercise decreases atherosclerosis in nephrectomised ApoE knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Shing

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease. The effectiveness of exercise for cardiovascular disease that is accelerated by the presence of chronic kidney disease remains unknown. The present study utilized apolipoprotein E knockout mice with 5/6 nephrectomy as a model of combined kidney disease and cardiovascular disease to investigate the effect of exercise on aortic plaque formation, vascular function and systemic inflammation. Animals were randomly assigned to nephrectomy or control and then to either voluntary wheel running exercise or sedentary. Following 12-weeks, aortic plaque area was significantly (p0.05. Nephrectomy increased IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations compared with control mice (p0.05. Exercise was an effective non-pharmacologic approach to slow cardiovascular disease in the presence of kidney disease in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse.

  8. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  9. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  10. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  11. Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D

    2004-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.

  12. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  13. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Battson, Micah L; Cuevas, Lauren M; Zigler, Melanie C; Sindler, Amy L; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-11-22

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12; -32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11; -5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running; -0.8±-2.1% and -8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise.

  14. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  15. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eChilds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.

  16. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  17. The Effect of Three Months Regular Aerobic Exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome

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    Zinat Ghanbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of three-month regular aerobic exercise on the PMS symptoms. Also correlations with age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms were studied.Materials and Methods: A Quasi- Experimental study was conducted on 91 volunteer women with regular menstrual cycle and no history of gynecological, endocrinological and psychological disorders. The study was done during March 2005- March 2007, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A Modified Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ was used in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: Non-exercised, they also didn't have any past experience of regular exercise (n= 48 and Exercised (n= 43. The exercise time duration was one hour and was carried out three times per week for three months.  Emotional, behavioral, electrolyte, autonomic, neurovegatative and skin symptoms of PMS were compared between two groups. P value was considered significant at < 0.05.Results: A significant difference was observed for electrolytic, neurovegetative and cognitive symptoms before and after the exercise. Also the severity of skin and neurovegetative symptoms were different in experimental groups with and without past history of doing regular exercise. There was no correlation between age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms.Conclusion: Three months of regular aerobic exercise effectively reduces the severity of PMS symptoms.

  18. Oxidative stress and inflammation: liver responses and adaptations to acute and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon Barcelos, Rômulo; Freire Royes, Luiz Fernando; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2017-02-01

    The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis, and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements. Acute and regular exercise protocols in combination with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation have been also tested to verify hepatic adaptations to exercise. Although positive results have been reported in some acute models, several studies have shown an increased exercise-related stress upon liver. A similar trend has been observed during training: while synergistic effects of training and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplementations have been occasionally found, others reported a blunting of relevant adaptations to exercise, following the patterns described in skeletal muscles. This review discusses current data regarding liver responses and adaptation to acute and regular exercise protocols alone or combined with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation. The understanding of the mechanisms behind these modulations is of interest for both exercise-related health and performance outcomes.

  19. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, Pexercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  1. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hamidah; Putri Teesa Santoso; RM Haryadi Karyono

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP), in the Faculty of Medicine, Univers...

  2. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on learning and memory processes: dependency of the task and level of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Capdevila, Sílvia; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David

    2009-09-14

    The effect of long-term voluntary exercise (running wheel) on anxiety-like behaviour (plus maze and open field) and learning and memory processes (object recognition and two-way active avoidance) was examined on Wistar rats. Because major individual differences in running wheel behaviour were observed, the data were analysed considering the exercising animals both as a whole and grouped according to the time spent in the running wheel (low, high, and very-high running). Although some variables related to anxiety-like behaviour seem to reflect an anxiogenic compatible effect, the view of the complete set of variables could be interpreted as an enhancement of defensive and risk assessment behaviours in exercised animals, without major differences depending on the exercise level. Effects on learning and memory processes were dependent on task and level of exercise. Two-way avoidance was not affected either in the acquisition or in the retention session, while the retention of object recognition task was affected. In this latter task, an enhancement in low running subjects and impairment in high and very-high running animals were observed.

  3. The health benefits following regular ongoing exercise lifestyle in independent community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Feng; Lin, Yen-Ling

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effect of regular ongoing exercise lifestyle on mental and physical health in a group of independent community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults over a 2-year period. 197 older adults (mean age 72.5 years; 106 men and 91 women) who were independent in walking, instrumental and basic activities of daily living completed the baseline and a 2-year follow-up assessment. Older adults regularly performing exercises during the 2-year study period were grouped into regular exercise group; otherwise in the irregular exercise group. Baseline and follow-up assessments included a face-to-face interview and a battery of performance tests. The regular exercise group showed significantly less depression (P = 0.03) and tended to regress less on the performance tests (P = 0.025-0.410) across 2 years compared to the irregular exercise group. Regular exercise is important for maintaining or even improving mental and functional health, even for independent community-dwelling older adults. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  4. Testing causality in the association between regular exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Stubbe, J.H.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: In the population at large, regular exercise is associated with reduced anxious and depressive symptoms. Results of experimental studies in clinical populations suggest a causal effect of exercise on anxiety and depression, but it is unclear whether such a causal effect also drives the

  5. Voluntary exercise attenuates obesity-associated inflammation through ghrelin expressed in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Takako; Maegawa, Taketeru; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Izawa, Tetsuya; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-09-30

    Chronic low-level inflammation is associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, causing metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been shown to decrease chronic low-level systemic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone predominantly produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone release. In addition to these well-known functions, recent studies suggest that ghrelin localizes to immune cells and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of ghrelin expressed in macrophages in the anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise training. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and F4/80 was increased in adipose tissue from mice fed a HFD (HFD mice) compared with mice fed a standard diet (SD mice), whereas the expression of these inflammatory cytokines was markedly decreased in mice performing voluntary wheel running during the feeding of a HFD (HFEx mice). The expression of TNF-α was also increased in peritoneal macrophages by a HFD and exercise training inhibited the increase of TNF-α expression. Interestingly, expression of ghrelin in peritoneal macrophages was decreased by a HFD and recovered by exercise training. Suppression of ghrelin expression by siRNA increased TNF-α expression and LPS-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264 cells, which is a macrophage cell line. TNF-α expression by stimulation with LPS was significantly suppressed in RAW264 cells cultured in the presence of ghrelin. These results suggest that ghrelin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and functions as a mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regular Exercise Enhances Task-Based Industriousness in Laboratory Rats.

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    Nicholas C Laurence

    Full Text Available Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward. Individuals who select and successively complete effortful, goal-directed tasks can be described as industrious. Trying to increase one's industriousness is desirable from a productivity standpoint, yet intrinsically challenging given that effort expenditure is generally aversive. Here we show that in laboratory rats, a basic physical exercise regimen (20 min/day, five days/week is sufficient to increase industriousness across a battery of subsequent testing tasks. Exercised rats outperformed their non-exercised counterparts in tasks designed to tax effort expenditure, strategic decision-making, problem solving and persistence. These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity. Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

  7. Effects of voluntary running exercise on bone histology in type 2 diabetic rats.

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    Yuri Takamine

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity in children and adolescents, which may lead to type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Exercise is recommended to prevent and improve diabetes. However, little is known about the bone marrow environment at the onset of diabetes in the young, and it is unclear whether exercise training is useful for maintaining bone homeostasis, such as mechanical and histological properties. Thus, this study clarified the histological properties of bone and whether exercise contributes to maintaining bone homeostasis at the onset of type 2 diabetes in rats. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 21 rats as a diabetic model and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 18 rats as a control were assigned randomly to four groups: the OLETF sedentary group (O-Sed; n = 11, OLETF exercise group (O-Ex; n = 10, LETO sedentary group (L-Sed; n = 9, and LETO exercise group (L-Ex; n = 9. All rats in the exercise group were allowed free access to a steel running wheel for 20 weeks (5-25 weeks of age. In the glucose tolerance test, blood glucose level was higher in the O-Sed group than that in the L-Sed and L-Ex groups, and was markedly suppressed by the voluntary running exercise of O-Ex rats. The energy to fracture and the two-dimensional bone volume at 25 weeks of age did not differ significantly among the groups, though the maximum breaking force and stiffness were lower in OLETF rats. However, bone marrow fat volume was greater in O-Sed than that in L-Sed and L-Ex rats, and was markedly suppressed by wheel running in the O-Ex rats. Our results indicate that exercise has beneficial effects not only for preventing diabetes but also on normal bone remodeling at an early age.

  8. Effects of voluntary running exercise on bone histology in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamine, Yuri; Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Tsuzuki, Takamasa; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of obesity in children and adolescents, which may lead to type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Exercise is recommended to prevent and improve diabetes. However, little is known about the bone marrow environment at the onset of diabetes in the young, and it is unclear whether exercise training is useful for maintaining bone homeostasis, such as mechanical and histological properties. Thus, this study clarified the histological properties of bone and whether exercise contributes to maintaining bone homeostasis at the onset of type 2 diabetes in rats. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 21) rats as a diabetic model and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 18) rats as a control were assigned randomly to four groups: the OLETF sedentary group (O-Sed; n = 11), OLETF exercise group (O-Ex; n = 10), LETO sedentary group (L-Sed; n = 9), and LETO exercise group (L-Ex; n = 9). All rats in the exercise group were allowed free access to a steel running wheel for 20 weeks (5-25 weeks of age). In the glucose tolerance test, blood glucose level was higher in the O-Sed group than that in the L-Sed and L-Ex groups, and was markedly suppressed by the voluntary running exercise of O-Ex rats. The energy to fracture and the two-dimensional bone volume at 25 weeks of age did not differ significantly among the groups, though the maximum breaking force and stiffness were lower in OLETF rats. However, bone marrow fat volume was greater in O-Sed than that in L-Sed and L-Ex rats, and was markedly suppressed by wheel running in the O-Ex rats. Our results indicate that exercise has beneficial effects not only for preventing diabetes but also on normal bone remodeling at an early age.

  9. Regular group exercise is associated with improved mood but not quality of life following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. McDonnell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with improved mood and quality of life.Methods. We recruited three groups of community dwelling participants: 13 healthy older adults, 17 adults post-stroke who regularly participated in group exercise at a community fitness facility and 10 adults post-stroke who did not regularly exercise. We measured mood using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and quality of life using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL scale.Results. Levels of stress and depression were significantly greater in the people with stroke who did not undertake regular exercise (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004 respectively, although this group had more recent strokes (p < 0.001. Both stroke groups had lower quality of life scores (p = 0.04 than the healthy adults.Conclusions. This small, community-based study confirms that people following stroke report poorer quality of life than stroke-free individuals. However, those who exercise regularly have significantly lower stress and depression compared to stroke survivors who do not. Future research should focus on the precise type and amount of exercise capable of improving mood following stroke.

  10. Effects of crocin and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, on heart VEGF-A and HOMA-IR of HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, V; Mohammadi, M; Dariushnejad, H; Chodari, L; Mohaddes, G

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Crocin and voluntary exercise have anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetes. In this research, we evaluated the effects of crocin and voluntary exercise alone or combined on glycemia control and heart level of VEGF-A. Animals were divided into eight groups as: control (con), diabetes (Dia), crocin (Cro), voluntary exercise (Exe), crocin and voluntary exercise (Cro-Exe), diabetic-crocin (Dia-Cro), diabetic-voluntary exercise (Dia-Exe), diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise (Dia-Cro-Exe). Type 2 diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (i.p, 35 mg/kg). Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on overnight fasted control, diabetic and treated rats after 8 weeks of treatment. Then, serum insulin and heart VEGF-A protein levels were measured. Crocin combined with voluntary exercise significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p HOMA-IR) (p HOMA-IR) and reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Since both crocin and voluntary exercise can increase VEGF-A protein expression in heart tissue, they probably are able to increase angiogenesis in diabetic animals.

  11. Voluntary running-wheel exercise decreases the threshold for rewarding intracranial self-stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2012-08-01

    Physical exercise has mood-enhancing and antidepressant properties although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. The present experiment investigated the effects of prolonged access to a running wheel on electrical self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LHSS), a measure of hedonic state, in rats. Rats with continuous voluntary access to a running wheel for either 2 or 5 weeks exhibited dramatic leftward shifts in the effective current 50 (ECu50; current value that supports half of maximum responding) of their LHSS current-response functions compared to their baselines, indicating a decrease in reward threshold, whereas control rats current-response functions after 2 or 5 weeks were not significantly different from baseline. An inverse correlation existed between the change in ECu50 from baseline and the amount an animal had run in the day prior to LHSS testing, indicating that animals that exhibited higher levels of running showed a more robust decrease in LHSS threshold. We conclude that long-term voluntary exercise increases sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, which may contribute to its antidepressant properties.

  12. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  13. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  14. Voluntary Physical Exercise Improves Subsequent Motor and Cognitive Impairments in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Shih-Chang Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is typically characterized by impairment of motor function. Gait disturbances similar to those observed in patients with PD can be observed in animals after injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to induce unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on gait phenotypes, depression, cognitive, rotational behaviors as well as histology in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Results: We observed that, when compared with the non-exercise controls, five-week voluntary exercise alleviated and postponed the 6-OHDA-induced gait deficits, including a significantly improved walking speed, step/stride length, base of support and print length. In addition, we found that the non-motor functions, such as novel object recognition and forced swim test, were also ameliorated by voluntary exercise. However, the rotational behavior of the exercise group did not show significant differences when compared with the non-exercise group. Conclusions: We first analyzed the detailed spatiotemporal changes of gait pattern to investigate the potential benefits after long-term exercise in the rat model of PD, which could be useful for future objective assessment of locomotor function in PD or other neurological animal models. Furthermore, these results suggest that short-term voluntary exercise is sufficient to alleviate cognition deficits and depressive behavior in 6-OHDA lesioned rats and long-term treatment reduces the progression of motor symptoms and elevates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (BMX protein expression level without affecting dopaminergic (DA neuron loss in this PD rat model.

  15. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  16. Benefits of regular walking exercise in advanced pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmadakis, George C; John, Stephen G; Clapp, Emma L; Viana, Joao L; Smith, Alice C; Bishop, Nicolette C; Bevington, Alan; Owen, Paul J; McIntyre, Christopher W; Feehally, John

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of the benefit of regular physical exercise in a number of long-term conditions including chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD, this evidence has mostly come from studies in end stage patients receiving regular dialysis. There is little evidence in pre-dialysis patients with CKD Stages 4 and 5. A prospective study compared the benefits of 6 months regular walking in 40 pre-dialysis patients with CKD Stages 4 and 5. Twenty of them were the exercising group and were compared to 20 patients who were continuing with usual physical activity. In addition, the 40 patients were randomized to receive additional oral sodium bicarbonate (target venous bicarbonate 29 mmol/L) or continue with previous sodium bicarbonate treatment (target 24 mmol/L). Improvements noted after 1 month were sustained to 6 months in the 18 of 20 who completed the exercise study. These included improvements in exercise tolerance (reduced exertion to achieve the same activity), weight loss, improved cardiovascular reactivity, avoiding an increase in blood pressure medication and improvements in quality of health and life and uraemic symptom scores assessed by questionnaire. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation did not produce any significant alterations. This study provides further support for the broad benefits of aerobic physical exercise in CKD. More studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these benefits, to study whether resistance exercise will add to the benefit and to evaluate strategies to promote sustained lifestyle changes, that could ensure continued increase in habitual daily physical activity levels.

  17. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  18. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  20. Simultaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures associated with statin medication despite regular rock climbing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R; Highland, Adrian M; Blundell, Christopher M; Davies, Mark B

    2009-11-01

    Ruptures of the Achilles tendon are common however simultaneous ruptures occur less frequently. Eccentric loading exercise programmes have been used to successfully treat Achilles tendinopathy. We report a case of simultaneous bilateral Achilles tendon rupture in a patient predisposed to rupture due to longstanding raised serum lipoprotein and recently introduced therapeutic statin medication. The patient was also a keen rock climber and had regularly undertaken loading exercise. This case illustrates that the therapeutic effect of mixed loading exercises for the Achilles tendon may not be adequate to overcome the predisposition to rupture caused by hyperlipidaemia and statin medication.

  1. Forced, not voluntary, exercise improves motor function in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Vitek, Jerrold L; Alberts, Jay L

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies indicate forced exercise (FE) improves overall motor function in Parkinsonian rodents. Global improvements in motor function following voluntary exercise (VE) are not widely reported in human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of VE and FE on PD symptoms, motor function, and bimanual dexterity. Ten patients with mild to moderate PD were randomly assigned to complete 8 weeks of FE or VE. With the assistance of a trainer, patients in the FE group pedaled at a rate 30% greater than their preferred voluntary rate, whereas patients in the VE group pedaled at their preferred rate. Aerobic intensity for both groups was identical, 60% to 80% of their individualized training heart rate. Aerobic fitness improved for both groups. Following FE, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores improved 35%, whereas patients completing VE did not exhibit any improvement. The control and coordination of grasping forces during the performance of a functional bimanual dexterity task improved significantly for patients in the FE group, whereas no changes in motor performance were observed following VE. Improvements in clinical measures of rigidity and bradykinesia and biomechanical measures of bimanual dexterity were maintained 4 weeks after FE cessation. Aerobic fitness can be improved in PD patients following both VE and FE interventions. However, only FE results in significant improvements in motor function and bimanual dexterity. Biomechanical data indicate that FE leads to a shift in motor control strategy, from feedback to a greater reliance on feedforward processes, which suggests FE may be altering central motor control processes.

  2. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  4. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M. H. M.; Beem, A. L.; Stubbe, J. H.; Boomsma, D. I.; de Geus, E. J. C.

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N=19,288) who participated in the study on lifestyle and health from

  5. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Doubova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014 of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Results Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Conclusions Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  6. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-09-09

    To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014) of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  7. Physical Educators' Habitual Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy for Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Haegele, Justin A.; Davis, Summer

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' habitual physical activity and self-efficacy for regular exercise. In-service physical education teachers (N = 168) voluntarily completed an online questionnaire that included items to collect demographic information (gender, race/ethnicity, years of teaching experience, and…

  8. Regularity of the exercise boundary for American put options on assets with discrete dividends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdain, B.; Vellekoop, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the regularity of the optimal exercise boundary for the American Put option when the underlying asset pays a discrete dividend at a known time td during the lifetime of the option. The ex-dividend asset price process is assumed to follow Black-Scholes dynamics and the dividend amount is a

  9. Voluntary movement frequencies in submaximal one- and two-legged knee extension exercise and pedaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sørbø Stang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n=16, thereof 8 women; 23.4±2.7 years; 1.70±0.11 m; 68.6±11.2 kg.High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75 occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95 occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence.The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs

  10. Exercise and College Students: How Regular Exercise Contributes to Approach Motivation via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauff Duranso, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that participating in physical exercise reduces stress and the risk of many physical maladies. Exercise is also correlated with higher levels of approach motivation, or a tendency to approach challenge as an opportunity for growth or improvement instead of an opportunity for failure. To date, most research on this relationship…

  11. Regular Aerobic Training Combined with Range of Motion Exercises in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Doğru Apti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of regular aerobic training combined with range of motion (ROM exercises on aerobic capacity, quality of life, and function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Methods. Thirty patients with JIA and 20 healthy age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 11.3 ± 2.4 versus 11.0 ± 2.3, resp.; P>0.05 were included. All patients performed aerobic walking (4 days a week for 8 weeks and active and passive ROM exercises of involved joints. All patients completed the childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ and the child health questionnaire. ROM measurements of joints were performed by using universal goniometer. Aerobic capacity was determined by measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak during an incremental treadmill test. Results. Peak oxygen uptake and exercise duration were significantly lower in JIA group than in controls (32.5 ± 6.6 versus 35.9 ± 5.8 and 13.9 ± 1.9 versus 15.0 ± 2.0, resp.; P<0.05 for both. Eight-week combined exercise program significantly improved exercise parameters of JIA patients (baseline versus postexercise VO2peak and exercise duration, 32.5 ± 6.6 to 35.3 ± 7.9 and 13.9 ± 1.9 to 16.3 ± 2.2, resp.; P<0.001 for both. Exercise intervention significantly improved CHAQ scores in JIA patients (0.77 ± 0.61 to 0.20 ± 0.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. We suggest that regular aerobic exercise combined with ROM exercises may be an important part of treatment in patients with JIA.

  12. Voluntary water intake during and following moderate exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO₂peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two trials (7-8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO₂peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg⁻¹, p sensations were similar between trials (p > .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.

  13. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  14. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  15. Cardiac oxidative stress following maternal separation stress was mitigated following adolescent voluntary exercise in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  17. Effect of voluntary exercise and dietary protein levels on incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Masanori; Kimura, Shuichi

    1983-01-01

    The effect of voluntary exercise on incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro were examined with mice fed 4 %, 6 % and 20 % protein diets. The incorporation of 14 C-leucine increased as dietary protein levels decreased and was significantly higher in liver slices of exercise groups than in slices of non-exercise groups. (author)

  18. Senior military officers' educational concerns, motivators and barriers for healthful eating and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Lori D; Anderson, Jennifer E; Auld, Garry W

    2005-10-01

    The increasing trend of overweight in the military, the high cost of health care associated with overweight, and the failure to meet some Healthy People 2000 objectives related to diet identify the need for more appropriate nutrition and fitness education for military personnel. The purpose of this study was to assess senior military officers' concerns on various health topics, educational preferences for nutrition and health topics, eating habits, and barriers and motivators for eating healthfully and exercising regularly. The survey was completed by 52 resident students at the U.S. Army War College. Fitness, weight, and blood cholesterol were top health concerns, and respondents wanted to know more about eating healthfully on the run. The primary barrier to eating healthfully and exercising regularly was lack of time, whereas health and appearance were top motivators. Health interventions for this population should include their topics of concern and should address perceived barriers and motivators.

  19. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Cortical Neurotrophin and Cytogenetic Adaptation after Voluntary Exercise in Normal and Amnestic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary exercise (VEx) has profound effects on neural and behavioral plasticity, including recovery of CNS trauma and disease. However, the unique regional cortical adaption to VEx has not been elucidated. In a series of experiments, we first examined whether VEx would restore and retain neurotrophin levels in several cortical regions (frontal cortex [FC], retrosplenial cortex [RSC], occipital cortex [OC]) in an animal model (pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency [PTD]) of the amnestic disorder Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In addition, we assessed the time-dependent effect of VEx to rescue performance on a spontaneous alternation task. Following 2-weeks of VEx or stationary housing conditions (Stat), rats were behaviorally tested and brains were harvested either the day after VEx (24-h) or after an additional two-week period (2-wk). In both control pair-fed (PF) rats and PTD rats, all neurotrophin levels (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) increased at the 24-h period after VEx in the FC and RSC, but not OC. Two-weeks following VEx, BDNF remained elevated in both FC and RSC, whereas NGF remained elevated in only the FC. Interestingly, VEx only recovered cognitive performance in amnestic rats when there was an additional 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. Given this unique temporal profile, Experiment 2 examined the cortical cytogenetic responses in all three cortical regions following a 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. In healthy (PF) rats, VEx increased the survival of progenitor cells in both the FC and RSC, but only increased oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the FC. Furthermore, VEx had a selective effect of only recovering oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the FC in PTD rats. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of exercise to restore cortical plasticity in the amnestic brain, and that the FC is one of the most responsive cortical regions to VEx. PMID:24215977

  1. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pself-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  2. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Voluntary exercise confers protection against age-related deficits in brain oxygenation in awake mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuecong; Moeini, Mohammad; Li, Baoqiang; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by short-term memory loss and cognitive inabilities. This work seeks to study the effects of voluntary exercise on the change in oxygen delivery in awake mice models of Alzheimer's disease by monitoring brain tissue oxygenation. Experiments were performed on Young (AD_Y, 3-4 months, n=8), Old (AD_O, 6-7 months, n=8), and Old with exercise (AD_OEX, 6-7 months, n=8) transgenic APPPS1 mice and their controls. Brain tissue oxygenation was measured by two photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy on the left sensory motor cortex. We found that the average tissue PO2 decreased with age but were regulated by exercise. The results suggest a potential for exercise to improve brain function with age and AD.

  4. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Regular aerobic exercise reduces endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was

  6. Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orienting and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Sharma, Mita; Evans, Gretchen C; Bucci, David J

    2009-06-01

    The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the 1st training session, followed by daily sessions in which the light was paired with food. Nonexercising male and female SHR rats exhibited more unconditioned orienting behavior than Wistar-Kyoto rats. SHRs also exhibited impaired conditioning when the light was paired with food. Exercise reduced orienting in female SHRs but not in male SHRs. In the social interaction task, nonexercising male and female SHRs interacted more with an unfamiliar rat than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Exercise reduced the number of social interactions in female SHRs but not male SHRs. There were no differences in general locomotor activity observed between the nonexercising and exercising SHRs. These data indicate that exercise may preferentially benefit female SHRs, and has implications for using exercise as an intervention for ADHD and for understanding sex differences in the effects of exercise on behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  8. The effects of voluntary running exercise coincidence with social isolation after early weaning on monoaminergic axonal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, J; Ishikawa, A

    2013-01-29

    The axonal development of serotonin (5-HT)-, noradrenaline (NA)-, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning performance in adults. We have examined whether voluntary running exercise during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/social isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-28 could prevent the impaired monoaminergic axonal development associated with EI. Compared with control animals reared with their dam and siblings until PD28, the EI animals showed lower density of 5-HT and NA axons in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and of NA- and TH-containing axons in the ventral-mPFC. These adverse effects of EI were not observed in rats taking part in voluntary running (EI+R) when these animals were compared to controls. The 5-HT axon density in the ventral-mPFC was significantly higher in the EI+R rats than that in the EI rats, although both these values were significantly lower than those in the control rats. The density of monoaminergic axons in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus was not affected by either EI or EI+R. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of voluntary running may be because of the modulation of monoaminergic axonal morphology. Our findings will hopefully provide the basis for future research into the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise during the juvenile period on brain development and emotional and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Luiza; de Jarmy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Rodrigues, Claudinei Alves; Stüpp, Liliana; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) to a Pilates exercise program in sedentary nulliparous women. Fifty-seven healthy nulliparous and physically inactive women were randomized to a Pilates exercise program (PEP) with or without PFMC. Forty-eight women concluded this study (24 participants for each group). Each woman was evaluated before and after the PEP, by a physiotherapist and an urogynecologist (UG). Neither of the professionals was revealed to them. This physiotherapist measured their pelvic floor muscle strength by using both a perineometer (Peritron) and vaginal palpation (Oxford Scale). The UG, who performed 3D perineal ultrasound examinations, collected their data and evaluated the results for pubovisceral muscle thickness and the levator hiatus area (LA). Both professionals were blinded to the group allocation. The protocol for both groups consisted of 24 bi-weekly 1-h individual sessions of Pilates exercises, developed by another physiotherapist who specializes in PFM rehabilitation and the Pilates technique. The PEP+ PFMC group showed significantly greater strength improvements than the PEP group when comparing the Oxford scale, vaginal pressure and pubovisceral muscle thickness during contraction measurements at baseline and post-treatment. Our findings suggest that adding a voluntary PFMC to a Pilates exercise program is more effective than Pilates alone in improving PFM strength in sedentary nulliparous women.

  10. Regular exercise and related factors in patients with Parkinson's disease: Applying zero-inflated negative binomial modeling of exercise count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Park, Chang Gi; Choi, Moonki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors that influence regular exercise among patients with Parkinson's disease in Korea. Parkinson's disease is prevalent in the elderly, and may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise can enhance physical and psychological health. However, patients with Parkinson's disease are less likely to exercise than are other populations due to physical disability. A secondary data analysis and cross-sectional descriptive study were conducted. A convenience sample of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease was recruited at an outpatient neurology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Demographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics (including disease duration and motor symptoms), self-efficacy for exercise, balance, and exercise level were investigated. Negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression for exercise count data were utilized to determine factors involved in exercise. The mean age of participants was 65.85 ± 8.77 years, and the mean duration of Parkinson's disease was 7.23 ± 6.02 years. Most participants indicated that they engaged in regular exercise (80.19%). Approximately half of participants exercised at least 5 days per week for 30 min, as recommended (51.9%). Motor symptoms were a significant predictor of exercise in the count model, and self-efficacy for exercise was a significant predictor of exercise in the zero model. Severity of motor symptoms was related to frequency of exercise. Self-efficacy contributed to the probability of exercise. Symptom management and improvement of self-efficacy for exercise are important to encourage regular exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART

  12. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  13. Modest Amounts of Voluntary Exercise Reduce Pain- and Stress-Related Outcomes in a Rat Model of Persistent Hind Limb Inflammation.

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    Pitcher, Mark H; Tarum, Farid; Rauf, Imran Z; Low, Lucie A; Bushnell, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise improves outcomes in a variety of chronic health conditions, yet the support for exercise-induced effects on chronic pain in humans is mixed. Although many rodent studies have examined the effects of exercise on persistent hypersensitivity, the most used forced exercise paradigms that are known to be highly stressful. Because stress can also produce analgesic effects, we studied how voluntary exercise, known to reduce stress in healthy subjects, alters hypersensitivity, stress, and swelling in a rat model of persistent hind paw inflammation. Our data indicate that voluntary exercise rapidly and effectively reduces hypersensitivity as well as stress-related outcomes without altering swelling. Moreover, the level of exercise is unrelated to the analgesic and stress-reducing effects, suggesting that even modest amounts of exercise may impart significant benefit in persistent inflammatory pain states. Modest levels of voluntary exercise reduce pain- and stress-related outcomes in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain, independently of the amount of exercise. As such, consistent, self-regulated activity levels may be more relevant to health improvement in persistent pain states than standardized exercise goals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L; Baldwin, Austin S; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Rethorst, Chad D

    2015-05-01

    People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms moderate the relations between exercise and same-day self-efficacy, and between self-efficacy and next-day exercise. Participants (n = 116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments for 4 weeks. Mixed linear models were used to test whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, (b) self-efficacy predicted next-day exercise, and (c) these relations were moderated by depressive symptoms. First, self-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was larger for people with high depressive symptoms (p self-efficacy than people with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p = .03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p = .34). Second, self-efficacy predicted greater odds of next-day exercise, OR = 1.12, 95% [1.04, 1.21], but depressive symptoms did not moderate this relation, OR = 1.00, 95% CI [.99, 1.01]. During exercise initiation, daily self-efficacy is more strongly related to exercise occurrence for people with high depressive symptoms than those with low depressive symptoms, but self-efficacy predicts next-day exercise regardless of depressive symptoms. The findings specify how depressive symptoms affect the relations between exercise and self-efficacy and underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in exercise interventions, particularly among people with depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  16. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  17. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  18. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  19. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  1. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate context memory and hyperarousal in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.

  3. Regular exercise behaviour and intention and symptoms of anxiety and depression in coronary heart disease patients across Europe: Results from the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, Christof; Wellmann, Jürgen; Heidrich, Jan; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Smedt, Delphine; De Backer, Guy; Reiner, Željko; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Fras, Zlatko; Gaita, Dan; Jennings, Catriona; Kotseva, Kornelia; Wood, David; Keil, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Regular exercise lowers the risk of cardiovascular death in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. We aimed to investigate regular exercise behaviour and intention in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression in CHD patients across Europe. This study was based on a multicentre cross-sectional survey. In the EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) III survey, 8966 CHD patients patients exercised or intended to exercise regularly was assessed using the Stages of Change questionnaire in 8330 patients. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Total physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in patients from a subset of 14 countries. Overall, 50.3% of patients were not intending to exercise regularly, 15.9% were intending to exercise regularly, and 33.8% were exercising regularly. Patients with severe symptoms of depression less frequently exercised regularly than patients with symptoms in the normal range (20.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.8-26.8 vs 36.7%, 95% CI 29.8-44.2). Among patients not exercising regularly, patients with severe symptoms of depression were less likely to have an intention to exercise regularly (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.85). Symptoms of anxiety did not affect regular exercise intention. In sensitivity analysis, results were consistent when adjusting for total physical activity. Lower frequency of regular exercise and decreased likelihood of exercise intention were observed in CHD patients with severe depressive symptoms. Severe symptoms of depression may preclude CHD patients from performing regular exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  4. Cardioprotective Effect of Crocin Combined with Voluntary Exercise in Rat: Role of Mir-126 and Mir-210 in Heart Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Vajihe; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dariushnejad, Hassan; Abhari, Alireza; Chodari, Leila; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2017-07-01

    Crocin is reported to have a wide range of biological activities such as cardiovascular protection. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crocin and voluntary exercise on miR-126 and miR-210 expression levels and angiogenesis in the heart tissue. Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, exercise, crocin, and exercise-crocin. Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Akt, ERK1/2 protein levels, miR-126 and miR-210 expression were measured in the heart tissue. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CD31 in the heart tissue. Akt and ERK1/2 levels of the heart tissue were higher in crocin treated group and voluntary exercise trained group after 8 weeks. Combination of crocin and exercise also significantly enhanced Akt and ERK1/2 levels in the heart tissue. MiR-126, miR-210 expression and CD31 in the heart increased in both crocin and voluntary exercise groups compared with control group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on miR-126 and miR-210 expression, and angiogenesis. Crocin and voluntary exercise improve heart angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-126 and miR-210 expression. Voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with crocin could have beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease. A crocina tem uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas, tais como a proteção cardiovascular. Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que o exercício reduz a morbidade e a mortalidade cardiovasculares na população em geral. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da crocina e do exercício voluntário nos níveis de expressão miR-126 e miR-210 e na angiogênese no tecido cardíaco. Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: controle, exercício, crocina e exercício-crocina. Os

  5. Effect of regular circus physical exercises on lymphocytes in overweight children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Miguel Momesso dos Santos

    Full Text Available Obesity associated with a sedentary lifestyle can lead to changes in the immune system balance resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to compare lymphocyte activation mechanisms between overweight children practicing regular circus physical exercises with non-exercised children. The study comprised 60 pubescent children randomly divided into 4 groups: Overweight Children (OWC (10.67 ± 0.22 years old, Overweight Exercised Children (OWE (10.00 ± 0.41 years old, Eutrophic Children (EC (11.00 ± 0.29 years old and Eutrophic Exercised Children (EE (10.60 ± 0.29 years old. OWE and EE groups practiced circus activities twice a week, for 4.3 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 months, respectively. Percentage of T regulatory cells (Treg and the expression of CD95 and CD25 in CD4+ lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation capacity was measured by [14C]-thymidine incorporation and mRNA expression of IL-35, TGF-beta, IL-2 and IL-10 by real-time PCR. Lymphocyte proliferation was higher in OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC (3509 ± 887; 2694 ± 560, and 1768 ± 208 cpm, respectively and EE (2313 ± 111 cpm groups. CD95 expression on lymphocytes was augmented in the EC (953.9 ± 101.2 and EE groups (736.7 ± 194.6 compared with the OWC (522.1 ± 125.2 and OWE groups (551.6 ± 144.5. CTLA-4 expression was also lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. Percentage of Treg, IL-35, and IL-10 mRNA expression were lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. In conclusion, overweight children present altered immune system balance characterized by elevated lymphocyte proliferation due to a decrease in T regulatory cell percentage. These effects were partially reverted by moderate physical exercise, as demonstrated by decreased lymphocyte proliferation.

  6. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The haptic pleasures of ground-feel: The role of textured terrain in motivating regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina M

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores the role that somatic or bodily touch-based experience of ground surface textures plays in securing a commitment to health-giving exercise practices, and argues that ground-feel is a neglected and underrated dimension of how environments co-constitute health. Past work has largely either overlooked ground-feel or positioned rough ground solely as a barrier to bodily movement. This research, however, informed by mobile and video ethnographies of walking and mountain biking in Scotland, elaborates a number of ways in which the experience of textured terrain can produce sensory and emotional experiences that motivate regular exercise. The possibility of positive tactile as well as visual experiences of landscapes, including uneven as well as smooth surfaces, ought then to be taken more seriously in designing everyday outdoor environments that encourage the energetic movement of bodies. A key challenge is to identify the optimal mix of textured and smooth ground surfaces to encourage increased energetic engagement for the widest range of users. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. 'Sticking to a healthy diet is easier for me when I exercise regularly': cognitive transfer between physical exercise and healthy nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Kerschreiter, Rudolf; Schwarzer, Ralf; Pomp, Sarah; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Long-term rehabilitation success depends on regular exercise and healthy nutrition. The present study introduces a new framework to explain this association on a psychosocial level. The exercise-nutrition relationship was investigated by exploring the sequential mediation of habit strength and transfer cognitions. Analyses were performed at two measurement points in time (at 12 and 18 months after rehabilitation), involving 470 medical rehabilitation patients who participated in an exercise intervention. Patients filled in paper-pencil questionnaires assessing exercise (t1) and habit strength, transfer cognitions and healthy nutrition at follow-up (t2). Habit strength and transfer cognitions mediated the relationship between exercise and nutrition. Findings suggest that habit strength and transfer cognitions are important factors underlying the relationship between exercise and nutrition.

  9. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shou-Zhi; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Wang, Hai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  10. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  11. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of exogenous adenosine and voluntary exercise on human skeletal muscle perfusion and perfusion heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H.A.; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is a widely used pharmacological agent to induce a 'high flow' control condition to study the mechanisms of exercise hyperemia, but it is not known how well adenosine infusion depicts exercise-induced hyperemia especially in terms of blood flow distribution at the capillary level in hum...

  13. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the

  14. Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control in University Students in the Context of Regular Exercise Participation and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali; Tekin, Gülcan; Çalisir, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the locus of control (LC) and sensation seeking (SS) levels of university female students according to regular exercise participation (REP) and gender (G). This descriptive study was initiated in 2016 and finished in 2017. A total of 623 students, 306 females and 317 males, from different academic departments…

  15. Regular Exercise Enhances the Immune Response Against Microbial Antigens Through Up-Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Regular physical exercise can enhance resistance to many microbial infections. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the changes in the immune system induced by regular exercise. Methods: We recruited members of a university badminton club as the regular exercise (RE group and healthy sedentary students as the sedentary control (SC group. We investigated the distribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC subsets and functions in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels between the RE and SC groups in the true resting state. However, enhanced levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α and IL-12 were secreted by PBMCs in the RE group following microbial antigen stimulation, when compared to the SC group. In contrast, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 secreted by PBMC in the RE group were suppressed compared with those in SC group following non-microbial antigen stimulation (concanavalin A or α-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, PBMC expression of TLR2, TLR7 and MyD88 was significantly increased in the RE group in response to microbial antigen stimulation. Conclusion: Regular exercise enhances immune cell activation in response to pathogenic stimulation leading to enhanced cytokine production mediated via the TLR signaling pathways.

  16. Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Zahedi-Khorasani, Mahdi; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-05-30

    This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  18. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be significantly enhanced (up to 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively) by a voluntary hamstring

  19. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  20. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  2. Patients with established cancer cachexia lack the motivation and self-efficacy to undertake regular structured exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, David; Gale, Nichola; Roberts, Sioned; Backx, Karianne; Nelson, Annmarie; van Deursen, Robert; Byrne, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    Patients with advanced cancer frequently suffer a decline in activities associated with involuntary loss of weight and muscle mass (cachexia). This can profoundly affect function and quality of life. Although exercise participation can maintain physical and psychological function in patients with cancer, uptake is low in cachectic patients who are underrepresented in exercise studies. To understand how such patients' experiences are associated with exercise participation, we investigated exercise history, self-confidence, and exercise motivations in patients with established cancer cachexia, and relationships between relevant variables. Lung and gastrointestinal cancer outpatients with established cancer cachexia (n = 196) completed a questionnaire exploring exercise history and key constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour relating to perceived control, psychological adjustment, and motivational attitudes. Patients reported low physical activity levels, and few undertook regular structured exercise. Exercise self-efficacy was very low with concerns it could worsen symptoms and cause harm. Patients showed poor perceived control and a strong need for approval but received little advice from health care professionals. Preferences were for low intensity activities, on their own, in the home setting. Regression analysis revealed no significant factors related to the independent variables. Frequently employed higher intensity, group exercise models do not address the motivational and behavioural concerns of cachectic cancer patients in this study. Developing exercise interventions which match perceived abilities and skills is required to address challenges of self-efficacy and perceived control identified. Greater engagement of health professionals with this group is required to explore potential benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Forced and voluntary exercise counteract insulin resistance in rats : The role of coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Barf, R. Paulien; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    There are large individual differences in the success rates of exercise intervention programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in coping style may impact the success rates of these intervention

  4. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  5. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice : Effects of long-term voluntary exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Speakman, John R.; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e. g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two

  6. The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chen; Yang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Chen, Pei-Ti; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Chia-Hui; Chan, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise can reduce blood pressure and is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension itself, or/and pharmacological treatment for hypertension is associated with adverse effects on some aspects of quality of life. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of regular endurance exercise training on quality of life and blood pressure. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-180 or diastolic blood pressure 90-110 mm Hg) were randomized to a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group training for 3 sessions/week over 10 weeks or to a non-exercising control group. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after 6 and 10 weeks. In the 102 subjects (47 male, mean age 47 years) who completed the study, reductions in blood pressure in the exercise group at 10 weeks (-13.1/-6.3 mm Hg) were significant (P endurance training improves both blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensive patients and should be encouraged more widely.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and hypertension: regular exercise as part of lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T; Voeks, Jenifer H

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of physical activity and exercise represents a clinically important aspect in the management of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes. While the benefit of exercise and active lifestyles is well documented for prevention and risk reduction of cardiovascular and stroke outcomes, the detailed regiment and recommendations are less clear. The components of a prescribed physical activity include consideration of activity type, frequency of an activity, activity duration, and intensity of a specific physical movement. The exercise parameters prescribed as part of the management of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and elevated blood pressure are most often proposed as separate documents while the general recommendations are similar. The evidence is strong such that physical activity and exercise recommendations in disease management guidelines are considered high quality. The general recommendations for both blood pressure and glycemic management include a regiment of physical activity with moderate- to high-intensity exercise of 30-min bouts on multiple days with a desired goal of a total of 150 min of exercise per week. While additional research is needed to identify the specific exercise/activity mode, frequencies for exercise training, intensity levels, and duration of exercise that achieve maximal blood pressure and glycemic lowering, this general recommendation showed a consistent and significant benefit in risk reduction. Similarly, the current available evidence also indicates that aerobic exercise, dynamic resistance exercise, and isometric exercises can lower blood pressure and improve glycemic control.

  8. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-weaning voluntary exercise exerts long-term moderation of adiposity in males but not in females in an animal model of early-onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Mariana; Shbiro, Liat; Gelber, Vered; Weller, Aron

    2010-04-01

    Given the alarming increase in childhood, adolescent and adult obesity there is an imperative need for understanding the early factors affecting obesity and for treatments that may help prevent or at least moderate it. Exercise is frequently considered as an effective treatment for obesity however the empirical literature includes many conflicting findings. In the present study, we used the OLETF rat model of early-onset hyperphagia-induced obesity to examine the influence of early exercise on peripheral adiposity-related parameters in both males and females. Rats were provided voluntary access to running wheels from postnatal day (PND) 22 until PND45. We examined fat pad weight (brown, retroperitoneal, inguinal and epididymal); inguinal adipocyte size and number; and leptin, adiponectin, corticosterone and creatinine levels. We also examined body weight, feeding efficiency and spontaneous intake. Early voluntary exercise reduced intake, adiposity and leptin in the OLETF males following a sharp reduction in adipocyte size despite a significant increase in fat cell number. Exercising males from the lean LETO control strain presented stable intake, but reduced body fat, feeding efficiency and increased plasma creatinine, suggesting an increment in muscle mass. OLETF females showed reduced feeding efficiency and liver fat, and a significant increase in brown fat. Exercising LETO control females increased intake, body weight and creatinine, but no changes in body fat. Overall, OLETF rats presented higher adiponectin levels than controls in both basal and post-exercise conditions. The results suggest an effective early time frame, when OLETF males can be successfully "re-programmed" through voluntary exercise; in OLETF females the effect is much more moderate. Findings expose sex-dependent peripheral mechanisms in coping with energy challenges. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy attenuates anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female rat offspring born from morphine dependent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Masoumeh; Pooriamehr, Alireza; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-10-17

    This study was designed to examine whether maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy would attenuate prenatally morphine-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary consumption of morphine in the pubertal male and female rat offspring. Pregnant rats during the development of morphine dependence were allowed to swim (30-45min/d, 3days per a week) on gestational days 11-18. Then, the pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries, higher levels of sucrose preference than their sedentary control mothers. Voluntary consumption of morphine was less in the male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers as compared with their sedentary control mothers during three periods of the intake of drug. Thus, swimming exercise in pregnant morphine dependent mothers decreased anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female offspring, which may prevent prenatally morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal functional connectivity changes correlate with mood improvement after regular exercise in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Leonardo; Carballedo, Angela; Lavelle, Grace; Doolin, Kelly; Doyle, Myles; Amico, Francesco; McCarthy, Hazel; Gormley, John; Lord, Anton; O'Keane, Veronica; Frodl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Exercise increases wellbeing and improves mood. It is however unclear how these mood changes relate to brain function. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating resting-state modifications in healthy adults after an extended period of aerobic physical exercise and their relationship with mood improvements. We aimed to identify novel functional networks whose activity could provide a physiological counterpart to the mood-related benefits of exercise. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary volunteers were randomised to either the aerobic exercise group of the study or a control group. Participants in the exercise group attended aerobic sessions with a physiotherapist twice a week for 16 weeks. Resting-state modifications using magnetic resonance imaging were assessed before and after the programme and related to mood changes. An unbiased approach using graph metrics and network-based statistics was adopted. Exercise reduced mood disturbance and improved emotional wellbeing. It also induced a decrease in local efficiency in the parahippocampal lobe through strengthening of the functional connections from this structure to the supramarginal gyrus, precentral area, superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole. Changes in mood disturbance following exercise were correlated with those in connectivity between parahippocampal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus as well as with the amount of training. No changes were detected in the control group. In conclusion, connectivity from the parahippocampal gyrus to motor, sensory integration and mood regulation areas was strengthened through exercise. These functional changes might be related to the benefits of regular physical activity on mood. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cerebral vascular structure in the motor cortex of adult mice is stable and is not altered by voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Robert H; Dougherty, Sarah E; Linden, David J

    2017-12-01

    The cerebral vasculature provides blood flow throughout the brain, and local changes in blood flow are regulated to match the metabolic demands of the active brain regions. This neurovascular coupling is mediated by real-time changes in vessel diameter and depends on the underlying vascular network structure. Neurovascular structure is configured during development by genetic and activity-dependent factors. In adulthood, it can be altered by experiences such as prolonged hypoxia, sensory deprivation and seizure. Here, we have sought to determine whether exercise could alter cerebral vascular structure in the adult mouse. We performed repeated in vivo two-photon imaging in the motor cortex of adult transgenic mice expressing membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein in endothelial cells (tyrosine endothelial kinase 2 receptor (Tie2)-Cre:mTmG). This strategy allows for high-resolution imaging of the vessel walls throughout the lifespan. Vascular structure, as measured by capillary branch point number and position, segment diameter and length remained stable over a time scale of months as did pericyte number and position. Furthermore, we compared the vascular structure before, during, and after periods of voluntary wheel running and found no alterations in these same parameters. In both running and control mice, we observed a low rate of capillary segment subtraction. Interestingly, these rare subtraction events preferentially remove short vascular loops.

  13. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  14. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the...

  15. The effect of regular corrective exercise on musculoskeletal deformities in Khorramabad school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahman hasanvand

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasize the reliable, accurate, feasible, and easy methods for decreasing abnormalities. Furthermore, it showed that the corrective exercise programs, can reduce the abnormalities in oldness.

  16. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

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    Ji Cheol Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921 were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT than did subjects in non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  18. Factors Contributing to the Uptake and Maintenance of Regular Exercise Behaviour in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Jody; Johnson, Chad; Melton, Bridget

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the influence of parental autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and motivation on emerging adults' physical activity level and exercise behaviours. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: This study convenience-sampled approximately 435 college students identified as emerging adults--aged 18-25 years, who did not have a…

  19. A healthy diet and regular exercise are essential for type-2 diabetes sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association estimates that more than 20.8 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes and many others are at risk for developing the chronic disease. But with proper nutrition and regular physical activity, a diabetic or borderline diabetic can still maintain a healthy lifestyle.

  20. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Lee

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.

  1. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study

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    Eisho Yoshikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Methods Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14. A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes’ bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. Results The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03, SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01, and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01 were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83 than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632 after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0

  2. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-12

    Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14). A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03), SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01), and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83) than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632) after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0.09). Bootstrapping revealed significant negative indirect

  3. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

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    Maziar M Akhavan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end of their pregnancy. On post natal day (PND 36, two groups consisted of 7 male rat pups in each group from sedentary or exercised mothers were sacrificed and the hippocampus was dissected for BDNF proteins level determination. Also, bilateral injection of K252a to the hippocampus was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action on PND59 in the rat pups. Results: Voluntary exercise during pregnancy significantly increased the level of BDNF protein in the hippocampus of the rat pups on PND36 compared to the control group (P=0.048. Inhibiting BDNF action abolished the exercise-induced improvement of learning acquisition in offspring in training trials (P=0.0001. No difference was observed in the platform location latency and the time spent in the target in the probe test between two groups. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise during pregnancy via a TrkB-mediated mechanism enhances the spatial learning acquisition, however, not the retention of memory in the rat pups.

  5. Does Vitamin C and E Supplementation Impair the Favorable Adaptations of Regular Exercise?

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    Michalis G. Nikolaidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body’s ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Bilski, Jan; Wojcik, Dagmara; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Surmiak, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Chmura, Anna; Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. PMID:28425943

  7. Simulation of the regularities of physical exercises learning process of boys aged 8 years old

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    O.V. Ivashchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys aged 8 years. Materials and methods: In study participated boys of eight years old (n=48. The study used factor experiment plans. The purpose of this experiment was to optimize the modes of education and to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys. Results: Discriminant analysis allowed: to determine the modes of exercise in the formation of motor skills; to answer the question as to how significantly different modes of work on the effectiveness of the formation of motor skills. Established: which of the variables most significantly affect the differentiation of classes; to which class the object belongs based on the values discriminant variables. The influence of the number of approaches, the number of repetitions in the approach and the interval of rest on the level of training for movements is revealed. Conclusions: To choose the most rational mode of exercising in the process of forming motor skills can be used the first discriminating function with an emphasis on the most informative variables.

  8. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour.

  9. Regular exercise improves the well-being of parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Gail C; Miles, Gordon C P; Marsh, Julie A; Kotecha, Rishi S; Alessandri, Angela J

    2017-12-01

    Parents of children with cancer describe impaired physical and social functioning, sleep disturbance and poor mental health. Exercise-related interventions impact positively on these quality of life domains, but have not been examined in this population. The aim of this longitudinal pilot study was to explore the feasibility of a 12-week pedometer-monitored walking intervention among parents of children with cancer, assessing adherence to a set activity target of 70,000 steps per week, and to explore the benefits of physical activity on mental and physical health. Parents were provided with a pedometer and requested to achieve a daily step count of 10,000 steps per day for 12 weeks. Mood, well-being and psychological distress were examined using validated questionnaires (Profile of Mood States 2nd edition [POMS-2], Distress Thermometer for Parents [DT-P] and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [DASS-42]) at baseline, midpoint (6 weeks) and endpoint (12 weeks) to identify changes in these domains with increased activity. Fifteen parents were recruited. The majority increased their counts during the first 4 weeks of the study and maintained this to week 8 (n = 12). Time-dependent improvements were identified in the following psychometric test outcomes at week 12: DT-P score (likelihood ratio test [LRT] P = 0.02), POMS-2 total mood disturbance (LRT P = 0.03), fatigue inertia (LRT P = 0.009), tension anxiety (LRT P = 0.007) and vigour activity (LRT P = 0.001). Mental health benefits of a pedometer-based exercise intervention for parents of children with cancer were identified. Such programs should be included in a holistic approach to improve the psychological outcomes of parents whose children are receiving treatment for cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regular Physical Exercise as a Strategy to Improve Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Status: Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Teixeira de Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years the combination of both a sedentary lifestyle and excessive food availability has led to a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and aggravation of rates of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Several lines of scientific evidence have been demonstrating that a low level of physical activity and decreased daily energy expenditure leads to the accumulation of visceral fat and, consequently, the activation of the oxidative stress/inflammation cascade, which underlies the development of insulin resistant T2DM and evolution of micro, and macrovascular complications. This paper focuses on the pathophysiological pathways associated with the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of T2DM and the impact of regular physical exercise (training as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategy to prevent evolution of T2DM and its serious complications.

  11. Inhibition of progression of androgen-dependent prostate LNCaP tumors to androgen independence in SCID mice by oral caffeine and voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Liu, Yue; Wagner, George C; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Conney, Allan H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine or voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) alone or in combination on the progression of human androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate tumors to androgen independence in male severe combined immunodeficiency mice was determined. The mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells, and when the tumors reached a moderate size, the mice were surgically castrated and treated with caffeine (0.40 mg/ml drinking water) or RW alone or in combination for 42 days. We found that caffeine administration or RW inhibited the progression and growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP tumors to androgen independence, and a combination of the 2 regimens was more effective than the individual regimens alone. The ratios of the percent mitotic cells/caspase-3 positive cells in tumors from the caffeine-treated, RW-treated, or combination-treated mice were decreased by 34%, 38%, and 52%, respectively. Caffeine treatment increased the percentage of mitotic tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (lethal mitosis) whereas RW inhibited the increase in interleukin-6 that occurred during the progression of LNCaP tumors from androgen dependence to androgen independence. Our results indicate that oral administration of caffeine in combination with voluntary exercise may be an effective strategy for the prevention of prostate cancer progression from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  12. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2011-12-18

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the average daily distance (ranging from 0.003 ± 0.005 km to 4.48 ± 0.96 km), culminating in a wide range (0.040 km to 67.24 km) of total cumulative distances run by individuals. There was also variation in the number and length of run/rest cycles per night, and the average running rate. Correlation analyses demonstrated that in the quadriceps muscle, a low number of high distance run/rest cycles was the most consistent indicator for increased tissue damage. The amount of rest time between running bouts was a key factor associated with gastrocnemius damage. These data emphasize the need for detailed analysis of individual running performance, consideration of the length of wheel exposure time, and the selection of appropriate muscle groups for analysis, when applying the use of voluntary wheel running to disease exacerbation and/or pre-clinical testing of the efficacy of therapeutic agents in the mdx mouse.

  13. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  14. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  15. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise

  16. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  18. An exploratory study of the effect of regular aquatic exercise on the function of neutrophils from women with fibromyalgia: role of IL-8 and noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, M E; García, J J; Hinchado, M D; Ortega, E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and stress biomarkers, and an elevated innate cellular response mediated by monocytes and neutrophils. Exercise is accepted as a good non-pharmacological therapy for FM. We have previously found that regular aquatic exercise decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from FM patients. However, its effects on the functional capacity of neutrophils have not been studied. The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate, in 10 women diagnosed with FM, the effect of an aquatic exercise program (8months, 2sessions/week, 60min/session) on their neutrophils' function (phagocytic process), and on IL-8 and NA as potential inflammatory and stress mediators, respectively. A control group of 10 inactive FM patients was included in the study. After 4months of the exercise program, no significant changes were observed in neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or fungicidal capacity) or in IL-8 and NA. However, at the end of the exercise program (8months), a neuro-immuno-endocrine adaptation was observed, manifested by a significant decrease to values below those in the basal state in neutrophil chemotaxis, IL-8, and NA. No significant seasonal changes in these parameters were observed during the same period in the group of non-exercised FM patients. After the 8months of the exercise program, the FM patients had lower concentrations of IL-8 and NA together with reduced chemotaxis of neutrophils compared with the values determined in the same month in the control group of non-exercised FM women. These results suggest that "anti-inflammatory" and "anti-stress" adaptations may be contributing to the symptomatic benefits that have been attributed to regular aquatic exercise in FM syndrome, as was corroborated in the present study by the scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Romero, Miryam; Echeverri, Isabella; Ortega, José Guillermo; Mosquera, Mildrey; Salazar, Blanca; Girón, Sandra Lorena; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Aguilar de Plata, Ana Cecilia; Mateus, Julio Cesar

    2011-02-28

    Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. usual prenatal care (PC) and placebo (maltodextrine). 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg), selenium (70 μg), vitamin A (400 μg), alphatocopherol (30 mg), vitamin C (200 mg), and niacin (100 mg). 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. NCT00872365.

  2. Effects of gender, education and health communication on the regularity of physical exercise: a 2016 Vietnamese cross-section survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, physical exercise and sports activities are regarded as the best means for people to keep fit and boost their health. In Vietnam, exercising on a daily basis is still underappreciated as twothirds of the population only exercise at trivial or low levels. Based on applying the baseline category logit model, we conduct an analysis to figure out the factors affecting people’s level of exercise. The findings show that males tend to engage in physical activities more than females, with t...

  3. Long-term voluntary exercise prevents post-weaning social isolation-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan, Nilsel; Belviranlı, Muaz

    2017-09-30

    This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory in socially isolated post-weaning rats, as well as the correlation between exercise and the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group; the social isolation group; the social isolation plus exercise (SIE) group. Social isolation conditions, with or without exercise were maintained for 90d, and then multiple behavioral tests, including the open-field test, elevated plus maze test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test were administered. Following behavioral assessment, hippocampal tissue samples were obtained for measurement of BDNF and NGF. There wasn't a significant difference in locomotor activity between the groups (P>0.05). Anxiety scores were higher in the socially isolated group (Psocially isolated rats (Psocial isolation-induced reduction in hippocampal BDNF and NGF content (Psocially isolated post-weaning rats. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  5. Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and wheel access on metabolic syndrome profiles in mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girón Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 μg, vitamin A (400 μg, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM REGULAR EXERCISE ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTIONS, INFLAMMATORY AND THROMBOTIC ACTIVITY IN MIDDLE-AGED, HEALTHY MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Ergün

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As studying with population carrying no classical cardiovascular risk factors seems to be an advantage in isolating effects of regular exercise on endothelial functions, inflammatory and thrombotic activity; the present study was designed to evaluate the clear effects of long-term regular exercise in middle-aged, healthy men. A total of 32 regularly exercising (three times per week, 12.8 ± 6.8 years men (Group I, mean age = 53.2 ± 6. 1 yrs and 32 sex- and age-matched sedentary subjects (Group II, mean age = 51.0 ± 7.7 yrs were involved in the study. All participants were non-smokers and with no history of hypertension and diabetes. During one day preceding tests, the subjects refrained from training and maintained their normal diet. In all subjects, body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (% BF and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max were calculated. Serum uric acid, glucose, HbA1c, lipids, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen levels, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count were measured. Resting heart rates and blood pressures were recorded and standard exercise stress test was applied using the modified Bruce protocol. Flow-mediated and nitrate-induced dilatation (FMD and NID of the brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated as markers of endothelial functions and early atherosclerosis. Mean BMI, % BF, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, WBC and platelet count, HbA1c, total and LDL cholesterol, hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels were similar between the groups. Group I had significantly lower serum glucose, uric acid and triglyceride (p < 0.05, p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively and higher HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.0001 than in Group II. FMD values were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II (p < 0.005 while there were no significant differences in NID and cIMT measures between the groups. VO2max and cIMT showed a negative correlation in Group I (r = -0.463, p < 0.0001. Negative

  9. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, G.; Schlierf, G.; Wirth, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 [69 to 304] mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress

  10. Hypocaloric diet and regular moderate aerobic exercise is an effective strategy to reduce anthropometric parameters and oxidative stress in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Lopez, Liliana; Garcia-Sanchez, Jose Ruben; Rincon-Viquez, Maria de Jesus; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Sierra-Vargas, Martha P; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that diet and exercise are important in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether additional regular moderate aerobic exercise during a treatment with hypocaloric diet has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress and molecular damage in the obese patient. Oxidative stress of 16 normal-weight (NW) and 32 obese 1 (O1) subjects (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2)) were established by biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma. Recombinant human insulin was incubated with blood from NW or O1 subjects, and the molecular damage to the hormone was analyzed. Two groups of treatment, hypocaloric diet (HD) and hypocaloric diet plus regular moderate aerobic exercise (HDMAE), were formed, and their effects in obese subjects were analyzed. The data showed the presence of oxidative stress in O1 subjects. Molecular damage and polymerization of insulin was observed more frequently in the blood from O1 subjects. The treatment of O1 subjects with HD decreased the anthropometric parameters as well as oxidative stress and molecular damage, which was more effectively prevented by the treatment with HDMAE. HD and HDMAE treatments decreased anthropometric parameters, oxidative stress, and molecular damage in O1 subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  12. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  13. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  14. Importance of sports during youth and exercise barriers in 20- to 29-year-old male nonathletes differently motivated for regular physical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The number of sedentary young adults has dramatically increased in past decades, and sedentary lifestyles are adopted at an increasingly earlier age. Little is known about barriers or predictors to (re)initiate regular physical activity in this group. The purpose of the study is to (a) identify...... subgroups in nonathletes differing in their amenability to physical exercise, (b) to analyze them for differences in barriers and intention to exercise, and (c) compare importance of sports during youth in nonathletes to trained peers. Using a health and fitness questionnaire 589 nonathletes were queried.......5%), the other groups showed significantly more barriers and a broader distribution. Similar characteristics but minor differences were observed for perceived importance of sports during youth. The most significant differences between athletes and nonathletes emerged enquiring the attitude and activity...

  15. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on both positive and negative symptoms of male patients with chronic Schizophrenia: A double blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Namdar areshtanab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in different communities, sport is being used as a mean to prevent diseases, improve health and have a sense of well-being. The evidences show that sport improves mental health, self-confidence, cognitive performance and on the other hand it decreases anxiety and depression. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on both positive and negative symptoms of male patients with chronic Schizophrenia who are hospitalized at RAZI Psychiatric hospital, TABRIZ, IRAN. The present study, which has been done on 68 male patients with chronic Schizophrenia, is a double-blinded clinical trial study. Randomly chosen samples have been categorized in two groups of case(34 patients and control (34 patients. The case group samples participated in the designed exercise program during 24sessions over 8 weeks, 11hours in total. The positive and negative symptoms for both groups were assessed in two steps before starting the exercise program and also after that through Standard Anderson Positive and Negative questionnaire (SAPS.SANS. The data of both groups were compared using statistical tests, T-test, paired t-test , and Chi-square test. The results demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between before intervention in terms of positive and negative symptoms of disease (P>0.05. Furthermore, the results indicated that there is a significant statistical difference between the average total score of positive and negative symptoms of the disease in both case and control group after intervention (P<0.05.Health system officials and managers can implement programs and solutions for creating regular aerobic exercises for patients with Schizophrenia in order to reduce disease symptoms and improve the rate of recovery in patients with chronic mental disorders.

  16. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Peer Reviews: a voluntary means of enhancing operating culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, and also in other fields, excellent experience has been gained from the regular accumulation of expert evidence of power station operation through external organizations or teams. In 1991, the World Association of Nuclear Operations (WANO) initiated a pilot programme for voluntary 'Peer Reviews'. The success of this first exercise in gathering expert evidence led to the introduction of the 'Peer Review' programme in 1993 as one of the standard programmes of WANO. The object was to increase the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations throughout the world. WANO Peer Reviews are voluntary and are carried out at the request of a member. They are oriented towards special WANO performance objectives and criteria, which have been established by the management of WANO. (orig.) [de

  18. Native whey protein with high levels of leucine results in similar post-exercise muscular anabolic responses as regular whey protein: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarsland, Håvard; Nordengen, Anne Lene; Nyvik Aas, Sigve; Holte, Kristin; Garthe, Ina; Paulsen, Gøran; Cotter, Matthew; Børsheim, Elisabet; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2017-01-01

    Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2 × 20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session. A total of 24 young resistance trained men and women took part in this double blind, randomized, partial crossover, controlled study. Participants received either WPC-80 and native whey ( n  = 10), in a crossover design, or milk ( n  = 12). Supplements were ingested immediately (20 g) and two hours after (20 g) a bout of heavy-load lower body resistance exercise. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to measure plasma concentrations of amino acids by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, muscle phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eEF-2 by immunoblotting, and mixed muscle protein synthesis by use of [ 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine-infusion, gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Being the main comparison, differences between native whey and WPC-80 were analysed by a one-way ANOVA and comparisons between the whey supplements and milk were analysed by a two-way ANOVA. Native whey increased blood leucine concentrations more than WPC-80 and milk ( P  whey ingestion induced a greater phosphorylation of p70S6K than milk 180 min after exercise ( P  = 0.03). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased 1-3 h hours after exercise with WPC-80 (0.119%), and 1-5 h after exercise with native whey (0.112%). Muscle protein synthesis rates were higher 1-5 h after exercise with native whey than with milk (0.112% vs. 0.064, P  = 0.023). Despite higher-magnitude increases in blood leucine concentrations with native whey, it was not superior to WPC-80

  19. Consumption of a high-fat diet, but not regular endurance exercise training, regulates hypothalamic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Melissa L; Omran, Simin Fallah; Weir, Jacquelyn; Meikle, Peter J; Watt, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and in peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscle and liver, where it is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in the central nervous system with high-fat feeding. The capacity for hypothalamic cells to accumulate/store lipids, and the effects of obesity remain undefined. The aims of this study were (1) to examine hypothalamic lipid content in mice with increased dietary fat intake and in obese ob/ob mice fed a low-fat diet, and (2) to determine whether endurance exercise training could reduce hypothalamic lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; ob/ob mice were maintained on a chow diet. HFD-exercise (HFD-ex) mice underwent 12 weeks of high-fat feeding with 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training (increasing from 30 to 70 min day(-1)). Hypothalamic lipids were assessed by unbiased mass spectrometry. The HFD increased body mass and hepatic lipid accumulation, and induced glucose intolerance, while the HFD-ex mice had reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance. A total of 335 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Lipids known to induce insulin resistance, including ceramide (22%↑), diacylglycerol (25%↑), lysophosphatidylcholine (17%↑), cholesterol esters (60%↑) and dihexosylceramide (33%↑), were increased in the hypothalamus of HFD vs. LFD mice. Hypothalamic lipids were unaltered with exercise training and in the ob/ob mice, suggesting that obesity per se does not alter hypothalamic lipids. Overall, hypothalamic lipid accumulation is regulated by dietary lipid content and is refractory to change with endurance exercise training.

  20. What is the effect of regular group exercise on maternal psychological outcomes and common pregnancy complaints? An assessor blinded RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakstad, Lene A H; Torset, Beate; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    to examine the effects of supervised group exercise on maternal psychological outcomes and commonly reported pregnancy complaints. an observer-blinded randomized controlled trial. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. 105 sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 30.7(± 4.0) years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 (± 4.3), were assigned to either exercise (n=52) or control group (n= 53) at mean gestation week 17.7 (± 4.2). the exercise intervention followed ACOG guidelines and included a 60 minutes general fitness class, with 40 minutes of endurance training/aerobic and 20 minutes of strength training and stretching/relaxation, performed at least twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks. outcome measures were assessed through standardized interviews pre- and post-intervention (gestation week 36.6, ± 0.9), and included psychological variables related to quality of life, well-being, body image and pregnancy depression, as well as assessment of 13 commonly reported pregnancy complaints. post-intervention, using intention to treat (ITT) analysis, women randomized to exercise rated their health significantly better compared to women in the control group (p=0.02) and reported less fatigue related to everyday activities (p=0.04). Women with complete exercise adherence (≥ 24 sessions) had significantly better scores on measurements of feelings related to sadness, hopelessness and anxiety (pbenefits. A qualitative study exploring the barriers of women in achieving recommended amount of activity may be necessary to understand this population and developing better clinical practice educational tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regular exercise coupled to diet regimen accelerates reduction of hepatic steatosis and associated pathological conditions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Shida, Takashi; Shoda, Junichi

    2014-06-01

    A diet regimen focusing on weight loss is still the most efficient treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, specific benefits of exercise against NAFLD independent of weight loss have been reported. Hence, combining exercise with diet-induced weight loss can be expected to have an additive benefit for NAFLD management. We evaluated the effectiveness of diet in conjunction with exercise (DE) compared with that of diet alone (D) on hepatic steatosis and its underlying pathophysiology. Data obtained from 72 obese, middle-aged men with NAFLD who completed a 3-month program of DE or D in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed. Subjects went through a comprehensive parameters analysis for the pathophysiology of NAFLD. Subjects in the DE group, compared with those in the D group, elicited additive effects on the degree of hepatic steatosis (-82.6% vs. -60.0%) and body weight (-13.3% vs. -8.9%) accompanied by an improvement in serum marker levels: inflammation, ferritin (-16.1% vs. -2.1%); oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (-31.8% vs. +4.8%); adipokine imbalance, adiponectin, and leptin (+27.4% vs. +2.6% and -74.4% vs. -30.2%). Consequently, subjects in the DE group achieved further attenuation of insulin resistance [homeostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-63.6% vs. -40.0%)]. These observed additive benefits in the DE group were closely associated with the increased volume of physical activity. The addition of exercise to a diet regimen potentiates the benefits in NAFLD management through further improvement of hepatic steatosis, inflammatory and oxidative stress levels, and adipokine imbalance, thereby attenuating insulin resistance independent of detectable weight loss.

  2. Functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity in patients with fibromyalgia after Multidisciplinary treatment: retrospective analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, I; Zaldivar, P; Monterde, S; Montull, S; Miralles, I; Castel, A

    2017-03-01

    Multidisciplinary treatments have shown to be effective for fibromyalgia. We report detailed functional outcomes of patients with fibromyalgia who attended a 3-month Multidisciplinary treatment program. The hypothesis was that patients would have increased functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity after attending this program. We performed a retrospective analysis of a randomized, simple blinded clinical trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of female sex, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, age 18-60  and 3-8 years of schooling. Measures from the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the COOP/WONCA Functional Health Assessment Charts (WONCA) were obtained before and at the end of the treatment and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Patients recorded their number of steps per day with pedometers. They performed the six-minute walk test (6 MW) before and after treatment. In total, 155 women participated in the study. Their median (interquartile interval) FIQ score was 68.0 (53.0-77.0) at the beginning of the treatment, and the difference between the Multidisciplinary and Control groups was statistically and clinically significant in all of the measures (except the 6-month follow-up). The WONCA charts showed significant clinical improvements in the Multidisciplinary group, with physical fitness in the normal range across almost all values. In that group, steps/day showed more regularity, and the 6 MW results showed improvement of -33.00 (-59.8 to -8.25) m, and the differences from the Control group were statistically significant. The patients who underwent the Multidisciplinary treatment had improved functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity. The functional improvements were maintained 1 year after treatment completion.

  3. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models....... Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed...

  4. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Voluntary exercise and testosterone therapy caused increase in percentage of Myh6 and expression of oxidative stress marker Cybb in left ventricles of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify a possible damage to heart ventricles caused by supraphysiological doses of testosterone, voluntary physical activity or their combination.

  6. Importance of sports during youth and exercise barriers in 20- to 29-year-old male nonathletes differently motivated for regular physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich; Moedl, Anne; Rüther, Thomas; Löllgen, Herbert; Hackfort, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    The number of sedentary young adults has dramatically increased in past decades, and sedentary lifestyles are adopted at an increasingly earlier age. Little is known about barriers or predictors to (re)initiate regular physical activity in this group. The purpose of the study is to (a) identify subgroups in nonathletes differing in their amenability to physical exercise, (b) to analyze them for differences in barriers and intention to exercise, and (c) compare importance of sports during youth in nonathletes to trained peers. Using a health and fitness questionnaire 589 nonathletes were queried in the cross-sectional survey and compared with 270 trained peers. Athletic abstainers (A), lower (L), and higher (H) motivated nonathletes were separated based on previous engagement in sports. Of the nonathletes, 54.7% reported only 1 barrier to exercise. Although this feature was most prominent in H (71.5%), the other groups showed significantly more barriers and a broader distribution. Similar characteristics but minor differences were observed for perceived importance of sports during youth. The most significant differences between athletes and nonathletes emerged enquiring the attitude and activity of the parents. The majority of nonathletes (72.8%) indicate their intention to exercise in the future. Their intention differed significantly in H (88.1%), L (76.1%), and A (59.1%). However, there are good reasons to doubt that most of those intending nonathletes will actually become physically active. Even in the analyzed narrow age range of men different motivated groups of nonathletes were found. Because of the differences in receptiveness and approachability health promotion policies may not only consider the often recommended tailored interventions but also carefully designed incentive programs.

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of the impact of exercise on the performance of regular and polymer-based deet repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Steven; Tepper, Martin; Gadawski, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Studies were done in Manitoba, Canada, to evaluate the impact of exercise on repellent performance against mosquitoes. Two products containing the active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) were tested; one product was a polymer-based cream (3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent) and the other product was an alcohol-based pump spray formulation (Muskol Insect Repellent). Assessments were done in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) and in the field with naturally occurring populations of mosquitoes. Repellent was applied to the forearms (laboratory) or a lower leg (field) of test subjects at 1.5 g of test product per 600 cm2 surface area (0.75 or 0.83 mg deet/cm2). For a given test day, subjects exercised or did not. Exposure to mosquito attack was for 1 min at 30-min intervals in laboratory procedures, and it was continuous in field tests. Performance was measured as complete protection time (CPT). Moderate levels of physical activity resulted in a >40% decline in mean CPT, from 468 to 267 min in the laboratory experiments and from 359 to 203 min in field tests. Repellent product did not affect the magnitude of the decline. Mean biting pressure during field trials was 21.3 bites per min, and mosquito collections were made up primarily of Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen) and Aedes vexans (Meigen).

  8. The prevalence of self-reported premenstrual symptoms and evaluation of regular exercise with premenstrual symptoms among female employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Liao, Li-Ling

    2018-03-01

    Few studies have focused on premenstrual symptoms in employees. This study explored the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in 7,193 female employees aged 18-55 years in a large electronics manufacturer in Taiwan from August 2014 to December 2014 and examined whether regular exercise was associated with premenstrual symptoms. Information was collected on demographics, lifestyle, menstrual history, menstrual pain, and premenstrual symptoms. Half of the participants reported irregular menstruation; 79.4% reported a moderate menstruation amount, and half reported little impact of menstrual pain at work. In order of prevalence, symptoms were "easy to fatigue" (24%), "backache" (21.2%), and "abdominal bloating" (17.4%). Participants who engaged in regular exercise reported fewer backaches (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.91), somatic discomfort (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.96), headache (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98), diarrhea (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.96), constipation (aaOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.78), less irritability (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65-0.94), feeling morose and depressed (aOR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), crying (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.87), and emotional lability (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.58-0.91). Regular exercise was associated with decreased menstrual pain (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). Our findings provide a better understanding of premenstrual symptoms in female workers, allowing for the development of premenstrual health programs to improve their health and quality of life.

  9. Effects of regular Taekwondo exercise on mood changes in children from multicultural families in South Korea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung Su; Ko, Jae Myun; Roh, Hee Tae

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular Taekwondo training on mood state in children from multicultural families. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four children participated in the study. Eight children from non-multicultural families were assigned to the non-multicultural family children group. The remaining 16 children from multicultural families were randomly assigned to the multicultural family children (control, n=8) or multicultural family children trained in Taekwondo (Taekwondo training, n=8) group. Mood state was measured using the Profile of Mood States (Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-Inertia, and Confusion-Bewilderment). [Results] Vigor-Activity scores increased significantly, whereas Tension-Anxiety and Anger-Hostility scores decreased significantly after intervention when compared with the pre-intervention scores in the multicultural family children trained in Taekwondo group. [Conclusion] It is suggested that regular Taekwondo training may be effective in improving the mood states of children from multicultural families living in Korea.

  10. CREB1 is a strong genetic predictor of the variation in exercise heart rate response to regular exercise: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Argyropoulos, George; Rice, Treva; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude

    2010-06-01

    A genome-wide linkage scan identified a quantitative trait locus for exercise training-induced changes in submaximal exercise (50 W) heart rate (DeltaHR50) on chromosome 2q33.3-q34 in the HERITAGE Family Study (n=472). To fine-map the region, 1450 tag SNPs were genotyped between 205 and 215 Mb on chromosome 2. The strongest evidence of association with DeltaHR50 was observed with 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 5' region of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) gene (rs2253206: P=1.6x10(-5) and rs2360969: P=4.3x10(-5)). The associations remained significant (P=0.01 and P=0.023, respectively) after accounting for multiple testing. Regression modeling of the 39 most significant SNPs in the single-SNP analysis identified 9 SNPs that collectively explained 20% of the DeltaHR50 variance. CREB1 SNP rs2253206 had the strongest effect (5.45% of variance), followed by SNPs in the FASTKD2 (3.1%), MAP2 (2.6%), SPAG16 (2.1%), ERBB4 (3 SNPs approximately 1.4% each), IKZF2 (1.4%), and PARD3B (1.0%) loci. In conditional linkage analysis, 6 SNPs from the final regression model (CREB1, FASTKD2, MAP2, ERBB4, IKZF2, and PARD3B) accounted for the original linkage signal: The log of the odds score dropped from 2.10 to 0.41 after adjusting for all 6 SNPs. Functional studies revealed that the common allele of rs2253206 exhibits significantly (P<0.05) lower promoter activity than the minor allele. Our data suggest that functional DNA sequence variation in the CREB1 locus is strongly associated with DeltaHR50 and explains a considerable proportion of the quantitative trait locus variance. However, at least 5 additional SNPs seem to be required to fully account for the original linkage signal.

  11. Swimming reduces the severity of physical and psychological dependence and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Atefeh; Gorji, Hossein Miladi; Hosseini, Shahrokh Makvand

    2015-01-15

    Previous studies have indicated that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. This study examined the effects of regular swimming exercise during the development of dependency and spontaneous morphine withdrawal on the anxiety-depression profile and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats. The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 14 days. The exercising rats were allowed to swim (45 min/d, five days per a week, for 14 or 21 days) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice paradigm in animal models of craving. The results showed that withdrawal signs were decreased in swimmer morphine dependent rats than sedentary rats (Pmorphine-dependent and withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries (Pmorphine was less in the swimmer morphine-withdrawn rats than the sedentary groups during four periods of the intake of drug (Pmorphine dependence and voluntary morphine consumption with reducing anxiety and depression in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, swimming exercise may be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioral consequences of morphine dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Moderate Exercise Improves Mnemonic Discrimination in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwabe, Kazuya; Hyodo, Kazuki; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Yassa, Michael A.; Soya, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and improves memory functions in both humans and animals. The DG is known to play a role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences, a fundamental component of episodic memory. While long-term voluntary exercise improves pattern separation, there is little evidence of alterations in DG function after an acute exercise session. Our previous studies showing acute moderate exercise-enhanced DG activation in rats, and acute moderate exercise-enhanced prefrontal activation and executive function in humans, led us to postulate that acute moderate exercise may also activate the hippocampus, including more specifically the DG, thus improving pattern separation. We thus investigated the effects of a 10-min moderate exercise (50% V̇O2peak) session, the recommended intensity for health promotion, on mnemonic discrimination (a behavioral index of pattern separation) in young adults. An acute bout of moderate exercise improved mnemonic discrimination performance in high similarity lures. These results support our hypothesis that acute moderate exercise improves DG-mediated pattern separation in humans, proposing a useful human acute-exercise model for analyzing the neuronal substrate underlying acute and regular exercise-enhanced episodic memory based on the hippocampus. PMID:27997992

  13. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  14. Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica; White, Robert B; McMahon, Christopher; Sheard, Phillip; Grounds, Miranda D; Shavlakadze, Tea

    2016-12-13

    There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. Compared with 23-month-old sedentary (SED) controls, RWE (0-6 g of resistance) increased intramuscular mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity (measured by citrate synthase and NADH-TR) and increased LC3II/I ratios (a marker of autophagy) in exercised mice of both sexes. RWE also reduced mRNA expression of Gadd45α (males only) and Runx1 (females only) but had no effect on other markers of denervation including Chrng, Chrnd, Musk, and Myog. RWE increased heart mass in all mice, with a more pronounced increase in females. Significant sex differences were also noted among SED mice, with Murf1 mRNA levels increasing in male, but decreasing in old female mice between 15 and 23 months. Overall, long-term RWE initiated from 15 month of age significantly improved some markers of the mitochondrial and autophagosomal pathways and prevented age-related muscle wasting.

  15. Insulin sensitivity linked skeletal muscle Nr4a1 DNA methylation is programmed by the maternal diet and modulated by voluntary exercise in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasch, Juliane; Kanzleiter, Isabel; Saussenthaler, Sophie; Schürmann, Annette; Keijer, Jaap; Schothorst, Van Evert; Klaus, Susanne; Schumann, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the
    offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal

  16. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  17. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  18. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  20. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  1. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The impact of a 14- day regular physical exercise regime on the concentration of the classes and subclasses of lipoprotein particles in young subjects with a sedentary lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaka, P; Dukát, A; Oravec, S; Mistríková, L; Baláž, D; Bendžala, M; Gašpar, L

    2013-10-01

    Recommendations from the cardiological professional companies working in the area of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases put an emphasis on regular aerobic physical activity. Its positive effect on both cardiovascular and overall mortality has repea-tedly been proven by the observations of prospective and cross sectional epidemiological studies. One of the possible explanations of this positive effect is a change in the concentration of lipoprotein classes and their subclasses, which is expressed as a change in their average size. In a group of young healthy men and women with a sedentary lifestyle we observed the effect of medium intensive physical exercise in the form of a 30- minute slow run per day lasting for 14 days. The concentration of lipoprotein classes and subclasses were determined through the method of a linear electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. In the observed group we found a statistically significant decrease of VLDL, large IDL particles, medium sized LDL, small dense LDL, and medium sized HDL particles. In the light of current knowledge all these lipoprotein particles are deemed as atherogenic. Thus, as little as 14 days of regular exercising has a positive effect on the concentration of plasmatic lipoproteins, and emphasises the role of regular physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  4. Prevalência e características da cefaléia em uma população de praticantes regulares de exercícios físicos Prevalence and characteristics of headache in a population of regular physical exercise practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Miranda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVO: O impacto causado pela cefaléia pode impedir a aderência a um programa regular de atividade física. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência e as características da cefaléia em uma população de praticantes de exercícios físicos. MÉTODO: Cem alunos de uma academia foram avaliados. Todos eram alunos regulares por pelo menos 12 meses e praticavam exercícios aeróbicos pelo menos 3 vezes por semana. Um questionário sobre a prevalência e características da cefaléia foi aplicado a todos aqueles que apresentaram nos últimos 12 meses. O questionário de avaliação de impacto MIDAS também foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: 57 homens e 43 mulheres foram incluídos. Oitenta apresentaram cefaléia no período avaliado. Em 63% a dor era pulsátil. Em 73% da amostra a freqüência de crises situava-se em menos de 1 vez a cada 10 dias. O escore do questionário MIDAS foi inferior a 5 em 83% desses pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora não avaliados por médico e baseado em recall, os dados sugerem alta prevalência de cefaléia com critérios de migrânea. É incerto se a prática regular de exercícios físicos reduz a freqüência de crises ou se os sofredores de cefaléia com baixa freqüência de crises são os que fazem atividade física regular.BACKGROUND: The burden of headache may impede sufferers from adhering to a routine of physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of headache in a health club population. METHOD: One hundred attendees of a health club were interviewed. They all were regular attendees for the previous 12 months and practiced aerobic exercises no less than 3 times a week. A questionnaire with characteristics of headache was applied to all who had a headache attack during the previous 12 months. MIDAS questionnaire was used as well. RESULTS: 57 men and 43 women were included. Eighty subjects had a headache attack, which was pulsatile in 63% of the sufferers. MIDAS was lower than 5 days in 83% of the

  5. Prior regular exercise reverses the decreased effects of sleep deprivation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Hakimeh; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Darvishzadeh-Mahani, Fatemeh; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main candidate to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in sleep deprived male rats. In addition, our previous findings demonstrate that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise and/or sleep deprivation (SD) on the levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of female rats. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present experiment. The exercise protocol was four weeks treadmill running and sleep deprivation was accomplished using the multiple platform method. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis were used to evaluate the level of BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus respectively. Our results showed that protein and mRNA expression of BDNF was significantly (psleep deprived OVX rats under exercise conditions had a significant (peffect against hippocampus-related functions and impairments induced by sleep deprivation probably by inducing BDNF expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric examination and factorial validity of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Italian exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Hausenblas, Heather A; Larcan, Rosalba; Oliva, Patrizia

    2012-12-01

    Background and aims The purpose of this study was to verify the factorial structure, internal validity, reliability, and criterion validity of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) in an Italian sample. Methods Italian voluntary (N = 519) users of gyms who had a history of regular exercise for over a year completed the EDS-R and measures of exercise frequency. Results and conclusions Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good fit to the hypothesized 7-factor model, and adequate internal consistency for the scale was evidenced. Criterion validity was evidenced by significant correlations among all the subscale of the EDS and exercise frequency. Finally, individuals at risk for exercise dependence reported more exercise behavior compared to the nondependent-symptomatic and nondependent-asymptomatic groups. These results suggest that the seven subscales of the Italian version of the EDS are measuring the construct of exercise dependence as defined by the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and also confirm previous research using the EDS-R in other languages. More research is needed to examine the psychometric properties of the EDS-R in diverse populations with various research designs.

  7. Are parents’ motivations to exercise and intention to engage in regular family-based activity associated with both adult and child physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Moore, Emma; Sebire, Simon J; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jesmond; Lawlor, Debbie A; Jago, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim To examine the associations between parents’ motivation to exercise and intention to engage in family-based activity with their own and their child’s physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 1067 parent–child pairs (76.1% mother–child); children were aged 5–6 years. Parents reported their exercise motivation (ie, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and amotivation) as described in self-determination theory and their intention to engage in family-based activity. Parents’ and children’s mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and mean counts per minute were derived from ActiGraph accelerometers worn for 3 to 5 days (including a mixture of weekdays and weekend days). Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for parent sex, number of children, indices of multiple deprivation and clustering of children in schools were used to examine associations (total of 24 associations tested). Results In fully adjusted models, each unit increase in identified regulation was associated with a 6.08 (95% CI 3.27 to 8.89, p<0.001) min-per-day increase in parents’ MVPA. Parents’ external regulation was associated with children performing 2.93 (95% CI −5.83 to −0.03, p=0.05) fewer minutes of MVPA per day and a 29.3 (95% CI −53.8 to −4.7, p=0.02) accelerometer count-per-minute reduction. There was no evidence of association for the other 21 associations tested. Conclusions Future family-based physical activity interventions may benefit from helping parents identify personal value in exercise while avoiding the use of external control or coercion to motivate behaviour. PMID:28879025

  8. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season; influence of diet and exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Suarez Moreno-Arrones, L; García A, A; Garcíacaballero, M

    2014-04-01

    Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  10. Exercício físico regular diminui o estresse oxidativo pulmonar em ratos após exposição aguda ao carvão mineral El ejercicio físico regular reduce la respuesta oxidativa pulmonar en los ratones después de la exhibición afilada al carbón mineral Regular physical exercises decrease the oxidant pulmonary stress in rats after acute exposure to mineral coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Pinho

    2006-04-01

    pulmonar después de la inhalación de polvo de carbón mineral. Veinticuatro ratones varones Wistar (200-250g fueron aleatoriamente divididos en 2 grupos con los mandos respectivos (, n = 6 y Ningún -, n = 6. Los animales recibieron, por instilación traqueal polvo de carbón mineral (3mg/0,5ml salina, 3 dias/semana, durante 3 semanas o 0,5ml de solución salina 0,9%. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última instilación, el grupo especializado fue sometido a un programa de ejercicio progresivo en la cinta durante 12 semanas (a 17m.min-1, 50min.dia-1, 10% de inclinación. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última sesión de entrenamiento, todos los animales fueron sacrificados por decapitación y los pulmones y el músculo sóleo fueron extirpados por cirugía para el análisis bioquímico subsecuente. La actividad de la citrato-sintetasa fue determinada en los músculos así como los daños y perjuicios en los lipidos y las proteínas se estimaron en los pulmones para la concentración de TBARS y para la determinación de carbonilo de estos grupos, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que el ejercicio físico regular reduce los niveles presentes de TBARS significativamente en los ratones especializados y reduce los niveles de la oxidación en las proteínas en ambos grupos cuando se compararon los grupos respectivos. Los resultados permitieron sugerir que el ejercicio físico regular en la cinta es un agente capaz minimizarlos daños y perjuicios oxidativos pulmonares inducidos por la inhalación de partículas de carbón mineral.Several studies have pointed the regular low to moderate intensity physical exercise an important agent to combat the oxidant stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the physical exercise in the pulmonary oxidant response after inhaling mineral coal dust. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200-250 g were randomly divided in two groups with their respective controls (trained, n = 6; non-trained, n = 6. All animals

  11. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  13. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel...... running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A...

  14. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  15. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  16. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  17. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  18. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  19. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  20. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  1. Genetics of Regular Exercise and Sedentary Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.J.C.; Bartels, M.; Kaprio, J.; Lightfoot, J.T.; Thomis, M

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three

  2. Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Research Great Expectations Post navigation ← Previous Next → Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...

  3. Benefits of Exercise on Mind Function

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Cindy; Cromwell, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical activity is one of the best ways to improve overall health. This fact sheet discusses exercise and the brain, exercise and cognition, exercise and stress, and effective strategies for boosting physical and mental health.

  4. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  5. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2011-10-01

    Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDLR-deficient mice (8 weeks old) had either access to a voluntary running wheel for 12 weeks (RUN) or remained sedentary (CONTROL). Both groups were fed a western-type/high cholesterol diet. Running activity and food intake were recorded. At 12 weeks of intervention, feces, bile and plasma were collected to determine fecal, biliary and plasma parameters of cholesterol metabolism and plasma cytokines. Atherosclerotic lesion size was determined in the aortic root. RUN weighed less (∼13%) while food consumption was increased by 17% (p=0.004). Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased by 12% (p=0.035) and plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins decreased in RUN compared to control. Running modulated cholesterol catabolism by enhancing cholesterol turnover: RUN displayed an increased biliary bile acid secretion (68%, p=0.007) and increased fecal bile acid (93%, p=0.009) and neutral sterol (33%, p=0.002) outputs compared to control indicating that reverse cholesterol transport was increased in RUN. Importantly, aortic lesion size was decreased by ∼33% in RUN (p=0.033). Voluntary wheel running reduces atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. An increased cholesterol turnover, specifically its conversion into bile acids, may underlie the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  7. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  8. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  9. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  10. Why Exercise Is Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dancing, in-line skating, tennis , cross-country skiing, hiking, and walking quickly. Strength Training The heart isn't the only muscle to benefit from regular exercise. The other muscles in your ...

  11. Kids and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, fit kids sleep better. They' ... Can I Get My Kids to Be Active Outdoors? Strength Training What If I Don't Like ...

  12. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also important to perform stretches, resistance training, and balance exercises on a regular basis; these will help to improve flexibility, increase strength, and reduce fall risk ( Table ). View this table: View inline View popup ...

  13. Getting Exercise in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... commitment to regular activity. According to the 2008 Physical activity guidelines, kids and teens should do 60 minutes ...

  14. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  15. Off-site emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the rareness of nuclear emergencies, the response to such an event has to be exercised regularly. The main objectives of such exercises, examination of plans, test of equipment, and education of the personnel, will be dealt with. Different types of exercises are presented, and good practices for exercises explained. Finally, a critical assessment of exercise experience and an outlook is presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  17. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  18. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  19. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in

  20. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  1. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  2. Exercise for midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangold, M M; Sherman, C

    1998-12-01

    Exercise is good for everyone, but it's more important than ever when you reach midlife. While regular exercise may not eliminate symptoms like hot flushes, it can improve your general well-being and increase your strength and stamina in daily life. If you want to lose fat or maintain a healthy weight, exercise is far more effective than diet alone. A physically active lifestyle, along with good nutrition and estrogen therapy, will also help protect you against heart disease, overweight, and osteoporosis.

  3. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    ) and upper neck extensors (UNE). Secondary outcome: Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for cervical extension/flexion and shoulder elevation. Training compliance was self-reported and categorized as regular if performed ≥ 1 times a week. Results: Neck pain at baseline was 1.9±1.7 (mean±SD) in ETG and 2......Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...

  5. Pronounced effects of accute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.R.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Muller, M.R.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated

  6. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  7. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  8. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  9. Barriers to exercise in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, A M

    2013-07-01

    Although regular exercise is a critical component of the management of type 2 diabetes, many patients do not meet their exercise targets. Lack of exercise is associated with obesity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  10. Exercise: When to Check with Your Doctor First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check with your doctor before you start to exercise. By Mayo Clinic Staff Regular exercise can help you control your weight, reduce your ... talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise routine. Although moderate physical activity such as brisk ...

  11. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  12. Every exercise bout matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  13. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  14. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  15. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  16. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  17. Testing for Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brannan, John D; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2018-01-01

    of an individual who may be at risk during a recreational sporting activity or when exercising as an occupational duty. EIB can be identified with laboratory exercise testing or surrogate tests for EIB. These include eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea and osmotic stimuli (eg, inhaled mannitol) and offer improved...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  19. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  20. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o 2max ) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o 2max ). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform

  1. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  2. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  3. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  4. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  5. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  6. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  7. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  8. WATER TEMPERATURE, VOLUNTARY DRINKING AND FLUID BALANCE IN DEHYDRATED TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khamnei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.

  9. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  10. DIABETES AND EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın BALCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a crucial health problem due to its incidence and serious complications. Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors associated with it. Therapeutic exercises are beneficial in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. There are several studies about the effects of exercise type and intensity on glycemic control. The exercise programs should be prepared individually after a comprehensive medical evaluation. There are some regulations to prevent acute complications before, after and during the exercises. The importance of regular exercise for public health should be pointed out and physical activity should be urged. The present review discusses issues concerning the prevention and treatment of diabetes through exercise, and the possible risks, in view of current literature.

  11. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by forced and voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristall, J R; Hookey, B L; Grant, V L

    2007-03-01

    Voluntary exercise by rats running in a freely rotating wheel (free wheel) produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) of a flavored solution consumed before running [e.g., Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L., 1996. Wheel running induces conditioned taste aversion in rats trained while hungry and thirsty. Physiol. Behav. 59, 699-702]. Forced exercise, swimming or running, also produces CTA in rats [e.g., Masaki, T., Nakajima, S., 2006. Taste aversion induced by forced swimming, voluntary running, forced running, and lithium chloride injection treatments. Physiol. Behav. 88, 411-416]. Energy expenditure may be the critical factor in producing such CTA. If so, forced running in a motorized running wheel should produce CTA equivalent to that produced by a similar amount of voluntary running. In two experiments, we compared forced running in a motorized wheel with voluntary running in a free wheel. Mean distance run over 30 min was equated as closely as possible in the two apparatuses. Both types of exercise produced CTA relative to sedentary, locked-wheel controls. However, voluntary running produced greater CTA than forced running. We consider differences between running in the free and motorized wheels that may account for the differences in strength of CTA.

  12. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Molossi, S.; Lee, D.C.; Emery, M.S.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Habitual physical activity and regular exercise training improve cardiovascular health and longevity. A physically active lifestyle is, therefore, a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. An appropriate volume and intensity are essential to maximally benefit from exercise

  13. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  14. Human investigations into the exercise pressor reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H; Amann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, neural input from skeletal muscles reflexly maintains or elevates blood pressure (BP) despite a maybe fivefold increase in vascular conductance. This exercise pressor reflex is illustrated by similar heart rate (HR) and BP responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise....... The importance of the exercise pressor reflex for tight cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise is supported by studies using pharmacological blockade of lower limb muscle afferent nerves. These experiments show attenuation of the increase in BP and cardiac output when exercise is performed...... with attenuated neural feedback. Additionally, there is no BP response to electrically induced exercise with paralysing epidural anaesthesia or when similar exercise is evoked in paraplegic patients. Furthermore, BP decreases when electrically induced exercise is carried out in tetraplegic patients. The lack...

  15. The Effect of Voluntary Ventilation on Acid-base Responses to a Moo Duk Tkow Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study that investigated the acid-base and lactate reponses to voluntary integration of breathing and exercise movements during beginning level form Ki Cho I, performed at competitive intensities. Findings suggest that respiratory compensation does not occur and that respiratory acidosis may contribute to metabolic…

  16. Voluntary Return as Forced Mobility: Humanitarianism and the Securitization of Romani Migrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrăbiescu, I.; van Baar, H.; Ivasiuc, A.; Kreide, R.

    2019-01-01

    This chapter questions and reflects on the social programmes offered to Romani migrants and on the practices of social workers which ultimately push their clients to accept the offer of ‘voluntary return’ and leave Spain. Exercised under the security-development nexus, this technique of governance

  17. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  18. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  19. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  20. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  1. Exercise 5+6 - Introduction to Control and Lab Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Exercises for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The laboratory exercises are including both numerical and experimental work. A simulink model is provided to make realtime control on the laboratory setups. The groups are welcome to modify the program during the exercises. The groups...... are expected to make their own programs for numerical simulations on the device. Hydrodynamic parameters found using WAMIT are provided, but the groups are of course welcome to calculate their own parameters (e.g. using Nemoh). Exercise 5: Simple control and regular wave Exercise 6: Advanced control...

  2. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Dimmock; Kym J. Guelfi; Jessica S. West; Tasmiah Masih; Ben Jackson

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes...

  4. Effects of an in-patient treatment program based on regular exercise and a balanced diet on high molecular weight adiponectin, resistin levels, and insulin resistance in adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Simon-Rigaud, Marie-Laure; Regnard, Jacques; Nègre, Véronique; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2012-08-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant hormone produced by adipose tissue, circulates in 3 isoforms, including high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. The latter has been suggested to be a better predictor of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance associated with obesity. This study investigated changes in total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) during a 9-month in-patient treatment program based on physical exercise and a balanced diet in 32 severely obese adolescents. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and HOMA were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the program (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, a control group of 15 teenagers served as a reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, HMW adiponectin was more markedly decreased in obese adolescents than total adiponectin, and both were lower than in controls. Conversely, resistin and HOMA were higher in obese adolescents. During the program, there was a significant change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity among obese teenagers. In addition, HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW-to-total adiponectin increased throughout the study, whereas total adiponectin only increased up until the sixth month. On the contrary, resistin did not show any significant change. In obese adolescents, a long-term combination of aerobic exercise and a balanced diet, inducing change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity, markedly increased HMW adiponectin compared with total adiponectin, without any change in resistin concentrations. Our results thus suggest that the determination of HMW adiponectin could be more useful than measurement of total adiponectin in clinical settings.

  5. The effect of exercise on insulin resistance in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises improve insulin resistance, abdominal fat distribution, and body weight in obese diabetic and nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary, and they are advised to perform regular aerobic exercises.

  6. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  7. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  8. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  9. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  10. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  11. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  12. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  13. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  14. Examining Exercise Addiction: A Depth Interview Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    Exercise addiction may be defined as psychological and/or physiological dependence upon a regular regimen of physical activity. Additionally, exercise addiction is characterized by recognizable withdrawal symptoms when the need to exercise remains unfulfilled after 24 to 36 hours. These withdrawal symptoms may encompass both psychological and…

  15. Níveis distintos de Hsp72 no miocárdio de ratas em resposta aos exercícios voluntário e forçado Niveles distintos de Hsp72 en el miocardio de ratas en respuesta a los ejercicios voluntario y forzado Different levels of Hsp72 in female rat myocardium in response to voluntary exercise and forced exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphano Freitas Soares Melo

    2009-11-01

    los grupos ECV, ECF y C (4,54 ± 0,79 mg/g vs. 4,94 ± 0,89 mg/g vs. 4,34 ± 0,87 mg/g, respectivamente. Las ratas entrenadas con carrera presentaron niveles de Hsp72 mayores (pBACKGROUND: Physical exercise induces hemodynamic stress. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of stress protein (Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats. METHODS: Female rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: forced treadmill running group (FR; n= 6, voluntary running group (VR; n=6 and control group (C; n=6. VR group animals had free access to running wheels, and those from FR group underwent a running program on a treadmill (18 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 8 weeks. Left ventricle (LV and right ventricle (RV fragments were collected at sacrifice, and the relative immunoblot contents of stress protein (Hsp72 were determined. RESULTS: VR animals ran on average 4.87 km/wk, and FR rats ran 4.88 km/wk. Animals from VR and FR groups had less body weight gain (p0.05 among VR, FR and C groups (4.54 ± 0.79 mg/g vs 4.94 ± 0.89 mg/g vs 4.34 ± 0.87 mg/g, respectively. FR group animals had levels of Hsp72 (p<0.05 higher than those from VR, both in LV (287.45 ± 35.86 % vs 135.59 ± 5.10 %, respectively and RV (241.31 ± 25.83 % vs 137.91 ± 45.20 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: Voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats.

  16. Relationships between psychophysiological responses to cycling exercise and post-exercise self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Eriko eMatsuo; Eriko eMatsuo; Shigeru eMatsubara; Seigo eShiga; Kentaro eYamanaka; Kentaro eYamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Although self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant of regular exercise, it is unclear how subjective and physiological states before, during, and after the exercise session affects post-exercise SE. The aim of this study was to clarify subjective and physiological factors affecting post-exercise SE assessed after a single exercise session at a physiologically equivalent level. Forty-three healthy volunteers (28 women, 15 men) completed an 82-min experimental session, comprising a 22-min ...

  17. Relationships between Psychophysiological Responses to Cycling Exercise and Post-Exercise Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Eriko; Matsubara, Shigeru; Shiga, Seigo; Yamanaka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Although self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant of regular exercise, it is unclear how subjective and physiological states before, during, and after the exercise session affects post-exercise SE. The aim of this study was to clarify subjective and physiological factors affecting post-exercise SE assessed after a single exercise session at a physiologically equivalent level. Forty-three healthy volunteers (28 women, 15 men) completed an 82-min experimental session, comprising a 22-min ...

  18. Understanding Regular Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Knox

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this exercise we will use advanced find-and-replace capabilities in a word processing application in order to make use of structure in a brief historical document that is essentially a table in the form of prose. Without using a general programming language, we will gain exposure to some aspects of computational thinking, especially pattern matching, that can be immediately helpful to working historians (and others using word processors, and can form the basis for subsequent learning with more general programming environments.

  19. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  20. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  1. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  2. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  4. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  5. Extreme values, regular variation and point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Resnick, Sidney I

    1987-01-01

    Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...

  6. Poczucie własnej wartości oraz wartości własnego ciała u osób ćwiczących regularnie na siłowni – wyniki badań pilotażowych = Self-esteem and the value of body in people who exercise regularly at the gym - the results of pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Ziemianek

    2015-11-01

    Abstract Admission. Exercise at the gym has become increasingly popular, both among women and among men. Regular workouts besides morphological and functional changes may affect the amendment of certain psychological aspects, particularly concerning self-esteem and perception of their own body. Objective. It was decided to determine the level of self-esteem and a sense of one's own body in people exercising in the gym. Moreover, the aim of the study was to examine the interrelationships between these types of self-assessment and the assessment of the effects of age and training experience to their level in men and women. Materials and methods. We examined 73 people regularly exercising at the gym: 23 women and 50 men. The research tool was a questionnaire containing the Rosenberg Self-Assessment Scale (SES and the scale of self-esteem own body (BES. Results. Both women and men assessed self-esteem at the level of 59% of possible points. Also, a sense of one's own body and its components were more than half of the possible points. No correlation was found self-esteem with a sense of your own body. There has been strong correlations between the components of the scale BES. Among women aged noted a correlation with the results of the SES. Conclusions. People exercising at the gym have a good level of global self-esteem and a sense of your own body. Tested types of self-esteem are not mutually correlates. Aspects of self-esteem own body are correlated. Among women age has a positive effect on self-esteem.   Słowa kluczowe: ćwiczenie na siłowni, samoocena, poczucie wartości własnego ciała. Key words: exercising at a gym, self-esteem, sense of one’s own body.

  7. Exercise, fitness, and the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Molloy, Michael G; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and gut symptomatology have long been connected. The possibility that regular exercise fosters intestinal health and function has been somewhat overlooked in the scientific literature. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss a selection of recent, relevant, and innovative studies, hypotheses and reviews that elucidate a complex topic. The multiorgan benefits of regular exercise are extensive. When taken in moderation, these benefits transcend improved cardio-respiratory fitness and likely reach the gut in a metabolic, immunological, neural, and microbial manner. This is applicable in both health and disease. However, further work is required to provide safe, effective recommendations on physical activity in specific gastrointestinal conditions. Challenging methodology investigating the relationship between exercise and gut health should not deter from exploring exercise in the promotion of gastrointestinal health.

  8. The Health Benefits of Exercise (Part 1 of 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A panel of eight experts discuss the cardiovascular, lipoprotein, weight control, and psychological benefits of exercise on health. The challenge of motivating people to exercise regularly is explored. (Author/MT)

  9. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with peers. Children and adults with OI will benefit from a regular program of physical activity to promote optimal function through muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and recreational pursuits. Specifics of the exercise program vary depending ...

  10. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf.

  11. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  12. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  13. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  14. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  15. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  16. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  17. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  18. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  19. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  20. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  1. A Twin-Sibling Study on the Relationship Between Exercise Attitudes and Exercise Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppertz, C.; Bartels, M.; Jansen, I.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.; de Moor, M.H.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  4. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  5. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrna Agačević

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some precautions should be observed. The physician should screen for any contraindications to exercise and encourage patients to avoid overly vigorous activity, especially in the third trimester, when most pregnant women have a decreased tolerance for weight-bearing exercise. Adequate hydration and appropriate ventilation are important in preventing the possible teratogenic effects of overheating. Pregnant women should avoid exercise that involves the risk of abdominal trauma, falls or excessive joint stress, as in contact sports and vigorous racquet sports. In the absence of any obstetric or medical complications, most women can maintain a regular exercise regimen during pregnancy. Some studies have found a greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically wellconditioned women as compared with other women.

  7. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  8. Exercise and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Gayda, Mathieu; Lepers, Romuald; Sosner, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  10. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  12. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  13. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  14. Exercise starts and ends in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt

    2003-10-01

    Classically the limit to endurance of exercise is explained in terms of metabolic capacity. Cardio-respiratory capacity and muscle fatigue are thought to set the limit and the majority of studies on factors limiting endurance exercise discuss issues such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), aerobic enzyme capacity, cardiac output, glycogen stores, etc. However, this paradigm does not explain the limitation to endurance exercise with large muscle groups at altitude, when at exhaustion exercise is ended without limb locomotor muscle fatigue and with sub-maximal cardiac output. A simple fact provides a basis for an explanation. Voluntary exercise starts and ends in the brain. It starts with spatial and temporal recruitment of motor units and ends with their de-recruitment. A conscious decision precedes a voluntary effort. The end of effort is again volitional and a forced conscious decision to stop precedes it, but it is unknown what forces the off-switch of recruitment at exhaustion although sensation of exertion certainly plays a role. An alternative model explaining the limitation of exercise endurance thus proposes that the central nervous system integrates input from various sources all related to the exercise and limits the intensity and duration of recruitment of limb skeletal muscle to prevent jeopardizing the integrity of the organism. This model acknowledges the cardio-respiratory and muscle metabolic capacities as prime actors on the performance scene, while crediting the central nervous system for its pivotal role as the ultimate site where exercise starts and ends.

  15. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  16. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  17. A history of the pedagogy of voluntary attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded...... in the educational exercises with which to capture and retain the attention of students. What is the link between the educational practices of the late nineteenth century and the psychological interest in the concept of attention within this time period? And second, to explore the epistemological and methodological...... power of the pathological. Is it possible to examine the concept of attention through a focus on its pathological forms? The article demonstrates how the pedagogical recommendations embedded in the late nineteenth century psychological literature on attention aim to develop disinterested citizens...

  18. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise : Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P.E.; Martin, E.; Mottus, M.; North, P.R.J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Xie, D.; Thompson, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well‐controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary

  19. A Twin-Sibling Study on the Relationship Between Exercise Attitudes and Exercise Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin–sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygot...

  20. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  1. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  2. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  3. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  4. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  5. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...

  6. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Robbins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min, agility (5-min, and ball retrieve (<10-min. Regularly exercised dogs (N = 12 were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve. At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR, core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%. Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29. No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT, and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008, post-exercise activity (p < 0.001, outdoor temperature (p = 0.005, reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf (p = 0.044, and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005. When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005, increase in PR (p < 0.001, increase in lactate (p = 0

  7. Promoting Exercise in Young Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In children and adolescent cancer survivors, an online game helped them get regular exercise, as this NCI Cancer Currents post explains. A NCI-funded trial is testing the approach for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors.

  8. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  9. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  10. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  11. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not participate in any special kind of physical activity. In addition to administering the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy Scale, anthropometric variables were assessed before the commencement of the study and again immediately afterwards. The data were analysed by a one-way ANCOVA.

  12. Does exercise improve symptoms in fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis

    2015-12-14

    It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

  13. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  14. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  15. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  16. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exercise motivation: a cross-sectional analysis examining its relationships with frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Philip M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to engage in regular physical activity in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle however a large portion of the population is insufficiently active. Understanding how different types of motivation contribute to exercise behavior is an important first step in identifying ways to increase exercise among individuals. The current study employs self-determination theory as a framework from which to examine how motivation contributes to various characteristics of exercise behavior. Methods Regular exercisers (N = 1079; n = 468 males; n = 612 females completed inventories which assessed the frequency, intensity, and duration with which they exercise, as well as the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire including four additional items assessing integrated regulation. Results Bivariate correlations revealed that all three behavioral indices (frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were more highly correlated with more autonomous than controlling regulations. Regression analyses revealed that integrated and identified regulations predicted exercise frequency for males and females. Integrated regulation was found to be the only predictor of exercise duration across both genders. Finally, introjected regulation predicted exercise intensity for females only. Conclusions These findings suggest that exercise regulations that vary in their degree of internalization can differentially predict characteristics of exercise behavior. Furthermore, in the motivational profile of a regular exerciser, integrated regulation appears to be an important determinant of exercise behavior. These results highlight the importance of assessing integrated regulation in exercise settings where the goal of understanding motivated behavior has important health implications.

  18. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...

  19. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  20. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  1. Auditory-somatosensory temporal sensitivity improves when the somatosensory event is caused by voluntary body movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements.Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either 'sound-first' or 'touch-first' responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ in the voluntary condition (as indexed by the just noticeable difference was significantly better (M=42.5 ms ±3.8 s.e.m than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition: M=66.8 ms ±6.3 s.e.m. We further examined whether the performance improvement with voluntary action can be attributed to the prediction of the timing of the stimulation from sensory cues (sensory-based prediction, kinesthetic cues contained in voluntary action, and/or to the prediction of stimulation timing from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction. When the participant’s finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition and when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition, the TOJ performance was not improved from that in the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary action cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.

  2. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  3. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  4. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  5. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  6. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the pr......Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase...... in the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Likewise......, the stimulation of these processes by insulin was enhanced and continued to be so 2 h later when the muscles of the stimulated leg had substantially repleted their glycogen stores. The results suggest that the increases in insulin-mediated glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in muscle after exercise...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  8. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  10. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  14. Using Social Media in Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jeff

    2014-04-28

    This presentation discusses the use of social media as a tool during the full-scale exercise Tremor-14 in Las Vegas, and examines Lessons Learned as a path forward in using social media to disseminate Emergency Public Information (EPI) on a regular basis.

  15. Crisis exercises at AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanson, D.

    2016-01-01

    AREVA being an operator of nuclear facilities has to organize crisis exercises regularly. About 100 crisis exercises are performed each year in AREVA installations. These exercises allow the training of the staff, the assessing of material and humane means and the checking of the quality of the interfaces between all the participants (other AREVA teams or Nuclear Safety Authority or...). The management of nuclear crisis is based on anticipation and relies on 3 pillars: a referential gathering all the useful documents (emergency plans, procedures,...), the training and practice of AREVA staff in specific domains to cope with emergency situations, and various crisis exercises to keep fit all the teams. The basis emergency exercise lasts 2 hours and is organized into modules. First module: detecting abnormal conditions, alerting, rescuing and limiting the consequences; second module: launching the emergency plan; third module: understanding the situation and limiting the consequences; fourth module: communicating with other actors that intervene in a nuclear crisis (nuclear safety authority, state or local officials, the media...); and fifth module: anticipating the end of the emergency phase to prepare post-accidental management. (A.C.)

  16. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  18. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  19. Delivery mechanisms: voluntary vs command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed

  20. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  2. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  3. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  4. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  5. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  6. Perceived benefits and barriers to physical exercise participation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular participation in exercise is associated with disease prevention and provides many benefits. Physical exercise plays a key role in the promotion of good health. However, very few young people participate in physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived benefits and barriers to participation ...

  7. Factors influencing participation in physical exercise by the elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular exercise has been recommended as a partial solution to improving health and wellness among many groups of people including the elderly. Unfortunately, information on the participation of elderly in exercise in Kenya is lacking. This study sought to explore measures for enhancing participation in exercise by the ...

  8. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  9. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  10. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  11. Exercise is medicine for patients with major depressive disorders : but only if the “pill” is taken!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Markus Gerber,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Serge Brand1,2 1Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division of Sport and Psychosocial Health, University of Basel, 2Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division of Sport and Health Pedagogy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Major depressive disorders (MDDs are a widespread and burdensome mental illness associated with a high comorbidity with other conditions and a significantly reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Therefore, targeted actions are needed to improve physical health in people with MDDs, in addition to ongoing efforts to enhance psychological well-being. Meanwhile, the positive effects of exercise training on the treatment of MDDs are well documented, while compelling evidence exists that exercise interventions can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in clinically meaningful ways. On the flipside, the long-term effects of exercise therapy are still not well documented, and recent studies suggest that initial improvements in MDDs dissipate if regular exercise participation is discontinued after the end of interventions. A recent survey among Swiss psychiatric hospitals further shows that all institutions provide some form of physical activity and exercise program. However, only a limited number of patients participate in these programs, mainly because participation is voluntary and no particular efforts are undertaken to engage patients with the lowest physical activity levels. We argue that more systematic efforts are needed to fully exploit the potential of physical activity and exercise programs in psychiatric care. We also emphasize that initiating and maintaining regular physical activity among psychiatric patients is a major challenge because specific dysfunctional cognitive–emotional processes might interfere with their

  12. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  13. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  14. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  15. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  16. Exercise attenuates the metabolic effects of dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-01-30

    Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.

  17. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  18. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  19. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  20. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  1. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  2. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  3. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  4. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  5. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  6. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  7. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.

  8. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  9. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  10. 25 CFR 38.14 - Voluntary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...

  11. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  12. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...

  13. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  14. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  15. Effects of different delayed exercise regimens on cognitive performance in fimbria‑fornix transected rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Marschner, Linda; Gram, Marie Gajhede

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise can positively influence cognitive performance after brain injury. This study investigated the effects of different exercise regimens on allocentric place learning after fimbria‑fornix (FF) transection. One hundred and sixteen pre‑shaped rats were subjected either...... to a mechanical transection of the FF or control sham surgery and divided into following groups: i) no exercise (NE), ii) voluntary exercise in a running wheel (RW), iii) forced swimming exercise administered as interval training of short (3x5 min) duration (FS‑SI), iv) forced swimming exercise administered...

  16. Exercise at 65 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Mark E; Tanji, Jeffrey; Börjesson, Mats

    2013-07-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing muscle loss, physical inactivity and frailty. Physical inactivity is known to be associated with increased incidence of obesity and many life-threatening chronic conditions. We know that exercise, through many factors including antiinflammatory effects and enhanced fitness, can help prevent and treat many chronic diseases as well as help maintain independent living. We set out to demonstrate the utility of regular exercise in this potentially vulnerable age group in both the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. The benefits, risks and recommendations for physical activity are discussed with an emphasis on practical advice for safe exercise in the context of established international guidelines. These guidelines typically state that 150 min per week of moderate aerobic intensity exercise should be achieved with some additional whole-body strength training and balance work. Individual risk assessment should be undertaken in a way to enable safe exercise participation to achieve maximum benefit with minimum risk. The risk assessment, subsequent advice and prescription for exercise should be personalized to reflect individual fitness and functional levels as well as patient safety. Newer and potentially exciting benefits of exercise are discussed in the areas of neuroscience and inflammation where data are suggesting positive effects of exercise in maintaining memory and cognition as well as having beneficial antiinflammatory effects.

  17. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  18. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  2. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  3. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai Rasmus; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies...... that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.......Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase...

  4. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acq...... exercise on long-term motor memory....... that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention......Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact...

  5. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  6. Infection, inflammation and exercise in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Regular exercise is positively associated with health. It has also been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In healthy subjects, a single exercise session results in immune cell activation, which is characterized by production of immune modulatory peptides (e.g. IL-6, IL-8), a leukocytosis and enhanced immune cell functions. Upon cessation of exercise, immune activation is followed by a tolerizing phase, characterized by a reduced responsiveness of immune cells. Regular exercise of moderate intensity and duration has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects and is associated with a reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Specific exercise programs may therefore be used to modify the course of chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF suffer from severe and chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation, leading to obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease, exercise intolerance and muscle cachexia. Inflammation is characterized by a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Patients are encouraged to engage in exercise programs to maintain physical fitness, quality of life, pulmonary function and health. In this review, we present an overview of available literature describing the association between regular exercise, inflammation and infection susceptibility and discuss the implications of these observations for prevention and treatment of inflammation and infection susceptibility in patients with CF. PMID:23497303

  7. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  8. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  9. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  10. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  11. Knee flexion with quadriceps cocontraction: A new therapeutic exercise for the early stage of ACL rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2016-12-08

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  13. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  14. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Events arising within the central nervous system seem to play a major factor in the aetiology of hyperthermia-induced fatigue. Thus, various studies with superimposed electrical nerve stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown that both passive and exercise-induced hyperthermia...... temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact...... will impair voluntary motor activation during sustained maximal contractions. In humans the brain temperature increases in parallel with that of the body core making it very difficult to evaluate the independent effect of the cerebral temperature. Experiments with separate manipulation of the brain...

  15. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...

  16. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...

  17. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...

  18. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  19. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  20. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  1. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  3. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  4. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  5. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  6. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  7. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  8. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  9. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  10. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  11. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  12. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  13. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  14. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  15. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  16. Voluntary Running Depreciates the Requirement of Ca[superscript 2+]-Stimulated cAMP Signaling in Synaptic Potentiation and Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Yan, Lily; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Miyoung; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term…

  17. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  18. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  19. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  20. Investigation the exercise dependence symptoms among dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özhan Bavlı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the exercise addiction symptoms among dancers. Material and Methods: Totally 99 dancers (48 female and 51 male minimum 2 years licensed in dance (Folk dance, Modern dance, Latin dance participated in to the study voluntary. Demographic survey and Exercise Dependence Scale-21 which was developed by Hausenblas HA. and Downs DS. (2002 and adapted in to Turkish by Yeltepe H. and Ikizler H.C. (2007 used to collect data. Kruskal-Wallis test in SPSS was used to analyze data. Results: Analysis showed that %20.4 of participants was asymptomatic, %69.4 of was symptomatic and %10.2 was exercise addiction. Besides it is found that dancers had University level education majority (%80.6. Symptomatic (%48.1 and addicts (%8.1 were Folk dancers mostly. Symptomatic had statistically higher exercise age than asymptomatic and addicts had statistically higher daily exercise duration than the others were found. Conclusion: According to findings It is possible to say that; the high frequency of daily exercise and the high exercise age can be effective to appear the exercise dependence among dancers.

  1. [Exercise addiction: an emergent behavioral disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Sara; de la Vega, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity plays a relevant role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excess exercise may generate adverse effects both on physical and mental activity. To provide a state-of-the-art overview on exercise addiction, considering its concept, symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiological aspects, etiological factors, and potential interventions. Articles related to the topic were reviewed through Pubmed, Sportdiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science databases, using combinations of the following keywords: "exercise", "addiction" and "dependence". Regular exercise taken into excess may result in adverse health consequences and quality of life impairment. Diagnosis of exercise addiction requires the employment of questionnaires such as the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). These instruments have allowed the estimation of a 3% prevalence among exercise practitioners. Proposed hypotheses to explain the etiology of this disorder include both physiological and psychological mechanisms. Treatment is based on the cognitive-behavioral approach, but effectiveness needs to be evaluated. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain exercise dependence, integrative models are still necessary. A clinical validation of diagnostic instruments and a deepening into the relationship with behavioral eating disorders are also required. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase in glycogen storage that disrupts contractile function and/or 2) a reduced substrate turnover below the block, which inhibits skeletal muscle ATP production. Immobility is associated with metabolic alterations in muscle leading to an increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Such changes may be detrimental for persons with GSD from a metabolic perspective. However, exercise may alter skeletal muscle substrate metabolism in ways that are beneficial for patients with GSD, such as improving exercise tolerance and increasing fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a regular exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.

  3. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Hoffman, Debi Rufi

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether a single session of exercise of appropriate intensity and duration for aerobic conditioning has a different acute effect on mood for nonexercisers than regular exercisers. Repeated-measures design. Research laboratory. Adult nonexercisers, moderate exercisers, and ultramarathon runners (8 men, 8 women in each group). Treadmill exercise at self-selected speeds to induce a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 (somewhat hard) for 20 minutes, preceded and followed by 5 minutes at an RPE of 9 (very light). Profile of Mood States before and 5 minutes after exercise. Vigor increased by a mean +/- standard deviation of 8+/-7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5-12) among the ultramarathon runners and 5+/-4 points (95% CI, 2-9) among the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Fatigue decreased by 5+/-6 points (95% CI, 2-8) for the ultramarathon runners and 4+/-4 points (95% CI, 1-7) for the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Postexercise total mood disturbance decreased by a mean of 21+/-16 points (95% CI, 12-29) among the ultramarathon runners, 16+/-10 points (95% CI, 7-24) among the moderate exercisers, and 9+/-13 points (95% CI, 1-18) among the nonexercisers. A single session of moderate aerobic exercise improves vigor and decreases fatigue among regular exercisers but causes no change in these scores for nonexercisers. Although total mood disturbance improves postexercise in exercisers and nonexercisers, regular exercisers have approximately twice the effect as nonexercisers. This limited postexercise mood improvement among nonexercisers may be an important deterrent for persistence with an exercise program.

  4. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  5. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...

  6. Effects of feeding frequency and voluntary salt intake on fluid and electrolyte regulation in athletic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K

    1999-05-01

    The effect of feeding frequency and voluntary sodium intake (VSI) on fluid shifts and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were studied at rest and after exercise in six athletic horses. The horses were fed twice a day (2TD) and six times a day (6TD) for 25 days for each protocol, according to a changeover design. VSI was measured by weighing each horse's salt block daily. Feeding 2TD or 6TD caused no major alterations in fluid shifts, but in the 2TD treatment there was a postprandial increase in plasma protein concentration and osmolality that lasted horses.

  7. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  8. Stressors and Coping among Voluntary Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, AJ; Didymus, F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...

  9. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  10. PREFERRED MODALITY INFLUENCES ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested, both retrospectively and prospectively, exercise-induced mood changes among regular exercisers. Specifically, it examined the extent to which preferred exercise modality promoted greater mood benefits. A group of 25 exercise participants (M = 35.5 yr., SD = 10.5 yr. took part in the study. All participants had exercised at least three times a week (M = 3.5, SD = 2.3 during the previous year. Participants completed a 14-item Exercise Preference Questionnaire to provide retrospective evaluations of their most- and least-preferred type of exercise. For the prospective investigation, participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS 15 minutes before and immediately after their most- and least-preferred exercise sessions. One week separated completion of each exercise session. Retrospective assessment of exercise-induced mood changes showed strong support for enhanced mood following the preferred mode of exercise. Also, as hypothesized, prospective results showed that mood enhancement was greater following the preferred exercise modality, but significant mood enhancement also occurred following the least-preferred modality among experienced exercisers. In conclusions, findings support the principle that exercise can provide psychological benefits to its participants, in the form of positive affective outcomes, something that appears to be enhanced by preferred exercise modality. Given the important public health implications of exercise adherence, future research should seek to further investigate the mechanisms of exercise-induced mood enhancement

  11. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  12. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  13. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-15

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)

  14. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  15. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  16. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  17. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  18. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  19. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  20. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...