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Sample records for regular smoker compared

  1. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebelatto Marcelo N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2 and nutritional status (measured by body mass index data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15 and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11. In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045 between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002 and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010. There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2.

  3. Smoker reactions to a "radio message" that Light cigarettes are as dangerous as Regular cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, L T; Goldberg, M E; Sweeney, C T; Palmer, R F; Pillitteri, J L; Yost, B A; White, E L; Stine, M M

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine in a systematic, controlled fashion the reactions of smokers to scientifically correct information about the risks of smoking Light cigarettes (about 6-15 mg tar by the FTC method). Random-digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to locate daily smokers of Light cigarettes. In an experimental design, smokers were randomly assigned to listen (n = 293) or not (n = 275) to a persuasive simulated radio message on the risks of Light cigarettes; 108 of those who did not listen to the message in the first part of the interview were played the message in the second part, to evaluate some repeated-measures effects. Those who heard the message were more likely to report that one Light cigarette could give a smoker the same amount of tar as one Regular cigarette and that Light cigarettes were more dangerous: 55% said the message made them think more about quitting and 46% said the message increased the amount they wanted to quit; 42% said that after hearing the message they thought Light cigarettes were more dangerous. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the message acted to increase intention to quit smoking by increasing the desire to quit smoking. Seventy-three per cent of the smokers agreed that it was important to play such messages widely on the radio; 77% agreed that there should be a warning on packs that vent blocking increases tar; 61% agreed that the location of filter vents should be marked. The majority of smokers of Light cigarettes seem to value being informed that Light cigarettes are as dangerous for them as Regular cigarettes, and this information increases their intentions to quit smoking.

  4. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  5. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  6. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  7. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  8. [Cardiovascular risk in Spanish smokers compared to non-smokers: RETRATOS study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Sanz de Burgoa, Verónica; Garrido Morales, Patricio; López de Sá, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in smokers seenin Primary Care clinics. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Every investigator included 4 consecutive patients (3 smokers, 1 non-smoker) aged 35-50 years, who came to the clinic for any reason. A total of 2,184 patients were included; 2,124 (1,597 smokers; 527 non-smokers) were evaluated and 60 patients were excluded because they did not meet with selection criteria. The 10-year risk of suffering from a fatal cardiovascular disease (CVDR) was calculated according to the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) model. The 10-year lethal CVR according SCORE model, was classified as: very high (> 15%), high (10-14%), slightly high (5-9%), average (3-4%), low (2%), very low (1%) and negligible (smokers (40±5.3) vs. non-smokers (1.9±2.5) (Pnon-smokers vs. 60.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. 12.6% smokers (P 5%) [10.9% non-smokers vs. 26.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. smokers had less probability of suffering myocardial infarction (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.1-0.8; P<.0001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0; P=.0180) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2; P=.0507). Smoking is related to a high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease. Active promotion in Primary Care clinics of measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of the smoking habit would lead to a lowering of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  10. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Lower grey matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared to never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E.; Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Rationale While nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. Objectives (1) To evaluate grey matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never-smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures related to smoking behavior. Methods We compared structural MRI (grey matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never-smokers. Results Compared to controls, smokers had lower grey matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Grey matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lateral prefrontal cortex) and semantic processing / emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. Conclusions There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain’s salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, was also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). PMID:25990865

  12. The relationship between rs3779084 in the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene and alcohol consumption is mediated by drinking motives in regular smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Sean D; Agrawal, Arpana; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Madden, Pamela A F; Cooper, M Lynne; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sher, Kenneth J; Lynskey, Michael T; Heath, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Motivational models of alcohol use propose that the motivation to consume alcohol is the final common pathway to its use. Both alcohol consumption and drinking motives are influenced by latent genetic factors that partially overlap. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the associations between alcohol consumption and 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes involved in serotonin (TPH2; rs1386496) and dopamine synthesis (DDC; rs3779084). Based on earlier work showing that enhancement and coping motives were heritable in regular smokers but not in nonregular smokers, we hypothesized these motives would mediate the relationships between alcohol consumption and these SNPs in regular smokers. Drinking motives data were available from 830 young adult female twins (n = 344 regular smokers and n = 486 never/nonregular smokers). We used confirmatory factor analyses to model enhancement, coping, and alcohol consumption factors and to conduct mediation analyses in the regular smoker and never/nonregular smoker groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported. The relationship between alcohol consumption and rs1386496 was not mediated by drinking motives in either group. However, in the regular smokers, the relationship between alcohol consumption and rs3779084 was mediated by enhancement and coping motives. Carriers of the rs3779084 minor allele who were regular smokers reported more motivation to consume alcohol. Given this pattern of results was absent in the never/nonregular smokers, our results are consistent with a gene × smoking status interaction. In regular smokers, variability at the locus marked by rs3779084 in the DDC gene appears to index biologically based individual differences in the motivation to consume alcohol to attain or improve a positive affective state or to relieve a negative one. These results could be because of increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of alcohol among minor allele carriers who smoke, which might

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG HEALTHY SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish I

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease forms a major non-communicable disease in both developed and developing countries. In western countries, older age groups are affected whereas in our country India, it is common among younger age group. Many risk factors have been evaluated. Cigarette smoking contributes for major risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disorders. Mechanism of causing coronary artery disease is multifactorial, it has major adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine levels which are again risk factors for coronary artery disease. Hence, this study was undertaken to compare the effects of smoking cigarettes/beedis on lipid profile among smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a case - control study carried out on 50 healthy smokers and 50 healthy age and weight matched non-smokers attending the medicine OPD of Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga from January to April 2017. Subjects in both groups were in the age range of 25-35 yrs., with no history of alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic impairment, renal disease or history of drug intake which alter the lipid profile. RESULTS The mean serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL- cholesterol & serum VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher while antiatherogenic serum HDL cholesterol were significantly lower in smokers when compared with non-smokers and it was statistically significant (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Present study shows a statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and increased lipid profile. Thus, chronic smokers are at the significant risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease. So, smokers should be counselled and encouraged to quit smoking and adopt a healthier life style.

  14. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  15. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  17. The motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers : Comparing the present with the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Borland, Ron; Buunk, Bram P.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. In the present study we argue that ex-smokers compare their present to their past when they still smoked to conclude whether they make good progress towards a satisfactory state of continued abstinence. These temporal comparisons

  18. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma; Kirchner, Esther Maria; Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  20. Comparative study of casual and regular workers' job satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the comparative study of regular and casual workers' job satisfaction and commitment in two selected banks in Lagos State, A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 145 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate stratified sampling technique.

  1. [Evaluation of changes in hemodynamic parameters after the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among regular cigarette smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogała, Jan; Cholewiński, Mateusz; Kutek, Agnieszka; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta

    2012-01-01

    A relatively new device, described by producers as a device to help smokers quit, nicotine inhaler is an electronic (e-cigarette). Its mission is to provide the body with small doses of nicotine behavior "ceremonial" burning product is not tested for efficacy and toxicity The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nicotine absorbed from cigarette conventional and electronic changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Because of the potential interaction of carbon monoxide contained in cigarette smoke and nicotine conventional to changes on the parameters is also going to examine changes in the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin after smoking cigarettes and using e-cigarettes. study group consisted of 42 people, including 21 women and 21 men aged from 18 to 62 years who declared daily cigarette smoking. In this study it was found that as a result of cigarette smoking are increasing all the analyzed conventional hemodynamic parameters, these increases probably normally associated with nicotine absorbed by the smoker with the smoke. It was also a clear increase in carboxyhemoglobin, which is associated with a high concentration of carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke. If you use the e-cigarettes tested were observed increases in diastolic blood pressure and pulse, but none of the parameters did not change significantly, indicating that either the use of e-cigarette by the respondents did not supply the body with absorbable nicotine or for the increase in haemodynamic parameters studied did not correspond only nicotine but also other smoke constituents that interact with nicotine to the smoker body as carbon monoxide.

  2. The motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers: comparing the present with the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Borland, Ron; Buunk, Bram P

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. In the present study we argue that ex-smokers compare their present to their past when they still smoked to conclude whether they make good progress towards a satisfactory state of continued abstinence. These temporal comparisons are thought to be central in the motivation to stay abstinent in ex-smokers. The power of temporal comparisons to predict relapse was tested in two related samples of ex-smokers (N=152 and N=197), together with two other relevant psychological factors; positive outcome expectations of smoking and self-efficacy expectations. In the first sample of ex-smokers, only temporal comparisons predicted relapse after 2 months. In the second sample of ex-smokers, temporal comparisons mediated the relation between perceived positive outcomes of smoking and relapse after 6 months. In addition, in predicting relapse after 6 months, temporal comparisons interacted with self-efficacy. The present study suggests that temporal comparisons comprise the cognitive aspect of the motivation of ex-smokers to stay abstinent. This conceptualization of the motivation in ex-smokers can be used in practice to prevent relapse.

  3. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes.

  4. HIGHER SERUM CAFFEINE IN SMOKERS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA COMPARED TO SMOKING CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Kunal K; Williams, Jill M; Menza, Matthew; Galazyn, Magdalena; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of high dietary caffeine intake in individuals with schizophrenia have not demonstrated biological evidence of higher intake or controlled smoking behavior. This study aimed to examine differences in serum caffeine levels in 104 smokers with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SA) and compare them to 63 smokers without any mental illness (CON). Since we were interested in measuring caffeine levels, we excluded all non caffeine users from the study. Blood draws were st...

  5. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ?18 years old, smoking ?25 of the last 30 days, smoking ?5 cigarettes pe...

  6. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  7. Increased CYP1A1 expression in human exfoliated urothelial cells of cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerrenhaus, Angelika; Roos, Peter H. [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Tina [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); University Dortmund, Department of Statistics, Mathematical Statistics with Applications in Biometrics, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and nitrosamines, constituents of cigarette smoke, are known inducers of bladder cancer. The biochemical response of the target tissue, the bladder urothelium, following inhalation of cigarette smoke has not been studied so far. We used exfoliated transitional urothelial cells from human urine samples to analyze effects of smoking on induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1. Samples of 40 subjects, including male and female smokers and non-smokers, were examined. A prerequisite for the immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the cells was the enrichment of the urothelial cell population. This was achieved by a new method which is based on magnetic cell sorting exploiting specific binding of immobilized Griffonia simplicifolia lectin to the surface of urothelial cells. Immunostaining of the final cell preparation with a monoclonal antibody to CYP1A1 showed that about 6% of the urothelial cells of non-smokers stained positive for CYP1A1. However, this fraction of positive cells was more than 44% of the urothelial cells in samples from cigarette smokers. In spite of the individual variation, the difference was statistically significant. There were no gender-related differences in the portion of CYP1A1 expressing urothelial cells of smokers and non-smokers. In essence, we show for the first time that human urothelial cells respond to cigarette smoking by induction of CYP1A1. The approach opens new fields of mechanistic and biomarker research with respect to the pathogenetic processes of cancer development in the human bladder. (orig.)

  8. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger; Faurschou, Annesofie; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect on postprandial glucose metabolism and, thus, potentially constitute a link between smoking and the development of type 2 diabetes. We subjected 11 male heavy smokers to two identical 4-h liquid mixed-meal tests: one with concomitant cigarette smoking (immediately before and after meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before and after the meal significantly reduced postprandial plasma glucose excursions. There were no differences in gut or pancreatic hormone concentrations between the test days in the smoking group, and the responses were similar to those in the control group. Our results suggest that smoking in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in chronic smokers. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  10. Comparing the Reliability of Regular Topologies on a Backbone Network. A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecilio, Sergio Labeage; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the reliability of regular topologies on a backbone network. The study is focused on a large-scale fiberoptic network. Different regular topological solutions as single ring, double ring or 4-Regular grid are applied to the case study, and compared in terms...

  11. Pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine level: A cross-sectional comparative study between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, B; Muadz, B; Norizal, M N; Ismail, N; Kornain, N K; Kutty, M

    2017-07-01

    To compare the pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine levels between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers. This was a cross-sectional comparative study in a Malaysian tertiary obstetric hospital involving 200 non-smoking pregnant women at term, of whom 100 were secondhand smokers and 100 were non-secondhand smokers. Those with multiple pregnancies, with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30kg/m 2 or who delivered by Caesarean section were excluded. The participants' basic demographic details, delivery details, neonatal outcome and placental weight were recorded. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained, and cord blood cotinine levels were measured with a Cotinine ELISA kit. The primary outcomes were baby's birth weight, length, and head circumference, Apgar score at 5min and placental weight. The secondary outcome was difference in cord blood cotinine levels between the two groups and the correlation of these differences with the neonatal outcome. The secondhand smoker group had significantly lower baby weight (2.94±0.31kg vs 3.05±0.40kg), head circumference (30.87±2.35cm vs 37.13±2.36cm), length (46.58±1.95cm vs 51.53±2.05cm) and placental weight (520±73.5g vs 596±61.3g) and significantly higher cord blood cotinine levels (16.35±12.84ng/mL vs 0.56±0.22ng/mL). Cord blood cotinine levels had significant negative correlations with placental weight (r=-0.461), baby's weight (r=-0.297), baby's head circumference (r=-0.501) and baby's length (r=-0.374). Secondhand smoke increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (newborns'anthropometric measurements and placental weight) and causes higher cord blood cotinine levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  13. Short-term effects of a nicotine-free e-cigarette compared to a traditional cigarette in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marco; Zanasi, Alessandro; Nardi, Elena; Morselli Labate, Antonio Maria; Ceriana, Piero; Balestrino, Antonella; Pisani, Lara; Corcione, Nadia; Nava, Stefano

    2015-10-12

    A few studies have assessed the short-term effects of low-dose nicotine e-cigarettes, while data about nicotine-free e-cigarettes (NF e-cigarettes) are scanty. Concerns have been expressed about the use of NF e-cigarettes, because of the high concentrations of propylene glycol and other compounds in the e-cigarette vapor. This laboratory-based study was aimed to compare the effects of ad libitum use of a NF e-cigarette or and a traditional cigarette for 5 min in healthy adult smokers (n = 10) and non-smokers (n = 10). The main outcome measures were pulmonary function tests, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and fractional concentration of carbon monoxide (FeCO) in exhaled breath. The traditional cigarette induced statistically significant increases in FeCO in both smokers and non-smokers, while no significant changes were observed in FeNO. In non-smokers, the traditional cigarette induced a significant decrease from baseline in FEF75 (81 % ± 35 % vs 70.2 % ± 28.2 %, P = 0.013), while in smokers significant decreases were observed in FEF25 (101.3 % ± 16.4 % vs 93.5 % ± 31.7 %, P = 0.037), FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 98.3 % ± 10 %, P = 0.037) and PEF (109.5 % ± 14.6 % vs 99.2 % ± 17.5 %, P = 0.009). In contrast, the only statistically significant effects induced by the NF e-cigarette in smokers were reductions in FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 99.5 ± 7.6 %, P = 0.041) and FEF25 (103.4 % ± 16.4 % vs 94.2 % ± 16.2 %, P =  .014). The present study demonstrated that the specific brand of NF e-cigarette utilized did not induce any majoracute effects. In contrast, several studies have shown that both traditional cigarettes and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes have acute effects on lung function. Our study expands on previous observations on the effects of NF e-cigarettes, but also for the first time describes the changes induced by smoking one traditional cigarette in a group of never smokers. The short-term use of the specific brand of NF e-cigarette assessed

  14. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  15. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  16. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chini Doraswamy Dwarakanath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG in nonsmokers and smokers. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA, depth of recession (RD, width of recession (RW, and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60% and 3 smokers (30% showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  18. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  19. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, E., E-mail: e.pompe@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bartstra, J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC − University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oudkerk, M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Lammers, J.-W.J. [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  20. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, E.; Bartstra, J.; Verhaar, H.J.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  1. [Attitude toward smoking among smoking and non-smoking officials of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil: comparative analysis of smokers and non-smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S A; Pérez, D; Jardim, J R

    1999-09-01

    To study the attitudes toward smoking of employees of the Federal University of Sao Paulo as a step toward implanting a consensualized anti-smoking program for the institution. We designed and distributed anonymous, self-completed questionnaires with 51 multiple-choice questions, which were returned by 2,613 (48.6%) employees, professors, medical residents, nurses and students. Four hundred thirty-eight (16.8% of the population) of the respondents were smokers and 456 (17.5%) were non-smokers. For 84% smoking started between the ages of 11 and 20 years. Most smokers were between 31 and 40 years of age, and the prevalence of ex-smokers was highest in respondents over the age of 60. Seventy-eight percent of the smokers smoked at work. Both smokers and non-smokers reported some type of discomfort caused by cigarette smoke, mainly smell in clothes and hair (62.7% of smokers versus 59% of non-smokers, NS). The proportion who opted for a totally smoke-free environment was 37.5% among non-smokers and 10% among smokers (p < 0.05). Restrictions on smoking in specific places, on the other hand, met with the approval of 82.8% of smokers and 59% of non-smokers (p < 0.05). We believe that surveys such as this one should be carried out at all institutions, particularly in health care centers, in order to assure that smoking restriction policies are successful and receive the support of most employees, whether they smoke or not. Our data suggest the advisability of creating restricted-smoking zones in the early phase of an institutional anti-smoking campaign designed to lead to a totally smoke-free workplace environment.

  2. Electronic cigarette use: comparing smokers, vapers, and dual users on characteristics and motivational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Schoren; Karin Hummel; Hein de Vries

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study examined vaping behaviour, precursors of vaping, and motivational differences between smokers, dual users and vapers. The objectives were to assess a) vaping characteristics and reasons for use, b) differences in motivational factors and behavioural precursors associated with e-cigarette use, and c) socio-demographic and motivational factors associated with electronic cigarette use. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 259 vapers, 135 smokers, and 83 dual u...

  3. Low Cotinine Glucuronidation Results in Higher Serum and Saliva Cotinine in African American Compared to White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon E; Sipe, Christopher J; Choi, Kwangsoo; Raddatz, Leah M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-07-01

    Background: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African Americans (AA) compared with Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. Methods: UGT2B10 activity was phenotyped in 1,446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide. Urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and 6 metabolites, were determined to quantify smoking dose, and cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in saliva (study 1) or serum (study 2). Results: Ninety-seven smokers (78% AA) were null for UGT2B10 activity, and the saliva and serum cotinine levels, after adjustment for TNE and cigarettes per day (CPD), were 68% and 48% higher in these smokers compared with nonnull smokers ( P smokers, but with additional adjustment for UGT2B10 activity, there were no significant differences in saliva and serum cotinine concentrations between these two groups. Conclusions: UGT2B10 activity significantly influences plasma cotinine levels, and higher cotinine concentrations in AA versus White smokers (after adjustment for smoking dose) result from lower levels of UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation by AA. Impact: UGT2B10 activity or genotype should be considered when using cotinine as a tobacco exposure biomarker, particularly in populations such as AA with high frequencies of UGT2B10 nonfunctional variants. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1093-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but th...

  5. Noise annoyance caused by continuous descent approaches compared to regular descent procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Arntzen, M.; Walker, F.; Waiyaki, F.M.; Meeter, M.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    During Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) aircraft glide towards the runway resulting in reduced noise and fuel usage. Here, we investigated whether such landings cause less noise annoyance than a regular stepwise approach. Both landing types were compared in a controlled laboratory setting with a

  6. Improvement in blood pressure after short-term inorganic nitrate supplementation is attenuated in cigarette smokers compared to non-smoking controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Wylie, Lee J; Holland, Terezia; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-12-30

    Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN - ), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO 3 - metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO 3 - supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite concentration ([NO 2 - ]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS). Nine healthy smokers and eight healthy non-smoking controls reported to the laboratory at baseline (CON) and following six day supplementation periods with 140 mL day -1 NO 3 - -rich (8.4 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; NIT) and NO 3 - -depleted (0.08 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; PLA) beetroot juice in a cross-over experiment. Plasma and salivary [SCN - ] were elevated in smokers compared to non-smokers in all experimental conditions (P smokers and non-smokers (P vs. NS: 7.5 ± 4.4 mM), plasma [NO 3 - ] (S: 484 ± 198 vs. NS: 802 ± 199 μM) and plasma [NO 2 - ] (S: 218 ± 128 vs. NS: 559 ± 419 nM) between the CON and NIT conditions was lower in the smokers compared to the non-smokers (P smokers and non-smokers (P > 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was lowered compared to PLA with NIT in non-smokers (P smokers (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that dietary NO 3 - metabolism is compromised in smokers leading to an attenuated blood pressure reduction compared to non-smokers after NO 3 - supplementation. These observations may provide novel insights into the cardiovascular risks associated with cigarette smoking and suggest that this population may be less likely to benefit from improved cardiovascular health if they increase dietary NO 3 - intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wanting to attend isn't just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Stronks, Karien; Willemsen, Marc C; Bogaerts, Nina M M; Nierkens, Vera

    2014-07-07

    Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions ("frequent attenders"), and those who missed more than two sessions ("infrequent attenders"). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to

  8. Comparative Assessment of Nuclear and Nucleolar Cytochemical Parameters of Oral Epithelial Cells in Smokers and Non-Smokers by Methyl Green-Pyronin Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Adhami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A strong relationship exists between cigarette smoking and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking can significantly increase cellular proliferation. Nevertheless, there is little reference in literature to the cytological assessment of oral mucosa in this respect. Methods: Changes in nuclear and neucleolar cytomorphometric parameters such as diameter, surface, number and color intensity, in cytologic smears which were collected from normal buccal mucosa of 30 cigarette smokers and 30 non smokers, using methyl green-pyronin staining were studied. Results: Our findings attested to smoking as significant inductive factor in cytochemistry as well as morphologic changes. Conclusion: This technique is a valuable tool.

  9. The effect of gamma ray on total leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils on blood samples of smokers compared to non-smoker donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydaa Taher Sih

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: By increases the doses of γ-ray, the declining in the values of WBCs, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the smokers blood is greater than of nonsmokers and this confirms that these cells are more fragile, weak, and less tolerant to external stimuli.

  10. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  11. Pain treatment after tonsillectomy: advantages of analgesics regularly given compared with analgesics on demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneman, G; Akervall, J

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate pain treatment during the first postoperative 24 h for 40 patients (age over 18) undergoing tonsillectomy. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (n = 20) received analgesics on demand and group B (n = 20) on a regular basis. Basic pain treatment consisted of paracetamol 750 mg x 6 and diclofenac 50 mg x 3. Pain measurement was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS): a 10 cm line with 0 cm equalling no pain and 10 cm equalling the worst pain ever felt. The following parameters were studied: VAS values, the need for rescue analgesics, intra- and postoperative bleeding, nausea and vomiting, postoperative food intake and hospital time. Only 4 of 20 (20%) patients in group B needed rescue analgesics in the postoperative ward compared with 15 of 20 (75%) in group A (p values were generally rather low in both groups. The mean value for all observed VAS values was less than 4 in both study groups. However, no significant difference in VAS values was observed between the two study groups. Our results suggest that regularly given postoperative pain treatment after tonsillectomy, starting intraoperatively with paracetamol and diclofenac, has significant advantages compared with a regimen in which patients receive analgesics only on demand.

  12. CompareSVM: supervised, Support Vector Machine (SVM) inference of gene regularity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Zeeshan; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rahaman, M D Matiur; Chen, Ming

    2014-11-30

    Predication of gene regularity network (GRN) from expression data is a challenging task. There are many methods that have been developed to address this challenge ranging from supervised to unsupervised methods. Most promising methods are based on support vector machine (SVM). There is a need for comprehensive analysis on prediction accuracy of supervised method SVM using different kernels on different biological experimental conditions and network size. We developed a tool (CompareSVM) based on SVM to compare different kernel methods for inference of GRN. Using CompareSVM, we investigated and evaluated different SVM kernel methods on simulated datasets of microarray of different sizes in detail. The results obtained from CompareSVM showed that accuracy of inference method depends upon the nature of experimental condition and size of the network. For network with nodes (SVM Gaussian kernel outperform on knockout, knockdown, and multifactorial datasets compared to all the other inference methods. For network with large number of nodes (~500), choice of inference method depend upon nature of experimental condition. CompareSVM is available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/CompareSVM/ .

  13. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  14. Is a Price Increase Policy Enough for Adolescent Smokers?: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Increasing Cigarette Prices Among Korean Adolescent Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Do; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Jang, Sung-In; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette pricing policy is one tool for controlling smoking behavior on a national scale. It is unclear, however, what effects such policy has on adolescents and which characteristic subgroups of adolescents are more or less sensitive to cigarette pricing policy. Our data came from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The dependent variable was whether or not a participant was classified as a "persistent smokers," defined as a smoker who would continue smoking despite any price increase. Other variables of interest were smoking days (quantity), previous attempts to stop smoking, and previous education on smoking cessation. The statistical analysis was performed using weighted data and the SURVEYFREQ and SURVEYLOGISTIC procedures in SAS 9.3. Among 7094 adolescent smokers (5349 males and 1745 females), 19.9% of males and 25.1% of females reported as persistent smokers. Compared with light smokers, heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers (male: odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-2.95, P value policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional cessation policy is needed along with pricing policy for adolescents with heavier smoking behavior in Korea. This study shows that heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers despite the cigarette price increase policy, compared with light smokers in Korean adolescents. Because heavier smokers were less sensitive to pricing policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional tobacco control policies should be evaluated and effective ones implemented in addition to cigarette prices to reduce smoking among regular adolescent smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  15. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers......, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3...

  16. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  17. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  18. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  19. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  20. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  1. Inclusion in education: comparing pupils' development in special and regular education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.T.D.; Vergeer, M.M.; Roeleveld, J.; Karsten, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale longitudinal data on differences in pupils' cognitive and psychosocial development in various types of special and mainstream schools are reported in this article. The study focuses on comparing the development of matched pairs of primary-aged pupils in mainstream and special education

  2. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  3. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  4. Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.

  5. Sites of origin of oral cavity cancer in nonsmokers vs smokers: possible evidence of dental trauma carcinogenesis and its importance compared with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brendan J; Zammit, Andrew P; Lewandowski, Andrew W; Bashford, Julia J; Dragovic, Adrian S; Perry, Emily J; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Perry, Christopher F L

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high and possibly rising incidence of mouth squamous cell carcinoma in nonsmokers, especially women, without obvious cause has been noted by previous authors. Is chronic dental trauma and irritation a carcinogen, and what is its importance compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer in nonsmokers? To determine whether oral cavity cancers occurred more commonly at sites of dental trauma and how the position of these cancers varied between nonsmokers lacking major identified carcinogens and smokers. If these cancers occurred more frequently at sites of chronic trauma, especially in nonsmokers, it would suggest chronic dental trauma as a possible carcinogen. A retrospective analysis of 881 patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancers seen through a tertiary referral hospital between 2001 and 2011 was performed. Patient medical records were analyzed to determine the location of the tumor within the oral cavity and oropharynx and how it relates to patient demographics, smoking and alcohol histories, and comorbidities. Dental histories were also sought, including use of dentures. Nonsmokers comprised 87 of 390 patients with mouth cancer (22%) and 48 of 334 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (14%). Female nonsmoking patients included 53 with oral cancer (61%) but only 12 with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (25%). Oral cancers occurred on the lateral tongue, a potential site of chronic dental trauma, in 57 nonsmokers (66%) compared with 107 smokers/ex-smokers (33%) (P Oral cavity cancers occur predominantly at sites of potential dental and denture trauma, especially in nonsmokers without other risk factors. Recognizing teeth irritation as a potential carcinogen would have an impact on prevention and treatment strategies.

  6. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  7. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  8. Assessment of the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in healthy Japanese smokers using a novel tobacco vapor product compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Takeshige, Yuki; Nakaya, Kyoko; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2018-07-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to demonstrate a reduction in exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), and to assess product use behavior, in Japanese healthy adult smokers who switched to a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). 60 smokers were randomly assigned for 5 days to either (a) a group who switched to an NTV (n = 20), (b) a group who continued to smoke their own brand of conventional cigarettes (CC, n = 20) or (c) a smoking abstinence group (SA, n = 20). Fifteen biomarkers of exposure (BoEs) to 14 HPHCs and pyrene were measured at baseline, day 3 and 5. Product use behavior was assessed by measuring product consumption, nicotine uptake and puffing topography. During investigations, increases were observed in product consumption and total puff volume in NTV group subjects as compared to baseline. Additionally, nicotine uptake in the NTV group was approximately half that observed in the CC group. BoE values were significantly reduced in the NTV group as compared to those in the CC group. Significantly, the magnitude of the reduction in exposure to HPHCs observed in the NTV group (49-94%) was close to that observed for the SA group (39-95%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants and Outcomes of Teachers' Professional Identity and Organizational Identification: A Comparative Analysis in Charter and Regular Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogrek, Muhammed Fatih

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study compared the organizational identification and professional identity of teachers in charter and regular public schools. The purpose of study was three-fold; the first was to investigate whether charter school teachers differ from their regular public school peers in the study variables (i.e. self-efficacy, perceived…

  10. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  11. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  12. Consumer perceptions of cigarette pack design in France: a comparison of regular, limited edition and plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2012-09-01

    In the face of comprehensive bans on the marketing of tobacco products, packaging has become an increasingly important promotional tool for the tobacco industry. A ban on the use of branding on tobacco packaging, known as 'plain' packaging, has emerged as a promising regulatory strategy. The current study sought to examine perceptions of cigarette packaging among adults in France. Adult smokers and non-smokers (N=836) were surveyed using computer-assisted personal interviewing to assess perceptions of pack design by comparing 'regular' branded packs and 'limited edition' packs (with novel designs or innovations) with 'plain' versions of these packs with all branding, including colour, removed. Plain packs (PP) were less likely than regular packs, and particularly limited edition packs, to be considered attractive, attention grabbing and likely to motivate youth purchase. PPs were also rated as the most effective in convincing non-smokers not to start and smokers to reduce consumption and quit. Logistic regression showed that smokers motivated to quit, in comparison to smokers not motivated to quit, were significantly more likely to consider the PPs as the packs most likely to motivate cessation. Novel cigarette packaging, in the form of limited edition packs, had the highest ratings of consumer appeal, ahead of regular branded packs and also PPs. Interestingly, PPs were perceived to be the packs most likely to promote cessation among those adults with quitting intentions. Plain packaging, therefore, may be a means of helping existing adult smokers motivated to quit to do so.

  13. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  14. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  15. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  16. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  17. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the New York State Smokers' Quitline Reach, Services Offered, and Quit Outcomes to 44 Other State Quitlines, 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nathan; Nonnemaker, James; Chapman, LeTonya; Shaikh, Asma; Thompson, Jesse; Juster, Harlan

    2018-06-01

    To summarize the reach, services offered, and cessation outcomes of the New York Quitline and compare with other state quitlines. Descriptive study. Forty-five US states. State-sponsored tobacco cessation quitlines in 45 US states that provided complete data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Quitline Data Warehouse (NQDW) for 24 quarters over 6 years (2010-Q1 through 2015-Q4). Telephone quitlines that offer tobacco use cessation services, including counseling, self-help materials, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to smokers at no cost to them. Percentage of adult tobacco users in the state who received counseling and/or free NRT from state quitlines (reach), services offered by state quitlines, and cessation outcomes among quitline clients 7 months after using quitline services. Reach, services offered, and cessation outcomes for the New York Quitline were compared with similar measures for the other 44 state quitlines with complete NQDW data for all quarters from 2010 through 2015. New York's average annual quitline reach from 2010 through 2015 was 3.0% per year compared to 1.1% per year for the other 44 states examined. Although the New York Quitline was open fewer hours per week and offered fewer counseling sessions and a smaller amount of free NRT than most of the other 44 state quitlines, the New York Quitline had similar quit rates to most of those state quitlines.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Persistence and Academic Achievement of "Project 60"& Regularly Enrolled Students at Middlesex Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Glenda E.

    The Project 60 group was an experimental group of 53 disadvantaged students who would not have been admitted to Middlesex Community College through the regular admissions procedures. They had a high school average of 1.7 and were largely below average in reading, math, and composition, both in high school grades and individual testing. Project 60…

  20. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  1. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cue...

  2. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  3. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  4. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  5. A comparative study of job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in the primary health care system in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state associated with the appreciation of one′s work and contributes immensely to performance in an organization. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in Government Primary Urban Health Centers in Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 333 health care providers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample included medical officers (MOs, auxiliary nurses and midwives (ANMs, pharmacists and laboratory technicians (LTs/laboratory assistants (LAs among regular and staff on contract. Analysis was done using SPSS version 18, and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The job satisfaction for all the regular staff that is, MOs, ANMs, pharmacists, LAs, and LTs were relatively higher (3.3 ± 0.44 than the contract staff (2.7 ± 0.45 with ′t′value 10.54 (P < 0.01. The mean score for regular and contract MOs was 3.2 ± 0.46 and 2.7 ± 0.56, respectively, and the same trends were found between regular and ANMs on the contract which was 3.4 ± 0.30 and 2.7 ± 0.38, regular and pharmacists on the contract was 3.3 ± 0.50 and 2.8 ± 0.41, respectively. The differences between groups were significant with a P < 0.01. Conclusion: Overall job satisfaction level was relatively low in both regular and contract staff. The factors contributing to satisfaction level were privileges, interpersonal relations, working-environment, patient relationship, the organization′s facilities, career development, and the scarcity of human resources (HRs. Therefore, specific recommendations are suggested to policy makers to take cognizance of the scarcity of HRs and the on-going experimentation with different models under primary health care system.

  6. Low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry: comparing hearing thresholds between smokers and non-smokers Da audiometria tonal limiar em baixa e alta frequência: comparação dos limiares auditivos entre tabagistas e não-tabagistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cecílio Capra Marques de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking can cause many potentially fatal diseases and worsen others. Numerous studies have shown the relationship between smoking and hearing loss. However, the increase in auditory threshold in high frequency arising from smoking has been very little described. AIM: to compare low and high frequency auditory thresholds among a group of smoking and non-smoking male individuals between 18 and 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: by means of low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry we studied 30 male individuals between 18 and 40 years and 30 non-smokers of matching age and gender. RESULTS: auditory thresholds were different between smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former. Although within normal ranges, auditory thresholds in low frequencies were higher among smokers. In high frequencies we noticed a marked increase in auditory thresholds among smokers. CONCLUSION: we found statistically significant difference in auditory thresholds in low and high frequencies, among young male individuals, smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former.O uso do cigarro pode levar a diversas doenças potencialmente fatais e contribuir para o agravo de outras condições patológicas. Inúmeros estudos mostram a relação entre tabagismo e perda auditiva, entretanto, o aumento dos limiares auditivos em alta frequência decorrente do tabagismo é pouco descrito. OBJETIVO: Comparar os limiares auditivos em baixas e altas frequências, entre um grupo de indivíduos não-tabagistas e tabagistas, do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Tipo transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados, através de audiometria tonal limiar em baixas e altas frequências, 30 indivíduos tabagistas do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos e 30 indivíduos não-tabagistas do mesmo sexo e da mesma faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Os limiares auditivos foram diferentes entre os indivíduos do grupo n

  7. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  8. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  9. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  10. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  11. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  12. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  13. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  14. A comparative analysis of learninig a foreign language in multimedia courses with regular EFL courses. A case study at the University of Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Arias, Sandra Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are different methods that students can use to learn English as a foreign language. One of them is through using multimedia at The University of Cuenca on the newly implemented multimedia course. However, a lack of information to demonstrate whether these courses are effective or not led to the development of this study, which consists of a comparative analysis between a regular course and a multimedia course, both developed at the University of Cuenca. Twenty students on t...

  15. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  16. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  17. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  18. [Comparative analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) loci in the genomes of halophilic archaea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Xiang, Hua; Hu, Songnian

    2009-11-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a widespread system that provides acquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaea. Here we aim to genome-widely analyze the CRISPR in extreme halophilic archaea, of which the whole genome sequences are available at present time. We used bioinformatics methods including alignment, conservation analysis, GC content and RNA structure prediction to analyze the CRISPR structures of 7 haloarchaeal genomes. We identified the CRISPR structures in 5 halophilic archaea and revealed a conserved palindromic motif in the flanking regions of these CRISPR structures. In addition, we found that the repeat sequences of large CRISPR structures in halophilic archaea were greatly conserved, and two types of predicted RNA secondary structures derived from the repeat sequences were likely determined by the fourth base of the repeat sequence. Our results support the proposal that the leader sequence may function as recognition site by having palindromic structures in flanking regions, and the stem-loop secondary structure formed by repeat sequences may function in mediating the interaction between foreign genetic elements and CAS-encoded proteins.

  19. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2018-02-01

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice Y; Chen, Moon S; Tong, Elisa K

    2017-11-01

    Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined factors related to non-smoker self-reports that they asked someone not to smoke within the past year. About 40% reported past-year assertive behaviour against smoking, with higher rates among Koreans than Chinese (60.4% vs. 34.5%), those living with smokers (63.5%), ever exposed with a smoke-free home rule (62.3%), recently exposed at work without a smoke-free work policy (67.6%) and regularly exposed at other locations (52.3%). In combined multivariate analyses of both ethnic groups, assertive behaviour was associated with individual factors (single vs. married; tobacco exposure knowledge), family factors (living with smokers, exposed at home despite a smoke-free rule), community factors (exposed at work with no smoke-free policy, exposed at other locations) and cultural factors (Korean vs. Chinese ethnicity; lower acculturation). Chinese and Korean American non-smokers report assertive behaviour against smoking, which is associated with social-ecological factors. Results help identify target groups and strategies for future intervention, including the need to implement or enforce smoke-free environments and promote empowerment. [Saw A, Tang H, Tsoh JY, Chen MS Jr, Tong EK. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  2. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  3. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  4. Impact of periodontitis on chemokines in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytural, O; Yaman, D; Ural, E C; Kantarci, A; Demirel, Korkud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemokine expression profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and to assess the impact of smoking on local and systemic levels of chemokines. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP; 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were recruited. Clinical parameters included the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum using a multiplex immunoassay. MIP-1α levels were significantly lower (10.15 ± 1.48; p = 0.039) while MIP-1β levels were significantly higher (42.05 ± 8.21; p = 0.005) in sera from non-smoker patients with CP compared to non-smoker healthy subjects. MCP-1 concentration in sera was significantly higher in smoker periodontitis patients (8.89 ± 1.65) compared to non-smoker patients with periodontitis (8.14 ± 0.97; p = 0.004). MIP-1α and RANTES were significantly higher in GCF of the patients with CP (p = 0.001) while there were no statistically significant correlations between the GCF levels of these analytes and the smoking status. Periodontal inflammation increases the chemokine concentrations in the GCF while smoking suppresses chemokine levels in serum suggesting that different local and systemic mechanisms are involved during the response to periodontitis in smokers. Understanding the local and systemic chemokine responses in smokers will enable the development of biologically-based treatment methods for chronic periodontitis.

  5. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  6. Lung cancer in never-smokers - what are the differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Margarida; Linhas, Rita; Campainha, Sérgio; Conde, Sara; Barroso, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics of never-smokers with lung cancer are still not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare never-smokers and ever-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regarding patient and tumor characteristics. All consecutive newly NSCLC patients with known smoking status diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical, histological, and molecular characteristics were compared between ever-smokers and never-smokers. Of the 558 included patients, 125 (22.4%) were never-smokers. These patients were more likely to be female (74% vs. 7%, p Never-smokers took longer to seek medical care after the symptoms onset (3 vs. 2 months, p never-smokers: pleural metastases were more frequent (OR: 2.1 [1.1-4.0]), regardless of the histological type and gender. Never-smokers had a higher prevalence of ALK translocations (26% vs. 4%, p Never-smokers with NSCLC present distinct demographic and clinical characteristics. The characteristics of tumor also differ between never-smokers and ever-smokers, which may suggest different carcinogenic pathways.

  7. A comparative study on the level of satisfaction among regular and contractual health-care workers in a Northern city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Jyoti; Goel, Sonu; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Job satisfaction greatly determines the productivity and efficiency of human resources for health. The current study aims to assess the level of satisfaction and factors influencing the job satisfaction among regular and contractual health-care workers. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2015 among health care workers ( n = 354) at all levels of public health-care facilities of Chandigarh. The correlation between variables with overall level of satisfaction was computed for regular and contractual health-care workers. Stepwise multiple linear regression was done to elucidate the major factors influencing job satisfaction. Majority of the regular health-care staff was highly satisfied (86.9%) as compared to contractual staff (10.5%), which however was moderately satisfied (55.9%). Stepwise regression model showed that work-related matters (β = 1.370, P job (β = 0.530, P satisfaction level. Under the National Rural Health Mission, contract appointments have improved the overall availability of health-care staff at all levels of public health facilities. However, there are concerns regarding their level of motivation with various aspects related to the job, which need to be urgently addressed so as to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health services.

  8. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (ECs are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43 though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46. Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2 decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144 to 130 (123.5, 138.5 mmHg; p < 0.001 and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90 to 80 (74.5, 90 mmHg; p = 0.006. No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control.

  9. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  10. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  11. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  12. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  13. Expression of collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Romulo; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Piato, Sebastião; Chade, Milca Cezar; Rios, Adriana Ribeiro Santos; Silva, Maria Antonieta Galvão; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2015-09-01

    Our study compared the amount of total collagen and type I collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers. The study group consisted of 14 pregnant smokers at 24-36 weeks of gestation; 39 pregnant non-smokers between 24-36 weeks of gestation comprised the control group. The expressions of total collagen and type I collagen were analyzed using two histological sections of the fetal membranes. The assessment of total collagen was performed using the Picro-Cirius red stain, and type I collagen expression was determined by means of immunohistochemistry The Mann-Whitney test was applied to verify possible differences between the groups. The average area covered by total collagen was lower in smokers (20630.45 microm2) as compared to non-smokers (24058.61 microm2), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.454). Comparison involving collagen type I deemed similar results (20001.33 microm2 vs. 25328.29 microm2, p = 0.158). The amount of total collagen and type I collagen was lower in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers as compared to non-smokers, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  14. A comparison of smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian smokers in the United Kingdom and Malay smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noorzurani; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that smoking behaviour differs by ethnicity. This study aims to compare smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian and Malay smokers. A cross sectional survey, involving 175 smokers attending smoking cessation clinics at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom and University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between May 2005 and February 2007. Data on demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence and smoking behaviour were collected. All participants were males, mean age 30.7 ± 10.3 years. Caucasians initiated smoking significantly earlier (mean age 14.8 ± 2.8 years) (p = 0.001) and smoked regularly significantly earlier (mean age 17.3 ± 3.5) (p = 0.003) than Malays (mean starting age 16.9 ± 4.4 years and mean age regular use 19.5 ± 4.5 years), respectively. Caucasians smoked less for social integration than Malays (p = 0.03) but smoked more for regulation of negative affect than Malays (p = 0.008) and smoked more for hedonism than Malays (p < 0.001). Malays smoke as a means of socially integrating. This has important public health implications. Social reasons and the social environment play a role in smoking uptake, smoking maintenance and smoking cessation and this should be borne in mind for strategies planning to promote smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Nondependent Smokers (Tobacco Chippers) in Comparison to Heavy Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carim-Todd, Laura; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Oken, Barry S

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco chippers are light smokers with stable patterns of smoking that exhibit lower nicotine dependence severity than heavy smokers. Chippers may provide valuable information about the factors influencing drug dependence. Impulsivity and stress are two factors known to influence smoking. By comparing nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers, n = 25) to dependent smokers (heavy smokers, n = 23) and nonsmokers (n = 25), this study examines the relationship between nicotine dependence, impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity. A total of 73 adult participants completed a study visit that included questionnaires to measure nicotine dependence, chronic stress, personality, affect, withdrawal, and craving. Impulsivity was measured with the delay discounting task and the flanker task. Stress reactivity was assessed by monitoring respiration, heart rate, and salivary cortisol during performance of a titrated Stroop task. Effects of acute stress on affect and craving were examined. Tobacco chippers were as impulsive as heavy smokers on the delay discounting task but no different from nonsmokers on the flanker task. Heavy smokers reported higher perceived stress than chippers and nonsmokers. Perceived stress was a significant predictor of discounting only in heavy smokers. Acute stress induced changes in respiration, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Craving and negative affect increased after stress in both smoking groups, but craving was associated with affect only in chippers. Tobacco chippers do not differ from heavy smokers in impulsivity, but do differ in perceived stress. One's perception and experience of stress might be associated to nicotine dependence resistance and could inform smoking cessation treatments. By examining impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity in nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers) compared to dependent smokers and nonsmokers, this study contributes to the understanding of nicotine addiction and informs smoking

  16. Selective attention to smoking cues in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, Anne K; Bey, Katharina; Frommann, Ingo; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Bludau, Julia; Block, Verena; Sträter, Birgitta; Schütz, Christian G; Wagner, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Repeated drug use modifies the emotional and cognitive processing of drug-associated cues. These changes are supposed to persist even after prolonged abstinence. Several studies demonstrated that smoking cues selectively attract the attention of smokers, but empirical evidence for such an attentional bias among successful quitters is inconclusive. Here, we investigated whether attentional biases persist after smoking cessation. Thirty-eight former smokers, 34 current smokers, and 29 non-smokers participated in a single experimental session. We used three measures of attentional bias for smoking stimuli: A visual probe task with short (500ms) and long (2000ms) picture stimulus durations, and a modified Stroop task with smoking-related and neutral words. Former smokers and current smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed an attentional bias in visual orienting to smoking pictures in the 500ms condition of the visual probe task. The Stroop interference index of smoking words was negatively related to nicotine dependence in current smokers. Former smokers and mildly dependent smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed increased interference by smoking words in the Stroop task. Neither current nor former smokers showed an attentional bias in maintained attention (2000ms visual probe task). In conclusion, even after prolonged abstinence smoking cues retain incentive salience in former smokers, who differed from non-smokers on two attentional bias indices. Attentional biases in former smokers operate mainly in early involuntary rather than in controlled processing, and may represent a vulnerability factor for relapse. Therefore, smoking cessation programs should strengthen self-control abilities to prevent relapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  18. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  19. A comparative study on the level of satisfaction among regular and contractual health-care workers in a Northern city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dixit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction greatly determines the productivity and efficiency of human resources for health. The current study aims to assess the level of satisfaction and factors influencing the job satisfaction among regular and contractual health-care workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from January to June 2015 among health care workers (n = 354 at all levels of public health-care facilities of Chandigarh. The correlation between variables with overall level of satisfaction was computed for regular and contractual health-care workers. Stepwise multiple linear regression was done to elucidate the major factors influencing job satisfaction. Results: Majority of the regular health-care staff was highly satisfied (86.9% as compared to contractual staff (10.5%, which however was moderately satisfied (55.9%. Stepwise regression model showed that work-related matters (β = 1.370, P < 0.01, organizational facilities (β = 1.586, P < 0.01, privileges attached to the job (β = 0.530, P < 0.01, attention to the suggestions (β = 0.515, P < 0.01, chance of promotion (β = 0.703, P < 0.01, and human resource issues (β = 1.0721, P < 0.01 are strong predictors of overall satisfaction level. Conclusion: Under the National Rural Health Mission, contract appointments have improved the overall availability of health-care staff at all levels of public health facilities. However, there are concerns regarding their level of motivation with various aspects related to the job, which need to be urgently addressed so as to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health services.

  20. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.

  1. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  2. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expression of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in human lung from smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, James H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strickland, Paul T.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 are known to bioactivate procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in cigarette smoke and are inducible via an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in samples of lung from smokers (n = 18), non-smokers (n = 7), and ex-smokers (n = 7). Using immunoglobulin preparations of highly specific polyclonal antibodies and immunoblot analysis of microsomes from lung tissues, we determined the specific content for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. For CYP1A1, we found median expression levels of 15.5 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 6.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 19.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels of smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers was statistically significant. For CYP1B1, we found median expression levels of 1.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 1.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 4.4 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels between ex-smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant. These results suggest that levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein in lung tissues from smokers and ex-smokers are quantitatively greater than in non-smokers. By immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in normal human alveolar type I and II cells, ciliated columnar epithelial cells lining bronchoalveolar airways, and alveolar macrophages. These results confirm that CYP1A1 is expressed in normal human lung, appears to be induced in smokers, and show interindividual variation; the similar characteristics of CYP1B1 are demonstrated

  4. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  5. Downregulation of Checkpoint Protein Kinase 2 in the Urothelium of Healthy Male Tobacco Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Johannes; Denzinger, Stefan; Hartmann, Arndt; Otto, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    With this letter to the editor we present for the first time a study on CHEK2 expression in normal urothelium of healthy male smokers, former smokers and non-smokers. We could show a statistically significant downregulation of this DNA repair gene in current smokers compared to non-smokers, suggesting that smoking downregulates CHEK2 in normal urothelium, probably associated with an early step in carcinogenesis of urothelial bladder carcinoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  8. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  9. Breathing symptoms in-patient with lung cancer: A comparison of the time of consultation between smoker and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Carlos Eli; Moron Fanny, Emilia; Melendez, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    There is a controversy around the timing of diagnosis of lung cancer and it's relation with smoking habit. Objective, to compare the time with pulmonary indicator symptoms between smokers and non-smokers with lung cancer

  10. What price quitting? The price of cigarettes at which smokers say they would seriously consider trying to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Hayes, Linda; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-07-13

    Deciding on an appropriate level for taxes on tobacco products is a critical issue in tobacco control. The aim of the present study was to describe the critical price points for packs for smokers of each pack size, to calculate what this would equate to in terms of price per stick, and to ascertain whether price points varied by age, socio-economic status and heaviness of smoking. In November 2011, 586 Victorian smokers of factory-made cigarettes were asked during a telephone survey about their usual brand, including the size and cost of their usual pack. They were also asked about use of illicit tobacco. Smokers estimated what price their preferred pack would need to reach before they would seriously consider quitting. Three-quarters of regular smokers of manufactured cigarettes could envisage their usual brand reaching a price at which they would seriously consider quitting. Analyses revealed that answers clustered around whole numbers, (AUD$15, $20, $25 and $30), with a median nominated price point of AUD$20 per pack. The median price point at which regular smokers would consider quitting was calculated to be 80 cents per stick, compared to the current median reported stick price of 60 cents.Of the smokers who nominated a price point, 60.1% indicated they would seriously consider quitting if the cost of their usual brand equated to 80 cents per stick or less; 87.5% would seriously consider quitting if sticks reached one dollar each. These results do suggest a potentially useful approach to setting taxes in Australia. If taxes can be set high enough to ensure that the cost of the smokers' preferred packs exceeds critical price points, then it seems likely that more people would seriously attempt to quit than if the price increased to a level even slightly below the price points. Our study suggests that a tax increase large enough to ensure that a typical pack of 25 cigarettes in Australia cost at least AUD$20 would prompt more than 60% of smokers able to nominate

  11. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  12. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  13. Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, J; Amu, R; Batsikadze, G; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  15. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  16. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  17. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  18. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruited...... 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels......-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers...

  19. Blunted Striatal Responses to Favorite Food Cues in Smokers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Balodis, Iris M.; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Methods Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food-cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. Results During favorite-food-cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. Conclusions The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. PMID:25444233

  20. Blunted striatal responses to favorite-food cues in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Balodis, Iris M; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. During favorite-food cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining the Effect of Early Feeding after Cesarean section Compared with Regular Diet on the Gastrointestinal Function of Women Referred to Tajrish Hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Amiri-Siavoshani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Early feeding after cesarean section can have beneficial effects, however, no sufficient study has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early feeding on the gastrointestinal complications in women after cesarean section and comparing it with a regular diet.   Methods: The present randomized-clinical-trial study was conducted on 160 women who admitted to Shohada hospital and underwent cesarean section in 2011-2012. The inclusion criteria included women with gestational age more than 37 weeks, singleton pregnancy, having at least 8 hours of fasting, and regional anesthesia (spinal cord, respectively. After registration of demographic characteristics and pregnancy, women were randomly divided into two groups: Early feeding (2 hours after completion of the operation, 250 ml filtered juice, tea and biscuits style regime in the next 2 hours and 2 hours after the usual diet and the usual power (8 hours of operation clear liquid diet the day after the usual diet groups. Presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours after surgery, time to the bowel sounds auscultation, passage of flatus and stool were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version13.The significance level of p-value was considered 0.05.   Conclusion: Early feeding caused the acceleration of gastrointestinal symptoms, earlier bowel sounds auscultation and earlier utilization of gas. It is recommended to investigate the different diets and examined the level of compliance and satisfaction.  

  2. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2014-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

  3. Comparing effects in regular practice of e-communication and Web-based self-management support among breast cancer patients: preliminary results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børøsund, Elin; Cvancarova, Milada; Moore, Shirley M; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2014-12-18

    While Web-based interventions have been shown to assist a wide range of patients successfully in managing their illness, few studies have examined the relative contribution of different Web-based components to improve outcomes. Further efficacy trials are needed to test the effects of Web support when offered as a part of routine care. Our aim was to compare in regular care the effects of (1) an Internet-based patient provider communication service (IPPC), (2) WebChoice, a Web-based illness management system for breast cancer patients (IPPC included), and (3) usual care on symptom distress, anxiety, depression, (primary outcomes), and self-efficacy (secondary outcome). This study reports preliminary findings from 6 months' follow-up data in a 12-month trial. We recruited 167 patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing treatment from three Norwegian hospitals. The nurse-administered IPPC allowed patients to send secure e-messages to and receive e-messages from health care personnel at the hospital where they were treated. In addition to the IPPC, WebChoice contains components for symptom monitoring, tailored information and self-management support, a diary, and communication with other patients. A total of 20 care providers (11 nurses, 6 physicians, and 3 social workers) were trained to answer questions from patients. Outcomes were measured with questionnaires at study entry and at study months 2, 4, and 6. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were fitted to compare effects on outcomes over time. Patients were randomly assigned to the WebChoice group (n=64), the IPPC group (n=45), or the usual care group (n=58). Response rates to questionnaires were 73.7% (123/167) at 2 months, 65.9 (110/167) at 4 months, and 62.3% (104/167) at 6 months. Attrition was similar in all study groups. Among those with access to WebChoice, 64% (41/64) logged on more than once and 39% (25/64) sent e-messages to care providers. In the IPPC group, 40% (18/45) sent e

  4. Clinical and genetic features of lung squamous cell cancer in never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Hang; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Hu, Haichuan; Cai, Deng; Wang, Shengfei; Zhang, Yawei; Xiang, Jiaqing; Sun, Yihua; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of specific driver mutations to the development and outcome of lung squamous cell cancer (SQCC) in never-smokers, we assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 597 patients who underwent complete resection of SQCCs. In total, 88 (14.7%) never-smokers and 509 (85.3%) ever-smokers were compared. The never-smokers included more females (42.05% vs. 1.57%, P never-smokers were more often poorly differentiated (70.45% vs. 53.24%, P = 0.010) and more often contained oncogenic mutations (21.05% vs 11.05%, P = 0.023), particularly EGFR mutations (13.16% vs 3.40%, P = 0.001). Never-smokers also tended to have poorer OS than smokers. Our results suggest lung SQCCs in never-smokers are a subtype distinct from SQCCs occurring in smokers. PMID:27092882

  5. Clinical and genetic features of lung squamous cell cancer in never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangle; Wang, Rui; Pan, Yunjian; Zhang, Yang; Li, Hang; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Hu, Haichuan; Cai, Deng; Wang, Shengfei; Zhang, Yawei; Xiang, Jiaqing; Sun, Yihua; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-06-14

    To evaluate the importance of specific driver mutations to the development and outcome of lung squamous cell cancer (SQCC) in never-smokers, we assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 597 patients who underwent complete resection of SQCCs. In total, 88 (14.7%) never-smokers and 509 (85.3%) ever-smokers were compared. The never-smokers included more females (42.05% vs. 1.57%, P smokers were more often poorly differentiated (70.45% vs. 53.24%, P = 0.010) and more often contained oncogenic mutations (21.05% vs 11.05%, P = 0.023), particularly EGFR mutations (13.16% vs 3.40%, P = 0.001). Never-smokers also tended to have poorer OS than smokers. Our results suggest lung SQCCs in never-smokers are a subtype distinct from SQCCs occurring in smokers.

  6. Enhanced prolactin levels in opium smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Ghollam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Farzaneh; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2005-12-01

    In Iran, opium is smoked for pleasure or as a medication by some people. It is a complex mixture of 40 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine along with many impurities. Although it is well established that opioids or tobacco affect many physiological functions in humans, to our knowledge there has been no specific study looking at these effects in opium smokers. To assess that, we investigated the circulating levels of prolactin, TSH, LH, FSH and testosterone in male opium smokers who also smoke cigarettes (n=23, aged 28.4+/- 4.1 years), and comparing this with the corresponding values for nicotine abusers (n=12, 15-25 cigarettes/day) or a healthy control group (n=20) of the same age. Our results showed that 86.96% of the opium-dependent and 41.67 % of the nicotine-dependent group displayed high prolactin values (popium and the plasma prolactin level of opium dependents (p=0.748, popium smokers and 50% of the cigarette smokers (popium smokers was also lower than that of the other two groups (popium and cigarette smoking may synergistically influence pituitary hormone production through the effects on neuropeptides produced either locally or systemic.

  7. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of smoking on aerobic capacity in young adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, ,Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, It is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking .[23]Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers[13]. This study was carried out in university of hail ,physiotherapy lab, ,30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A ,15 nonsmoker (B .All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in non smoker (P:0.0001., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56. Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. . also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Non smokers .

  9. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Resting-state EEG, impulsiveness, and personality in daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Olga; Ahn, Woo-Young; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Resting EEG is sensitive to transient, acute effects of nicotine administration and abstinence, but the chronic effects of smoking on EEG are poorly characterized. This study measures the resting EEG profile of chronic smokers in a non-deprived, non-peak state to test whether differences in smoking behavior and personality traits affect pharmaco-EEG response. Resting EEG, impulsiveness, and personality measures were collected from daily smokers (n=22), nondaily smokers (n=31), and non-smokers (n=30). Daily smokers had reduced resting delta and alpha EEG power and higher impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) compared to nondaily smokers and non-smokers. Both daily and nondaily smokers discounted delayed rewards more steeply, reported lower conscientiousness (NEO-FFI), and reported greater disinhibition and experience seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale) than non-smokers. Nondaily smokers reported greater sensory hedonia than nonsmokers. Altered resting EEG power in daily smokers demonstrates differences in neural signaling that correlated with greater smoking behavior and dependence. Although nondaily smokers share some characteristics with daily smokers that may predict smoking initiation and maintenance, they differ on measures of impulsiveness and resting EEG power. Resting EEG in non-deprived chronic smokers provides a standard for comparison to peak and trough nicotine states and may serve as a biomarker for nicotine dependence, relapse risk, and recovery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subgingival bacterial recolonization after scaling and root planing in smokers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, M; Bernal, Mac; Matarazzo, F; Faveri, M; Duarte, P M; Figueiredo, L C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare subgingival bacterial recolonization patterns after scaling and root planing in current smokers and non-smokers. 15 smokers and 15 non-smokers with chronic periodontitis received scaling and root planing in six visits lasting one hour each, over a period of 21 days. Clinical monitoring was performed at baseline and 180 days, and microbiological monitoring was performed at baseline, immediately after scaling and root planing (Day 0) and at 42, 63 and 180 days post-therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. An improvement in clinical condition was observed for smokers and non-smokers; however, non-smokers showed a greater reduction in mean clinical attachment level in intermediate sites in comparison with smokers (p < 0.05). At Day 0, there was a significant reduction in the mean counts of the three pathogens from the red complex, Eubacterium nodatum and Parvimonas micra only in non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of host-compatible species in non-smokers and smokers from baseline to 180 days post-therapy (p < 0.05). However, a significant decrease in the pathogenic species was observed only in non-smokers. Smokers were more susceptible to the re-establishment of a pathogenic subgingival biofilm than non-smokers. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  13. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Periodontal Status and Whole Salivary Cytokine Profile Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Alshehri, Mohammed; Vohra, Fahim; Al-Askar, Mansour; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    Whole salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess the periodontal status and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes (controls). Ninety-five males (45 with prediabetes and 50 systemically healthy controls) were included. Twenty-seven controls and 29 patients with prediabetes were smokers. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and marginal bone loss) were measured, and the number of missing teeth were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) was determined, and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. P values prediabetes than controls. All patients with prediabetes were hyperglycemic. UWSFR was significantly higher among controls than among patients with prediabetes (P prediabetes. Among controls, periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher among smokers than never-smokers (P prediabetes, periodontal inflammation and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable between smokers and never-smokers.

  15. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  17. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  18. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  19. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use.

  20. Outcomes of the Smoker's Health Project: A Pragmatic Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Tobacco-Dependence Interventions Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory,…

  1. Design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a culturally tailored versus standard community-based smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alicia K; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Li, Chien-Ching; Vargas, Maria C; King, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence rates among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are significantly higher than the general population. However, there is limited research on smoking cessation treatments in this group, particularly on culturally targeted interventions. Moreover, there are few interventions that address culturally specific psychosocial variables (e.g., minority stress) that may influence outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a comparative effecti...

  2. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  3. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  4. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    when diameter was smaller (p = .04. Together, these findings suggested that compared to non-smokers, smokers in this sample had less connected, more dispersed Facebook Friendship networks; larger but more fractured Family networks with fewer isolates; more compact Group networks; and Photo networks that were similar in network structure to those of non-smokers.This study illustrates the importance of examining structural differences in online social networks as a critical component for network-based interventions and lays the foundation for future research that examines the ways that social networks differ based on individual health behavior. Interventions that seek to target the behavior of individuals in the context of their social environment would be well served to understand social network structures of participants.

  5. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    was smaller (p = .04). Together, these findings suggested that compared to non-smokers, smokers in this sample had less connected, more dispersed Facebook Friendship networks; larger but more fractured Family networks with fewer isolates; more compact Group networks; and Photo networks that were similar in network structure to those of non-smokers. This study illustrates the importance of examining structural differences in online social networks as a critical component for network-based interventions and lays the foundation for future research that examines the ways that social networks differ based on individual health behavior. Interventions that seek to target the behavior of individuals in the context of their social environment would be well served to understand social network structures of participants.

  6. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  7. A pilot study of the gingival response when smokers switch from smoking to vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, R; Booth, V; Yap, H F; Moyes, D L

    2016-12-09

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for periodontitis as it alters the host response to plaque. Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has declined in recent years, the use of electronic-cigarettes (vaping) has increased. The effect of vaping on the gingiva is unknown and an evidence-base needs to be established before providing dental advice about the use of these products.Objective To compare the gingival health of a group of established smokers before and after substituting vaping for smoking tobacco.Design Pilot.Setting Guy's Dental Hospital (England) from April-December 2015.Materials and methods Twenty established smokers (all staff members at Guy's Hospital) with mild periodontal disease replaced their regular smoking habits with the use of e-cigarettes for two weeks.Main outcome measure The primary outcome measure of gingival inflammation was bleeding on probing. Levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in GCF, saliva and serum samples were also determined.Results and conclusions There was a statistically significant increase in gingival inflammation when tobacco smokers switched from smoking to vaping for two weeks. However, this result must be interpreted with extreme caution since this is only a pilot study. Nonetheless, this study should provide a stepping stone to encourage further investigation of the effects of vaping on periodontal health.

  8. NNAL exposure by race and menthol cigarette use among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that nicotine and carcinogen exposure as measured by biomarkers such as cotinine and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) does not vary with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among Black smokers. Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S. smokers by race, CPD, and menthol cigarette use. We analyzed urinary NNAL concentrations for more than 1500 everyday smokers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010. For purposes of comparison, we also analyzed serum cotinine concentrations for these smokers. We used linear regression analysis to estimate mean biomarker concentrations by CPD and race/ethnicity group and to examine the association between biomarker concentrations and menthol cigarette use by race/ethnicity group, controlling for other demographic and smoking characteristics. Biomarker concentrations increased with CPD for White, Black, and Hispanic smokers although NNAL concentrations leveled off for Black smokers at lower CPD levels compared with other smokers. Mean NNAL concentrations were lower among menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall (β = -0.165, p = .032) and White smokers (β = -0.207, p = .048). We find evidence in national health survey data that nicotine and carcinogen exposure generally increases with CPD across race/ethnicity groups although the pattern of NNAL exposure differs by race/ethnicity group at high CPD levels. We also find evidence of differences in NNAL exposure for menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall and White smokers.

  9. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  11. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  13. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  14. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva Ø.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [χ(1, N=55)2 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity. PMID:28936178

  15. Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström

    Full Text Available The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n = 28 stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n = 29 and healthy non-smokers (n = 23 participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36 assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers.

  16. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  17. Non‐smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S‐H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non‐smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non‐smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n  =  349 110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n  =  2143 non‐smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non‐smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English‐speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English‐speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian‐speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non‐smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non‐smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

  18. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  20. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  1. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  3. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  4. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  5. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  6. Determination of the /sup 210/Po content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, N.B.; Cruz, W.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of nonsmokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003 +- 0.2988 pCi/24 h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313 +- 0.1664 pCi/24 h sample.

  7. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  8. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  9. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  10. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  11. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  12. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  13. Smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and short time to treatment have equal effects of PCI and fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Kelbæk, Henning Skov; Madsen, Jan Kyst

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to fibrinolysis in smokers and non-smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Smokers seem to have less atherosclerosis but are more prone to thrombotic disease....... Compared to non-smokers, they have higher rates of early, complete reperfusion when treated with fibrinolysis for MI....

  14. A brisk walk, compared with being sedentary, reduces attentional bias and chocolate cravings among regular chocolate eaters with different body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2013-12-01

    Poor self-regulation of high energy snacking has been linked to weight gain. Physical activity can acutely reduce chocolate consumption and cravings but the effects on attentional bias (AB) are unknown. The study aimed to test the effects of exercise among normal and overweight/obese individuals during temporary and longer abstinence. Participants were 20 normal and 21 overweight regular female chocolate eaters (after 24 h abstinence), and 17 females (after ≥1 week abstinence during Lent). They were randomly assigned to engage in 15 min brisk walking or rest, on separate days. AB was assessed using an adapted dot probe task pre and post-treatment at each session, with chocolate/neutral paired images presented for 200 ms (initial AB; IAB) or 1000 ms (maintained AB; MAB). Chocolate craving was assessed pre, during, immediately after, and 5 min and 10 min after treatment, using a 0-100 visual analogue score. Three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that there was no significant interaction effect between group (i.e., BMI status, or abstinence status) and condition × time for craving and AB to chocolate cues. Fully repeated 2-way ANOVAS revealed a significant condition × time interaction for IAB (F(1,57)=6.39) and chocolate craving (F(2.34,133.19)=14.44). After exercise IAB (t(57)=2.78, pchocolate cues, relative to control, irrespective of BMI or abstinence period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Smokers and non smokers with rheumatoid arthritis have similar clinical status: data from the multinational QUEST-RA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, A; Toloza, S; Guimaraes da Silveira, I; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Hamoud, H; Peets, T; Mäkinen, H; Gossec, L; Herborn, G; Skopouli, F N; Rojkovich, B; Aggarwal, A; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Yamanaka, H; Oyoo, O; Rexhepi, S; Andersone, D; Baranauskaite, A; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N; Jacobs, J W G; Haugeberg, G; Sierakowski, S; Ionescu, R; Karateew, D; Dimic, A; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Choy, E; Bergman, M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To analyse clinical severity/activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to smoking status. The QUEST-RA multinational database reviews patients for Core Data Set measures including 28 swollen and tender joint count, physician global estimate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), HAQ-function, pain, and patient global estimate, as well as DAS28, rheumatoid factor (RF), nodules, erosions and number of DMARDs were recorded. Smoking status was assessed by self-report as 'never smoked', 'currently smoking' and 'former smokers'. Patient groups with different smoking status were compared for demographic and RA measures. Among the 7,307 patients with smoking data available, status as 'never smoked,' 'current smoker' and 'former smoker' were reported by 65%, 15% and 20%. Ever smokers were more likely to be RF-positive (OR 1.32;1.17-1.48, p<0.001). Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in ever smokers (OR 1.41;1.24-1.59, p<0.001). The percentage of patients with erosive arthritis and extra-articular disease was similar in all smoking categories. Mean DAS28 was 4.4 (SD 1.6) in non-smokers vs. 4.0 (SD 1.6) in those who had ever smoked. However, when adjusted by age, sex, disease duration, and country gross domestic product, only ESR remained significantly different among Core Data Set measures (mean 31.7mm in non-smokers vs. 26.8mm in ever smoked category). RA patients who had ever smoked were more likely to have RF and nodules, but values for other clinical status measures were similar in all smoking categories (never smoked, current smokers and former smokers).

  16. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  17. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  18. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  19. Epidemiology Study on P53 (Rs1614984 C>T Mutation in Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Epidemiology data have established that smoking is a prime threat for the cancers, largely lung cancer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs,P53 SNPs have been found to be associated with the predisposition of different cancers. Their decreased expression is reported in breast and lung cancer patients. p53 (rs1614984 had been reported to be linked with the SNPs found associated with breast cancer. The primary aim of this study to determine the association of p53 variant rs1614984 with the cigarette smokers and smoking related cancers in smokers. Among the smokers, 38% were found with CC genotype, 55% were heterozygous CT and 7% were TT, respectively. The homozygous TT genotype was seen in lower percentage of smokers (7% when compared to non-smokers (8% whereas; Significant difference was not observed when encompassed by CC, CT and TT genotypes (χ2 = 4.892, p=0.087. However, CC vs CT genotype showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (p=0.031, OR 1.447 (1.035-2.025 and the dominant model CC vs CT+TT was also significantly different among smoker and non-smokers (p=0.047, OR 1.39 (1.004-1.924. Furthermore, smokers are at the risk of developing variety of diseases including lung cancer. Our finding suggests a higher percentage of heterozygous CT genotype in smokers when compared to non-smokers. Therefore, this finding gives a clue that the transition mutation of C>T (rs1614984 may leads to the lung diseases including cancer in smokers. However, there will be a need of more extensive and elaborated study to set down the aspect of p53(rs1614984 C>T in lung cancer among smokers.

  20. Quantifying how smokers value attributes of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; MacMonegle, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have increased quickly among US adults (3.3% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2013) and youth (4.5% in 2013 to 13.4% in 2014). As state and local governments consider regulatory policies, understanding what smokers believe about e-cigarettes and how they value e-cigarettes is important. Using data from a convenience sample of Florida adult smokers (N=765), we investigated the value smokers place on specific attributes of e-cigarettes (availability of flavours, effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, ability to use e-cigarettes in public places) by asking smokers how much they would be willing to pay for e-cigarettes with and without each of these attributes. For cigarette-only and dual users, losing the ability to use an e-cigarette as a quit aid and losing the harm reduction of an e-cigarette significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. For cigarette-only users, not being able to use an e-cigarette indoors and losing flavours also significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. Our results suggest that smokers value multiple attributes of e-cigarettes. Our valuation measures also appear to align with smokers' beliefs about e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  2. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  3. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  4. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  5. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  6. Anticipated motivation for genetic testing among smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers: an exploratory qualitative study of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the public's interest in genetic testing related to cigarette smoking, comparing the public's motivations with researchers' intentions for this technology. Adult nonsmokers (n=463), former smokers (n=163), and current smokers (n=129) completed an online survey. Within a hypothetical scenario, respondents decided whether they desired genetic testing related to smoking and explained their decision making. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the interest in genetic testing by smoking history group. Inductive content analysis was used to investigate respondents' explanations for their testing decisions. Most nonsmokers (64%) and former smokers (58%) did not want genetic testing. While most current daily smokers were interested in testing (56%), most current occasional smokers were not (52%). Respondents' decision-making explanations were categorized into 3 major themes: Causality, Relevancy and Utility (e.g. personal benefits or harms). The use of causality, relevancy and utility explanations varied by smoking history. Notable perceived benefits of testing included recreation and altruism. Notable perceived harms included fear of fatalistic thoughts and concern about genetic discrimination. Interest in genetic testing was highest among current daily smokers, despite potential utility in other groups. Although respondents' motivations for testing paralleled researchers' intentions of tailoring smoking cessation therapies and increasing motivation to quit or abstain, respondents also raised alternative motivations and fears that healthcare providers would need to address. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2017-02-08

    The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38.0%) were never-smokers. The proportions of women (83.7% vs. 5.6%) and adenocarcinoma (89.8% vs. 44.9%) were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers. Significantly more never-smokers were diagnosed at a younger median age (65 vs. 68 years, P smokers. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (57.8% vs. 24.4%, P never-smokers, whereas Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations (5.8% vs. 9.6%, P = 0.021) were less frequently encountered in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Never-smokers showed longer survival after adjusting for the favorable effects of younger age, female sex, adenocarcinoma histology, better performance status, early stage disease, being asymptomatic at diagnosis, received antitumor treatment, and the presence of driver mutations (hazard ratio, 0.624; 95% confidence interval, 0.460-0.848; P = 0.003). More than one-third of the Korean patients with NSCLC were never-smokers. NSCLC in never-smokers had different clinical characteristics and major driver mutations and resulted in longer overall survival compared with NSCLC in ever-smokers.

  8. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Mieko; Takao, Tetsuya; Takao, Kyoichi; Koike, Fumihiko; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking...

  9. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  10. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  11. A randomized, double-blind, phase III study comparing two doses of erlotinib for second-line treatment of current smokers with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CurrentS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Egbert F; Wu, Yi-Long; Gervais, Radj; Zhou, Caicun; Felip, Enriqueta; Feng, Jifeng; Guclu, Salih Zeki; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Dorokhova, Elena; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Grange, Susan; Perez-Moreno, Pablo Diego; Mitchell, Lada; Reck, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Active smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have increased erlotinib metabolism versus non-smoking patients, which reduces exposure. Therefore, an increased erlotinib dose may be beneficial. The CurrentS study (NCT01183858) assessed efficacy and safety of 300mg erlotinib (E300) as second-line therapy in current smokers with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC versus the standard 150mg dose (E150). Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC (current smokers who failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to receive E150 or E300 until progression/death/unacceptable toxicity. progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints: overall survival (OS), disease control rate and safety. A total of 342 patients were screened; the intent-to-treat population comprised 159 E300 patients and 154 E150 patients. Median PFS was 7.0 versus 6.9 weeks with E300 versus E150, respectively (unstratified hazard ratio [HR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.33; unstratified log-rank P=0.671). Median OS was 6.8 months in both arms (unstratified HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.32; unstratified log-rank P=0.846). Overall, 89.2% (E300 arm) and 84.4% (E150 arm) experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE) of any grade (44.3% and 37%, respectively, experienced grade ≥3 AEs); AEs of special interest were reported in 67.7% and 47.4% of patients, respectively. E300 resulted in higher mean plasma concentrations versus E150, however, this did not improve efficacy. Despite the difference in erlotinib exposure, there was no evidence of an incremental efficacy benefit of a higher erlotinib dose versus the standard dose in this population of highly active smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences.

  13. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  14. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  15. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Mieko; Takao, Tetsuya; Takao, Kyoichi; Koike, Fumihiko; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t = 6.525, P vs. 2.09 ± 2.8, mean ± SD, non-smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r = .642, P = .001), but not smokers (r = .124, P = .584). This correlation difference was significant (Z = 1.96, P = .0496). Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers.

  16. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas: um estudo comparativo entre estudantes com sobrepeso, obesos e eutróficos Motivation of regular physical and sporting activities practice: a comparative study between obeses, overweight, and other students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo do presente estudo é comparar os níveis de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas de três diferentes grupos de alunos das escolas de ensino fundamental e médio do município de Erechim/RS: Obesos, com sobrepeso, e eutróficos. Para tanto, além das avaliações antropométricas - massa corporal e altura - foi aplicado o Inventário de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas (IMPRAFE-54 ( BALBINOTTI; BARBOSA, 2006 . Os resultados variaram consideravelmente em valores nominais e a principais dimensões motivacionais foram as seguintes: Obesos (saúde; sobrepeso (estética; saúde; prazer; eutróficos (saúde, estética, prazer. Na comparação inter-grupo (obesos; sobrepeso; eutróficos, a dimensão Estética se destacou na diferença entre os grupos de sobrepesos e obesos. Espera-se que esses resultados possam contribuir para a prática pedagógica da educação física escolar.The main intent of the present study is compare the motivation levels of regular physical activities practice of three differents scholars groups from elementary and middle schools of Erechim/RS municipal district: Obeses, overweight, and Eutrophic. Then, besides the anthropometry evaluations - corporal mass and height - was applied the "Inventário de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas" (IMPRAFE-54 ( BALBINOTTI; BARBOSA, 2006 . The results varied considerably in nominal values and the main motivation dimensions were as follows: Obeses (health; overweight (esthetics; health; joy; Eutrophic (health; esthetics; joy. In comparing inter-group (obese, overweight, Eutrophic, the Aesthetic dimension stood out in the difference between the groups of overweight and obese. Hope these results might contribute for the pedagogy practice in scholar physical education.

  18. Nicotine pharmacokinetic profiles of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2, cigarettes and nicotine gum in Japanese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf; Poux, Valerie; Lama, Nicola; Haziza, Christelle; Picavet, Patrick; Baker, Gizelle; Lüdicke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Two open-label randomized cross-over studies in Japanese smokers investigated the single-use nicotine pharmacokinetic profile of the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, cigarettes (CC) and nicotine replacement therapy (Gum). In each study, one on the regular and one on the menthol variants of the THS and CC, both using Gum as reference, 62 subjects were randomized to four sequences: Sequence 1: THS - CC (n = 22); Sequence 2: CC - THS (n = 22); Sequence 3: THS - Gum (n = 9); Sequence 4: Gum - THS (n = 9). Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in 16 blood samples collected over 24 h after single use. Maximal nicotine concentration (C max ) and area under the curve from start of product use to time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-last ) were similar between THS and CC in both studies, with ratios varying from 88 to 104% for C max and from 96 to 98% for AUC 0-last . Urge-to-smoke total scores were comparable between THS and CC. The THS nicotine pharmacokinetic profile was close to CC, with similar levels of urge-to-smoke. This suggests that THS can satisfy smokers and be a viable alternative to cigarettes for adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. As características dos alunos são determinantes para o adoecimento de professores: um estudo comparativo sobre a incidência de Burnout em professores do ensino regular e especial The student characteristics affect teachers' illnesses: a comparative study on the incidence of Burnout in regular and special education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Rogério da Silva

    2011-12-01

    in institutional planning and in institutional politics. The objective of the present study was to compare burnout among three groups of teachers who work in elementary grades: a 20 teachers who teach in regular school classrooms without the inclusion of students with special educational needs - RSI Group; b 20 teachers who teach in the regular classroom with special needs students - RCI Group; c 20 teachers who teach in resource classrooms (SR Group. The instruments used for data collection were the Maslach Burnout Inventory -MBI. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 and Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of the three groups. The results were organized in the form of figures and tables. In general, the results demonstrated that the groups presented relative similarity. The teachers from the SR Group obtained the best results in the evaluation of the three burnout scales when compared to the RSI Group and RCI Group, that is, there was a prevalence of answers in the lower levels of emotional exhaustion, high level of low personal accomplishment and low level for depersonalization. It is hoped that these results contribute to a better understanding of burnout in teachers from regular classrooms with or without students with educational special needs and/or to indicate new directions for investigation.

  20. Brain-volume changes in young and middle-aged smokers: a DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Jiang, Tao; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Shuangkun; Xiao, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have reported brain volume changes in smokers. However, the volume differences of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in young and middle-aged male smokers with different lifetime tobacco consumption (pack-years) remain uncertain. To examine the brain volume change, especially whether more pack-years smoking would be associated with smaller gray matter and white matter volume in young and middle-aged male smokers. We used a 3T MR scanner and performed Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL)-based voxel-based morphometry on 53 long-term male smokers (30.72 ± 4.19 years) and 53 male healthy non-smokers (30.83 ± 5.18 years). We separated smokers to light and heavy smokers by pack-years and compared brain volume between different smoker groups and non-smokers. And then we did analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) between smokers and non-smokers by setting pack-years as covariates. Light and heavy smokers all displayed smaller GM and WM volume than non-smokers and more obviously in heavy smokers. The main smaller areas in light and heavy smokers were superior temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus in GM and posterior cingulate, thalamus and midbrain in WM, in addition, we also observed more pack-years smoking was associated with some certain smaller GM and WM volumes by ANCOVA. Young and middle-aged male smokers had many smaller brain areas than non-smokers. Some of these areas' volume had negative correlation with pack-years, while some had not. These may due to different pathophysiological role of smokings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Attitudes towards screening for lung cancer among smokers and their non-smoking counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Nietert, Paul J; Zoller, James; Carter, Cindy; Bradford, David

    2007-02-01

    There has been resurgence of interest in lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. The implications of directing a screening programme at smokers has been little explored. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted. Demographics, certain clinical characteristics and attitudes about screening for lung cancer were ascertained. Responses of current, former and never smokers were compared. 2001 people from the US were interviewed. Smokers were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely than never smokers to be male, non-white, less educated, and to report poor health status or having had cancer, and less likely to be able to identify a usual source of healthcare. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were less likely to believe that early detection would result in a good chance of survival (p < 0.05). Smokers were less likely to be willing to consider computed tomography screening for lung cancer (71.2% (current smokers) v 87.6% (never smokers) odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.71). More never smokers as opposed to current smokers believed that the risk of disease (88% v 56%) and the accuracy of the test (92% v 71%) were important determinants in deciding whether to be screened (p < 0.05). Only half of the current smokers would opt for surgery for a screen-diagnosed cancer. The findings suggest that there may be substantial obstacles to the successful implementation of a mass-screening programme for lung cancer that will target cigarette smokers.

  2. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  3. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area–CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 μm) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 μm), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 μm, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 μm, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 μm, P smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  4. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  5. On your feet: protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of pole walking and regular walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Juliette O; Brown, Wendy J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2014-04-17

    Physical activity is associated with better physical and mental health in older adults. Pole walking is a form of walking which may have additional health benefits in older adults, because of the addition of hand held poles, and consequent upper limb involvement. However, few studies have examined the potential additional effects of pole walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults compared with walking. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a pole walking program with the effects of a walking program, on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, in older adults in assisted living facilities. Sixty men and women from assisted living communities over 65 years will be recruited from senior retirement facilities and randomized into a group based, pole walking program, or walking program. The pole walking group will use the Exerstrider method of pole walking. Total duration of the programs is 12 weeks, with three sessions per week, building from 20 minute to 30 minute sessions.The primary outcome is physical function, as measured by items from the Seniors Fitness Test and hand grip strength. Secondary outcomes include, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, joint pain, and quality of life. All outcomes will be assessed before and after the programs, using valid and reliable measures. The study will add to the evidence base for the effects of pole walking, compared with walking, on physical and psychosocial health and physical function, in healthy older adults. This will improve understanding about the feasibility of pole walking programs and its specific benefits in this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001127897.

  6. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in periodontitis: an exploratory study using traditional targeted techniques and a next-generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bizzarro, S.; Loos, B.G.; Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of two targeted techniques to an open-ended technique in periodontitis patients, differentiated on the basis of smoking habit. Materials & Methods Thirty periodontitis patients (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers) provided subgingival plaque samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon

  7. Why Don't More Smokers Switch to Using E-Cigarettes: The Views of Confirmed Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Dickson, Tiffany

    2017-06-16

    Whilst e-cigarettes have been characterised by Public Health England as being around 95% less harmful than combustible tobacco products, only a minority of current smokers (around 16% within the UK) are using these devices. In this paper we report the results of an online survey of 650 smokers in contact with a smokers' rights group in the UK. A total of 91% of the smokers surveyed were smoking on a daily basis. Fifty nine percent reported having used electronic nicotine delivery systems, the majority of whom reported having used e-cigarettes. Those smokers that had not used these devices principally explained this in terms of the pleasure they derived from smoking. The features smokers' liked most about e-cigarette had to do with the range of settings in which they could be used, the lack of an offensive smell associated with their use, the available flavours and the reduced level of harm. The elements which smokers liked least about e-cigarettes had to do with the vaping experience, the technology, the chemical nature of e-liquids and the complex technology that was associated with these devices. If a greater number of smokers are to be encouraged to take up e-cigarettes, it will be necessary not only to convey accurate information on the relative harm of these devices (compared to combustible tobacco products), but to ensure that they are able to be used in a wider range of settings than those within which smoking can currently occur and that the vaping experience more closely resembles the smoking experience.

  8. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  9. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.C. Neves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  10. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A

    2017-10-19

    Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  11. The association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors in African American young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilla, Cassandra; Cheney, Marshall K

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults have higher rates of smoking and chronic disease than Whites. Understanding the association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors could improve cessation strategies for young adult smokers. African American young adult smokers aged 18-29 years (n = 243) were administered surveys assessing smoking beliefs and behaviors. Participants indicated if they had physician-diagnosed asthma, diabetes, and/or hypertension. Responses were analyzed using logistic regression, comparing responses of those diagnosed with a chronic disease to those without that disease. Smokers with asthma were 2.20 times more likely to acknowledge smoking negatively affected their health yet were no more likely to make a quit attempt than those without asthma. Diabetic smokers were 4.10 times more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt, yet were 3.24 times more likely to disagree that they were in control of their smoking. Hypertensive smokers were more likely to be heavier smokers and were 3.12 times more likely to disagree that they would stop smoking if they knew it affected the health of others than those without hypertension. Smokers with chronic disease were less likely to be influenced to quit by their physician than smokers without. African American young adult smokers with a chronic disease often diverge from smokers without that chronic disease in smoking beliefs and behaviors. These may influence how young adults respond to cessation messages and programs.

  12. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2011-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current s...

  13. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. GAB2 Amplification in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer of Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Ji, Wonjun; Seo, Eul Ju; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Chang Min

    2017-11-01

    Lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) is typically found in smokers and has a very low incidence in non-smokers, indicating differences in the tumor biology of lung SCC in smokers and non-smokers. However, the specific mutations that drive tumor growth in non-smokers have not been identified. To identify mutations in lung SCC of non-smokers, we performed a genetic analysis using arrays comparative genomic hybridization (ArrayCGH). We analyzed 19 patients with lung SCC who underwent surgical treatment between April 2005 and April 2015. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and DNA was extracted from fresh frozen lung cancer specimens. All of copy number alterations from ArrayCGH were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) copy number variation (CNV) data of lung SCC. We examined the frequency of copy number changes according to the smoking status (non-smoker [n = 8] or smoker [n = 11]). We identified 16 significantly altered regions from ArrayCGH data, three gain and four loss regions overlapped with the TCGA lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) patients. Within these overlapped significant regions, we detected 15 genes that have been reported in the Cancer Gene census. We also found that the proto-oncogene GAB2 (11q14.1) was significantly amplified in non-smokers patients and vice versa in both ArrayCGH and TCGA data. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that GAB2 protein was relatively upregulated in non-smoker than smoker tissues (37.5% vs. 9.0%, P = 0.007). GAB2 amplification may have an important role in the development of lung SCC in non-smokers. GAB2 may represent a potential biomarker for lung SCC in non-smokers. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  16. Social influences on smoking in American workers: the role of the presence of smokers in the workplace and in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K; Holahan, Charles J; Li, Xiaoyin; Jung, Sooin

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence of smokers in the workplace and smokers in the home and current smoking status among employed men and women. Analysis of data from the second wave of the nationally representative Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2006). Sample of 627 currently employed men and women, aged 34 to 82 (M = 51), who had been regular cigarette smokers at some time. Survey items indexing presence of smokers in the respondents' immediate work area and home and their current smoking status. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, education, race, and job type. Examined together, smokers in the workplace (OR = 2.83) and smokers in the home (OR = 6.09) were uniquely associated with current smoking status. Moreover, smokers in the home reduced the association between smokers in the workplace and current smoking. The presence of smokers in the workplace was associated with a more than fourfold increase in current smoking among respondents with no smokers in the home, but was unrelated to current smoking among respondents with smokers in the home. Failure to consider the presence of smokers in the home significantly limits the potential impact of workplace smoking interventions.

  17. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like...... receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy...... controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present...

  18. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  19. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  20. Aging-Related Systemic Manifestations in COPD Patients and Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Marcos, Elisabeth; Margarit, Laurent; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Vervoitte, Laetitia; Hamidou, Leila; Frih, Lamia; Audureau, Etienne; Covali-Noroc, Ala; Andujar, Pascal; Saakashvili, Zakaria; Lino, Anne; Ghaleh, Bijan; Hue, Sophie; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Housset, Bruno; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Boczkowski, Jorge; Maitre, Bernard; Adnot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear. Objectives To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected for alveolar volume (KCO). Methods Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD). Measurements and Main Results Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI), and shorter telomere length (TL). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO. Conclusions Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening. PMID:25785739

  1. Aging-related systemic manifestations in COPD patients and cigarette smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear.To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume (KCO.Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD.Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV, lower bone mineral density (BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, and shorter telomere length (TL. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO.Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening.

  2. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  3. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  4. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  5. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Serum telomerase levels in smokers and smokeless tobacco users as Maras powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkuş, Fulsen; Atilla, Nurhan; Şimşek, Seçil; Kurutaş, Ergül; Samur, Anıl; Arpağ, Hüseyin; Kahraman, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no previous study regarding the serum telomerase levels in Maras powder users (MPUs) has been founded. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum telomerase levels in smokers and MPUs. The study was carried out with 98 patients (36 MPUs, 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers). Blood samples were collected, and after having measured the serum telomerase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the patients, comparison were made between the groups. It has been observed that the serum telomerase and MDA levels of smokers (pnon-smoker control subjects. In addition, the levels of serum telomerase and MDA were observed to be higher in the MPU group compared to those of the smoker group (psmokers. In this context, it may be useful to further measure and assess telomerase activity in such patients in order to better determine the harmful effects associated with these habits.

  8. Majority of never-smokers with airflow limitation do not have asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of individuals with airflow limitation are never-smokers. However, whether never-smokers with airflow limitation have undiagnosed asthma is unknown. We hypothesised that the majority of never-smokers with respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation but without...... known asthma have undiagnosed asthma by comparing characteristics and prognosis in never-smokers with airflow limitation and asthma (NS+AFL+A) with never-smokers with airflow limitation but without asthma (NS+AFL-A). METHODS: Among 94 079 participants aged 20-100 years from the general population, 39...... 102 (42%) were never-smokers. In this group, 13 719 (35%) reported to have respiratory symptoms of whom 1610 (12%) had airflow limitation. We investigated characteristics and risk of complications (asthma or COPD exacerbations, pneumonias and all-cause mortality) and comorbidities (lung cancer...

  9. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-05-24

    We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20-80 years (mean = 58.8 +/- 14.7 years) and 8-65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 +/- 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; 20 min to smokers (2-4; 3-8; >2 hrs to smokers (mean: 3.58 +/- 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p non-smokers (2.35 +/- 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 +/- 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 +/- 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 +/- 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar.

  10. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  12. Factors Associated with Short-Term Transitions of Nondaily Smokers: Socio-demographic Characteristics and Other Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652

  13. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  14. Comparison of anxiety between smokers and nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Rayens, Mary K; An, Kyungeh; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn; Garvin, Bonnie J; Moser, Debra K

    2006-11-01

    Increased anxiety correlates with increased complications after acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety levels and use of anxiolytic agents have not been compared between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized because of acute myocardial infarction. To compare anxiety level, sociodemographic factors, and clinical variables between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction and to examine predictors of use of beta-blockers and anxiolytic agents among smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary data analysis of a prospective multisite study on anxiety in 181 smokers and 351 nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety was measured by using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the anxiety subscale of the Basic Symptom Inventory within 72 hours of admission. Smokers reported higher anxiety levels than nonsmokers reported on both anxiety scales. Female smokers reported the highest anxiety and peak pain levels of all, yet women were the least likely to receive anxiolytic agents. Smoking status was not a predictor for anxiety level when sex, peak pain, use of beta-blockers in the hospital, and age were controlled for. However, smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent and 60% more likely to receive a beta-blocker in the emergency department, and smokers were 80% more likely than nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent during hospitalization when these variables were controlled. Older female smokers are at risk for complications because they are older than their male counterparts and less likely to receive beta-blockers and antianxiety medications in the emergency department.

  15. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

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    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  16. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  17. Differences in P50 and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex between male smokers and non-smokers with first episode schizophrenia without medical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lisheng; Chen Xingshi; Chen Meijuan; Tang Yunxiang; Wang Jijun; Zhang Mingdao; Lou Feiying

    2014-01-01

    Backgorund Nicotine may improve schizophrenia patient's cognitive deficit symptoms.This study was to explore the chronic effects of smoking on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and P50 in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES).Methods The event-related potentials (ERP) recording and analysis instrument made by Brain Products,Germany,was used to detect PPI and P50 in 49 male FES patients (FES group,n=21 for smokers and n=28 for non-smokers) and 43 normal male controls (control group,n=19 for smokers and n=24 for non-smokers).Results Compared with normal controls,the FES group had prolonged PPI latency when elicited by single stronger stimulus (P <0.05); the FES group had prolonged PPI latency and increased PPI amplitude (P <0.05,0.01) when elicited by weak and strong stimuli.The FES group had lower PPI inhibition rate than normal controls (P <0.05).Compared with normal controls,the FES group had increased P50-S2 amplitude and increased amplitude ratio S2/S1 (both P <0.05).In the control group,the smokers had a tendency of increase in P50-S2 amplitude (P >0.05) and shorter P50-S2 latency (P <0.05) than the non-smokers.The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).In the FES group,the smokers had higher P50-S1 amplitude,shorter P50-S2 latency,and higher amplitude ratio S2/S1 than the non-smokers (P <0.05,0.01).The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).Conclusions There is obvious PPI and P50 deficits in schizophrenic patients.However,these deficits are relatively preserved in the smokers compared with the non-smokers,which suggests that long-term smoking might partially improve the sensory gating in schizophrenic patients.Whether this conclusion can be deduced to female patients requires further follow-ups.

  18. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  19. The perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with severe mental illness participating in a smoking cessation intervention: gender differences and comparison to smokers without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with psychosis, including potential gender differences and comparisons to smokers in the general population. Data were collected from 200 people diagnosed with psychosis participating in a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention for smoking cessation and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in people with severe mental illness. Results were compared with both treatment and non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. Male and female smokers with psychosis generally had similar perceived risks and benefits of quitting. Females rated it significantly more likely that they would experience weight gain and negative affect upon quitting than males diagnosed with psychosis. Compared with smokers in the general population also seeking smoking cessation treatment, this sample of smokers with psychosis demonstrated fewer gender differences and lower ratings of perceived risks and benefits of quitting. The pattern of risk and benefit ratings in smokers diagnosed with psychosis was similar to those of non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. These results increase our understanding of smoking in people with severe mental illness, and can directly inform smoking interventions to maximise successful abstinence for this group of smokers. For female smokers with psychosis, smoking cessation interventions need to address concerns regarding weight gain and negative affect. Intervention strategies aimed at enhancing beliefs about the benefits of quitting smoking for both male and female smokers with psychosis are necessary. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Brickner, Orit; Lerman, Hedva; Greemland, Mazal; Bloch, Miki; Lester, Hava; Chisin, Roland; Mechoulam, Raphael; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Freedman, Nanette; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2008-01-01

    Twelve regular users of marijuana underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), one while subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, the other without THC. In both sessions, a virtual reality maze task was performed during the FDG uptake period. When subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, regular marijuana smokers hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than without THC. Compared to results without THC, 17 mg THC increased brain metabolism during task performance in areas that are associated with motor coordination and attention in the middle and medial frontal cortices and anterior cingulate, and reduced metabolism in areas that are related to visual integration of motion in the occipital lobes. These findings suggest that in regular marijuana users, the immediate effects of marijuana may impact on cognitive-motor skills and brain mechanisms that modulate coordinated movement and driving.

  1. Detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens in smokers and never-smokers with chronic periodontitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Mariana R; Rosa, Ecinele F; Lourenção, Daniele S; Inoue, Gislene; Gomes, Elaine F; De Micheli, Giorgio; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Hirata, Rosário D C; Hirata, Mario H; Pannuti, Claudio M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to compare the presence and number of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microbiota of smokers versus never-smokers with chronic periodontitis and matched probing depths (PDs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty current smokers and 40 never-smokers, matched for age, sex, and mean PD of sampling site, were included in this investigation. A full-mouth periodontal examination was performed, and a pooled subgingival plaque sample was collected from the deepest site in each quadrant of each participant. To confirm smoking status, expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured with a CO monitor. The presence and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were determined using RT-PCR. Smokers had greater overall mean PD (P = 0.001) and attachment loss (P = 0.006) and fewer bleeding on probing sites (P = 0.001). An association was observed between smoking status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001). The counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001), P. gingivalis (P = 0.042), and T. forsythia (P <0.001) were significantly higher in smokers. Smokers showed significantly greater amounts of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia than never-smokers. There was a significant association between smoking and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  2. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Franceschini, Juliana; Jamnik, Sergio; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy

    2011-01-01

    It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer. All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285) between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current) were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable), gender (female vs. male), smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker), the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable), histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma), AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging), and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support). Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32%) and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%). Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2). The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  3. Buccal swab, a minimally invasive method for the screening of oral cancer in active smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyatmi; Subiyantoro, P.; Indrakila, S.

    2018-05-01

    Smoking is the main risk factor for developing oral cancer. The previous study showed that there was a strong correlation between the length of smoking with the risk to develop oral cancer. Early detection of epithelial changes of oral mucosa will be a good prevention of the incidence of oral cancer among active smokers. This study evaluated the potential use of buccal swab for the screening of early signs of malignancy in active smokers. This study involved 80 participants including those who were smokers and non smokers. The buccal swab was conducted using sterile cytobrush. An epithelial smear was made from the buccal swab and stained with Papanicolaou’s technique. An cytomorphometric analysis was conducted by comparing the ratio of nuclear cell to cytoplasmic diameter (ND/CD) between the two groups. The mean of ND observed in this study were 8.963µ for active smokers and 7.991µ for non smokers groups. While the mean of CD were 58.249µ and 63.473µ for active smoker and non-smoker respectively. The mean of ND/CD ratio were 0.156 for active smokers and 0.129 for non smokers groups. This study detected a significant difference on the ND/CD ratio among active smokers vs non smokers (p<0.0001 95% CI = -0.040 – -0.014). In conclusion buccal swab could be a routine procedure to obtain sample for identification of changes in cells morphology to screen an early development of oral cancer.

  4. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  5. Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-10-01

    Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Three locations in Sydney, Australia. 63 smokers and 75 non-smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18-24, 35-44, 55-64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Semi-structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de-legitimised in conversation. Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self-evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

  6. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  8. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  9. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  11. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  12. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  13. Clinical and microbiological effects of mechanical instrumentation and local antimicrobials during periodontal supportive therapy in aggressive periodontitis patients: smoker versus non-smoker patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Farina, Roberto; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2010-11-01

    To compare the clinical and microbiological effects of ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation (UMI) associated to home-care use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF(2) )-containing mouthrinse and toothpaste in smoker and non-smoker patients affected by generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP) during a recall session of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Thirteen smokers and 25 non-smokers G-AgP patients enrolled in an SPT programme received a single session of UMI associated with home-care use of AmF/SnF(2) -containing mouthrinse and toothpaste. Clinical and microbiological parameters were assessed pre-treatment, at 6 and 12 weeks post-treatment. In both groups, UMI plus AmF/SnF(2) -implemented oral hygiene use determined a significant decrease of total bacterial counts, with non-smokers exhibiting a lower count compared with smokers at 12 weeks. No significant differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in the counts of total pathogens and red complex species at each observation interval. Clinically, a significant reduction of supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation and probing pocket depth was similarly observed in both groups. A combined mechanical/chemical plaque control approach based on UMI and the use of AmF/SnF(2) agents resulted in the reduction of supragingival plaque deposits, gingival inflammation and subgingival periodontal pathogens in G-AgP patients during SPT, with no substantial difference between smokers and non-smokers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schepis, Ty S; Lejuez, C W; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. We modified the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted mean number of pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p=.05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD=3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD=2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  16. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  17. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazed, Farzad; Burnham, Ellen L; Vandivier, R William; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Shyamsundar, Murali; Hamid, Umar; Abbott, Jason; Thickett, David R; Matthay, Michael A; McAuley, Daniel F; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown. To assess pathways of lung injury and inflammation in smokers and non-smokers with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation using established biomarkers. We measured plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury in smokers and non-smokers in two distinct cohorts of healthy volunteers, one unstimulated (n=20) and one undergoing 50 μg LPS inhalation (n=30). After LPS inhalation, cigarette smokers had increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability as measured by BAL total protein, compared with non-smokers (median 274 vs 208 μg/mL, p=0.04). Smokers had exaggerated inflammation compared with non-smokers, with increased BAL interleukin-1β (p=0.002), neutrophils (p=0.02), plasma interleukin-8 (p=0.003), and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-8 (p=0.006). Alveolar epithelial injury after LPS was more severe in smokers than non-smokers, with increased plasma (p=0.04) and decreased BAL (p=0.02) surfactant protein D. Finally, smokers had decreased BAL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p<0.0001) with increased soluble VEGF receptor-1 (p=0.0001). Cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to ARDS through an abnormal response to a 'second hit,' with increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, exaggerated inflammation, increased epithelial injury and endothelial dysfunction. LPS inhalation may serve as a useful experimental model for evaluation of the acute pulmonary effects of existing and new tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. One cigarette is one too many: evaluating a light smoker-targeted media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, John P; Johns, Michael; Mbamalu, Ijeoma; Auer, Kari; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2015-07-01

    Light smokers represent an increasing share of adult smokers in various parts of the world including New York City (NYC). Since 2007, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has aired hard-hitting antitobacco media campaigns paired with time-limited nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) giveaways. We evaluated an original antitobacco media campaign, developed to increase awareness of smoking risks and encourage cessation service use among light smokers in NYC. We compared cessation service request volume during the campaign to historical periods without ads targeting light smokers. We used a cross-sectional online panel survey to assess the ad's perceived effectiveness and its impact on learning something new, quit intentions and concern for smoking-related health risks among non-daily, light daily and heavy daily smokers. The proportion of light smokers among smokers requesting cessation services increased 50% (from 13% to 20%) relative to previous time-limited NRT giveaways. Compared to heavy daily smokers, non-daily (aOR: 1.95, phealth risks after viewing the ad. Perceived effectiveness of the ad did not differ by smoker type. This study provides evidence that light smokers were receptive to a targeted antitobacco message encouraging use of cessation services. The campaign appears to have been particularly effective in increasing smoking-related health concerns in this group. The lack of difference in perceived ad effectiveness by smoker type suggests the potential to develop such ads without sacrificing broad impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to "common sense" (76.4%), the news (39.2%) and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, though almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.

  20. Predictors of retention in a multicomponent treatment for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Coutiño

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors that promote or hinder retention of smokers in treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was the identification of variables that predict retention of smokers who received a multicomponent treatment against smoking. Method: Participants (n = 79 simultaneously received pharmacological and psychological treatment, including an intervention phase prior to the date of smoking cessation. They were evaluated periodically in their abstinence, depressive and anxious symptoms, and were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions (nicotine patch, bupropion or nicotine patch + bupropion. Eighteen variables were grouped into four categories (demographic, consumption pattern, mood and treatment. Data were analyzed using student's t test and X2, for inclusion into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Results indicate that age of onset of regular tobacco consumption, secondary education and bupropion pharmacological treatment are significant in relation to the retention of smokers to smoking treatment. Discussion: The reported “age of onset” correlates with treatment retention (OR = 1.545, 95 % CI = 1.175-2.032. This variable has not previously been reported in the literature, and taking it into account in the design of prevention and treatment for smoking could increase their success.

  1. Smokers who report smoking but do not consider themselves smokers: a phenomenon in need of further attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Zablocki, Rong W; Edland, Steven D; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2015-07-01

    Heightened stigma surrounding the action of smoking may decrease the likelihood that individuals who engage in smoking identify with the label 'smoker'. Non-identifying smokers (NIS) may undermine accurate smoking prevalence estimates and can be overlooked by tobacco control efforts. We sought to characterise NIS in a cross-sectional study using a sample representative of the population of adults (>18 years) in California who reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, smoking at least some days and at least once in the last 30 days (n=1698). Individuals were considered NIS if they met the above criteria and answered 'no' when asked if they 'considered themselves a smoker'. We estimate that 395 928 (SD=54 126) NIS were living in California in 2011 (a prevalence of 12.3% of all smokers in California). The odds of being NIS were higher among non-daily smokers who were previously daily smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=7.63, 95% CI 2.67 to 21.8) or were never previously daily smokers (AOR=7.14, CI 2.78 to 18.3) compared with daily smokers. The odds of being an NIS were also higher among those who did not believe they were addicted to cigarettes (AOR=3.84, CI 1.68 to 9.22), were older than 65 years (vs less than 45 years) (AOR=3.35, CI 1.16 to 9.75) or were from ethnic minorities including Black and Asian (vs non-Hispanic white) (AOR=3.16, CI 1.19 to 8.49). Smoking surveillance should restructure selection criteria to more accurately account for NIS in areas with high stigma toward smokers. Targeted interventions may be needed for NIS including educating healthcare providers to enquire more deeply into smoking habits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  3. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers; Retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018 and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001 was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  4. Changes in Doppler flow velocity waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks gestation among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, E M; North, R A; Chan, E; Stone, P R; Dekker, G A; McCowan, L M E

    2009-09-01

    To compare umbilical and uterine artery Doppler waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks between smokers and nonsmokers. Prospective cohort study. Auckland, New Zealand and Adelaide, Australia. Nulliparous participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Self-reported smoking status was determined at 15 +/- 1 weeks' gestation. At the 20 +/- 1 week anatomy scan, uterine and umbilical Doppler resistance indices (RI) and fetal measurements were compared between smokers and nonsmokers. Umbilical and mean uterine artery Doppler RI values, abnormal umbilical and uterine Doppler (RI > 90th centile) and fetal biometry. Among the 2459 women, 248 (10%) were smokers. Smokers had higher umbilical RI [0.75 (SD 0.06) versus 0.73 (0.06), P gestation, women who smoke have higher umbilical artery RI, a surrogate measure for an abnormal placental villous vascular tree. This may contribute to later fetal growth restriction among smokers. Further research is needed to explore the clinical significance of these findings.

  5. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  6. [Systemic inflammatory profile of smokers with and without COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosrane, Y; Bougrida, M; Alloui, A S; Martani, M; Rouabah, L; Bourahli, M K; Mehdioui, H; Ben Saad, H

    2017-09-01

    Studies comparing the systemic inflammatory profiles of smokers with and without COPD present discordant findings. To compare the systemic inflammatory profile of smokers with and without COPD. This is a cross-sectional comparative study. Two groups of active smokers of more than 10 pack-years were included: 56 consecutives stable COPD (postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVCnon-COPD (postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC≥0.70). Smoking and clinical, anthropometric and spirometric data were noted. The following blood biomarkers were identified: leukocytes, hemoglobin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). According to the levels (normal/abnormal) of these markers, two groups of smokers were formed. Quantitative and qualitative data were expressed, respectively, as means±SD and percentages. Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group was older (56±12 vs. 65±8 years) and had a higher smoking consumption (30±18 vs. 52±31 pack-years). Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group had higher values of CRP (2.06±1.24 vs. 11.32±11.03mg/L), of ESR (9.59±8.29 vs. 15.96±11.56), of IL-6 (9.28±4.69 vs. 20.27±5.31ng/L) and of TNF-α (18.38±7.98ng/L vs. 8.62±3.72ng/L). Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group included higher percentages of smokers with elevated CRP (0 % vs. 32 %), with leukocytosis (6 % vs. 16 %), with higher levels of IL-6 (81 % vs. 98 %) or TNF-α (91 % vs. 100 %). Smokers with COPD, compared to smokers free from COPD, have a marked systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Lange, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. We recruited 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers in systemic circulation. Furthermore, we assessed prospectively the risk of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, pneumonias, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality during 4.5 years of follow-up. Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers without asthma, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for asthma exacerbations were 11 (95% confidence interval: 5.8-22) in never-smokers, 13 (6.2-29) in former smokers, and 18 (8.2-39) in current smokers. The corresponding values for other endpoints were, respectively, 8.9 (2.1-38), 23 (8.8-58), and 36 (12-105) for COPD exacerbations; 1.5 (0.9-2.2), 1.6 (1.0-2.4), and 2.4 (1.6-3.7) for pneumonias; 0.6 (0.1-5.1), 4.0 (1.3-12), and 13 (4.3-41) for lung cancer; 1.2 (0.9-1.6), 1.5 (1.2-2.0), and 2.0 (1.4-2.9) for ischemic heart disease; 1.4 (0.9-2.1), 1.2 (0.8-1.9), and 3.0 (1.7-5.3) for ischemic stroke; and 0.9 (0.6-1.3), 1.5 (1.1-2.0), and 2.7 (1.9-3.7) for all-cause mortality. Never-smokers with asthma had an increased risk of asthma and COPD exacerbations, and possibly pneumonias. Importantly, the risks for lung cancer

  8. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T.; Thomas, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes (‘FSC cigarettes’) that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk. PMID:28751788

  9. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Milne, David; Antoniou, Katerina M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U.; Hansel, Trevor T.; Hansell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV 1 ; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  10. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  11. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  12. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  13. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  14. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  15. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  16. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  17. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  18. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  19. Survival among Never-Smokers with Lung Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément-Duchêne, Christelle; Stock, Shannon; Xu, Xiangyan; Chang, Ellen T; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; West, Dee W; Wakelee, Heather A; Gould, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes have been observed among current, former, and never-smokers with lung cancer, but most prior studies included few never-smokers and were not prospective. We used data from a large, prospective study of lung cancer care and outcomes in the United States to compare characteristics of never-smokers and smokers with lung cancer and to examine survival among the never-smokers. Smoking status at diagnosis was determined by self-report and survival was determined from medical records and cancer registries, with follow-up through June 2010 or later. Cox regression was used to examine the association between smoking and survival, and to identify predictors of survival among never-smokers. Among 3,410 patients with lung cancer diagnosed between September 1, 2003 and October 14, 2005 who completed a baseline patient survey, there were 274 never-smokers (8%), 1,612 former smokers (47%), 1,496 current smokers or smokers who quit recently (44%), and 28 with missing information about smoking status (Never-smokers appeared more likely than former and current/recent smokers to be female and of Asian or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and to have adenocarcinoma histology, fewer comorbidities, private insurance, and higher income and education. Compared with never-smokers, the adjusted hazard of death from any cause was 29% higher among former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.55), and 39% higher among current/recent smokers (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.67). Factors predicting worse overall survival among never-smokers included Hispanic ethnicity, severe comorbidity, undifferentiated histology, and regional or distant stage. Never-smoking Hispanics appeared more likely to have regional or advanced disease at diagnosis and less likely to undergo surgical resection, although these differences were not statistically significant. Never-smokers with lung cancer are more likely than ever-smokers

  20. Depression and smoking characteristics among HIV-positive smokers in Russia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Karen E; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y; Tindle, Hilary A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2018-01-01

    Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.

  1. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  2. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  3. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  4. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  5. Differences in Subjective Experiences to First Use of Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes in a National Sample of Young Adult Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-08-17

    Menthol has been hypothesized to ease the harshness of cigarette smoke. Thus, sensory experiences at first cigarette use may be one mechanism by which menthol facilitates progression to regular smoking. This study examined differences in subjective experiences to first use of a menthol vs. non-menthol cigarette among new young adult smokers. Data were drawn from Waves 5-8 of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, a national sample of 18-34 year olds assessed every six months. Analyses included a subset of young adult current smokers (n=251) who initiated smoking in the past six months. Subjective responses to first cigarette use were assessed across menthol and non-menthol initiators in bivariate analyses and adjusted models controlling for smoking correlates. Fifty-two percent of new young adult smokers used a menthol cigarette at first use. First use of a menthol cigarette was higher in those aged 18-24 (vs. 25-34). Most Black smokers (93.1%) were menthol initiators compared to 43.9% of White smokers. More than half of menthol and non-menthol initiates felt relaxed or calm, dizzy, lightheaded, liking the taste and a rush or buzz at first use. Menthol initiators were less likely in bivariate and multivariable analyses to experience feeling nauseated at first use (AOR=0.45; p=.020) compared to non-menthol initiators. While few differences were found between menthol and non-menthol initiators in their subjective experiences, fewer menthol initiates felt nauseated at first cigarette use. Future research needs to identify additional mechanisms linking menthol initiation to smoking progression. Menthol initiators were more likely to be younger (18-24 vs. 25-34) and Black (vs. White) compared to non-menthol initiators. Our finding that menthol initiators were less likely to feel nauseated at first cigarette use compared to non-menthol initiators, suggests that menthol may reduce aversion to early cigarette use among young smokers and thus has the potential to

  6. Reduction of physical activity in daily life and its determinants in smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Bisca, Gianna; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Zabatiero, Juliana; Proença, Mahara; Kovelis, Demétria; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In smokers without airflow obstruction, detailed, objective and controlled quantification of the level of physical inactivity in daily life has never been performed. This study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in daily life in adult smokers without airflow obstruction in comparison with matched non-smokers, and to investigate the determinants for daily physical activity in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 50 (39-54) years) and 50 non-smokers (aged 48 (40-53) years) matched for gender, age, anthropometric characteristics, educational level, employment status and seasons of the year assessment period were cross-sectionally assessed regarding their daily physical activity with a step counter, besides assessment of lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-reported comorbidities carbon monoxide level, nicotine dependence and smoking habits. When compared with non-smokers, smokers walked less in daily life (7923 ± 3558 vs 9553 ± 3637 steps/day, respectively), presented worse lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Multiple regression analyses identified functional exercise capacity, Borg fatigue, self-reported motivation/physical activity behaviour and cardiac disease as significant determinants of number of steps/day in smokers (partial r(2)  = 0.10, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.05; b = 15, -997, 1207 and -2330 steps/day, respectively; overall fit of the model R(2)  = 0.38; P smokers without airflow obstruction presented reduced level of daily physical activity. Functional exercise capacity, extended fatigue sensation, aspects of motivation/physical activity behaviour and self-reported cardiac disease are significant determinants of physical activity in daily life in smokers. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Lopes Santoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among neversmokers with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285 between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable, gender (female vs. male, smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker, the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable, histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma, AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging, and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support. RESULTS: Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32% and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%. Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2. The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  8. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  9. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  10. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all Psmokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  11. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal

  13. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  14. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  15. Support for e-cigarette policies: a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Partos, Timea R; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette regulations are the topic of extensive debate. Approaches vary worldwide, and limited evidence is available on public support for specific policies or what influences support. The present study aimed to assess smokers' and ex-smokers' support for 3 e-cigarette policies: (1) equal or higher availability relative to cigarettes, (2) advertising, (3) use in smoke-free places, and to assess changes in support over time and associations with respondent characteristics. Smokers and ex-smokers (n=1848) provided 3279 observations over 2 waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal web-based survey in Great Britain. Multivariable logistic regressions fitted using generalised estimating equations assessed change in policy support over time, and associations between support and demographics (age, gender and income), smoking and e-cigarette use status, nicotine knowledge and perceived relative harm. Equal or higher relative availability was supported by 79% in 2013 and 76% in 2014; advertising by 66% and 56%, respectively; neither change was significant in adjusted analyses. Support for use in smoke-free places decreased significantly from 55% to 45%. Compared with ex-smokers, smokers were more likely to support advertising and use in smoke-free places. Respondents using e-cigarettes, those who perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, and those with more accurate knowledge about nicotine were more likely to support all 3 policies. Less restrictive e-cigarette policies were more likely to be supported by e-cigarette users, and respondents who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes, or knew that nicotine was not a main cause of harm to health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Why Don’t More Smokers Switch to Using E-Cigarettes: The Views of Confirmed Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Dickson, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Whilst e-cigarettes have been characterised by Public Health England as being around 95% less harmful than combustible tobacco products, only a minority of current smokers (around 16% within the UK) are using these devices. In this paper we report the results of an online survey of 650 smokers in contact with a smokers’ rights group in the UK. A total of 91% of the smokers surveyed were smoking on a daily basis. Fifty nine percent reported having used electronic nicotine delivery systems, the majority of whom reported having used e-cigarettes. Those smokers that had not used these devices principally explained this in terms of the pleasure they derived from smoking. The features smokers’ liked most about e-cigarette had to do with the range of settings in which they could be used, the lack of an offensive smell associated with their use, the available flavours and the reduced level of harm. The elements which smokers liked least about e-cigarettes had to do with the vaping experience, the technology, the chemical nature of e-liquids and the complex technology that was associated with these devices. If a greater number of smokers are to be encouraged to take up e-cigarettes, it will be necessary not only to convey accurate information on the relative harm of these devices (compared to combustible tobacco products), but to ensure that they are able to be used in a wider range of settings than those within which smoking can currently occur and that the vaping experience more closely resembles the smoking experience. PMID:28621763

  17. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  18. Use of spirometry in detecting airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.H.; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Zaidi, S.M.A.; Khan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To detect spirometric abnormalities in asymptomatic smokers in relation to duration of smoking. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PNS Shifa from Oct 2006 to June 2007. Subjects and Methods: Hundred individuals were included in this study who fulfilled the required criteria. Spirometry was done after briefing the patient about the procedure. Smokers were divided into two groups. Group I (5 to 9 pack years) and group II (= 10 pack years). All relevant information were recorded on Performa (Annex-A). The data was analyzed through SPSS-10, in terms of Mean +- SD (Standard Deviation) for numeric response variables and independent sample T test was applied to compare significance of proportion for numeric response variables at p < 0.05. Categorical variables were compared by applying Chi-square test at p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Significant statistical difference was found between the mean age in the two groups with p-value of 0.011. This may be due to the longer duration of smoking history in Group II. Strong association was found between number of cigarette smoked and the pattern of airway obstruction as significant statistical difference of airway obstruction and early airflow limitation was found between the two groups of smokers at p value of 0.004. Conclusion: There is strong association between duration of smoking and development of airway obstruction even before the smoker become symptomatic. (author)

  19. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  20. Helping adolescents quit smoking:a needs assessment of current and former teen smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Suzanne; Boberg, Eric; Patten, Christi; Offord, Kenneth; Gaie, Martha; Schensky, Ann; Gustafson, David H; Dornelas, Ellen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the survey responses of 280 current and former adolescent smokers for what they perceived would be helpful (or what had helped) in quitting smoking. The survey was developed from focus groups and was structured using Prochaska and DiClementes Stages of Change health behavior framework. Results showed that former smokers and current smokers in the preparation stage of change shared beliefs about the importance of interpersonal support, those who were contemplating a quit decision worried about obstacles and internal issues, and current smokers not thinking about quitting focused on external rewards. The findings that significant differences exist based on the adolescent smokers Stage of Change imply that this framework can be appropriately applied to this context.

  1. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD. Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, deprived smokers (n = 15, age range 20-45 years and healthy non-smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias.

  2. Attentional bias in smokers: exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Voogd, Hubert; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that smokers have an attentional bias for pictorial smoking cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether smokers also have an attentional bias for dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies and therefore fixate more quickly, more often and for longer periods of time on dynamic smoking cues than non-smokers. By drawing upon established methods for assessing attentional biases for pictorial cues, we aimed to develop a new method for assessing attentional biases for dynamic smoking cues. We examined smokers' and non-smokers' eye movements while watching a movie clip by using eye-tracking technology. The sample consisted of 16 smoking and 17 non-smoking university students. Our results confirm the results of traditional pictorial attentional bias research. Smokers initially directed their gaze more quickly towards smoking-related cues (p = 0.01), focusing on them more often (p = 0.05) and for a longer duration (p = 0.01) compared with non-smokers. Thus, smoking cues in movies directly affect the attention of smokers. These findings indicate that the effects of dynamic smoking cues, in addition to other environmental smoking cues, need to be taken into account in smoking cessation therapies in order to increase successful smoking cessation and to prevent relapses.

  3. Implicit and explicit selective attention to smoking cues in smokers indexed by brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2011-04-01

    Substance use disorders are characterized by cognitive processing biases, such as automatically detecting and orienting attention towards drug-related stimuli. However, it is unclear how, when and what kind of attention (i.e. implicit, explicit) interacts with the processing of these stimuli. In addition, it is unclear whether smokers are hypersensitive to emotionally significant cues in general or to smoking-related cues in particular. The present event-related potential study aimed to enhance insight in drug-related processing biases by manipulating attention for smoking and other motivationally relevant (emotional) cues in smokers and non-smokers using a visual oddball task. Each of the stimulus categories served as a target (explicit attention; counting) or as a non-target (implicit attention; oddball) category. Compared with non-smokers, smokers' P300 (350-600 ms) was enhanced to smoking pictures under both attentional conditions. P300 amplitude did not differ between groups in response to positive, negative, and neutral cues. It can be concluded from this study that attention manipulation affects the P300 differently in smokers and non-smokers. Smokers display a specific bias to smoking-related cues, and this bias is present during both explicit and implicit attentional processing. Overall, it can be concluded that both explicit and implicit attentional processes appear to play an important role in drug-related processing bias.

  4. Trends in Daily Cannabis Use Among Cigarette Smokers: United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Pacek, Lauren R; Copeland, Jan; Moeller, Scott J; Dierker, Lisa; Weinberger, Andrea; Gbedemah, Misato; Zvolensky, Michael J; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-01-01

    To estimate changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014 in the United States. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a nationally representative cross-sectional study conducted annually among persons aged 12 years and older in the United States. Daily cannabis use occurs nearly exclusively among nondaily and daily cigarette smokers compared with former and never smokers (8.03%, 9.01%, 2.79%, 1.05%, respectively). Daily cannabis use increased over the past decade among both nondaily (8.03% [2014] vs 2.85% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (9.01% [2014]; 4.92% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (2.79% [2014] vs 0.98% [2002]; linear trend P smokers in the United States. Daily cannabis use increased among current, former, and never smokers over the past decade, with particularly rapid increases among youth and female cigarette smokers. Future research is needed to monitor the observed increase in daily cannabis use, especially among youths and adults who smoke cigarettes.

  5. Quitline utilization rates of African-American and white smokers: the California experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Gardiner, Phillip; Cummins, Sharon; Anderson, Christopher; Wong, Shiushing; Cowling, David; Gamst, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    To compare the utilization rate of a statewide tobacco quitline by African-American smokers to that of white smokers. Observational study of 18 years of state quitline operation in California. Subjects were 61,096 African-American and 279,042 white smokers who called the quitline from August 1992 to December 2009. Data from six California Tobacco Surveys, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 were also used. Callers' answers to the question how they heard about the quitline were grouped into four categories: media, health care providers, friends/family, and others. The averaged annual quitline call volume for each ethnic group was divided by the total number of smokers in that group, based on California Tobacco Surveys, to produce the annual quitline utilization rate. In five out of six periods of comparison, African-American smokers had a higher annual utilization rate than white smokers. The odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 1.44 to 2.40 (all p smokers were significantly more likely to call the state quitline than white smokers were. Promoting the quitline as part of antismoking media campaigns can help reduce disparity in cessation service utilization.

  6. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  7. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  8. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  9. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Stippekohl

    Full Text Available An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users whereas others are discontent (dissonant users. Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant

  10. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus H; Walter, Bertram; Kagerer, Sabine; Mucha, Ronald F; Pauli, Paul; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers

  11. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  12. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  13. Comparison of responses of salivary antioxidant markers to exhaustive aerobic exercise in smoker and non-smoker young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Simaei, Esmat; Taati, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is known as a serious global public health problem, and is also an important risk factor for oral diseases and cause of oxidative stress and cellular damage. Saliva is the first biological medium encountered during inhalation of cigarette smoke. Additionally, previous studies demonstrated that exhaustive aerobic exercise could increase oxidative stress and cellular damage. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare the response of salivary antioxidants (peroxides (POX), uric acid (UA), 1-1dipheny l-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) of exhaustive aerobic exercise between healthy smoker and non-smoker young girls. Ten smokers and 10 non-smokers were enrolled for this study. Subjects performed a progressive cycle ergometer with an initial load of 50 W that was increased 50Wevery 3 minutes at the speed of 60rpm, until exhaustion. Un-stimulated saliva samples were collected before, immediately and 1 hour after exercise. The results showed that POX activity and UA concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise in both groups when compared to the pre exercise values (Pexercise (PAerobic exercise caused a decrease in salivary DPPH activity immediately and 1 h after exercise in both groups (Pexercise (Paerobic exercise was induced oxidative stress in both groups but oxidative stress in smoking females was greater.

  14. Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Mikołaj; Janik, Maciej K; Wachsmann, Agnieszka; Chrząstek-Janik, Olga; Koziej, Mateusz; Bajkowski, Mateusz; Maga, Paweł; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits. Subsequently, the CO level in their exhaled air was measured. Air quality data, obtained from the Regional Inspectorates of Environmental Protection, revealed the differences in atmospheric CO concentration between locations. 1226 subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their declared smoking status and place of living. The average CO level in exhaled air was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.0001) as well as in non-smokers from big cities than non-smokers from small ones (p<0.0001). Created model showed that non-smokers from big cities have odds ratio of 125.3 for exceeding CO cutoff level of 4ppm compared to non-smokers from small towns. The average CO level in exhaled air is significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, the average exhaled CO level is significantly higher in big city than small town citizens. These results suggest that permanent exposure to an increased concentration of air pollution and cigarette smoking affect the level of exhaled CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Working memory in cigarette smokers: Comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Mendrek, Adrianna; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara L.; Jarvik, Murray; Brody, Arthur; Olmstead, Richard; Domier, Catherine P.; Cohen, Mark S.; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after ≥13 h abstinence; on the other day, testing began ≤1 h after smoking. Smokers inhaled one cigarette between the blocks on each test day. Results indicated that performance of smoker...

  16. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  17. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women......, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0...... as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes....

  18. Effects of 7.5% carbon dioxide inhalation on anxiety and mood in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Ataya, Alia F; Bailey, Jayne E; Lightman, Stafford L; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma Alshaarawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n=2027 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n=734, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80–89 mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (≤0.024 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (≥0.224 ng/mL was 1.45(1.00, 2.11; P trend =0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of asian lung cancers: second-hand smoke unlikely to be responsible for higher incidence of lung cancer among Asian never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vidhya G; Ebert, Philip J; Ting, Jason C; Lim, Elaine; Wong, Swee-Seong; Teo, Audrey S M; Yue, Yong G; Chua, Hui-Hoon; Ma, Xiwen; Loh, Gary S L; Lin, Yuhao; Tan, Joanna H J; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Shenli; Reinhard, Christoph; Tan, Daniel S W; Peters, Brock A; Lincoln, Stephen E; Ballinger, Dennis G; Laramie, Jason M; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Barber, Thomas D; Tan, Patrick; Hillmer, Axel M; Ng, Pauline C

    2014-11-01

    Asian nonsmoking populations have a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with their European counterparts. There is a long-standing hypothesis that the increase of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers is due to environmental factors such as second-hand smoke. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing of 30 Asian lung cancers. Unsupervised clustering of mutational signatures separated the patients into two categories of either all the never-smokers or all the smokers or ex-smokers. In addition, nearly one third of the ex-smokers and smokers classified with the never-smoker-like cluster. The somatic variant profiles of Asian lung cancers were similar to that of European origin with G.C>T.A being predominant in smokers. We found EGFR and TP53 to be the most frequently mutated genes with mutations in 50% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Among the 16 never-smokers, 69% had an EGFR mutation compared with 29% of 14 smokers/ex-smokers. Asian never-smokers had lung cancer signatures distinct from the smoker signature and their mutation profiles were similar to European never-smokers. The profiles of Asian and European smokers are also similar. Taken together, these results suggested that the same mutational mechanisms underlie the etiology for both ethnic groups. Thus, the high incidence of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers seems unlikely to be due to second-hand smoke or other carcinogens that cause oxidative DNA damage, implying that routine EGFR testing is warranted in the Asian population regardless of smoking status. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  2. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Chitosan Nerve Guides with Regular or Increased Bendability for Acute and Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair: A Comprehensive Comparison with Autologous Nerve Grafts and Muscle-in-Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Maria; Wildhagen, Vivien M; Helmecke, Olaf; Metzen, Jennifer; Pfund, Charlotte B; Freier, Thomas; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2018-05-08

    Reconstruction of joint-crossing digital nerves requires the application of nerve guides with a much higher flexibility than used for peripheral nerve repair along larger bones. Nevertheless, collapse-resistance should be preserved to avoid secondary damage to the regrowing nerve tissue. In recent years, we presented chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) to be highly supportive for the regeneration of critical gap length peripheral nerve defects in the rat. Now, we evidently increased the bendability of regular CNGs (regCNGs) by developing a wavy wall structure, that is, corrugated CNGs (corrCNGs). In a comprehensive in vivo study, we compared both types of CNGs with clinical gold standard autologous nerve grafts (ANGs) and muscle-in-vein grafts (MVGs) that have recently been highlighted in the literature as a suitable alternative to ANGs. We reconstructed rat sciatic nerves over a critical gap length of 15 mm either immediately upon transection or after a delay period of 45 days. Electrodiagnostic measurements were applied to monitor functional motor recovery at 60, 90, 120, and 150 (only delayed repair) days postreconstruction. Upon explanation, tube properties were analyzed. Furthermore, distal nerve ends were evaluated using histomorphometry, while connective tissue specimens were subjected to immunohistological stainings. After 120 days (acute repair) or 150 days (delayed repair), respectively, compression-stability of regCNGs was slightly increased while it remained stable in corrCNGs. In both substudies, regCNGs and corrCNGs supported functional recovery of distal plantar muscles in a similar way and to a greater extent when compared with MVGs, while ANGs demonstrated the best support of regeneration. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among lung cancer-free smokers: The importance of healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Michelle D; Eldridge, Ronald; Follis, Jack L; Etzel, Carol J; Shete, Sanjay; El-Zein, Randa A

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. Such assays would help excluding unhealthy smokers from lung cancer case-control studies. We used the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay (a measure of genetic instability) to identify undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. We used a convenience population from an on-going lung cancer case-control study including smokers with lung cancer (n = 454), smoker controls (n = 797), and a self-reported COPD (n = 200) contingent within the smoker controls. Significant differences for all CBMN endpoints were observed when comparing lung cancer to All controls (which included COPD) and Healthy controls (with no COPD). The risk ratio (RR) was increased in the COPD group vs. Healthy controls for nuclear buds (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.62), and marginally increased for micronuclei (RR 1.06, 0.98-1.89) and nucleoplasmic bridges (RR 1.07, 0.97-1.15). These findings highlight the importance of using truly healthy controls in studies geared toward assessment of lung cancer risk. Using genetic instability biomarkers would facilitate the identification of smokers susceptible to tobacco smoke carcinogens and therefore predisposed to either disease. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  7. Effects of advertisements on smokers' interest in trying e-cigarettes: the roles of product comparison and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Southwell, Brian G; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers' responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads' arguments and imagery. A U.S. national sample of smokers who had never tried e-cigarettes (n=3253) participated in a between-subjects experiment. Smokers viewed an online advertisement promoting e-cigarettes using one of three comparison types (emphasising similarity to regular cigarettes, differences or neither) with one of three images, for nine conditions total. Smokers then indicated their interest in trying e-cigarettes. Ads that emphasised differences between e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes elicited more interest than ads without comparisons (pe-cigarette created more interest than ads showing a person without an e-cigarette (pe-cigarette use in advertising, and public health messages should not emphasise differences between regular and electronic cigarettes. To inform additional regulations, future research should seek to identify what advertising messages and features appeal to youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  9. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  10. ECG Changes in Young Healthy Smokers: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method to Assess Cardiovascular Risk According to Pack-Years of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nirmal Kumar; Jaiswal, Kapil Kumar; Meena, S R; Chandel, Rahul; Chittora, Saurabh; Goga, Prem Singh; Harish, H B; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-06-01

    To document the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in young healthy smokers and compare ECG changes in smokers, young healthy non-smokers and amongst smokers with different pack years. This was a prospective case-control study consisting of 200 young healthy male and female individuals, 150 smokers and 50 non-smokers between ages 25-40 years, further categorized and compared according to age, sex and pack years of smoking. The ECG recordings were analyzed for different ECG parameters like heart rate, P-wave duration, P-wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, RR-interval, ST-segment duration, QT interval and QTc interval. The results were compared using statistical tools. In present study abnormalities in ECG parameters were significantly more prevalent in smokers as compared to non-smokers (56.66 % Vs 6.00 %) (p non-invasive and cost effective it is potentially an effective and yet a simple method for cardiovascular risk evaluation in smokers. Furthermore, such ECG abnormalities may guide the clinician for risk evaluation in smokers and may be used to convince the smokers to quit smoking.

  11. Reasons for smoking among tri-ethnic daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Emami, Ashley S; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Khariwala, Samir S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-12-01

    Nondaily smokers experience adverse effects from tobacco use, yet they have been understudied compared to daily smokers. Understanding how reasons for smoking (RS) differ by smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity could inform tailored interventions. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American [AA], Latino, and White) across smoking level (native nondaily, converted nondaily, daily light, and daily moderate/heavy). A 7-factor structure of a 20-item Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) was confirmed (each subscale alpha > 0.80). Each factor of the MRSS varied by smoking level, with nondaily smokers endorsing all RS less frequently than daily smokers (p smoker subgroups incrementally differed from one another (p smokers. Males reported stronger RS on 5 out of 7 reasons (p Whites and AAs on all reasons (p .05). AAs and Whites were comparable on all RS (p > .05). The present study highlights considerable variability across smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity in strength of RS. Addressing subgroup differences in RS may contribute to more sensitive and effective prevention and treatment efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers. PMID:25621181

  13. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  14. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  15. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  16. The impact of cigarette deprivation and cigarette availability on cue-reactivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steffani R; Goedeker, Katherine C; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2010-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of cigarette deprivation and cigarette availability on reactivity measures to cigarette cues. Smokers were recruited who were 18 years of age or older, not attempting to quit or cut down on their smoking, smoked at least 20 cigarettes daily, had been smoking regularly for past year and had an expired carbon monoxide level of at least 10 parts per million. Smokers were assigned randomly to abstain from smoking for 24 hours (n = 51) or continue smoking their regular amount (n = 50). Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to trials of either a lit cigarette or a glass of water with a 0, 50 or 100% probability of being able to sample the cue on each trial. Craving, mood, heart rate, skin conductance, puff topography and latency to access door to sample the cue were measured. Both exposure to cigarette cues and increasing availability of those cues produced higher levels of craving to smoke. Deprivation produced a generalized increase in craving. There was no consistent evidence, however, that even under conditions of high cigarette availability, deprived smokers were sensitized selectively to presentations of cigarette cues. The data suggest that, even under conditions of immediate cigarette availability, deprivation and cue presentations have independent, additive effects on self-reported craving levels in smokers.

  17. Changes in puffing behavior among smokers who switched from tobacco to electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Gawron, Michal; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine intake from electronic cigarette (e-cigarettes) increases with user's experience. This suggests that smokers who switched from tobacco to electronic cigarettes compensate for nicotine over time to get as much nicotine as they need. One of the mechanisms by which smokers may compensate for nicotine is by modifying their puffing behavior. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in puffing behavior after switching from conventional to electronic cigarettes among regular smokers. Twenty smokers (11 female, aged 31±10, CPD 16±8, FTND 4±3, and exhaled CO 16±17 (mean±SD)) who were naïve to e-cigarettes participated in this study. They were asked to substitute their regular tobacco cigarettes with first generation e-cigarettes (labeled 18mg nicotine) for two weeks. Puffing topography (number of puffs, puff volume, intervals between puffs, and average puff flow rate) was measured at the initial use (baseline), as well as after one and two weeks of product use. We tested changes in puffing topography outcomes using repeated measures ANOVA. We found that after one week of using e-cigarettes, participants significantly increased the average time they puffed on e-cigarettes from 2.2±0.1 (mean±SEM) to 3.1±0.3s (pe-cigarette use (preason for changing puffing behavior is to compensate for less efficient nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2016-05-01

    To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18-64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premium; discount) and flavour (ie, regular; flavoured without capsule; flavoured with capsule). Participants reported their preferred brand variety's appeal (ie, satisfaction; stylishness), taste (ie, smoothness, intensity), and harm relative to other brands and varieties. GEE models were used to determine time trends and correlates of flavour capsule use, as well as associations between preferred brand characteristics (ie, price stratum, flavour) and perceptions of relative appeal, taste and harm. Preference for flavour capsules increased significantly in Mexico (6% to 14%) and Australia (1% to 3%), but not in the USA (4% to 5%). 18-24 year olds were most likely to prefer capsules in the USA (10%) and Australia (4%), but not Mexico. When compared to smokers who preferred regular brands, smokers who preferred brands with capsules viewed their variety of cigarettes as having more positive appeal (all countries), better taste (all countries), and lesser risk (Mexico, USA) than other brand varieties. Results indicate that use of cigarettes with flavour capsules is growing, is associated with misperceptions of relative harm, and differentiates brands in ways that justify regulatory action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Methods Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18–64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premium; discount) and flavour (ie, regular; flavoured without capsule; flavoured with capsule). Participants reported their preferred brand variety's appeal (ie, satisfaction; stylishness), taste (ie, smoothness, intensity), and harm relative to other brands and varieties. GEE models were used to determine time trends and correlates of flavour capsule use, as well as associations between preferred brand characteristics (ie, price stratum, flavour) and perceptions of relative appeal, taste and harm. Results Preference for flavour capsules increased significantly in Mexico (6% to 14%) and Australia (1% to 3%), but not in the USA (4% to 5%). 18–24 year olds were most likely to prefer capsules in the USA (10%) and Australia (4%), but not Mexico. When compared to smokers who preferred regular brands, smokers who preferred brands with capsules viewed their variety of cigarettes as having more positive appeal (all countries), better taste (all countries), and lesser risk (Mexico, USA) than other brand varieties. Conclusions Results indicate that use of cigarettes with flavour capsules is growing, is associated with misperceptions of relative harm, and differentiates brands in ways that justify regulatory action. PMID:25918129

  20. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacoinvasive management for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in smokers versus non-smokers (from the Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nigel S; Goodman, Shaun G; Cantor, Warren J; Tan, Mary K; Yan, Raymond T; Bagnall, Alan J; Mehta, Shamir R; Fitchett, David; Strauss, Bradley H; Yan, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Compared with non-smokers, cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions derive greater benefit from fibrinolytic therapy. However, it is not known whether the optimal treatment strategy after fibrinolysis differs on the basis of smoking status. The Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRANSFER-AMI) randomized patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions to a routine early invasive (pharmacoinvasive) versus a standard (early transfer only for rescue percutaneous coronary intervention or delayed angiography) strategy after fibrinolysis. The efficacy of these strategies was compared in 1,051 patients on the basis of their smoking status. Treatment heterogeneity was assessed between smokers and non-smokers, and multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate for an interaction between smoking status and treatment strategy after adjusting for baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score. Smokers (n=448) were younger, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors, and had lower GRACE risk scores. They had a lower rate of the primary composite end point of 30-day mortality, reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, heart failure, or cardiogenic shock and fewer deaths or reinfarctions at 6 months and 1 year. Smoking status was not a significant predictor of either primary or secondary end points in multivariable analysis. Pharmacoinvasive management reduced the primary end point compared with standard therapy in smokers (7.7% vs 13.6%, p=0.04) and non-smokers (13.1% vs 19.7%, p=0.03). Smoking status did not modify treatment effect on any measured outcomes (p>0.10 for all). In conclusion, compared with non-smokers, current smokers receiving either standard or early invasive management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after fibrinolysis have more favorable outcomes, which is likely attributable to their better baseline risk profile. The

  2. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  3. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  4. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, Psmokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  6. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  7. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Ayodeji Olatunde; Rahamon, Sheu Kadiri; Arinola, Olatunbosun Ganiyu

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a worldwide social epidemic and it is one of the main causes of preventable death and disability. Gingivitis, periodontitis, pocket depth, attachment loss, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are some of oral pathologies commonly found in cigarette smokers. The aim of this study was to explore, for the first time among Nigerians, the interplay between components of cigarette smoke and salivary levels of immunoglobulin classes so as to provide oral immunological based reasons for oral diseases in cigarette smokers. In this case-control study, 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in plain sample bottles from 24 active smokers who smoke at least 6 sticks of cigarette per day and 21 sex and age-matched non-smokers who were apparently healthy. The samples were spun and supernatant stored at -20°C until assayed. The immunoglobulin levels of the samples were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Student's t-test (unpaired) was used to determine significant differences between the two groups. P values less than 0.05 was considered significant. No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of IgG, IgA, and IgE. Only IgM was significantly lower in smokers compared with non-smokers (P = 0.038). The proportion of smokers with detectable level of salivary IgE was lower compared with controls. Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  8. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  9. Non-invasive biomarkers and pulmonary function in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Borrill, Zo? L; Roy, Kay; Vessey, Rupert S; Woodcock, Ashley A; Singh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Zoë L Borrill1, Kay Roy1, Rupert S Vessey2, Ashley A Woodcock1, Dave Singh11Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Rd, Manchester, UK; 2Glaxo Smith Kline, Philadelphia, USAAbstract: Limited information exists regarding measurement, reproducibility and interrelationships of non-invasive biomarkers in smokers. We compared exhaled breath condensate (EBC) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 8-isoprostane, exhaled nitric oxide, induced sputum, spirometr...

  10. The Effect of Social Anxiety on Urge and Craving among Smokers with and without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method Participants (N = 99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-hour nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Results Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. Conclusions These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. PMID:24331637

  11. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  12. A Possible Indicator of Oxidative Damage in Smokers: (13Z)-Lycopene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel L; Lorenz, Mario; Young, Andrew J; Lowe, Gordon M

    2017-09-13

    In vitro, the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke is known to induce both isomerization and degradation of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and lycopene. However, the effects of cigarette smoke on the composition of circulating lycopene in vivo are not well understood. In this study, we examined the lycopene profiles of plasma from non-smokers and smokers. No oxidative intermediates of lycopene that have been observed previously in vitro were detected in the plasma, but evidence of isomerization of the carotenoid was seen. Four geometric forms of lycopene were detected in the plasma of both smokers and non-smokers, namely the (5 Z ), (9 Z ), (13 Z ) and (all- E ) forms. The relative amounts of these isomers differed between the two cohorts and there was a significant difference ( p lycopene, and in the relative amounts of (13 Z ) and (all- E )-lycopene. The ratio of (all- E ):(13 Z )-lycopene was 0.84:1.00 in smokers compared to 1.04:1.00 in non-smokers. In smokers, the (13 Z )-isomer was generated in preference to the more thermodynamically stable (5 Z ) and (9 Z )-isomers. This mirrors the scenario seen in vitro, in which the formation of (13 Z )-lycopene was the main isomer that accompanied the depletion of (all- E ) lycopene, when exposed to cigarette smoke. The results suggest that the relative amount of (13 Z )-lycopene could be used as an indicator of oxidative damage to lycopene in vivo.

  13. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  14. Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souopgui, Innocent, E-mail: innocent.souopgui@usm.edu [The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science (United States); Ngodock, Hans E., E-mail: hans.ngodock@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Vidard, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.vidard@imag.fr; Le Dimet, François-Xavier, E-mail: ledimet@imag.fr [Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann (France)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.

  15. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Sussan; Fatima G. Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Joanna E. Cohen; Robert A. Wise; Michael J. Blaha; Janet T. Holbrook; Shyam Biswal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determi...

  16. Disparities in the Population Distribution of African American and Non-Hispanic White Smokers along the Quitting Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Dennis R.; Xie, Bin; Fagan, Pebbles; Pulvers, Kim; Romero, Devan R.; Blanco, Lyzette; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed,…

  17. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  18. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  19. Smoking-Cessation Efforts by US Adult Smokers with Medical Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Kruse, Gina R; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2018-03-01

    Continued cigarette smoking by individuals with chronic medical diseases can adversely affect their symptoms, disease progression, and mortality. We assessed the association between medical comorbidities and smoking-cessation efforts among US adult smokers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,494 past-year cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. We assessed the association between self-reported medical comorbidities and past-year quit attempts, use of evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment or electronic cigarettes, and successful smoking cessation using logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, insurance status, geographic region, and having a past-year doctor visit. In the study sample, 39% were aged 18 to 34 years, 45% were female, 70% were non-Hispanic white, and 48% reported ≥1 comorbidity. Smokers with any comorbidity, compared with those without comorbidities, had higher odds of trying to quit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.30), but no higher likelihood of quitting success. Having more medical comorbidities was associated with increased odds of trying to quit. Smokers with a comorbidity used evidence-based treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities (43% vs 26%); use of e-cigarettes to quit was similar between smokers with and without comorbidities (27% vs 28%). Adult smokers with chronic medical diseases try to quit and use evidence-based tobacco-cessation treatment more often than smokers without comorbidities, but they are no more likely to quit, suggesting that their quit attempts are less likely to succeed. Smokers with medical comorbidities may require more intensive, prolonged, and repeated treatment to stop smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproducibility of biomarkers in induced sputum and in serum from chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiker, Rob G J A; Kamerling, Ingrid M C; Morelli, Nicoletta; Calderon, Cesar; Boot, J Diderik; de Kam, Marieke; Diamant, Zuzana; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Cohen, Adam F

    2015-08-01

    Soluble inflammatory markers obtained from non-invasive airway sampling such as induced sputum may be useful biomarkers for targeted pharmaceutical interventions. However, before these soluble markers can be used as potential targets, their variability and reproducibility need to be established in distinct study populations. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of biomarkers obtained from induced sputum and serum in chronic smokers and non-smokers. Sputum and serum samples were obtained from 16 healthy non-smokers and 16 asymptomatic chronic smokers (for both groups: 8M/8F, 30-52 years, FEV1 ≥80% pred.; ≥10 pack years for the smokers) on 2 separate visits 4-10 days apart. Soluble markers in serum and sputum were analysed by ELISA. The differences between smokers vs non-smokers were analysed with a t-test and variability was assessed on log-transformed data by a mixed model ANOVA. Analysable sputum samples could be obtained from all 32 subjects. In both study populations neutrophils and macrophages were the predominant cell types. Serum Pulmonary Surfactant Associated Protein D had favourable reproducibility criteria for reliability ratio (0.99), intra-subject coefficient of variation (11.2%) and the Bland Altman limits of agreement. Furthermore, chronic smokers, compared to non-smokers, had significantly higher sputum concentrations of IL-8 (1094.6 pg/mL vs 460.8 pg/mL, p = 0.006)), and higher serum concentrations of Pulmonary Surfactant Associated Protein D (110.9 pg/mL vs 64.7 pg/mL, p = 0.019), and lower concentrations of Serum Amyloid A (1352.4 pg/mL vs 2297.5 pg/mL, p = 0.022). Serum Pulmonary Surfactant Associated Protein D proved to be a biomarker that fulfilled the criteria for reproducibility in both study groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,M age =43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (O max ), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cigarette craving is associated with blunted reward processing in nicotine-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peechatka, Alyssa L; Whitton, Alexis E; Farmer, Stacey L; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Janes, Amy C

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing leading to the undervaluation of non-drug rewards is hypothesized to play a crucial role in nicotine dependence. However, it is unclear if blunted reward responsivity and the desire to use nicotine are directly linked after a brief period of abstinence. Such an association would suggest that individuals with reduced reward responsivity may be at increased risk to experience nicotine craving. Reward function was evaluated with a probabilistic reward task (PRT), which measures reward responsivity to monetary incentives. To identify whether smoking status influenced reward function, PRT performance was compared between non-depressed, nicotine-dependent smokers and non-smokers. Within smokers, correlations were conducted to determine if blunted reward responsivity on the PRT was associated with increased nicotine craving. Time since last nicotine exposure was standardized to 4h for all smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in reward responsivity on the PRT. However, within smokers, a significant negative correlation was found between reward responsivity and intensity of nicotine craving. The current findings show that, among smokers, the intensity of nicotine craving is linked to lower sensitivity to non-drug rewards. This finding is in line with prior theories that suggest reward dysfunction in some clinical populations (e.g., depressive disorders, schizophrenia) may facilitate nicotine use. The current study expands on such theories by indicating that sub-clinical variations in reward function are related to motivation for nicotine use. Identifying smokers who show blunted sensitivity to non-drug rewards may help guide treatments aimed at mitigating the motivation to smoke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  4. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  5. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assay showed increased percentage of abnormalities in smokers (light, medium and heavy) than non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequencies of MN in buccal epithelial and blood lymphocytes are high in smokers; particularly heavy smoker group showed significantly increased results. Among them, the lymphocytic ...

  6. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  7. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  8. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  9. Changes to smoking habits and addiction following tobacco excise tax increases: a comparison of Māori, Pacific and New Zealand European smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-02-01

    To compare changes in smoking habit and psychological addiction in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers in response to two annual excise tax increases from 2012 to 2014. Smokers from New Zealand cities completed questionnaires at three time points before and after two excise tax increases. There were no significant differences in cigarettes per day or psychological addiction at baseline, but a linear decline in both measures was observed in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers. Cigarettes per day reduced at a greater rate for Māori/Pacific than NZ European smokers but dependence did not. Results indicated that Māori/Pacific smokers' demand for cigarettes may be more price sensitive than NZ European smokers. Implications for Public Health: Tobacco excise tax may be particularly effective for Māori/Pacific smokers and may contribute to reductions in smoking-related health inequalities in NZ. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective....... Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  11. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  12. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rech, Rafaela Soares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes.

  13. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  14. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beem, A. Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2005-01-01

    We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not

  16. No intention to comply with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination : behavioural determinants among smokers and non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans-van den Akker, I; van den Heuvel, P.M.; Verheij, Th J M; van Delden, J J M; van Essen, G A; Hak, E

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking increases the risk for influenza and pneumococcal disease, but vaccination uptake is lower among smokers than non-smokers. We therefore aimed to determine reasons for not complying with vaccination among smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: In 2005 a self-administered questionnaire

  17. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoenzyme in Lung Tissue of Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that only 10%-20% cigarette smokers finally suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The underlying mechanism of development remains uncertain so far. Nitric oxide (NO has been found to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of COPD, the alteration of NO synthase (NOS expression need to be revealed. The study aimed to investigate the alterations of NOS isoforms expressions between smokers with and without COPD, which might be helpful for identifying the susceptibility of smokers developing into COPD. Methods: Peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 nonsmoker control subjects, 15 non-COPD smokers, and 15 smokers with COPD. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, inducible NOS (iNOS, and endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: INOS mRNA was significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively. iNOS protein was also higher in COPD patients than nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, expressions of nNOS and eNOS did not differ among nonsmokers, smokers with and without COPD. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between iNOS protein level and lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 (% predicted (r = −0.549, P = 0.001 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (%, r = −0.535, P = 0.001. Conclusions: The expression of iNOS significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with that in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that iNOS might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD, and may be a potential marker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer COPD.

  18. Personal attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Bennet, Pele T; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters and assess how they are associated with quitting, and to compare these attitudes with those of smokers in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers and 78 recent quitters from April 2012 to October 2013. Personal attitudes towards smoking and quitting, wanting to quit, and attempting to quit in the past year. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely than daily smokers in the general Australian population to report enjoying smoking (65% v 81%) and more likely to disagree that smoking is an important part of their life (49% v 38%); other attitudes were similar between the two groups. In the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample, non-daily smokers generally held less positive attitudes towards smoking compared with daily smokers, and ex-smokers who had quit within the past year reported positive views about quitting. Among the daily smokers, 78% reported regretting starting to smoke and 81% reported spending too much money on cigarettes, both of which were positively associated with wanting and attempting to quit; 32% perceived smoking to be an important part of their life, which was negatively associated with both quit outcomes; and 83% agreed that smoking calms them down when stressed, which was not associated with the quitting outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers were less likely than those in the general population to report positive reasons to smoke and held similar views about the negative aspects, suggesting that factors other than personal attitudes may be responsible for the high continuing smoking rate in this population.

  19. High sedentary behavior and compromised physical capabilities in adult smokers despite the suitable level of physical activity in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Tonon Lauria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p62   Sedentary behavior may play an important role for health outcomes, regardless of the amount of physical activity in daily life (PADL.We aimed to evaluate and compare sedentary behavior as well as physical capabilities in physically active smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-eight adult smokers and 38 non-smokers free of lung disease were matched for age, sex, body mass index, body composition, cardiovascular risk and moderate-to-vigorous PADL. Participants underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET, six-minute walk test (6MWT, isokinetic dynamometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance.Despite the similar amount of moderate-to-vigorous PADL(median, 4.5h/week for smokers and 4.0h/week for non-smokers, smokers spent more time lying (median, 8.2h/week: 95% confidence interval, 5.4 to 19.1 vs. 6.1h/week: 3.7 to 11.2 and in sedentary activities (median, 100h/week: 66 to 129 vs. 78h/week: 55 to 122 compared to non-smokers. Smokers also presented worse spirometry, peak V’O2 and maximum heart rate in the CPET, 6MWT, and isokinetic indices (p<0.05. We observed a strong correlation between the time spent lying and spirometry (r = - 0.730 in smokers. Smoking is related to higher sedentary behavior, despite the suitable PADL. An appropriate PADL did not reduce the deleterious effects of smoking on physical capabilities. Interrupting sedentary behavior may be an appropriate intervention target in smokers for reducing the risk of diseases.

  20. MRI reconstruction with joint global regularization and transform learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanc, A Korhan; Eksioglu, Ender M

    2016-10-01

    Sparsity based regularization has been a popular approach to remedy the measurement scarcity in image reconstruction. Recently, sparsifying transforms learned from image patches have been utilized as an effective regularizer for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction. Here, we infuse additional global regularization terms to the patch-based transform learning. We develop an algorithm to solve the resulting novel cost function, which includes both patchwise and global regularization terms. Extensive simulation results indicate that the introduced mixed approach has improved MRI reconstruction performance, when compared to the algorithms which use either of the patchwise transform learning or global regularization terms alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  2. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  3. Emphysematous changes and normal variation in smokers and COPD patients using diffusion 3He MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Andrew J.; Wild, Jim M.; Fichele, Stan; Woodhouse, Neil; Fleming, Sally; Waterhouse, Judith; Lawson, Rod A.; Paley, Martyn N.J.; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to quantify global and regional changes of diffusive motion of 3 He gas within the lung, as determined by hyperpolarized 3 He MR apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement, in non-smokers, smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods: Age-matched groups of six healthy non-smokers, five healthy smokers and five patients with COPD. The experiments were performed with approval from the local Research Ethics Committee. Diffusion imaging was performed following hyperpolarized 3 He gas inhalation, producing ADC maps. Mean and standard deviation of the ADCs were used to compare the subject groups and assess regional variations within individuals. Results: The intra-individual standard deviation of ADC in the healthy smokers was significantly larger than that of the non-smoking group (P < 0.02). Compared to the non-smoking group, COPD patients had significantly higher mean and standard deviation of ADC (P < 0.01). The mean ADC in the anterior half of the chest was systematically higher than in the posterior half in the healthy non-smoking subject group. Discussion: This study suggests that there are regional trends in the ADC values of healthy volunteers that may have implications for the clinical interpretation of ADC values. Less homogeneous ADC values have been detected in asymptomatic smokers, indicative of damage to the distal air spaces

  4. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  5. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  6. Regular and context-free nominal traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degano, Pierpaolo; Ferrari, Gian-Luigi; Mezzetti, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...

  7. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim

    2002-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

  8. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  9. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression. PMID:26594007

  10. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  11. The role of impulse oscillometry in assessment of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher El-Naggar

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: IOS is an effective, easy to perform, and a non invasive method for the assessment of airway obstruction in obstructive pulmonary disorders. Although, there is no significant difference between impulse oscillometry and spirometry parameters in early detection of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers groups.

  12. Identity change among smokers and ex-smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; van Laar, C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Fokkema, M.; van den Putte, B.; Dijkstra, A.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers’ and ex-smokers’ self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this

  13. Lung cancer mutation profile of EGFR, ALK, and KRAS: Meta-analysis and comparison of never and ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Aaron M; Sun, Kathie Y; Ruestow, Peter; Cowan, Dallas M; Madl, Amy K

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. While the majority of lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoke, approximately 10-15% of U.S. lung cancers occur in never smokers. Evidence suggests that lung cancer in never smokers appears to be a distinct disease caused by driver mutations which are different than the genetic pathways observed with lung cancer in smokers. A meta-analysis of human epidemiologic data was conducted to evaluate the profile of common or therapy-targetable mutations in lung cancers of never and ever smokers. Epidemiologic studies (N=167) representing over 63,000 lung cancer cases were identified and used to calculate summary odds ratios for lung cancer in never and ever smokers containing gene mutations: EGFR, chromosomal rearrangements and fusion of EML4 and ALK, and KRAS. This analysis also considered the effect of histopathology, smoking status, sex, and ethnicity. There were significantly increased odds of presenting the EGFR and ALK-EML4 mutations in 1) adenocarcinomas compared to non-small cell lung cancer and 2) never smokers compared to ever smokers. The prevalence of EGFR mutations was higher in Asian women as compared to women of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity. As the smoking history increased, there was a decreased odds for exhibiting the EGFR mutation, particularly for cases >30 pack-years. Compared to ever smokers, never smokers had a decreased odds of KRAS mutations among those of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.17-0.29) and those of Asian ethnicity (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.30-0.50). Our findings show that key driver mutations and several patient features are highly prevalent in lung cancers of never smokers. These associations may be helpful as patient demographic models are developed to predict successful outcomes of targeted therapeutic interventions NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cigarette smoke–induced induction of antioxidant enzyme activities in airway leukocytes is absent in active smokers with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Rosamund E.; Leong-Smith, Pheneatia; Roos-Engstrand, Ester; Pourazar, Jamshid; Shah, Mittal; Behndig, Annelie F.; Mudway, Ian S.; Blomberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to the airway has been proposed as an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the extent of oxidant-mediated damage is dependent on the endogenous antioxidant defences within the airways, we examined whether COPD was associated with deficiencies in the antioxidant network within the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) and resident airway leukocytes. We hypothesised that COPD would be associated with both basal depression of antioxidant defences and impaired adaptive antioxidant responses to cigarette smoke. Methods Low molecular weight and enzymatic antioxidants together with metal-handling proteins were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway leukocytes, derived from current (n=9) and ex-smoking COPD patients (n=15), as well as from smokers with normal lung function (n=16) and healthy never smokers (n=13). Results Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in ascorbate and glutathione within peripheral RTLFs in both smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and in COPD smokers compared with COPD ex-smokers. In contrast, intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were only up-regulated in smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and not in actively smoking COPD patients relative to COPD ex-smokers. Conclusions We found no evidence of impaired basal antioxidant defences, within either the RTLFs or airway leukocytes in stable ex-smoking COPD patients compared with healthy never smoking controls. Current cigarette smoking induced an up-regulation of low molecular weight antioxidants in the RTLFs of both control subjects with normal lung function and patients with COPD. Importantly, the present data demonstrated a cigarette smoke–induced increase in intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities only within the smokers with

  15. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashidhar, K.; Monga, S.; Suri, S.; Gulati, M.; Gupta, D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures

  16. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bidi smokers at increased risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2005-01-01

    Source articles were searched for using Medline, the Cochrane Library and within the references lists of identified articles. Articles were selected that included data enabling construction of 2 x 2 tables to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For each study, two-way contingency tables were constructed, based on exposure frequency distributions, for cases and controls. Unadjusted OR and 95% CI were recalculated based on the reported data using standard procedures. Separate contingency tables were made for bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and both types of smoking if the data were available in the same article. The overall OR combined across all studies, and its 95% CI, was calculated using a random-effects model for bidi and cigarette smoking. Tests for publication bias and heterogeneity were conducted. Confounding factors, for example, betel quid chewing or alcohol use, were not included in the meta-regression model. An increased risk of oral cancer was found for bidi smokers compared with people who had never smoked (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.0-5.0) whereas no significant pattern of risk was found for cigarette smokers (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled OR estimate. The results clearly indicate that bidi smokers are at increased risk of oral cancer. It is important that this information be incorporated into smoking prevention and cessation efforts, particularly in the urban poor and rural mass in south Asian countries where bidi smoking is widespread.

  18. Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

    1982-01-01

    Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

  19. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  20. Pulmonary Emphysema Subtypes on Computed Tomography in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Austin, John H.M.; Newell, John D.; D’Souza, Belinda M.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A.; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary emphysema is divided into three major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well-defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years with ≥10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Results Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Inter-rater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K:0.70). Compared to participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with PSE were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular but not panlobular or paraseptal emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years Pemphysema was associated with reduced body mass index (−5 kg/m2;P=0.01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in one second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Conclusions Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. PMID:24384106

  1. A Decade of Never-smokers Among Lung Cancer Patients-Increasing Trend and Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Keong; Ong, Whee-Sze; Lim, Wan-Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Ng, Quan-Sing; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Seow, Wei-Jie; Ang, Mei-Kim; Tan, Eng-Huat

    2018-03-17

    It is not known whether clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and survival of never-smokers among lung cancer incident cases have changed over time. We assessed the trend and overall survival (OS) of these patients within our institution during a 10-year period. We reviewed 2 cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with a diagnosis from 1999 to 2002 and from 2008 to 2011. The patient characteristics and OS were compared by smoking status within each cohort and between the 2 cohorts over time. Of the 992 patients in the 1999-2002 cohort and the 1318 patients in the 2008-2011 cohort, 902 and 1272 had a known smoking status, respectively. The proportion of never-smokers increased from 31% in 1999-2002 to 48% in 2008-2011 (P never-, former-, and current-smokers have remained largely constant over time. A greater proportion of never-smokers had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 and adenocarcinoma. The median OS increased from 15.5 months in 1999-2002 to 24.9 months in 2008-2011 (P = .001) for never-smokers, 12.3 to 15.9 months (P = .150) for former-smokers, and 10.5 to 13.9 months (P = .011) for current-smokers. The larger survival improvement among never-smokers was likely accounted for by the larger increase in never-smokers who were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pemetrexed over time. We found an increasing trend of never-smokers among incident lung cancer cases and improved survival for these patients during a 10-year period. The documentation of smoking status in any national cancer registry is vital to estimate the true incidence of lung cancer among never-smokers over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  3. Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubri Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee, is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers. Methods This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200 mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman. Results Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum α1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells. Conclusions Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage

  4. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  5. Does "smoker's paradox" exist in clopidogrel-treated Turkish patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kirdök, Ali Hikmet; Kınay, Ahmet Ozan; Tekin, Ümit İlker; Taş, Sedat; Alpaslan, Erkan; Pabuccu, Mustafa Türker; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Previously conducted studies revealed that smoking enhanced the efficacy of clopidogrel by increasing formation of the active metabolite (AM) from the prodrug through induction of the cytochrome CYP1A2. The expression of cytochrome enzymes depends on genotype and no data exists in literature conducted in Turkish patients comparing the clopidogrel responsiveness between active smokers and non-active smokers treated with clopidogrel. In this study, our aim was to investigate the clopidogrel responsiveness in clopidogrel-treated Turkish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients according to their smoking status. We retrospectively enrolled 258 patients who were hospitalized due to ACS. Clinical variables of the patients, especially smoking status were recorded. Clopidogrel resistance was evaluated by using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregometry. Clopidogrel resistance was detected as a change in maximal aggregation ≤20% from baseline. A total of 139 patients were active smokers while 12 were former smokers. 107 patients did not have a history of smoking. Ten of the smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel, whereas 36 of non-smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel (p value >612.5 predicted the clopidogrel resistance with a sensitivity of 60% (OR: 100.65, %95 CI = 19.996-506.615 p paradox" probably exists in Turkish ACS patients.

  6. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  7. Not All Smokers Die Young: A Model for Hidden Heterogeneity within the Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Morgan; Crimmins, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The ability of some individuals to reach extreme old age in the presence of clearly high exposure to damaging factors may signal an innate biological advantage. For this study we used data on 4,655 current and never smokers, ages 50 and above, from NHANES III to examine whether long-lived smokers represent a biologically resilient phenotype that could facilitate our understanding of heterogeneity in the aging process. Using a proportional hazards model, our results showed that while smoking significantly increased mortality in most age groups, it did not increase the mortality risk for those who were age 80 and over at baseline. Additionally when comparing the adjusted means of biomarkers between never and current smokers, we found that long-lived smokers (80+) had similar inflammation, HDL, and lung function levels to never smokers. Given that factors which allow some individuals to withstand smoking may also enable others to cope with everyday biological stressors, the investigation of long-lived smokers may eventually allow us to identify molecular and genetic mechanisms which enable longevity extension. PMID:24520332

  8. Predictors of cessation pharmacotherapy use among black and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine K; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33-0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates.

  9. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  10. Immunodetection of rasP21 and c-myc oncogenes in oral mucosal swab preparation from clove cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvi Kintawati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the biggest factor for oral cavity malignancy. Some carcinogens found in cigar will stimulate epithel cell in oral cavity and cause mechanism disturbance on tissue resistance and produce abnormal genes (oncogenes. Oncogenes ras and myc are found on malignant tumor in oral cavity which are associated with smoking. Purpose: This research is to find the expression of oncogenes rasP21 and c-myc in oral mucosa epithelial of smoker with immunocytochemistry reaction. Methods: An oral mucosal swab was performed to 30 smokers categorized as light, moderate, and chain, and 10 non smokers which was followed by immunocytochemistry reaction using antibody towards oncogene rasP21 and c-myc is reacted to identify the influence of smoking towards malignant tumor in oral cavity. The result is statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Result: Based on the observation result of oncogene rasP21reaction, it shows that there is significant difference between non smoker group and light smoker, compared to moderate and chain smoker group (p < 0.01. On the other side, the observation result of oncogene c-myc indicates that there is no significant difference between the group of non smokers and the group of light, moderate, and chain smokers (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The higher the possibility of oral cavity malignancy and that the antibody for rasP21 oncogene can be used as a marker for early detection of oral cavity malignancy caused by smoking.

  11. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1.......35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P

  13. [Wound healing complications in smokers, non-smokers and after abstinence from smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, O; Kapalschinski, N; Skorzinski, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Homann, H H; Muehlberger, T

    2012-07-01

    The pulmonary and cardiovascular ramifications of smoking are well documented and this also applies to increased wound healing complications in smokers. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether preoperatively refraining from smoking would affect the incidence of wound healing disorders. Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 295 patients underwent aesthetic (n = 167) or reconstructive surgery (n = 128). They were divided into three groups: A (n = 98) non-smokers for at least 2 years, B (n = 99) patients who refrained from smoking 6 weeks prior to surgery and C (n = 98) smokers. Smoking abstinence was verified by cotinine tests. Wound healing complications were defined as dehiscent wounds, wound infections, atypical scar formation and adiponecrosis. Smokers developed wound healing complications in 48.2% of cases, non-smokers in 21.0% and patients who had stopped smoking for 6 weeks in 30.8% of cases (p = 0.006). Elective surgery should only be performed on non-smokers and smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 6 weeks to reduce wound healing complications as far as possible.

  14. Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: the effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although

  15. Transcriptional differences between smokers and non-smokers and variance by obesity as a risk factor for human sensitivity to environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemova, Maria; Yee, Jeremiah; Carney, Patrick R; Bradfield, Christopher A; Malecki, Kristen Mc

    2018-04-01

    Obesity has been shown to alter response to air pollution and smoking but underlying biological mechanisms are largely unknown and few studies have explored mechanisms by which obesity increases human sensitivity to environmental exposures. Overall study goals were to investigate whole blood gene expression in smokers and non-smokers to examine associations between cigarette smoke and changes in gene expression by obesity status and test for effect modification. Relative fold-change in mRNA expression levels of 84 genes were analyzed using a Toxicity and Stress PCR array among 50 21-54 year old adults. Data on smoking status was confirmed using urinary cotinine levels. Adjusted models included age, gender, white blood cell count and body-mass index. Models comparing gene expression of smokers vs. non-smokers identified six differentially expressed genes associated with smoking after adjustments for covariates. Obesity was associated with 29 genes differentially expressed compared to non-obese. We also identified 9 genes with significant smoking/obesity interactions influencing mRNA levels in adjusted models comparing expression between smokers vs non-smokers for four DNA damage related genes (GADD45A, DDB2, RAD51 and P53), two oxidative stress genes (FTH1, TXN), two hypoxia response genes (BN1P3lL, ARNT), and one gene associated with unfolded protein response (ATF6B). Findings suggest that obesity alters human sensitivity to smoke exposures through several biological pathways by modifying gene expression. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the clinical impact of these effects, but risk assessments should consider underlying phenotypes, such as obesity, that may modulate sensitivity of vulnerable populations to environmental exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CT screening for lung cancer: Importance of emphysema for never smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Claudia I; Yip, Rowena; Boffetta, Paolo; Markowitz, Steven; Miller, Albert; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Wu, Ning; Zulueta, Javier J; Yankelevitz, David F

    2015-04-01

    To address the prevalence of lung cancer in high and low-risk people according to their smoking history, age, and CT findings of emphysema. We reviewed the baseline low-dose CT scans of 62,124 current, former and never smokers, aged 40-90 to determine the prevalence of lung cancer. We performed logistic regression analysis of the prevalence of lung cancer to determine the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema, conditionally on age, female gender, and ethnicity. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1.4% (95% CI: 1.3-1.6) for current smokers, 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0-1.2) for former smokers, and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.3-0.6) for never smokers. Emphysema was identified in 28.5% (6,684), 20.6% (5,422), and 1.6% (194) of current, former, and never smokers, respectively. The prevalence of lung cancer among current smokers was 1.1% for those without emphysema vs. 2.3% for those with emphysema (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.2) and the corresponding difference for former smokers was 0.9% vs. 1.8% (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), and for never smokers, it was 0.4% vs. 2.6% (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 2.4-16.9). Identification of emphysema in low-dose CT scans increases the risk of lung cancer and is important in determining follow-up of current, former, and never smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  18. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  19. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  20. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  1. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  2. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  3. Unplanned quitting in a triethnic sample of U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-06-01

    Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed.

  4. SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE AS A BIOMARKER OF TYPE-2 DM AMONG CIGARETTE SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suganthy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smoking is one of the most common addictions of modern times and needs to be studied in a community as a public health issue. Also, smoking is a modifiable risk factor for type-2 DM. The smoking-related diseases share common pathophysiologies of imbalance of systemic oxidants and antioxidant status, increased inflammatory reactions, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Biochemical assay of serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT activity is a low cost and highly sensitive laboratory test. Studies have indicated GGT is moderately elevated before the onset of other traditional risk factors for type-2 DM. So, among hepatic markers, the baseline GGT analysis can be an early risk marker of type 2 diabetes in cigarette smokers has to be studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study on male cigarette smokers. 57 smokers were studied clinically and biochemically for plasma insulin, glucose and liver enzymes including GGT using standard biochemical methods and compared with 42 age and sex matched non-smokers as controls. RESULTS The mean serum GGT in smokers (25.45 ± 10.8 was increased compared to non-smokers (18.8 ± 5.8. Smokers GGT (r=0.396 and HOMA-IR (r=0.352 showed significant positive association with duration of smoking (p24 IU/L. Regression analysis showed none of the diabetic risk factors were observed to be dependent on GGT including other liver enzymes. Regression analysis showed GGT is not an independent risk factor for DM. Although, the mean fasting blood glucose (91.4 ± 21.3, BMI (26.1 ± 9.3 and HOMA-IR (7.3 ± 2.3 was increased among cigarette smokers with GGT >24 IU/L. CONCLUSION The baseline GGT assay in cigarette smokers might be associated with the proinflammatory status or be a marker of oxidative stress of smoke toxins. Smokers with baseline GGT >24 IU/L develop insulin resistance should be investigated in future longitudinal studies for prediabetes to consider cigarette smoking as an important modifiable

  5. Quantitative assessment of pulmonary function using low dose multi-slice spiral CT in smoker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huai; Zeng Qingsi; Zheng Jinping; Guan Yubao; Zhang Chaoliang; Cen Renli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of low dose MSCT for quantitative assessment of pulmonary function in smokers. Methods: One hundred and forty-six patients with chronic objective pulmonary disease (COPD) including 109 smokers (74.6%) and 37 non-smokers (25.3%) underwent pulmonary function test and low-dose MSCT scan. All data were analyzed using computer-aided lung analysis software. Pulmonary function parameters from low-dose MSCT were compared between smokers and non-smokers and also compared with pulmonary function test in non-smokers (Pearson test). Results: In smokers, the average volume at full inspiratory phase (Vin) was (5125 ± 862 ) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-902 ± 26) HU, mean lung density was (0.0984 ± 0.0260 ) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (2890 ±1370) ml. The average volume at full expiratory phase (Vex) was (2756 ±1027) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-811 ±62) HU, mean lung density was (0.1878 ±0.0631) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (685 ±104) ml. In non-smokers, the average Vin was (3734 ± 759) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-876 ±40) HU,mean lung density was (0.1244 ±0.0401)g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was ( 1503 ± 1217) ml. The average Vex was (1770 ± 679) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-765 ± 56) HU, mean lung density was (0.2360 ± 0.0563) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (156 ± 45) ml. There were significant differences between smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). The Vex/Vin was correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC, r=0.60, P<0.01), and Vin was correlated with TLC (r=0.58, P<0.01), Vex with RV (r=0.59, P<0.01). Pixel index (PI) -950 in was correlated with FEV 1% pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.53, -0.62, respective, P<0.01), Pl-950ex was correlated with FEV1 % pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.71, -0.77, respective, P<0.01). Conclusion: Low-dose MSCT can be a potential imaging tool for quantitative pulmonary function assessment in smokes. (authors)

  6. Patient characteristics of smokers undergoing lumbar spine surgery: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Devin, Clinton J; McCutcheon, Brandon; Chotai, Silky; Archer, Kristin R; Nian, Hui; Harrell, Frank E; McGirt, Matthew; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Foley, Kevin; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In this analysis the authors compare the characteristics of smokers to nonsmokers using demographic, socioeconomic, and comorbidity variables. They also investigate which of these characteristics are most strongly associated with smoking status. Finally, the authors investigate whether the association between known patient risk factors and disability outcome is differentially modified by patient smoking status for those who have undergone surgery for lumbar degeneration. METHODS A total of 7547 patients undergoing degenerative lumbar surgery were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (Quality Outcomes Database [QOD]). A retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected data was conducted. Patients were dichotomized as smokers (current smokers) and nonsmokers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis fitted for patient smoking status and subsequent measurement of variable importance was performed to identify the strongest patient characteristics associated with smoking status. Multivariable linear regression models fitted for 12-month Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores in subsets of smokers and nonsmokers was performed to investigate whether differential effects of risk factors by smoking status might be present. RESULTS In total, 18% (n = 1365) of patients were smokers and 82% (n = 6182) were nonsmokers. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the factors significantly associated with patients' smoking status were sex (p smoker (p = 0.0008), while patients with coronary artery disease had greater odds of being a smoker (p = 0.044). Patients' propensity for smoking was also significantly associated with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (p smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS Using a large, national, multiinstitutional registry, the authors described the profile of patients who undergo lumbar spine surgery and its association with their smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were younger, male

  7. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ...

  8. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  9. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  10. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  11. Perceptions of e-cigarettes: a comparison of adult smokers and non-smokers in a Mechanical Turk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; Montero, Adrian; Scharf, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p's smokers quit (ps never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps smokers' top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers' top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.

  12. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of t