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Sample records for regular sex partners

  1. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  2. High rates of unprotected anal intercourse with regular and casual partners and associated risk factors in a sample of ethnic Malay men who have sex with men (MSM) in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sin How; Bazazi, Alexander Reza; Sim, Clarence; Choo, Martin; Altice, Frederick L; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and its correlates among ethnic Malay men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2010, a convenience sample of 350 MSM in Penang were recruited to participate in an anonymous, computerised survey with rapid HIV testing. Participants who were not of Malay ethnicity (n=44) or who did not report sex with another man in the previous 12 months (n=22) were excluded, resulting in 284 participants in the final analysis. Correlates of UAI were examined separately for regular and casual partnerships using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Four men (1.9%) tested HIV positive. In the past 12 months, 64.7% of participants had regular sexual partners, 77.1% had casual sexual partners and 41.9% had both. Most participants (83.1%) reported UAI, which was more common in regular partnerships. Over two-thirds of participants had never been tested for HIV. In multivariate analysis, agreement about sexual risk reduction practices was associated with a reduction in UAI with regular partners (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.40). Reporting difficulty in using condoms was associated with an increase in UAI with casual partners (AOR=9.07, 95% CI 3.35 to 24.5), and any exposure to HIV prevention was associated with a decrease in UAI with casual partners (AOR=0.22, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.54). Despite highly prevalent HIV risk behaviours, HIV seropositivity and prior HIV testing were low. Increasing sexual negotiation skills and access to HIV testing and other prevention services may improve future prevention efforts.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse with regular male sex partners among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Li

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in China are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with a regular male sex partner (RP, a significant predictor of HIV sero-conversion, was high yet under-emphasized among MSM having RP (MSMRP. The present cross-sectional survey interviewed 307 HIV negative MSMRP recruited through convenient sampling from multiple sources, including venue-based outreaching, online recruitment, and referrals made by peers, in Beijing and Chengdu, China. Among MSMRP, the prevalence of UAI with RP in the last three months was 52.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that trust and intimacy within the relationship with RP and presence of clinical depression symptoms were positively associated with UAI with RP in the last three months. Other associated scalar factors derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were related to perceptions on condom use, including positive attitudes toward condom use (a negative association, subjective norm of the perception that MSM do not usually use condoms during anal intercourse with RP (a positive association, perceived behavioral control over condom use with RP (a negative association, and behavioral intention to use condoms with RP in the coming three months (a negative association. It is seen that MSMRP were at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The associated factors hence involved those related to perceptions about condom use, mental health, and interpersonal relationship. Future interventions should take these multi-dimensional factors into account. In particular, future research to test the efficacy of couple-based interventions that include mental health elements needs to be conducted, as trust and intimacy within the relationship were associated with UAI among MSMRP, and mental health problems may exist for both the MSMRP and their RP.

  4. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  5. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  6. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  7. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  8. Masturbation and Partnered Sex: Substitutes or Complements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnerus, Mark; Price, Joseph; Gordon, David

    2017-10-01

    Drawing upon a large, recent probability sample of American adults ages 18-60 (7648 men and 8090 women), we explored the association between sexual frequency and masturbation, evaluating the evidence for whether masturbation compensates for unavailable sex, complements (or augments) existing paired sexual activity, or bears little association with it. We found evidence supporting a compensatory relationship between masturbation and sexual frequency for men, and a complementary one among women, but each association was both modest and contingent on how content participants were with their self-reported frequency of sex. Among men and women, both partnered status and their sexual contentment were more obvious predictors of masturbation than was recent frequency of sex. We conclude that both hypotheses as commonly evaluated suffer from failing to account for the pivotal role of subjective sexual contentment in predicting masturbation.

  9. The dynamics of condom use with regular and casual partners: analysis of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Survey of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphichat Chamratrithirong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine factors associated with levels of condom use among heterosexual Thai males in sex with regular partners and in sex with casual partners. METHODS: The data used in this study are from the national probability sample of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Study, the third nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Thailand. A subtotal of 2,281 men were analyzed in the study, including young (18-24 and older (25-59 adults who were residents of rural areas of Thailand, non-Bangkok urban areas, and Bangkok. Two outcomes of interest for this analysis are reported condom use in the past 12 months by males in relationships with the most recent regular and casual partners who were not sex workers. Chi-square statistics, bivariate regressions and the proportional odds regression models are used in the analysis. RESULTS: Condom use for men with their regular partner is revealed to be positively related to education, knowledge of condom effectiveness, and pro-condom strategy, and negatively related to non-professional employment, status of registered marriage, and short relationship duration. Condom use with casual partner is positively determined by education, condom knowledge, non-professional occupation, short relationship duration, and lack of history of paid sex. CONCLUSION: The national survey emphasized the importance of risk perceptions and condom motivations variables in explaining condom use among men in Thailand. These factors include not only education and knowledge of condom effectiveness and pro-condom strategy but also types of partners and their relationship context and characteristics. Program intervention to promote condom use in Thailand in this new era of predominant casual sex rather than sex with sex workers has to take into account more dynamic partner-based strategies than in the past history of the epidemics in Thailand.

  10. Multiple Sex Partner and Risk Behaviour Among Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania is realizing increase in adolescents engaged in multiple sex partner behaviour and premarital sex. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness of multiple sex partner behaviour and risk factors among secondary school students in Moshi, Tanzania. Anonymously, questionnaires were completed by 360 ...

  11. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy.

  12. Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes: Navigating Meiosis without a Homologous Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on homology between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner. Recent studies in a number of systems have shed light on the unique meiotic behavior of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and highlight both the commonalities and differences in divergent species. During meiotic prophase, the homology-dependent processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination have ...

  13. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  14. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  15. 'Women at risk': the health and social vulnerabilities of the regular female partners of men who inject drugs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vartika; Sarna, Avina; Luchters, Stanley; Sebastian, Mary; Degomme, Olivier; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Madan, Ira; Thior, Ibou; Tun, Waimar

    2015-01-01

    Needle and syringe sharing is common among people who inject drugs and so is unprotected sex, which consequently puts their sex partners at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV and other blood-borne infections, like hepatitis. We undertook a nested study with the regular female partners of men who inject drugs participating in a longitudinal HIV incidence study in Delhi, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with female partners of 32 men. The interviews aimed to gather focused and contextual knowledge of determinants of safe sex and reproductive health needs of these women. Information obtained through interviews was triangulated and linked to the baseline behavioural data of their partner (index men who injected drugs). The study findings illustrate that women in monogamous relationships have a low perception of STI- and HIV-related risk. Additionally, lack of awareness about hepatitis B and C is a cause of concern. Findings also suggest impact of male drug use on the fertility of the female partner. It is critical to empower regular female partners to build their self-risk assessment skills and self-efficacy to negotiate condom use. Future work must explore the role of drug abuse among men who inject drugs in predicting fertility and reproductive morbidity among their female partners.

  16. “I don't use a condom (with my regular partner) because I know that I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I don't use a condom (with my regular partner) because I know that I'm faithful, but with everyone else I do”: The cultural and socioeconomic determinants of sexual partner concurrency in young South Africans.

  17. Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: Are There Unique Characteristics Associated With Making Partners Have Sex Without a Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Michele Parkhill; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of making an intimate partner engage in unprotected sex among perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the Confluence Model, we hypothesized that power and impersonal sex motives would be higher among perpetrators who made a dating partner have unprotected sex. Among a subsample of 78 male college students, significant differences were found for acceptance of verbal pressure, positive attitudes about casual sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, and physical injuries to dating partners. These findings highlight the importance of integrating theories and interventions directed at sexual assault and sexual risk reduction. PMID:20980229

  18. Seeking sex partners through the internet and mobile phone applications among men who have sex with men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Tseng, Po-Chia; Huang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Yen-Chin; Hsu, Su-Ting

    2016-07-01

    It has become popular for men who have sex with men (MSM) to use mobile-phone geosocial networking applications (mobile apps) to find sex partners. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Taiwan to compare the sexual and substance-use behaviors of MSM seeking sex partners through the internet and mobile apps. Of the 1060 participants, 65.8% used the internet via computer and 37.7% used a mobile app to find sexual partners, while 30.3% used recreational drugs or alcohol in the previous 6 months. MSM who exclusively used mobile apps to seek sex partners were significantly more likely than MSM seeking sex via computer to be older, to have used recreational drugs or alcohol, and to have sex with HIV-positive partners. Additionally, using mobile apps to seek sex partners was significantly associated with having sex with online partners through either mobile apps or computer-based internet use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 7.12 [3.87-13.11]), self-reporting as HIV-positive (AOR, 2.24 [1.12-4.12]), using recreational drugs (AOR, 1.67 [1.21-2.32]), having disclosed HIV status to sexual partners (AOR, 1.44 [1.03-2.02]), and having sex with HIV-positive partners (AOR, 1.81 [1.06-3.10]). In conclusion, the mobile apps may serve as a feasible platform for HIV-positive MSM to find other HIV-positive partners.

  19. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  1. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  2. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners among female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alyssa; Kidanu, Aklilu; Bradley, Heather M; Kumoji, Evelyn Kuor; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-08-23

    Although reported condom use between female sex workers and their clients is high in Ethiopia, condom use with regular, non-paying partners remains low, posing a substantial risk of HIV infection to sex workers, their partners and the general population. Previous studies have identified the synergistic effects of substance abuse, violence and HIV risk, but few have examined these inter-relationships among female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners. This study explored the associations between work-related violence, alcohol abuse and inconsistent condom use among establishment-based female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners in Adama City, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 350 establishment-based female sex workers, aged 15-35, at 63 bars, hotels and nightclubs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between work-related violence and condom use with regular, non-paying partners, controlling for age, overall income, education and sex workers' total number of sexual partners in the past week. Alcohol abuse was explored as an effect modifier. Respondents reported a high prevalence of work-related violence (59%) and alcohol abuse (51%). Work-related violence was statistically significantly associated with unprotected sex with regular, non-paying partners among those who abused alcohol (OR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.43-16.56) and among those who did not (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.54). Alcohol abuse was not associated with inconsistent condom use within these partnerships, though it may strengthen the effect of work-related violence on unprotected sex. Findings suggest violence against establishment-based female sex workers is associated with HIV risk within regular, non-paying partnerships. Qualitative work is needed to better understand the links between a violent work environment and condom use with regular, non-paying partners and how interventions can be implemented in this context to

  3. Sex in a lifetime: Sexual behaviors in the United States by lifetime number of sex partners, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O; Chesson, Harrell W

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we found that lifetime number of vaginal sex partners is positively associated with the number of sex partners in the past 12 months and negatively associated with age at first vaginal intercourse among 15- to 44-year-old male and female respondents.

  4. Changes in the Distribution of Sex Partners in the United States: 2002 to 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Christopher R; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current analysis is to examine subgroup differences in the distribution of opposite-sex sex partners in the United States across an approximate 10-year period to identify patterns that may inform sexually transmitted infection research and prevention. Data were drawn from the 2002 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US probability-based household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health. The measures included in this analysis were lifetime opposite-sex sex partners and opposite-sex sex partners in the past year. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. All analyses were conducted in R and R-studio with the "survey" package, focusing on medians, the 80th, and 95th quartile. In 2002, there were significant differences between men and women in median number of lifetime sex partners with men reporting more lifetime partners. However, in the 2011-2013 data, these differences are no longer significant. Still, the findings suggest that the top 20% and top 5% of men are reporting significantly more lifetime partners than their female counterparts. In comparison, partners in the past year remain relatively unchanged for both men and women. These findings suggest that there were important changes in the distribution of sex partners between 2002 and 2011-2013 that have implications for sexually transmitted infection prevention. Median lifetime partners are no longer different for women and men: however, the distribution of lifetime partners among men is becoming even more skewed.

  5. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  6. Finding Sex Partners Through Social Media Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aparna; Nguyen, Minh; Giang, Le Minh; Ha, Tran Viet; Bhadra, Madhura; Nguyen, Sang Minh; Vu, Viet Duc; Nguyen, Quynh T; Miller, William C; Go, Vivian F

    2018-02-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in low and middle income countries search for male sexual partners via social media in part due to societal stigma and discrimination, yet little is known about the sexual risk profiles of MSM social media users. This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of social media use to find male sex partners in Hanoi, Vietnam and examines associations between social media use and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including levels of internalized, perceived and enacted stigma, high-risk sexual behaviors, and HIV testing. 205 MSM were recruited from public venues where MSM congregate as well as through snowball sampling and completed an anonymous survey. MSM who found their male sexual partners using social media in the last year were more likely to have completed a university or higher degree (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.7), experience high levels of MSM-related perceived stigma (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1-8.0), and have more than ten lifetime male sexual partners (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3-7.6) compared to those who did not use social media. A niche for social media-based interventions integrating health and stigma-reduction strategies exists in HIV prevention programs for MSM.

  7. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and

  8. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  9. Sexual health status of women who have regular sexual relations with men who have sex with men in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. Methods This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs, whom they had divorced (ex-GWs, or with whom they were friends (GGFs. The data were collected using questionnaire software. Results A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 ± 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years. Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7% and anal sex (23.1%. Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. Conclusions Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.

  10. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  11. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  12. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.

  13. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-01-01

    Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use. PMID:19698132

  14. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  15. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: a multi-campus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-08-22

    China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  16. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  17. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women:an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Charlotte; Eccles, Fiona Juliet Rosalind; Armitage, Jocelyn Rebecca; Murray, Craig David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) naviga...

  18. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Charlotte F A; Eccles, Fiona J R; Armitage, Jocelyn R; Murray, Craig D

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.

  19. Understanding sex partner selection from the perspective of inner-city black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-09-01

    Black adolescents in inner-city settings are at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. Sex partner characteristics, as well as individual behavior, influence individuals' STD risk, yet little is known about the process of sex partner selection for adolescents in this setting. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 with 50 inner-city black adolescents (26 females and 24 males) who had been purposively recruited from an STD clinic. Content analysis was used to study interview texts. Young women desire a monogamous romantic partner, rather than a casual sex partner; however, to fulfill their desire for emotional intimacy, they often accept a relationship with a nonmonogamous partner. Young men seek both physical and emotional benefits from being in a relationship; having a partner helps them to feel wanted, and they gain social status among their peers when they have multiple partners. For men, these benefits may help compensate for an inability to obtain jobs that would improve their financial and, as a result, social status. Both women and men assess partners' STD risk on the basis of appearance. HIV and other STD prevention initiatives must go beyond the scope of traditional messages aimed at behavior change and address the need for social support and socioeconomic opportunities among at-risk, inner-city adolescents.

  20. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Isler, M. Roman; Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristic...

  1. Sex Partner Meeting Places Over Time Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M; Reilly, Meredith L; Perin, Jamie; Schumacher, Christina; Sharma, Megha; Safi, Amelia Greiner; Fields, Errol L; Muvva, Ravikiran; Nganga-Good, Carolyn; Chaulk, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Sex partner meeting places may be important locales to access men who have sex with men (MSM) and implement targeted HIV control strategies. These locales may change over time, but temporal evaluations have not been performed. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of report of MSM sex partner meeting places over time and to compare frequently reported meeting places in the past 5 years and past year among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM in Baltimore City, Maryland. Public health HIV surveillance data including partner services information were obtained for this study from the Baltimore City Health Department from May 2009 to June 2014. A total of 869 sex partner meeting places were reported, including 306 unique places. Bars/clubs (31%) and Internet-based sites (38%) were the most frequently reported meeting place types. Over the 5-year period, the percentage of bars/clubs decreased over time and the percentage of Internet-based sites increased over time. Among bars/clubs, 4 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also most frequently reported in the most recent year. Among Internet-based sites, 3 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also in the top 5 most frequently reported in the past year. This study provides a richer understanding of sex partner meeting places reported by MSM over time and information to health departments on types of places to access a population at high risk for HIV transmission.

  2. Male self-disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to sex partners: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive men face multiple challenges when deciding whether to disclose their serostatus to sex partners. The purpose of this literature review (1996-2004) is to identify valid and reliable research results that identify factors influencing serostatus disclosure to sex partners by men who are HIV-positive. Articles included in the review were identified through an electronic search using pertinent terms related to disclosure to sex partners, followed by a search of references for additional articles. A compilation of research results for 17 articles is presented under the headings of background, contextual, and psychosocial factors influencing disclosure. An analysis of the data suggests that differences in disclosure rates vary based on sex partner factors including serostatus, relationship status, and number of sex partners. Rates of disclosure to primary sex partners ranged from 67% to 88%, suggesting that nearly one third of main sex partners were not disclosed to and were at risk of contracting HIV, whereas a pattern of lower disclosure among casual partners was evident. As the number of sex partners increased, the likelihood of disclosure to all sex partners decreased, ranging from one quarter (25%) to slightly over half (58%). In addition, perceived efficaciousness and positive outcome expectations were the most frequent theoretical constructs embedded in the research associated with disclosure, suggesting that these factors play an important role in the process of disclosure to sex partners. Interpersonal factors that positively influenced self-disclosure included spousal support, emotional investment, and communication about safe sex, including asking about a partner's serostatus. Self-disclosure was not consistently associated with safer sex. Recommendations for future research are presented, based on the results included in this review.

  3. Older partner selection in young African-American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Leonard, Lori; Brooks, Durryle; Celentano, David; Ellen, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Young African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (YAAMSM) have experienced the greatest proportional increase in new HIV cases compared with other groups. Bridging sexual partnerships between YAAMSM and older aged cohorts with higher rates of primary HIV infection has emerged as an important independent risk factor for the development of HIV. We explored reasons young AAMSM cite for being attracted to and seeking an older partner and the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Seventeen in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted in YAAMSM residing in a midsized urban city with high HIV prevalence. Two coders independently evaluated transcribed data to identify/collapse codes that emerged. We analyzed data using categorical and contextualizing analytic methods. Two themes emerged from the text for seeking an older sexual partner: the emotional maturity the older partner represented and the ability of the older partner to expose the younger partner to more life experiences. In addition, two themes emerged around attraction: support and physical attractiveness of the older partner. Few men described seeking age-discordant relationships for the sole purpose of exchange sex. Older partners during first same-sex experience helped younger partners sort through sexual position and how to perform in relationships. These interviews suggest that YAAMSM may be seeking older partners to fulfill desires to be in a stable, emotionally mature relationship and for exposure in the larger community. Prevention strategies aimed at targeting adolescent MSM age-discordant relationships will need to address the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Women Like Being Valued for Sex, as Long as it is by a Committed Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Maner, Jon K

    2017-02-01

    How do women respond to being valued for sex by their partners? Although research supporting objectification theory suggests that women's reactions to sexual valuation are primarily negative, a separate body of research indicates that women expend significant effort to enhance their sexual appeal. Evolutionary perspectives suggest that whether women are more or less satisfied with partners who value them for sex may depend on how committed those partners are. Being sexually valued by a relatively uncommitted partner may violate women's desire to avoid short-term sexual relationships and thus may be negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. In contrast, being sexually valued by a highly committed partner may positively influence women's relationship satisfaction because it signals to them that they have successfully attracted a long-term relationship partner. Two studies of newly married couples supported these predictions. In Study 1 (N = 109), husbands' sexual valuation was positively associated with marital satisfaction among wives who perceived that those husbands were highly committed, but negatively associated with marital satisfaction among wives who perceived that those husbands were relatively less committed. Study 2 (N = 99) revealed the same pattern for wives (but not husbands) using a likely manifestation of sexual valuation-engaging in frequent sex. These findings join others to demonstrate that interpersonal processes do not have universally positive or negative implications for relationships; rather, their implications depend on the context in which they occur, including contexts that were reproductively beneficial or costly throughout evolutionary history.

  5. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  6. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  7. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  8. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  9. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex of Sexual Partners and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Girls and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; McCauley, Heather L; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gordon, Allegra R; Potter, Jennifer; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-03-01

    Girls and women are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer from male and female sexual partners throughout the life course. However, no study has assessed how sex of sexual partners, a dimension of sexual orientation, may relate to HPV vaccination among girls and women. In 2014, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used to conduct logistic regression analyses estimating the relationship between sex of lifetime and past-year sexual partners and HPV vaccine awareness and initiation among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years (N=3,253). Among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years, the prevalence of HPV vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation was 84.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, participants with only female past-year sexual partners had significantly lower odds of initiating HPV vaccination relative to those with only male past-year sexual partners (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.05, 0.55). Similarly, respondents with no lifetime (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.46, 0.92) or past-year (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50, 0.94) sexual partners had significantly lower adjusted odds of HPV vaccine initiation compared with those with only male sexual partners. No difference was apparent in the odds of initiating HPV vaccination between participants with male and female sexual partners and those with only male sexual partners. Medical and public health professionals should ensure that girls and women with only female or no sexual partners are included in HPV vaccine education and promotion efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behavior, and intimate partner violence among African American adolescent females with a male sex partner recently released from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-08-01

    Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Status on sexual partners among men who have sex with men among college students in Qingdao, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X F; Lyu, C X; Zheng, J T; Dong, L; Jiang, Z X; Fu, J H

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of sexual partners and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in college students. Methods: Snowball sampling and Convenience sampling were both used to recruit MSM from colleges in Tsingtao in 2016. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect data of socio-demographic and situation of sexual partners. Sample Size was estimated based on cross-sectional study, and theoretical 267. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 300 MSM, average aged 20.7, were analyzed. Both first sex partner and the last same-sex sexual partner were met instantly, with proportions as 58.7% (176/300) and 62.3% (187/300) respectively. Among all the MSM, 88.3% (265/300) preferred selecting men as sex partners and 42.7% (128/300) enjoyed finding sex partners in college, while 86.0% (258/300) preferred finding their sex partners through internet. Conclusions: Internet had been the major way of looking for sex partner among MSM in college students, the male sexual partner were met instantly. We should focus on men who have sex with men and their sexual health among college students to prevent and control HIV/AIDS.

  13. Meeting sex partners through the Internet, risky sexual behavior, and HIV testing among sexually transmitted infections clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.

  14. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  15. Sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for the trajectory of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Jackson, Grace L; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-03-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work drew from 4 independent, longitudinal studies to examine sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for trajectories of marital satisfaction. In all 4 studies, both partners' physical attractiveness was objectively rated at baseline, and both partners reported their marital satisfaction up to 8 times over the first 4 years of marriage. Whereas husbands were more satisfied at the beginning of the marriage and remained more satisfied over the next 4 years to the extent that they had an attractive wife, wives were no more or less satisfied initially or over the next 4 years to the extent that they had an attractive husband. Most importantly, a direct test indicated that partner physical attractiveness played a larger role in predicting husbands' satisfaction than predicting wives' satisfaction. These findings strengthen support for the idea that sex differences in self-reported preferences for physical attractiveness do have implications for long-term relationship outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    Full Text Available Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China.A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects.About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders.This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  18. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  19. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-03-07

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and barriers to condom use and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis, 30 HIV-positive MSM participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews on sexual health behaviours in the first year after HIV diagnosis. Typical barriers to condom use soon after diagnosis were emotions such as anger, relief, and feelings of vulnerability. Additional barriers were related to pre-diagnosis patterns of sexual-social behaviour that were difficult to change, communication difficulties, and substance use. Barriers to STI testing revolved around perceptions of low STI risk, faulty beliefs, and burdensome testing procedures. The great diversity of motives and barriers to condom use and STI testing creates a challenge to accommodate newly infected men with information, motivation, and communication skills to match their personal needs. An adaptive, tailored intervention can be a promising tool of support.

  20. Condom use and HIV-related behaviors in urban Tanzanian men who have sex with men: a study of beliefs, HIV knowledge sources, partner interactions and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Although studies have been conducted in neighboring countries, there are no published data on men who have sex with men (MSM) in mainland Tanzania. We report on a respondent-driven sampling study of 271 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The sample covered a wide range of educational attainment and employment, median age was 24, and all respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, mostly through public media. Those satisfied with media information on HIV were younger, had lower education, and had obtained their information from health facilities. Over two-thirds believed that having one faithful partner and using condoms would protect against HIV: nevertheless, more than two-thirds were worried about HIV infection. Two-thirds had had a relationship with a woman, one-third in the past year. Predictors of non-use of condoms for anal sex with last casual partner were younger age, not being worried about HIV infection, and agreeing to have sex even if a condom was refused. There was no significance in proportion using a condom with last casual (43%) and last regular (49%) partner. Most partners (MSM knew a median of 10 other MSM) were met in bars, music halls, and in the home/local environment, and 70% of MSM described their sexual position as "bottom." Sixty percent reported having an HIV test and the great majority was comfortable discussing condoms with partners and friends: half would refuse to have sex if condoms were not agreed to. These data suggest a significant "gay" community in Dar es Salaam with relatively accurate HIV information but moderate condom use, HIV testing and ability to refuse unsafe sex. There is clearly scope for targeted HIV prevention programs in the MSM community in Tanzania.

  1. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    OpenAIRE

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that t...

  2. [High-risk sexual behaviour by partner type among men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with high risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain. An online survey was conducted in 2010, which included, among others, questions on HIV/STI sexual behaviours and prevention needs. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status in the past year was defined as a high risk sexual behaviour. Of the 13,111 participants, 49.4% had had sex with steady partners (SP) and 73.4% with non-steady partners (NSP) in the last 12months; and the prevalence of high risk UAI was 25.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Factors associated with high risk UAI with SP were: living in a city of less than 500,000 inhabitants (OR=1.42 50 partners), having used drugs for sex (OR=1.33), and at parties (OR=1.19), having a medium (OR=1.82) or low (OR=1.33) level of HIV/STI knowledge, and being HIV-positive (OR=1.56). Among MSM, the prevalence of high risk sexual practices is high with both SP and NSP. Factors associated with high risk UAI vary by type of sexual partner (e.g., having HIV with an undetectable viral load). These must be taken into account when planning strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Safer sex decision-making among men with haemophilia and HIV and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, K L; Cotton, D; Huszti, H C; Parsons, J T

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory qualitative study of adult heterosexual men with haemophilia and HIV and women who were their sexual partners was conducted as formative research to better understand cognitive factors involved in behavioural intentions and practices which comprise HIV risk-reduction for sexual transmission. The study sought to generate hypotheses, uncover themes, and develop a broad perspective on possible determinants of behaviours related to HIV transmission risk reduction. Qualitative analysis of these data served as a basis for developing a subsequent quantitative, hypothesis-testing survey and an intervention. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 23 single men and 28 married men with haemophilia and HIV infection, and 28 married women partners selected through stratified, purposeful sampling. The interviews identified beliefs, attitudes, and values underlying decisions regarding target behaviours related to preventing sexual transmission of HIV, including (1) using condoms consistently during vaginal intercourse and (2) talking to partners about risk reduction. The interviews elicited information about perceived advantages and disadvantages of performing each of the targeted behaviours, and factors that facilitate or prevent performing them. Qualitative analysis of coded responses yielded important themes regarding how choices are made about sexual activity and safer sex. Most notably, communication between partners (1) plays a direct, key role in facilitating condom use and (2) forms the basis for maintaining emotional intimacy in these relationships. The link between condom use and communicating about safer sex was viewed as pivotal in achieving HIV prevention for individuals in serodiscordant couples. Recommendations for risk reduction intervention development are discussed.

  4. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  6. Unsafe sex in regular partnerships among heterosexual persons living with HIV: evidence from a large representative sample of individuals attending outpatients services in France (ANRS-EN12-VESPA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Préau, Marie; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Schiltz, Marie-Ange; Obadia, Yolande; Spire, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour remains frequent among people living with HIV. We analysed factors associated with unsafe sex within serodiscordant couples among heterosexual individuals living with HIV in France. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among individuals selected in a random stratified sample of 102 French hospital departments delivering HIV care. This analysis included adults heterosexual participants in a regular partnership for at least 12 months with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner, HIV-diagnosed for at least 12 months. Unsafe sex was defined as reporting inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Among men and women, participants who reported unsafe sex were compared with those who did not. 663 heterosexual adults reported being in a serodiscordant regular partnership. Women accounted for 41% of participants and 26% of the sample were immigrants. Unsafe sex with the steady partner was reported by 26% of men and 34% of women (p=0.024). For men, factors independently associated with unsafe sex were being in a relationship for more than 10 years, being in a difficult financial situation and reporting regular consumption of alcohol to excess. Among women, having a history of drug use, not being aware of partner's serostatus, and reporting a difficult financial situation were independently associated with unsafe sex. In addition, immigrant women were associated with safer sex. A high number of serodiscordant couples continue to report risky sexual behaviour, and related factors are gender-specific. Couple-level interventions are essential in order to prevent HIV-transmission and to encourage negotiation within couples.

  7. Sexual agreements and perception of HIV prevalence among an online sample of partnered men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; White, Darcy; Mitchell, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Stemming from recent evidence that between one- and two-thirds of new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within main partnerships, research and programmatic efforts have begun to recognize the role of the male-male dyad in shaping HIV risk. Central to this new focus has been studies detailing the presence of sexual agreements, which provide guidelines governing permissions around sex with partners outside of the relationship. Using a Facebook-recruited sample of US-partnered MSM (n = 454), this study examines the associations between reporting of sexual agreements and perceptions of HIV prevalence among male sex partners, friends, and local and national MSM populations. Men who perceived that 10-20 % (OR 6.18, 95 % CI 1.28-29.77) and >20 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive (OR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.02-7.08) had significantly higher odds of reporting having an open agreement with their current main partner than men who perceived that less than 10 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive. Partnered men with open sexual agreements may have more sexual partners than those who report monogamy, possibly leading to heightened perceptions of HIV risk, which may result in reporting of perceptions of greater local HIV prevalence. Additionally, men who have made agreements with their partners may have done so due to concerns about HIV risks, and may also be more aware of increased risks of HIV infection, or may have greater knowledge of HIV prevalence through discussions of serostatus with sex partners. Attention is needed to develop prevention efforts, such as toolkits and resources that enable men to form sexual agreements that are based on comprehensive knowledge of the potential risks for acquisition of HIV.

  8. Sex Differences in the Implications of Partner Physical Attractiveness for the Trajectory of Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrea L.; McNulty, James K.; Jackson, Grace; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work drew from four independent, longitudinal studies to examine sex differences in the implications of partner physical attractiveness for trajectories of marital satisfaction. In all four studies, both partners’ physical attractiveness was objectively rated at baseline and both partners reported their marital satisfaction up to eight times over the first four years of marriage. Whereas husbands were more satisfied at the beginning of the marriage and remained more satisfied over the next four years to the extent that they had an attractive wife, wives were no more or less satisfied initially or over the next four years to the extent that they had an attractive husband. Most importantly, a direct test indicated that partner physical attractiveness played a larger role in predicting husbands’ satisfaction than predicting wives’ satisfaction. These findings strengthen support for the idea that gender differences in self-reported preferences for physical attractiveness do have implications for long-term relationship outcomes. PMID:24128188

  9. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Student Judgments of the risks of HIV-Infection as a function of sexual practice, sex of target and partner, and age and sex of student

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...

  11. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  12. Male self-disclosure of HIV infection to sex partners: a Hawaii-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey design with self-report to (a) describe serostatus disclosure to recent sex partners (SPs) among a multiethnic group of HIV-infected men from Hawaii, (b) explore factors influencing disclosure, and (c) examine relationships between disclosure and condom use. Respondents recalled their sexual experiences with up to three most recent SPs in the 3 months before survey administration. The men (N = 93) reported a disclosure rate of approximately 50% with 228 SPs. Disclosure was significantly influenced by SP serostatus, relationship status, self-efficacy for disclosure decision making, and cocaine use before sex. Disclosure was also significantly associated with condom use, highlighting the transmission risk reduction benefit of disclosure for these participants. HIV caregivers should routinely address disclosure to SPs and offer interventions to enhance condom use. Interventions for strengthening efficacy beliefs for disclosure decision making should be tailored to help men with multiple SPs and those with recent cocaine use.

  13. Stereotypes of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Sex and Sexual Orientation Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Meza-de-Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.

  14. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation.

  15. Sexually Explicit Online Media, Body Satisfaction, and Partner Expectations Among Men who have Sex with Men: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leickly, Emily; Nelson, Kimberly; Simoni, Jane

    2017-09-01

    Limited research has investigated the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (SEOM) on body satisfaction and partner expectations of men who have sex with men (MSM). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM, covering the perceived influence of MSM-specific SEOM. All nine men who broached the topics of body satisfaction and partner expectations reported that MSM-specific SEOM set unreasonably high physical appearance expectations for themselves and/or their potential partners. Although MSM-specific SEOM might be negatively affecting body satisfaction and partner expectations among MSM, its ubiquity may make it a useful tool to support body positivity.

  16. Cortisol increases in response to brief social exchanges with opposite sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Collins, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Researchers recently demonstrated that cortisol increases in response to mating-relevant social interactions. An important next step is investigating factors that explain individual differences in cortisol reactivity within these contexts. The current study examined demographic, situational, and individual difference predictors of cortisol reactivity following brief, non-face-to-face interactions with potential dating partners. College students made a video introducing themselves to another participant. During another appointment, they watched a short video of an opposite-sex confederate introducing himself/herself, and believed the other person was watching their video. Participants were told they would get to know the confederate more during a web-chat, which never took place. Participants received either rejection, acceptance, or no feedback from the confederate. Cortisol levels increased over baseline in all feedback conditions. Cortisol increases were particularly strong for participants who perceived the confederate as a more desirable dating partner, participants who were independently rated as a less desirable partner, and men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  19. Love moderates the relationship between partner type and condom use among women engaging in transactional vaginal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Hensel, Devon J; Wiehe, Sarah E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Wagner, Karla D

    2016-04-01

    Background Relationship characteristics and day-to-day variation in affective state have been associated with HIV risk behaviour. However, no research has assessed the impact of these factors on event-level condom use among women engaging in transactional sex. Twenty-six women engaging in transactional sex were enrolled in a prospective study of their sexual health. They completed diaries about multi-level predictors of condom use during vaginal sex twice, daily. Over 4 weeks, 18 participants reported 87 paid/traded vaginal intercourse events. Of these, 51.7% were condom protected. The majority of paid/traded events (81.5%) occurred with a non-romantic partner. After controlling for partner type, feeling in love on a given day was associated with higher odds of condom use during paid/traded sexual events, while having sex on the weekend and at night were associated with lower odds of condom use (all P≤0.05). There was a significant interaction between being in love and using condoms during transactional sex (Plove and 40% (4/10) when love was reported. In sexual events with non-romantic partners, the frequency of condom use was 43.8% (14/32) when women did not report love and 59.5% (22/37) when love was reported. Women were less likely to report protected sex with romantic partners and more likely to report protected sex with non-romantic partners when they are in love. Interventions focusing on the link between day-to-day variation in affective state on condom use may help women with risk management across partner types.

  20. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  1. The brain reaction to viewing faces of opposite- and same-sex romantic partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual. We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups.

  2. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  3. Sex differences in mate preferences revisited: do people know what they initially desire in a romantic partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-02-01

    In paradigms in which participants state their ideal romantic-partner preferences or examine vignettes and photographs, men value physical attractiveness more than women do, and women value earning prospects more than men do. Yet it remains unclear if these preferences remain sex differentiated in predicting desire for real-life potential partners (i.e., individuals whom one has actually met). In the present study, the authors explored this possibility using speed dating and longitudinal follow-up procedures. Replicating previous research, participants exhibited traditional sex differences when stating the importance of physical attractiveness and earning prospects in an ideal partner and ideal speed date. However, data revealed no sex differences in the associations between participants' romantic interest in real-life potential partners (met during and outside of speed dating) and the attractiveness and earning prospects of those partners. Furthermore, participants' ideal preferences, assessed before the speed-dating event, failed to predict what inspired their actual desire at the event. Results are discussed within the context of R. E. Nisbett and T. D. Wilson's (1977) seminal article: Even regarding such a consequential aspect of mental life as romantic-partner preferences, people may lack introspective awareness of what influences their judgments and behavior. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks.

  5. HIV Partner Notification Values and Preferences Among Sex Workers, Fishermen, and Mainland Community Members in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Caitlin; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Burke, Virginia M; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2018-01-25

    HIV partner notification involves contacting sexual partners of people who test HIV positive and referring them to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services. To understand values and preferences of key and general populations in Rakai, Uganda, we conducted 6 focus group discussions and 63 in-depth interviews in high prevalence fishing communities and low prevalence mainland communities. Participants included fishermen and sex workers in fishing communities, male and female mainland community members, and healthcare providers. Questions explored three approaches: passive referral, provider referral, and contract referral. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using a team-based matrix approach. Participants agreed that passive referral was most suitable for primary partners. Provider referral was acceptable in fishing communities for notifying multiple, casual partners. Healthcare providers voiced concerns about limited time, resources, and training for provider-assisted approaches. Options for partner notification may help people overcome barriers to HIV serostatus disclosure and help reach key populations.

  6. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.

  7. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.

  8. Olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in female rats: Role of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, M B; Barradas-Moctezuma, M; Herrera-Covarrubias, D; Carrillo, P; Corona-Morales, A A; Perez, C A; García, L I; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-11-01

    The dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males during cohabitation, but not in ovariectomized (OVX) females, primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Herein we tested the effects of QNP on OVX, EB-only primed females. Females received a systemic injection (every four days) of either saline (Saline-conditioned) or QNP (QNP-conditioned) and then cohabited for 24h with lemon-scented stimulus females (CS+), during three trials. In test 1 (female-female) preference was QNP-free, and females chose between the CS+ female and a novel female. In test 2 (male-female) they chose between the CS+ female and a sexually experienced male. In test 1 Saline-conditioned females displayed more hops & darts towards the novel female, but QNP-conditioned females displayed more sexual solicitations towards the CS+ female. In test 2 Saline-conditioned females displayed a clear preference for the male, whereas QNP-conditioned females displayed what we considered a bisexual preference. We discuss the effect of dopamine and ovarian hormones on the development of olfactory conditioned same-sex preference in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Also Report Having Sex With Transgender Partners: Analysis of HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Grace Chela; Young, Alicia; Krakauer, Chloe; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Cummings, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth; Koblin, Beryl

    2017-10-01

    HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN 061) study data of Black MSM were analyzed to determine characteristics associated with having transgender sexual partners (TGP) and the association of having TGP with sexual risk. Of 1,449 cisgender MSM, 343(24%) reported also having TGP. MSM with TGP were more likely to be older, have a sexual orientation other than homosexual, have a history of incarceration, or have insufficient funds for necessities, but less likely to be HIV positive or report sex with men to health care providers. MSM with TGP were 3.67 times more likely to recently have 5+ new partners and 2.02 times more likely to report 6+ condomless sexual acts. Since MSM with TGP reported not disclosing sex with men to health care providers, these men may need tailored HIV prevention and care. Future studies should examine differing sexual risks MSM take with sexual partners with different gender identities.

  10. Sexual Behavior, Definitions of Sex, and the Role of Self-Partner Context Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Kelsey K; McGarrity, Larissa A; Strassberg, Donald S

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has examined how heterosexual individuals define sex; however, these studies have rarely focused on sexual minority individuals or included a full range of applicable sexual behaviors. Participants were recruited from a local Pride Festival across two years. Study 1 (N = 329) was primarily descriptive and examined which physically intimate behaviors lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants included in their definitions of sex and the behaviors in which they had previously engaged. Study 2 (N = 393) utilized a between-subjects design to assess differences in definitions of sex when judging one's own behavior compared with that of a partner outside of the relationship. The behaviors in which participants were most likely to have engaged were manual-genital (82%) and oral-genital stimulation (79%). Regarding definitions of sex, a clear "gold standard" emerged for men, with 90% endorsing penile-anal intercourse as sex. No equally clear standard existed for women. Participants who were asked to consider their partner's behavior outside of their relationship were more likely to endorse the behavior as "having sex" than participants asked to consider their own behavior. This study addressed a major limitation of prior research by investigating definitions of sex among a community sample of LGB adults, with implications for provision of health care and sexual agreements between same-sex couples.

  11. HIV Testing and Awareness of Partner's HIV Status Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men in Main Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Yan, Hongjing; Raymond, H Fisher; Shi, Ling-En; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Haitao; McFarland, Willi

    2016-04-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) do not use condoms with their main partners, especially if both parties are of the same HIV status. However, significant proportions of MSM have never tested or recently tested and are unaware of their main partners' HIV status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 524 MSM in Jiangsu, China in 2013-2014. Time-location sampling and online convenience sampling were used to recruit participants. We compared awareness of HIV status and recent HIV testing between participants who had main partners versus those who did not, and identified factors associated with recent HIV testing among men in main partnerships. Participants in main partnerships were significantly more likely to report recent HIV testing and being HIV-negative instead of HIV-unknown compared to participants in casual partnerships only. Overall, 74.5 % of participants were aware of their main partners' HIV status. Among participants in main partnerships, those who had 2-5 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months and those who reported that their partners were HIV-negative had 2.36 (95 % CI 1.12, 4.97) and 4.20 (95 % CI 2.03, 8.70) fold greater odds of being tested in the past year compared to those who had main partners only and those whose partners were HIV-positive/unknown, respectively. Chinese MSM in main partnerships might be practicing serosorting and may be at lower risk for HIV infection due to increased awareness of main partners' HIV status and higher uptake of recent testing.

  12. Interpersonal and structural contexts of intimate partner violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.

  13. Prevalence of consistent condom use with various types of sex partners and associated factors among money boys in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Hong; Yan, Jin; Yang, Guo-Li; Long, Shuo; Yu, Yong; Wu, Xi-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Money boys with inconsistent condom use (less than 100% of the time) are at high risk of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), but relatively little research has examined their risk behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of consistent condom use (100% of the time) and associated factors among money boys. A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire was conducted among money boys in Changsha, China, between July 2012 and January 2013. Independent variables included socio-demographic data, substance abuse history, work characteristics, and self-reported HIV and STI history. Dependent variables included the consistent condom use with different types of sex partners. Among the participants, 82.4% used condoms consistently with male clients, 80.2% with male sex partners, and 77.1% with female sex partners in the past 3 months. A multiple stepwise logistic regression model identified four statistically significant factors associated with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male clients: age group, substance abuse, lack of an "employment" arrangement, and having no HIV test within the prior 6 months. In a similar model, only one factor associated significantly with lower likelihoods of consistent condom use with male sex partners was identified in multiple stepwise logistic regression analyses: having no HIV test within the prior six months. As for female sex partners, two significant variables were statistically significant in the multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis: having no HIV test within the prior 6 months and having STI history. Interventions which are linked with more realistic and acceptable HIV prevention methods are greatly warranted and should increase risk awareness and the behavior of consistent condom use in both commercial and personal relationship. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  15. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  16. Depression and HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    HIV disclosure to sexual partners facilitates joint decision-making and risk reduction strategies for safer sex behaviors, but disclosure may be impacted by depression symptoms. Disclosure is also associated with disclosure self-efficacy, which in turn may also be influenced by depressive symptoms. This study examined the relationship between depression and HIV disclosure to partners following diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM), mediated by disclosure self-efficacy. Newly HIV-diagnosed MSM (n=92) who reported sexual activity after diagnosis completed an assessment soon after diagnosis which measured depressive symptoms, and another assessment within 3 months of diagnosis that measured disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure. Over one-third of the sample reported elevated depressive symptoms soon after diagnosis and equal proportions (one-third each) disclosed to none, some, or all partners in the 3 months after diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure to partners, while disclosure self-efficacy was positively associated with disclosure. Disclosure self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and disclosure, accounting for 33% of the total effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing depression that follows diagnosis to enhance subsequent disclosure to sexual partners.

  17. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  18. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners : an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated

  19. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  2. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  3. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  4. 'He's not my pimp': toward an understanding of intimate male partner involvement in female sex work at the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, María Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Yotebieng, Kelly; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Syvertsen, Jennifer L

    2017-11-24

    Female sex work is often perceived as women being controlled by men. We used surveys and qualitative interviews with female sex workers and their intimate partners in two Northern Mexico cities to examine couples' own perceptions of their relationships and male partners' involvement in sex work. Among 214 couples, the median age was 34 and relationship duration was approximately 3 years. Only 10 women in the survey reported having a pimp, and the majority reported sole control over sex work decisions. Qualitative analyses revealed that while most men avoided direct involvement in sex work, they offered advice that was largely driven by concern for their partner's well-being. Our discussion of these results considers the broader socio-political context surrounding these relationships and how changing gender roles, economic insecurity and stigma shape couples' everyday social interactions. Assumptions that all sex workers' relationships are coercive and commercial marginalises these couples while leaving their health concerns unaddressed.

  5. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Demographics, Behaviors, and Sexual Health Characteristics of High Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women Who Use Social Media to Meet Sex Partners in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy Y; Konda, Kelika A; Calvo, Gino M; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2017-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a context of quickly expanding communication technology, increasing numbers of MSM and TW are using social media applications to seek sex partners. Understanding social media users and their sex partnering practices is needed to update HIV and STI prevention programming. In Lima, Peru, 312 MSM and 89 TW from 2 STI clinics underwent HIV and STI testing and participated in a survey of demographics, behaviors, sexual health, and social media practices. χ, t tests, and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare those with and without recent social media sex partners. Men who have sex with men with social media sex partners were younger, more educated, and more likely to identify as gay. They were significantly more likely to report greater numbers of sex partners, including anonymous sex partners; sex in higher-risk venues, orgies, and have rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Transgender women with social media sex partners were also younger, more likely to participate in sex work, and have a lower rate of rapid plasma reagin positivity or history of syphilis. Participants reported using several social media sites including sexual hook-up applications, websites for gay men, pornographic websites, and chat sites, but the most common was Facebook. Prevention strategies targeting Peruvian MSM and TW who use social media are needed to address higher-risk sexual behavior and the high burden of STIs.

  7. A cross-sectional study of knowledge of sex partner serostatus among high-risk Peruvian men who have sex with men and transgender women: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sharita; Segura, Eddy R; Peinado, Jesus; Konda, Kelika A; Segura, Patricia; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Montano, Silvia M; Clark, Jesse L; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2013-02-28

    Knowledge of a sex partner's HIV serostatus can influence sexual behavior and inform harm-reduction strategies. We sought to determine how often Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) knew the HIV serostatus of their sex partners, if this knowledge was associated with any predictive factors or unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and if UAI was associated with partner serostatus. We analyzed data from the 2008 Peruvian MSM Sentinel Surveillance Survey. Data were collected by CASI about each participant's three most recent male sex partners. Primary outcome was knowledge of a partner's HIV test result. Multivariate analysis assessed the effect of age, education, sexual identity, number of male partners, alcohol use during intercourse, type of partnership and length of partnership using logistic regression. 735 participants provided data on 1,643 of their most recent sex partners from the last 3 months. 179/735 (24.4%) of all participants knew HIV test results for at least one of their 3 most recent partners, corresponding to 230/1643 (14.0%) of all sexual partnerships in the last 3 months. In multivariate analysis, casual (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.42) and exchange sex (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.88) partners, compared to stable partners, were negatively associated with knowledge of partner serostatus, whereas relationships lasting longer than one night (<3 months OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.39-3.51; 3 months to 1 year OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.80-5.01; ≥ 1 year OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.40-7.10) were positively associated with knowledge of partner serostatus. Knowledge of partner serostatus was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse with that partner. Few MSM and TW in Peru know their partners' HIV serostatus. Our findings suggest that the type and length of partnership influence the likelihood of knowing a partner's serostatus. Further research should explore the contexts and practices of partner communication, their effect on sexual behavior, and

  8. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varella Valentova, Jaroslava; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is

  9. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  10. Capturing the Interpersonal Implications of Evolved Preferences? Frequency of Sex Shapes Automatic, but Not Explicit, Partner Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lindsey L; McNulty, James K; Meltzer, Andrea L; Olson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    A strong predisposition to engage in sexual intercourse likely evolved in humans because sex is crucial to reproduction. Given that meeting interpersonal preferences tends to promote positive relationship evaluations, sex within a relationship should be positively associated with relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, prior research has been inconclusive in demonstrating such a link, with longitudinal and experimental studies showing no association between sexual frequency and relationship satisfaction. Crucially, though, all prior research has utilized explicit reports of satisfaction, which reflect deliberative processes that may override the more automatic implications of phylogenetically older evolved preferences. Accordingly, capturing the implications of sexual frequency for relationship evaluations may require implicit measurements that bypass deliberative reasoning. Consistent with this idea, one cross-sectional and one 3-year study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between sexual frequency and automatic partner evaluations but not explicit satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of automatic measurements to understanding interpersonal relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Is Sex Good for Your Health? A National Study on Partnered Sexuality and Cardiovascular Risk among Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda J; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna H

    2016-09-01

    Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) (N = 2,204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, having sex more often, and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  12. Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in 6 US Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John K; Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest.

  13. Trauma symptoms, internalized stigma, social support, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive gay and bisexual MSM who have sought sex partners online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online.

  14. Coping with Romantic Betrayal: Sex Differences in Responses to Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul L. Miller

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that, because infidelity entails somewhat different negative consequences for men and women, men and women display different emotional and behavioral reactions aimed at reducing the costs of infidelity. The study utilized an open-response method in which participants wrote about their reactions to an imagined infidelity. Findings suggest that, in response to partner infidelity, men display greater feelings of anger and a greater propensity for violence (particularly toward the male interloper, whereas women display greater feelings of sadness and a greater inclination toward seeking out sources of compensatory social affiliation (particularly from existing friendships. The current research is some of the first to identify functional responses designed to help women and men offset the social costs inflicted by a partner's infidelity.

  15. [Type of partner, socio-economic factors and risk practices in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Àngel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) perform risk practices that pose a challenge to prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between receptive and insertive unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI and IUAI) according to the type of partner and the practice of barebacking with socioeconomic factors. A descriptive study was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire distributed by a software tool in social networks and non-governmental organizations from June-2014 to January-2015. Participants consisted of 601 people living in Spain. Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression models were applied with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In stable couples, the risk of RUAI increased in individuals with a medium income (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.14-2.80) and in those who lived together (OR: 2.94; 95%CI: 1.74-4.98) and IUAI increased in individuals living with a partner (OR: 5.58; 95%IC: 3.24-9.59). When the partner was a friend, the risk of RUAI was higher among individuals with secondary education (OR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.44-3.36) and those who were retired (OR: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.25-10.37), while living with a partner was a protective factor (OR: 0.56; 95%CI: 0.32-0.98). The risk of barebacking was greater in younger men (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 1.27-5.28), in those with secondary education (OR: 1.51; 95%CI: 0.99-2.29) and in those living with a partner (OR: 3.64; 95%CI: 2.12-6.24). There is a need to reduce vulnerability due to socioeconomic factors that influence engagement in risk practices and to highlight the importance of barebacking, mainly in young MSM. Partner-based interventions and harm reduction strategies should be incorporated into preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  17. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Partner-Seeking Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Geosocial Networking Apps: Epidemiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarin, Angel B; Ward, Patrick J; Christian, W Jay; Rudolph, Abby E; Holloway, Ian W; Young, April M

    2018-05-31

    Geosocial networking apps have made sexual partner-seeking easier for men who have sex with men, raising both challenges and opportunities for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infection prevention and research. Most studies on men who have sex with men geosocial networking app use have been conducted in large urban areas, despite research indicating similar patterns of online- and app-based sex-seeking among men who have sex with men in rural and midsize cities. The goal of our research was to examine the spatial distribution of geosocial networking app usage and characterize areas with increasing numbers of partner-seeking men who have sex with men in a midsize city in the South. Data collection points (n=62) were spaced in 2-mile increments along 9 routes (112 miles) covering the county encompassing the city. At each point, staff logged into 3 different geosocial networking apps to record the number of geosocial networking app users within a 1-mile radius. Data were collected separately during weekday daytime (9:00 AM to 4:00 PM) and weekend nighttime (8:00 PM to 12:00 AM) hours. Empirical Bayesian kriging was used to create a raster estimating the number of app users throughout the county. Raster values were summarized for each of the county's 208 Census block groups and used as the outcome measure (ie, geosocial networking app usage). Negative binomial regression and Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests were used to examine Census block group variables (eg, median income, median age) associated with geosocial networking app usage and temporal differences in app usage, respectively. The number of geosocial networking app users within a 1-mile radius of the data collection points ranged from 0 to 36 during weekday daytime hours and 0 to 39 during weekend nighttime hours. In adjusted analyses, Census block group median income and percent Hispanic ethnicity were negatively associated with geosocial networking app usage for all 3 geosocial networking

  19. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  20. Sex Differences in the Implications of Partner Physical Attractiveness for the Trajectory of Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Andrea L.; McNulty, James K.; Jackson, Grace; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Do men value physical attractiveness in a mate more than women? Scientists in numerous disciplines believe that they do, but recent research using speed-dating paradigms suggests that males and females are equally influenced by physical attractiveness when choosing potential mates. Nevertheless, the premise of the current work is that sex differences in the importance of physical attractiveness are most likely to emerge in research on long-term relationships. Accordingly, the current work dre...

  1. Sífilis em parturientes: aspectos relacionados ao parceiro sexual Syphilis in parturients: aspects related to the sex partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Araújo Campos

    2012-09-01

    behavioral profile of sex partners, the proportion of those inadequately treated as well as to verify how many of them were inadequately treated and why some were not treated. METHODS: Quantitative study with data collected from May to October, 2008 at five public maternities in Fortaleza, Ceará. A survey was carried out with parturients who were hospitalized with syphilis and had a stable sex partner. We analyzed sociodemographic variables and those related to communication, diagnosis and treatment of sex partners. The data were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and were analyzed using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency and dispersion. RESULTS: The study included 56 pregnant women. Most sexual partners were young adults aged on average 29 years, 50% of them had studied for less than seven years, 82.1 worked and 46.4% had a family income of less than a minimum wage. Of all the partners, 92.9% were the child's father and 69.6% lived with the women. Fifty percent and 12% were alcohol and drug users, respectively. Most partners (75.0% were told about the diagnosis by the women, and in 78.6% of cases they were aware of the VDRL result before or during the prenatal period. However, 25.0% of the women did not communicate the result to their partners for the following reasons: not knowing the importance of the partner's treatment (50.0%, not being together after the diagnosis (42.9% and having a quarrel (7.1%. Of the partners who were informed about the result before or during the prenatal period, 56.0% were treated and six (42.8% were considered to have been properly treated. Among the ones who did not receive treatment, 63.6% refused it because they did not feel sick, because they did not believe in the treatment and because they were afraid of injections. CONCLUSIONS: Partners are told about the syphilis diagnosis of the pregnant women; however, only a few are properly treated.

  2. News Stories of Intimate Partner Violence: An Experimental Examination of Participant Sex, Perpetrator Sex, and Violence Severity on Seriousness, Sympathy, and Punishment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie E; Sheff, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    This study experimentally examines the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity of violence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) seriousness, sympathy toward the victim, and punishment preferences for the perpetrator. Participants (N = 449) were randomly assigned to a condition, exposed to a composite news story, and then completed a survey. Ratings of seriousness of IPV for stories with male perpetrators were significantly higher than ratings of seriousness for stories with female perpetrators. Men had significantly higher sympathy for female victims in any condition than for male victims in the weak or strong severity of violence conditions. Men's sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition did not differ from their sympathy for female victims. Women had the least sympathy for female victims in the weak severity condition and men in the weak or strong severity conditions. Women reported significantly higher sympathy for female victims in the strong and fatal severity of violence conditions. Women's ratings of sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition were statistically indistinguishable from any other group. Participants reported stronger punishment preferences for male perpetrators and this effect was magnified among men. Theoretical implications are presented with attention provided to practical considerations about support for public health services.

  3. I do…do you? Dependence and biological sex moderate daters' cortisol responses when accommodating a partner's thoughts about marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    We examined how daters' levels of relationship dependence interact with men's and women's degree of accommodation during a likelihood of marriage discussion to predict cortisol levels at the conclusion of the discussion. Upon arriving at the laboratory, couple members were separated and asked to graph their perceived likelihood of one day marrying each other. Couples were reunited and instructed to create a joint graph depicting their agreed-upon chance of marriage. For the majority of couples, negotiating their likelihood of marriage required one or both partners to accommodate each other's presumed likelihood of marriage. Multilevel analyses revealed a significant Dependence×Accommodation×Sex interaction. For women who increased their likelihood of marriage, feelings of dependence predicted heightened levels of cortisol relative to baseline; we suggest such a response is indicative of eustress. Among men, those who accommodated by decreasing their likelihood of marriage experienced significantly lower levels of cortisol to the extent that they were less dependent on their partners. Discussion focuses on why men and women show different physiological reactions in response to seemingly favorable outcomes from a relationship discussion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Maamari, Ricardo; Simon, James

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. The CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships survey evaluated the impact of VA on the physical and emotional aspects of sexual relationships between postmenopausal women and their male partners. Four thousand one hundred females and 4,100 males representing the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the United States were surveyed. Assessments included: (i) talking about VA and its symptoms; (ii) the impact of VA on intimacy, relationships, and women's self-esteem; (iii) talking about VA and erectile dysfunction (ED); and (iv) the impact of local estrogen therapy (LET) on intimacy and relationships. Descriptive data on the impact of VA. Twenty-eight percent of women did not tell their partners when they first encountered vaginal discomfort, mainly because they felt "it was just a natural part of growing older" (52%) or because of "embarrassment" (21%). Eighty-two percent of males wanted their partner to share their experiences with VA; males were also more comfortable discussing VA than females (68% vs. 58%, respectively). Having sex less often (women: 58%, men: 61%), less satisfying sex (women: 49%, men: 28%), and putting off having sex (women: 35%, men: 14%) were the main effects of VA. Intimacy avoidance was attributed to painful sex (women: 55%, men: 61%) and women's reduced sexual desire (women: 46%, men: 43%). Discussions about vaginal discomfort and ED were generally limited to partners and healthcare providers (HCPs). LET use resulted in less painful sex (women: 62%, men: 59%) and more satisfying sex (women: 47%, men: 49%). VA has an adverse emotional and physical impact on postmenopausal women and their partners. These findings may encourage more open communication about VA between couples and their HCPs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C; Pusey, Anne E

    2015-07-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes , differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  6. Mental health functioning among men who use the Internet specifically to find partners for unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices. More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population.

  7. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  8. Sex-specific effects of mindfulness on romantic partners' cortisol responses to conflict and relations with psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Laurent, Sean; Hertz, Robin; Egan-Wright, Dorianne; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Mindfulness is known to improve individuals' and couples' subjective stress regulation, but little is known about how it impacts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. The current study tested effects of dispositional mindfulness facets on young adult couples' cortisol responses to a conflict discussion stressor, as well as associations with psychological adjustment. One hundred heterosexual couples completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire one week before engaging in a conflict discussion task. Each partner provided five saliva samples from pre- to post-conflict, which were assayed for cortisol. Measures of adjustment - depression and anxiety symptoms and global well-being - were also completed at this session. Hierarchical linear modeling of cortisol trajectories revealed sex-specific effects; whereas women's mindfulness (nonreactivity facet) predicted higher conflict stress cortisol levels, men's mindfulness (describing facet) predicted less pronounced cortisol reactivity/recovery curves. These patterns were related to better adjustment-lower depression symptoms for women and greater well-being for men. Implications for sex differences in mindfulness benefits are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration Stress, Poor Mental Health, and Engagement in Sex with High-Risk Partners: A Mediation Modeling Analysis of Data from Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Robserson, Emily

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e.g., sex workers, intravenous injection drug users, blood donors, persons infected with HIV, persons with sexually transmitted infection, and same gender partners) in the past year. The proposed relationship was tested using mediation modeling method. Among the sample, 5.5% reported having had sex with high-risk partners in the past year. Mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between DMSQ scores and having sex with high-risk partners was mediated by BSI (coefficient =0.41, 95% CI [0.21, 0.65]), including its components of somatization (0.32 [0.15, 0.53]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.31 [0.07, 0.55]), depression (0.45 [0.23, 0.72]), anxiety (0.41 [0.23, 0.63]), and hostility (0.35 [0.17, 0.56]). Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced in males than in females. The study findings provide new data advancing our understanding of the mechanism of engagement in risky sex, underscoring the need for the HIV prevention policies in China to pay more attention to mental health of the rural-to-urban migrant population.

  10. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners: an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-04-19

    Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated with a greater risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than with other ways of meeting partners. Data were analysed from the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, community-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted in Australian state capital cities between 2010 and 2014. χ 2 tests and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse differences in risk profiles of men who used different methods to meet partners. Data were analysed from 36 428 men who participated in the Gay Community Periodic Surveys between 2010 and 2014. In 2014, 4116 men reported meeting sex partners with the use of mobile apps, increasing from 23.9% in 2011 to 42.5% in 2014. Men who used a combination of online and offline methods reported a greater number of sex partners and were more likely to report a recent STI than men who used online methods only or offline methods only. There has been a steep increase in the use of mobile phone apps by gay men in Australia to meet male partners. However, men who use a combination of mobile phone apps, internet websites and offline places to meet partners appear to be at increased risk of STIs or HIV compared with men who use a narrower range of online and offline methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita

    2018-05-11

    Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study

  12. Uptake of a Partner Notification Model for HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pines, Heather A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Vera, Alicia Harvey; Rangel, Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-11-20

    Undiagnosed HIV infection is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Latin America. We examined uptake of a partner notification (PN) model among MSM and TW in Tijuana, Mexico. Forty-six HIV-positive MSM/TW enrolled as index patients, and reported 132 MSM/TW sexual partners for PN. Of notified partners (90/132), 39% declined eligibility screening or participation, 39% tested for HIV, and of those 28% were newly-diagnosed HIV-positive. Partners who were seen by the index patient more than once in the past 4 months and those who primarily had sex with the index patient in one of their homes were more likely to be notified via PN (76% vs. 50%; p = 0.01 and 86% vs. 64%, p = 0.02, respectively). Lower than expected PN uptake was associated with problems identifying index patients, obtaining reliable partner contact information, and engaging notified partners.

  13. HIV prevalence by race co-varies closely with concurrency and number of sex partners in South Africa.

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    Chris Kenyon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence differs by more than an order of magnitude between South Africa's racial groups. Comparing the sexual behaviors and other risk factors for HIV transmission between the different races may shed light on the determinants of South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. METHODS: Five nationally representative and one city-representative population-based surveys of sexual behavior were used to assess the extent to which various risk factors co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in South Africa. RESULTS: In 2004, the prevalence of HIV was 0.5%, 1%, 3.2% and 19.9% in 15-49 year old whites, Indians, coloureds and blacks respectively. The risk factors which co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in the six surveys were age of sexual debut (in five out of five surveys for men and three out of six surveys for women, age gap (zero surveys in men and three in women, mean number of sex partners in the previous year (five surveys in men and three in women and concurrent partnerships (five surveys in men and one in women. Condom usage and circumcision were both more prevalent in the high HIV prevalence groups. The reported prevalence of concurrency was 6 to 17 times higher in the black as opposed to the white men in the five surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in sexual behavior in general, and the prevalence of concurrency and the number of sexual partners in particular, offer a plausible and parsimonious cause to explain a part of the differing prevalences of HIV between South Africa's racial groups.

  14. Disclosure appraisal mediating the association between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners among HIV+ MSM: a path model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    HIV stigma is widely believed to be related to HIV disclosure. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the mechanisms that link stigma to disclosure. This is a specific study to assess the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners based on a social cognitive theory. HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) from two US cities (N = 297) completed questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Path modeling analysis was used to assess the theory-based structural relationships. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with attitudes, intention and behavior of HIV disclosure to casual sex partners. The association was fully mediated by disclosure appraisal, including disclosure outcome expectations, costs and self-efficacy. Findings of this study add new knowledge regarding HIV stigma and disclosure, and provide timely data supporting more effective behavioral interventions to encourage HIV disclosure among MSM.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  16. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  17. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-01-05

    Sex with multiple partners (SMP) is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU) and SMP among LGB youth. This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves' public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11-21; Wave 4: aged 24-32). After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  18. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex with multiple partners (SMP is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU and SMP among LGB youth. Methods This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves’ public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11–21; Wave 4: aged 24–32. Results After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. Conclusion MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  19. Beyond Sex: Likelihood and Predictors of Effective and Ineffective Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence in Bystanders Perceiving an Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Gray, Melissa L; Makande, Tariro B; Hoyt, Robert L

    2016-01-06

    Within the framework of the bystander model of intervention, we examined specific correlates and the likelihood of effective and ineffective intervention strategies of bystanders to an instance of intimate partner violence (IPV) identified as an emergency. We measured psychological variables associated with general prosocial behavior (including sex, instrumentality, expressiveness, empathy, personal distress, dispositional anger, and perceived barriers) as influential predictors in four IPV intervention behaviors (i.e., calling 911, talking to the victim, talking to the perpetrator, and physically interacting with the perpetrator). One hundred seventeen college community members completed preintervention measures, watched a film clip of IPV which they identified as an emergency, reported their likelihood of becoming involved and utilizing intervention behaviors, and identified perceived barriers to intervention. Participants were more likely to indicate using effective over ineffective intervention tactics. Lower perceived barriers to intervention predicted greater intervention likelihood. Hierarchical regression indicated that men and individuals higher in anger and instrumental traits were more likely to report that they would engage in riskier ineffective forms of intervention. Implications regarding bystander training and associations to intervention in related forms of violence including sexual assault are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk-taking among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing body of literature suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM represent a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in Africa, but are often overlooked in the development of HIV interventions and programming. Little attention has been paid to the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV among MSM in African settings. This paper examines reporting of IPV among a sample of predominantly white, gay internet-recruited MSM in South Africa and examines associations between IPV and sexual risk-taking.Methods: Internet-using MSM were recruited through selective placement of banner advertisements on Facebook.com. Eligibility criteria were over 18-years-old, residence in South Africa and self-reporting of recent male-male sexual behavior. There were 777 eligible respondents, of which 521 MSM with complete data are included in the final analysis. Ninety percent of the sample reported a White/ European race, and 96% self-identified as gay.Results: The prevalence of IPV, both experienced and perpetrated, was relatively high, with 8% of men reporting having experienced recent physical IPV and 4.5% of men reporting recent experiences of sexual IPV. Approximately 4.5% of MSM reported recently perpetrating physical IPV, while the reporting of perpetration of recent sexual IPV was much lower at 0.45%. Reporting of experiencing and perpetration of physical IPV was significantly associated with race, level of education and reporting recent unprotected anal sex. Reporting of experiencing recent sexual IPV was significantly associated with reported experiences of homophobia.Conclusion: There is a limited amount of data on IPV within same-sex relationships in South Africa, and the results presented here suggest that the prevalence of IPV within this White/European and gay population is cause for concern. Collection of IPV data through surveys administered via social networking sites is feasible and represents a way of

  2. Partner Disclosure of PrEP Use and Undetectable Viral Load on Geosocial Networking Apps: Frequency of Disclosure and Decisions About Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mongrella, Melissa C; Weis, Benjamin; McMillen, Samuel J; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in biomedical prevention strategies, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) among HIV-infected persons, show promise in curbing the rising incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the frequency with which MSM encounter potential sex partners on geosocial networking apps who disclose biomedical prevention use, and how MSM make decisions about condom use after these disclosures. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on a large geosocial networking app for MSM. A total of 668 and 727 participants, respectively, responded to questionnaires assessing partner disclosure of PrEP use and UVL. Each questionnaire included an open-ended item assessing reasons for condomless anal sex (CAS) with partners using biomedical prevention. Across both surveys, most respondents encountered potential sex partners who disclosed PrEP use or UVL, and the majority of those who met up with these partners engaged in CAS at least once. Qualitative analyses found that most participants who reported CAS did so after making a calculated risk about HIV transmission. We also describe a novel risk reduction strategy, "biomed-matching," or having CAS only when both individuals use PrEP or have UVL. We report serostatus differences in both quantitative and qualitative findings. Disclosure of PrEP use and UVL is not uncommon among MSM. Many MSM make accurate appraisals of the risks of CAS with biomedical prevention, and mobile apps may aid with disclosing biomedical prevention use.

  3. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioural interventions promoting condom use among female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five studies measuring condom use with regular non-paying partners recorded less consistent condom use with these partners. This review illustrates the existence of sufficient evidence showing the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting correct and consistent condom use by FSWs. Keywords: commercial sex ...

  5. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  6. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.

  7. Partner-level substance use associated with increased sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in San Francisco, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert E; Turner, Caitlin; Hern, Jaclyn; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2017-07-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with individual-level sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored the relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. We examined partner-level data between MSM participants (n=23) and their sexual partners (n=52). We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression to assess the relationship between partner-level substance use during their last sexual encounter with each partner, and engaging in condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and serodiscordant CAI. In multivariable analyses, participants had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of CAI when the participant (AOR=22.2, 95%CI=2.5-199.5) or their partners used any drugs (AOR=21.8, 95%CI=3.3-144.3); their partners (AOR=5.7, 95%CI=1.7-19.3) or both participant and partner had concordant use of methamphetamine (AOR=10.5, 95%CI=2.2-50.6); or when both used poppers (AOR=11.4, 95%CI=1.5-87). There were higher odds of SDCAI if the participant binge drank (AOR=4, 95%CI=1.01-15.8), used more than one substance (AOR=15.8, 95%CI=1.9-133), or used other drugs (AOR=4.8, 95%CI=1.3-18.4); if their partner used poppers (AOR=7.6, 95%CI=1.5-37.6), or used more than one substance (AOR=7.9, 95%CI=1.9-34.1); and when both participant and partner had concordant use of poppers (AOR=4.4, 95%CI=1.2-16.8). This study observed significant relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. Specifically, when either the participant, the partner, or both used any drugs there was an increased odds of sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest that partner-level substance use behaviors should be taken in account when developing sexual risk reduction interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Client retention and health among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2012-12-01

    It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer.

  9. An Event-Level Analysis of Condomless Anal Intercourse with a HIV-Discordant or HIV Status-Unknown Partner Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men from a Multi-site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Tobin, Karin; Seal, David; Koblin, Beryl; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Flores, Stephen; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2018-05-19

    Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner. We found CLAI with an HIV-discordant or unknown HIV status partner among HIV-negative BMSM was negatively associated with having sex with a main partner, and was positively associated with taking both receptive and insertive sexual positions during sex. As compared to a sex partner met at bar, night club or dance club, HIV-positive BMSM were less likely to engage in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner met at party or friend's house or at community organizations. HIV-positive BMSM had lower odds of engaging in CLAI with HIV-discordant and unknown HIV status partner if they had insertive sexual position or both receptive and insertive sexual positions. These results underscore the importance of delineating unique sex event-level factors associated with sexual risk behavior depending on individuals' HIV status. Our findings suggest event-level partner characteristics, sexual position, and partner seeking venues may contribute to disparities in HIV incidence.

  10. Partner-specific sexual practices among heterosexual men and women with multiple partners: results from the French national survey, ACSF. Analyse des Comportements Sexuel en France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, A; Pelletier, A

    1996-06-01

    Heterosexual men and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of partner and these practices among heterosexuals with multiple partners. A subsample of all subjects having had at least two sexual partners during the previous year (n = 1644) was obtained from the ACSF survey (n = 20,055), the French national telephone survey on sexual behavior conducted between September 1991 and February 1992. Questions concerned in particular sexual practices of the last encounter as well as type of partner. Petting and vaginal penetration were almost systematic, mutual manual stimulation and orogenital sex were common, while self-masturbation and anal sex were infrequent. On average, a condom was seldom used. However, it was used more often when the partner was occasional. Nonpenetrative and oral practices were also more frequent with occasional partners. Women tended to report lower frequencies of practices and of condom use than men. A subset of heterosexuals with multiple partners engaged in safe sex. Practices tend to be partner-specific, with safer sex practices more likely to occur with occasional partners, although the magnitude of the difference is moderate.

  11. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  12. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hail-Jares

    Full Text Available Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers' risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear.Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers. Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai.The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7% with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9. Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6 and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11.This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against women may apply these findings to

  13. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  14. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  15. Online Hookup Sites for Meeting Sexual Partners Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Rhode Island, 2013: A Call for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Poceta, Joanna; Rose, Jennifer; Bertrand, Thomas; Kantor, Rami; Harvey, Julia; Santamaria, E Karina; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Nunn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Frequent use of websites and mobile telephone applications (apps) by men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners, commonly referred to as "hookup" sites, make them ideal platforms for HIV prevention messaging. This Rhode Island case study demonstrated widespread use of hookup sites among MSM recently diagnosed with HIV. We present the advertising prices and corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of the top five sites used by newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM to meet sexual partners: Grindr, Adam4Adam, Manhunt, Scruff, and Craigslist. Craigslist offered universal free advertising. Scruff offered free online advertising to selected nonprofit organizations. Grindr and Manhunt offered reduced, but widely varying, pricing for nonprofit advertisers. More than half (60%, 26/43) of newly diagnosed MSM reported meeting sexual partners online in the 12 months prior to their diagnosis. Opportunities for public health agencies to promote HIV-related health messaging on these sites were limited. Partnering with hookup sites to reach high-risk MSM for HIV prevention and treatment messaging is an important public health opportunity for reducing disease transmission risks in Rhode Island and across the United States.

  16. Psychosocial correlates of safe sex communication between Latina women and their stable male partners: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are for Latina women of different subcultures and living in different countries.

  17. Sexual partner characteristics and incident rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a prospective cohort in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, Habib O; Liu, Hongjie; Nowak, Rebecca G; Crowell, Trevor A; Ndomb, Teclaire; Gaydos, Charlotte; Peel, Sheila; Ndembi, Nicaise; Baral, Stefan D; Ake, Julie; Charurat, Man E

    2017-08-01

    STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) potentiate HIV acquisition and transmission especially among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the influence of sexual network composition on incident rectal NG and/or CT infections among Nigerian MSM. TRUST/RV368 is a cohort of MSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. MSM respondents (egos) provided STI risk factors and demographic information for up to five of their most recent sexual partners (alters) within their sexual networks. Egos were tested for HIV, NG and CT every 3 months. Log-binomial regression was used to assess associations between alter characteristics and incident NG and/or CT. Between March 2013 and October 2015, 492 MSM were longitudinally screened for STIs, of which 28.0% (n=138) were positive for incident rectal STI (61 NG only, 42 CT only and 35 NG and CT). Among egos, condom use was associated with STIs (half of the time vs never (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8), always/almost always vs never (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0)). Incident STIs were associated with having a younger alter ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0), HIV infection (aRR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.4 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) among regular alters and age ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), HIV infection (aRR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.2 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) among casual alters. Given the centrality of sexual partner characteristics as risks for incident STIs among Nigerian MSM, there is a need to move beyond individual interventions and syndromic surveillance and get 'out there' in the STI management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Determinants of consistent condom use among female sex workers in Savannakhet, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Carin Hillerdal; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychaerun, Vanphanom; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone

    2015-08-19

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are a high-risk population for HIV. Correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective measure for reducing transmission of HIV. Lao PDR is a low HIV-prevalence country, but FSWs have a relatively high HIV prevalence. To be able to make recommendations for condom promotion interventions in Lao PDR it is important to know more about the context specific situation. This study looked at reasons for and associated factors of consistent condom use among FSWs. A cross-sectional survey among 258 FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Savannakhet province was performed. Almost all FSWs had enough condoms (94%), condoms always available (100%) and could always afford condoms (92%). Consistent condom use was 97% with non-regular partners and 60% with regular partners. Almost all respondents (95%) had received information about condoms from the drop-in centre. Stated reasons for consistent condom use were prevention of HIV (94%), STIs (88%) and pregnancy (87%). Most reasons for inconsistent condom use were related to partners not wanting to use condoms because of reduced sexual pleasure. Some FSWs reported that they were physically abused and forced not to use condoms. Shorter time in sex work, higher education and FSW not having regular partners were significantly associated with consistent condom use. Consistent condom use was very high with non-regular partners, but less frequent with regular partners. The main reason for inconsistent condom use was that the partner did not want to use a condom. Associated factors for consistent condom use were not having regular partners, higher education and shorter time in sex work. Condom promotion programs should include both FSWs and their partners and female condoms should be included in condom intervention efforts. Future studies should investigate the validity of self-reported sexual practices, partners' reasons for inconsistent condom use, risk of violence in sex work and why shorter time in sex

  19. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G; Wit, John B F de; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Fennema, Johan S A; Coutinho, Roel A; Dukers, Nicole H T M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  20. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G.; de Wit, John B. F.; Kolader, Marion; Fennema, Han; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  1. Does age matter? Sexual event-level analysis of age-disparate sexual partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K; Lachowsky, N J; Cui, Z; Shurgold, S; Sereda, P; Rich, A; Moore, D M; Roth, E A; Hogg, R S

    2017-08-01

    To determine factors associated with age-disparate sexual partners among Vancouver gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). Sexually active GBM aged ≥16 years were recruited from February 2012 to February 2014. Participants self-completed a questionnaire on demographics, attitudes and sexual behaviour and substance use at last sexual event with five most recent partners. Two generalised linear mixed models identified factors associated with: (1) 'same-age' (referent), 'younger' or 'much-younger' and (2) 'same-age' (referent), 'older' or 'much-older' partners. Statistical interactions between age and HIV status were tested. Participants (n=719) were predominantly gay (85.1%), White (75.0%), HIV-negative/unknown status (72.9%) with median age of 33 years (Q1,Q3: 26,47). A minority of sexual events were reported with much-older/much-younger partners (13.7%). In the multivariable models, GBM reporting older partners were more likely to be Asian or Latino, have greater Escape Motivation scores, report their partner used erectile dysfunction drugs (EDDs) and have received something for sex; compared with condom-protected insertive anal sex, participants with older partners were more likely to report condomless insertive anal sex with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner or no insertive anal sex. GBM reporting older partners were less likely to be bisexual-identified, have given something for sex and report event-level alcohol and EDD use. GBM reporting younger partners were more likely to have annual incomes >$30 000 and have met their partner online. As per significant statistical interactions, age-disparate relations were more common for younger HIV-positive and older HIV-negative GBM. Differences among age-disparate partners highlight important targets for health promotion and future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  3. Associations Between Neighborhood Characteristics, Social Cohesion, and Perceived Sex Partner Risk and Non-Monogamy Among HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Women in the Southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Wingood, Gina M; Kramer, Michael R; Haardörfer, Regine; Adimora, Adaora A; Rubtsova, Anna; Edmonds, Andrew; Goswami, Neela D; Ludema, Christina; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ramirez, Catalina; Ross, Zev; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2018-07-01

    Neighborhood social and physical factors shape sexual network characteristics in HIV-seronegative adults in the U.S. This multilevel analysis evaluated whether these relationships also exist in a predominantly HIV-seropositive cohort of women. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis included data from 734 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study's sites in the U.S. South. Census tract-level contextual data captured socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., tract poverty), number of alcohol outlets, and number of non-profits in the census tracts where women lived; participant-level data, including perceived neighborhood cohesion, were gathered via survey. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between tract characteristics and two outcomes: perceived main sex partner risk level (e.g., partner substance use) and perceived main sex partner non-monogamy. We tested whether these relationships varied by women's HIV status. Greater tract-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with greater sex partner risk (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.58) among HIV-seropositive women and less partner non-monogamy among HIV-seronegative women (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.92). Perceived neighborhood trust and cohesion was associated with lower partner risk (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.00) for HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. The tract-level number of alcohol outlets and non-profits were not associated with partner risk characteristics. Neighborhood characteristics are associated with perceived sex partner risk and non-monogamy among women in the South; these relationships vary by HIV status. Future studies should examine causal relationships and explore the pathways through which neighborhoods influence partner selection and risk characteristics.

  4. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  5. Hope Amidst Horror: Documenting the Effects of the "War On Drugs" Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Mittal, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war. Drawing on a critical phenomenology framework, which links political economy with phenomenological concern for subjective experience, we explore the ways in which couples try to find hope amidst the horrors of the drug war. Critical visual scholarship may provide a powerful alternative to dominant media depictions of violence, and ultimately clarify why this drug war must end.

  6. Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Campbell, Linda; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Nair, Sapna; Doddamane, Mahesh; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Isac, Shajy; Beattie, Tara S

    2018-04-01

    While traditional HIV prevention programs with female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India, have focused on reducing HIV transmission between FSWs and clients through increased condom use, these programs have not fully addressed the transmission risk between FSWs and their nonpaying intimate partners (IPs). Condom use is infrequent and violence is recurrent in these relationships: Furthermore, there is little evidence on the precise nature of FSW-IP relationships. Our study addresses this knowledge gap to inform HIV programs targeted at FSWs. A series of workshops, using participatory tools, was held to explore FSW-IP relationships; 31 FSWs and 37 IPs participated. Three aspects of FSW-IP relationships were examined: how FSWs and IPs understand and interpret their relationships, factors influencing condom use, and the role of violence and its consequences. FSWs wish to be perceived as their IPs' wives, while IPs expect their FSW partners to accept their dominance in the relationship. Nonuse of condoms signals fidelity and elevates the status of the relationship almost to that of marriage, which helps FSWs enter the category of "good" (married) women. Tolerating and accepting violence in these relationships is normative, as in other marital relationships; IPs justify violence as necessary to establish and maintain their power within the relationship. Both FSWs and IPs value their relationships despite the high degree of risk posed by low condom use and high levels of violence. Implications for program design include addressing current norms around masculinity and gender roles, and improving communication within relationships.

  7. Dimensions of racism and their impact on partner selection among men of colour who have sex with men: understanding pathways to sexual risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men of colour who have sex with men, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk.

  8. Dimensions of Racism and their Impact on Partner Selection among Men who have Sex with Men of Colour: Understanding Pathways to Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men who have sex with men of colour, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Latino and Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity, and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk. PMID:23659363

  9. Intimate partner violence, forced first sex and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Zimbabwean women accessing maternal and child health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamu, Simukai; Munjanja, Stephen; Zarowsky, Christina; Shamu, Patience; Temmerman, Marleen; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2018-05-03

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a serious problem with a wide range of health consequences including poor maternal and newborn health outcomes. We assessed the relationship between IPV, forced first sex (FFS) and maternal and newborn health outcomes. A cross sectional study was conducted with 2042 women aged 15-49 years attending postnatal care at six clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2011. Women were interviewed on IPV while maternal and newborn health data were abstracted from clinic records. We conducted logistic regression models to assess the relationship between forced first sex (FFS), IPV (lifetime, in the last 12 months and during pregnancy) and maternal and newborn health outcomes. Of the recent pregnancies 27.6% were not planned, 50.9% booked (registered for antenatal care) late and 5.6% never booked. A history of miscarriage was reported by 11.5%, and newborn death by 9.4% of the 2042 women while 8.6% of recent livebirths were low birth weight (LBW) babies. High prevalence of emotional (63,9%, 40.3%, 43.8%), physical (37.3%, 21.3%, 15.8%) and sexual (51.7%, 35.6%, 38.8%) IPV ever, 12 months before and during pregnancy were reported respectively. 15.7% reported forced first sex (FFS). Each form of lifetime IPV (emotional, physical, sexual, physical/sexual) was associated with a history of miscarrying (aOR ranges: 1.26-1.38), newborn death (aOR ranges: 1.13-2.05), and any negative maternal and newborn health outcome in their lifetime (aOR ranges: 1.32-1.55). FFS was associated with a history of a negative outcome (newborn death, miscarriage, stillbirth) (aOR1.45 95%CI: 1.06-1.98). IPV in the last 12 months before pregnancy was associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR ranges 1.31-2.02) and booking late for antenatal care. Sexual IPV (aOR 2.09 CI1.31-3.34) and sexual/physical IPV (aOR2.13, 95%CI: 1.32-3.42) were associated with never booking for antenatal care. Only emotional IPV during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight (aOR1.78 95%CI1

  10. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  11. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K Dane

    Full Text Available In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals' reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate's same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context-that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy and liked more (Studies 1-2. Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1, were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2. Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2. The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants' memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3. Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate's sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate's sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of 'coming out' under conditions of contact.

  12. Generationing, Stealthing, and Gift Giving: The Intentional Transmission of HIV by HIV-Positive Men to their HIV-Negative Sex Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-11-06

    Gift giving is the process by which an HIV-positive person purposely infects an HIV-negative person with HIV, usually with that person's knowledge and consent. Little has been written about this HIV transmission practice. In this paper, two specific types of gift giving - generationing and stealthing - are explained and introduced to the scientific literature. Generationing is a type of gift giving in which one gift giver successfully infects a previously-uninfected man with HIV, and then the two men collaborate in an effort to seroconvert another man, and so forth. Stealthing is another type of gift giving in which an HIV-positive man actively tries to infect an HIV-negative man with HIV, without the latter's knowledge or consent. The present study reports on the prevalence of gift giving (4.6%) in a population of men who use the Internet specifically to identify partners for unprotected sex. The research is based on a national random sample of 332 men who have sex with men, identified from 16 websites. Data were collected via telephone interviews conducted between January 2008 and May 2009. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for HIV prevention and intervention efforts. Most notably, to the extent that generationing, stealthing, and gift giving occur among MSM, they represent a very high risk of HIV transmission. More work needs to be done to understand these behaviors, the factors that underlie them, and to determine how prevalent they are in the bare-backing population of MSM.

  13. Setting an Agenda to Address Intimate Partner Violence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Conceptual Model and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina

    2016-10-18

    Research investigating intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minorities is limited. The research that does exist has found that rates of IPV are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women, the most commonly studied population in this area. This limited research has resulted in a dearth of prevention/intervention programs targeted for these populations. While some may argue that existing IPV programs can be used for these populations, this review presents an argument for more targeted work with sexual minority populations, using young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as an example. Drawing on the framework of intersectionality, this article argues that the intersectionality of age, sexual identity, and gender combines to create a spectrum of unique factors that require specific attention. This framework allows for the identification of known correlates for IPV as well as factors that may be unique to YMSM or other sexual minority populations. The article presents a conceptual model that suggests new areas of research as well as a foundation for the topics and issues that should be addressed in an intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  15. Potential Impact and Acceptability of Internet Partner Notification for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women Recently Diagnosed with STD in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of internet partner notification (PN) among MSM and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed with STD. Use of internet PN was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581

  16. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  17. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  18. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrequent condom use with casual partners among New Zealand gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J; Ludlam, Adrian H

    2015-12-04

    To identify predictors of non-condom use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand with casual male partners. We analysed anonymous self-completed data from GBM who participated in the communitybased Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay Online Sex Survey (GOSS), undertaken in 2014. Infrequent condom use was defined as not using condoms "always" or "almost always" during anal intercourse in the prior six months. Of the 1,912 GBM reporting anal intercourse with a casual partner, 27.2% reported infrequent condom use. Being recruited from Internet dating sites, Pacific ethnicity, having over 20 recent male partners, infrequent condom use with a current regular partner, or being HIV-positive were independently predictive of infrequent condom use. Conversely, being older, having a tertiary degree, using a condom at first anal intercourse, being exclusively receptive with a casual partner/s, and seeing condoms promoted through multiple channels predicted frequent condom use. Attitudes to condoms and safe sex were strongly predictive of actual condom use. Social marketing should target the modifiable predictors of condom use, such as attitudes to safe sex. Interventions also need to engage successfully with GBM reporting non-modifiable traits such as HIV-positive GBM.

  20. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Segura, Eddy R.; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.

    2016-01-01

    Background New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions. Methods From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN. Results Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as “Very Likely” or “Somewhat Likely” to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54–0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31–0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10–1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11–1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55–0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis. Discussion Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances. PMID:27685158

  1. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  2. Identifying social and economic barriers to regular care and treatment for Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) and who are living with HIV: a qualitative study from the Bruthas cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Weeks, John; Benjamin, Michael; Stewart, William R; Pollack, Lance M; Kegeles, Susan M; Operario, Don

    2017-01-28

    There is little research regarding the ability of Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) to access and maintain HIV-related health care and treatment adherence. This population, who often insist on secrecy about their same-sex desire, may experience unique barriers to seeking regular care and treatment. From March 2011-April 2014, we recruited 396 BMSMW in the San Francisco Bay Area to be enrolled in our randomized controlled trial. At baseline we administered a behavioral survey assessing: demographics, homelessness, employment, history of incarceration, HIV status and disclosure practices, care and treatment adherence. 64 men reported living with HIV at intake. To learn more about their experiences, we recruited N = 25 to participate in qualitative interviews, which were conducted April-December 2014. Topics included: current living situation, diagnosis story, disclosure practices, experiences of accessing and maintaining care and treatment, and HIV-related stigma. Recordings were transcribed and coded for major themes. Despite being located in an area where treatment is plentiful, men faced social and economic barriers to maintaining regular care and treatment adherence. Several findings emerged to shed light on this quandary: (1) Competing needs particularly around attaining stable housing, food security, and money created barriers to treatment and care; (2) Side effects of HIV medications discouraged men from adhering to treatment; (3) Provider and Institutional level characteristics influenced care engagement; (4) Disclosure and social support made a difference in care and treatment behaviors; and (5) Participants expressed a desire for group-based intervention activities to support treatment and care among HIV+ BMSMW. Inadequate engagement in the continuum of care for HIV was born out in the quantitative data where 28% of participants did not know their Viral Load. A holistic approach to HIV health for BMSMW would appear to translate to better

  3. Y Chromosome DNA in Women's Vaginal Samples as a Biomarker of Recent Vaginal Sex and Condom Use With Male Partners in the HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2018-01-01

    Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.

  4. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  5. Risk factors for HIV infection in injection drug users and evidence for onward transmission of HIV to their sexual partners in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Samiran; Kumar, M Suresh; Lokabiraman, S; Jayashree, K; Satagopan, M C; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand; Rangaiyan, Gurumurthy; Flessenkaemper, Sabine; Grosskurth, Heiner; Gupte, Mohan D

    2005-05-01

    Determining HIV prevalence in injection drug users (IDUs) and their regular sex partners in Chennai, India. A total of 226 IDUs and their regular sex partners were enrolled during April-July 2003. After informed consent was obtained, a semistructured questionnaire was administered and serum was tested for HIV antibody. The HIV seroprevalence was 30% (68/226) in IDUs and 5% in their regular sex partners (11/226). While in 25% of couples only the male partner was HIV positive, 5% of the couples were concordant for HIV infection and 70% were HIV negative. Fifty-seven percent of the HIV-positive IDUs and 45% of the HIV-infected women thought that they had "no chance" or "very little chance" of getting HIV, reflecting low HIV risk perception. More than 20% IDUs reported borrowing or lending of injection equipment. In univariate analyses "sex" and "condom use" with sex workers had no bearing but "more than twice a day injecting frequency," "history of incarceration," "tattoos," "recruitment from northern part of the city," and ever-injecting drugs in drug-selling places had significant association with HIV infection in IDUs. In an adjusted model, the odds of HIV infection were 2 times higher among IDUs who had ever injected drugs in drug-selling places and 6 times higher in those who were recruited from the northern part of central Chennai. Reducing sharing of injection equipment and unsafe tattooing through targeted and environmental interventions, increasing HIV risk perception, and promoting safer sex practices among IDUs and their sex partners are urgent program needs.

  6. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  7. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  8. A Study of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Abuse, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men in a Sample of Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Application Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Goedel, William C; Stults, Christopher B; Brady, William J; Brooks, Forrest A; Blakely, Jermaine S; Hagen, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications ("apps") are widely used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and facilitate connections between users based on proximity and attraction. MSM have sexual encounters and relationships of varying degrees of emotional and physical intimacy with app-met individuals, potentially placing them at risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the current study was to utilize a geosocial-networking application to investigate relationships between experiences of IPV victimization as it relates to substance use and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of MSM. Participants ( n = 175) were recruited by means of broadcast advertisements on an application widely used by MSM (Grindr) to seek sexual partners. Multivariable regression models were fit to examine associations between IPV, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors. Lifetime experiences of IPV victimization were common, where 37.7% of respondents reported having experienced at least one form of IPV. While a marginally significant positive association between IPV and substance abuse was detected in multivariable models ( p = .095), individual forms of IPV were strongly associated with substance abuse. For example, sexual IPV victimization was associated with an increase in substance abuse in the preceding month ( p = .004). Experiences of IPV victimization were associated with higher numbers of partners for both condomless receptive and insertive anal intercourse ( p < .05). Given the relatively high prevalence of IPV victimization and its associations with substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors, these findings suggest that IPV screening and prevention programs may reduce substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors in this population.

  9. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  10. "We Might Get Some Free Beers": Experience and Motivation for Transactional Sex Among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Anna L; Pasomsouk, Nakhornphet; Hughes, Chad; van Gemert, Caroline; Higgs, Peter; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hellard, Margaret; Power, Robert

    2017-05-01

    People engaging in transactional sex are considered a key population for HIV prevention. Prior quantitative surveys demonstrated that behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane, Laos commonly transact sex. In 2013, we conducted a qualitative study to explore behaviorally bisexual men's experience, motivations, and perceptions related to transactional sex in Vientiane. Behaviorally bisexual men were recruited from bars, nightclubs, and dormitories for five focus group discussions (FGDs) and 11 in-depth interviews (n = 31). Additionally, young women were recruited from a university, garment factory, and nightclub for four FGDs (n = 22). Transcripts were translated and thematically coded. Bisexual male participants most commonly described being paid for sex by male-to-female transgender people and buying sex from women. Both male and female participants reported that older, single women pay younger men for sex. Negotiation and direction of sexual transactions are influenced by age, attraction, and wealth. Common motivations for selling sex included the need for money to support family or fund school fees, material gain, or physical pleasure. Transactional sex was often opportunistic. Some behaviorally bisexual men reported selling sex in order to pay another more desirable sex partner or to buy gifts for their regular sex partner. Participants perceived high risk associated with intercourse with female sex workers but not with other transactional sex partners. Health interventions are needed to improve knowledge, risk perception, and health behaviors, but must recognize the diversity of transactional sex in Vientiane. Both physical and virtual settings may be appropriate for reaching behaviorally bisexual men and their partners.

  11. High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Sam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs, and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7% had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2% reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73, no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98, being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04, and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70 were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9% had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8% had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher

  12. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  13. Comparison of Sexual Risk, HIV/STI Prevalence and Intervention Exposure Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO) in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Deshpande, Sucheta; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted among men who have sex with men (n = 3833) in India, we examined differences related to HIV-related sexual risk, HIV/STI prevalence and intervention exposures between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW, 35 % of the sample) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Among MSMW, 93 % reported having female regular partners, 14 % had female paid partners, and all types of male partners (regular 55 %; casual 77.1 %; paying 47 %; paid 19 %). Logistic regression revealed that MSMW had higher odds of being aged 26 years and above (AOR 4.45, 95 % CI 3.66-5.42), lower odds of inconsistently using condoms with male partners (AOR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98) and lower odds of having kothi (feminine/mostly receptive) identity (AOR 0.07, 95 % CI 0.06-0.09). HIV intervention exposure and HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly between MSMW and MSMO (HIV 13.1 vs. 12.2 %; active syphilis 3.5 vs. 3.1 %, respectively). Concurrent sexual partnerships with men and women pose risk of HIV transmission/acquisition for MSM and their male and female partners. All subgroups of MSM require tailored information and skills to consistently use condoms with different types of partners of either gender.

  14. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive effects on

  15. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-09-01

    Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Getting the terminology right in sexual health research: the importance of accurately classifying fuck buddies among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, Clare; Walker, Sandra; Fairley, Christopher K; Chow, Eric Pf; Bilardi, Jade E

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this report was to raise the issue of the definition and classification of partner terminology in men who have sex with men (MSM) research, particularly in regards to 'fuck buddies'. If definitions in research differ from general consensus in the MSM population, it is possible that public health strategies will be ineffective as the target population may be inaccurate. Thirty semistructured interviews with MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre were conducted, focusing on the willingness to change sexual practices to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. As part of these interviews, men were also asked their views on the terminology they used to describe their relationships and sexual partners. The degree of emotional attachment often defined the type or classification of relationships. There was a consensus among men that partners they engaged with for 'sex only' were classified as casual partners and partners with whom there was an emotional attachment or formalisation of the relationship were classified as 'regular partners'. However, the classification of 'fuck buddy' as a regular or casual partner was less clear. Further research is needed to ascertain the ways in which men conceptualise sexual relationships and define or classify partner types, particularly 'fuck buddy' relationships. A third category for sexual relationships should be considered to encapsulate fuck buddy relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Perceived neighborhood partner availability, partner selection, and risk for sexually transmitted infections within a cohort of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. A clinic-recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 1619 years, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceeded ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = .88, 95% CI: .78, 1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) because they may be more likely to have nonmonogamous partners. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs in a City of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Uttar Pradesh (UP and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO, registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS Control Society (UPSACS of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6% than home-based (29.8%. Majority (42.7% of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4% of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client′s demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as

  19. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J V; Singh, V K; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia

  20. Upset in response to a Sibling's partner's infidelities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L; Shackelford, Todd K; Salmon, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Using data collected from people with at least one brother and one sister, and consistent with an evolutionary perspective, we find that older men and women (a) are more upset by a brother's partner's sexual infidelity than by her emotional infidelity and (b) are more upset by a sister's partner's emotional infidelity than by his sexual infidelity. There were no effects of participant sex or sex of in-law on upset over a sibling's partner's infidelities, but there was an effect of participant sex on reports of upset over one's own partner's infidelities. The results suggest that the key variable among older participants is the sex of the sibling or, correspondingly, the sex of the sibling's partner, as predicted from an evolutionary analysis of reproductive costs, and not the sex of the participant, as predicted from a socialization perspective. Discussion offers directions for future work on jealousy.

  1. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demogr...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society...... and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work...

  2. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  3. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  4. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  5. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  6. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  7. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  8. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  9. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  10. Partner Market Opportunities and Relationship Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Rapp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although partner market opportunities are generally considered to be important for relationship stability, they have never been measured accurately. In order to be able to test the anticipated effects of partner market opportunities, this study conceptualises them as individual opportunities for contact and interaction in concrete social contexts, like the neighbourhood, the workplace, leisure activities, etc. Using data from the German Marriage Market Survey, we first examine the impact of individual partner market opportunities on the risk of separation. Second, we examine to what extend the most frequently studied determinants of divorce and separation depend on partner market opportunities. Our results show that the number of opposite sex contacts increases the probability of separation. Sharing the same contacts with one’s partner decreases the risk of separation. Our results indicate further that reducing opposite sex contacts in the course of the relationship is partly responsible for the higher stability of longer-lasting relationships. Having a migration background is associated with fewer opposite sex contacts. This means that having a migration background would be more destabilising if these individuals did not have less opposite sex contacts than individuals without a migration background. In contrast, joint home ownership, church attendance, higher education and residing in western Germany would generally be more stabilising if these factors were not connected with more opposite sex contacts.

  11. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...

  12. Frequent condom use with casual partners varies by sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: national behavioural surveillance 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Saxton, Peter J W; Hughes, Anthony J; Dickson, Nigel P; Milhausen, Robin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair J S

    2016-02-01

    Background Condom promotion remains a cornerstone of HIV/STI control, but must be informed by evidence of uptake and address disparities in use. This study sought to determine the prevalence of, and demographic, behavioural and relational factors associated with, condom use during insertive and receptive anal intercourse with casual partners among younger gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) in New Zealand. The 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data for YMSM aged 16-29 years was pooled. Separately for each sexual position, frequent (always/almost always) versus infrequent condom use was regressed onto explanatory variables using manual backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three-quarters of YMSM reported frequent condom use during insertive (76.0%) and receptive (73.8%) anal intercourse. YMSM who were exclusively insertive were more likely to report frequent condom use than versatile YMSM. Factors positively associated with frequent condom use, irrespective of sexual position were: in-person versus web-based recruitment, testing HIV negative versus never testing or testing HIV positive, having no recent sex with women, reporting two to five versus one male sexual partner in the past 6 months, reporting no current regular partner, but if in a regular relationship, reporting a boyfriend-type versus fuckbuddy-type partner, and frequent versus infrequent regular partner condom use. Pacific ethnicity and less formal education were negatively associated with frequent condom use only during receptive anal intercourse. The findings from this study demonstrate that condom norms can be actively established and maintained among YMSM. Condom promotion efforts must increase YMSM's capacity, agency and skills to negotiate condom use, especially for the receptive partner.

  13. Partner dependence and sexual risk behavior among STI clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.

  14. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  15. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  16. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  17. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  18. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  1. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  2. ‘They think that gays have money’: Gender identity and transactional sex among black men who have sex with men in four South African townships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it, or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black men aged 20–44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges, in particular, provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of ‘feminine-identifying’ men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either ‘masculine’ or as ‘both masculine and feminine’. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex socio-sexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033

  3. Sexual partnerships and considerations for HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis utilization among high-risk substance using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate of HIV infection among MSM is use of "recreational" drugs that are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel biomedical HIV prevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships.

  4. Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.

  5. Sexual Self-Acceptance, Communication with Partner, and Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…

  6. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  7. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  8. Exploring the impact of endometriosis on partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, Devini; Flemming, Tina; Angstetra, Donald; Ng, Shu-Kay; Sneddon, Anne

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine how endometriosis affects the quality of life of partners of women who suffer from this disease and how it impacts their relationships, finances, mental states, and daily living. This was a questionnaire-based cohort study that took place at a large tertiary hospital gynecology unit, which covered two sites. Fifty-one partners of women who had surgically diagnosed endometriosis agreed to participate in the study and returned completed surveys. Ninety-two percent (n = 46) of partners reported negative feelings about the diagnosis of endometriosis. Seventy percent (n = 35) reported that endometriosis affected their day-to-day life either moderately or severely. Over half (52%) also felt that their finances were affected. Only 34% (n = 17) of partners felt that health professionals had engaged them in decision-making processes and had been supportive of them. Eighty percent (n = 40) of partners reported that they had received no information about the impact of endometriosis on couples. Partners reported a significant affect on their sex life (74%) and their relationship as a whole (56%). Participants whose relationships had been affected by endometriosis had also more likely had their day-to-day life (P = 0.027), sex life (P = 0.001), and finances (P = 0.002) affected. Overall, our findings suggest that endometriosis can have a significant impact on partners with respect to day-to-day living, finances, sex lives, and relationships. Improvements can be made to engage partners in the treatment process, and to provide better education, support, and holistic management to women and families who suffer with endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  10. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men.

  11. Intimate partner violence at a tertiary institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) may experience num ... Women who refuse to have sex without a condom have an increased likelihood of becoming ... of these students study towards careers in which they will need to .... different types of abuse. ... insulting things or threatens them, is disagreeable, or may try to hurt.

  12. Sex and Horror

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The combination of sex and horror may be disquieting to many, but the two are natural (if perhaps gruesome) bedfellows. In fact, sex and horror coincide with such regularity in contemporary horror fiction that the two concepts appear to be at least partially intertwined. The sex–horror relationship is sometimes connotative rather than overt; examples of this relationship range from the seduction overtones of 'Nosferatu' and the juxtaposition of nudity and horror promised by European exploitat...

  13. New Partner Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.

  14. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  15. Evaluating self and partner physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Georgiades, Chrissa; Pang, Lily

    2007-03-01

    This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered.

  16. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  17. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  18. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  19. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  20. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  1. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  2. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  3. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  4. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  5. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Yang

    Full Text Available Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores.The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6% of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression.Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive

  6. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    ) and to examine the appearance of patterns and regularities in the way EMAC members choose collaboration partners. The work is based on a Social Network Analysis of the co-authored publications presented at the 2000-2010 EMAC conferences. Results show that the main selection criteria for choosing collaboration...

  7. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  8. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  9. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  10. Sexual Preferences and Presentation on Geosocial Networking Apps by Indian Men Who Have Sex With Men in Maharashtra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Pallav; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    Background The affordability of smartphones and improved mobile networks globally has increased the popularity of geosocial networking (GSN) apps (eg, Grindr, Scruff, Planetromeo) as a method for men who have sex with men (MSM) to seek causal sex partners and engage with the queer community. As mobile penetration continues to grow in India, it is important to understand how self-presentation on GSN app is relevant because it offers insight into a population that has not been largely studied. There is very little information about how Indian MSM discuss their sexual preferences and condom preferences and disclose their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status with potential sex partners on Web-based platforms. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how self-presentation by Indian MSM on GSN apps contributes to sexual preferences, HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI) disclosure, and if the presentation differs due to proximity to the Greater Mumbai or Thane region. Methods Between September 2013 and May 2014, participants were recruited through banner advertisements on gay websites, social media advertisements and posts, and distribution of print materials at outreach events hosted by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and HIV service organizations in Maharashtra, India. Eligible participants self-identified as being MSM or hijra (transgender) women, living in Maharashtra, aged above 18 years, having regular Internet access, and having at least one male sex partner in the previous 90 days. Results Indian MSM living inside and outside the Greater Mumbai or Thane region reported an average of 6.7 (SD 11.8) male sex partners in the last 3 months; on average HIV status of the sex partners was disclosed to 2.9 (SD 8.9). The most commonly used websites and GSN apps by MSM living inside Greater Mumbai or Thane region were Planetromeo, Grindr, and Gaydar. Results demonstrated that MSM used smartphones to access GSN apps and stated a preference

  11. Risk behaviours among female sex workers in China: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P F Chow

    Full Text Available Commercial sex is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Understanding HIV risk behaviours in female sex workers (FSW is of great importance for prevention. This study aims to assess the magnitude and temporal changes of risk behaviours in Chinese FSW.Five electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed English and Chinese language articles published between January 2000 and December 2012 that reported risk behaviours among FSW in China, including condom use, HIV testing, and drug use. Linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to examine temporal trends in these risk factors. The study followed PRISMA guidelines for meta-analyses and was registered in the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews.A total of 583 articles (44 English, 539 Chinese investigating 594,583 Chinese FSW were included in this review. At last sex, condom use was highest with commercial partners (clients, increasing from 53.7% in 2000 to 84.9% in 2011. During this same time period, condom use increased with regular partners from 15.2% to 40.4% and with unspecified partners from 38.6% to 82.5%. Increasing trends were also found in the proportion of sampled FSW who reported testing for HIV in the past 12 months (from 3.2% in 2000 to 48.0% in 2011, while drug use behaviours decreased significantly from 10.9% to 2.6%.During the first decade of 2000, Chinese FSWs' self-reported risk behaviours have decreased significantly while HIV testing has increased. Further outreach and intervention efforts are needed to encourage condom use with regular partners, continue promotion of HIV testing, and provide resources for the most vulnerable FSW, particularly low tier FSW, who may have limited access to sexual health and prevention programs.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veronese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG. In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55% MSM and 23 (45% TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1, including with casual (47% vs 35%, regular (59% vs 29% and paying partners (28% vs 12%. MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01 and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01. Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35% than TG (24% were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1. Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu.

  13. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  14. Social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Hu, Jianhui; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in network-based interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behavior among both homeless youth and men who have sex with men. The goal of this study was to better understand the social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to inform these HIV prevention efforts. A multistage sampling design was used to recruit a probability sample of 121 homeless YMSM (ages: 16-24 years) from shelters, drop-in centers, and street venues in Los Angeles County. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Because of the different distributions of the three outcome variables, three distinct regression models were needed: ordinal logistic regression for unprotected sex, zero-truncated Poisson regression for number of sex partners, and logistic regression for any sex trade. Homeless YMSM were less likely to engage in unprotected sex and had fewer sex partners if their networks included platonic ties to peers who regularly attended school, and had fewer sex partners if most of their network members were not heavy drinkers. Most other aspects of network composition were unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Individual predictors of sexual risk behavior included older age, Hispanic ethnicity, lower education, depressive symptoms, less positive condom attitudes, and sleeping outdoors because of nowhere else to stay. HIV prevention programs for homeless YMSM may warrant a multipronged approach that helps these youth strengthen their ties to prosocial peers, develop more positive condom attitudes, and access needed mental health and housing services. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Findings from within-subjects comparisons of drug use and sexual risk behaviour in men who have sex with men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence for the encounter-level association between sexualised drug use and unprotected anal intercourse in men who have sex with men is unclear and has not examined men who have sex with men in England. To estimate this association, we compared dyadic sexual encounters within respondents. We used encounter-level data from a longitudinal online survey of men who have sex with men living in England and multilevel models to test univariate and multivariate associations between any respondent or partner drug use, specific respondent drug use, additional situational characteristics and unprotected anal intercourse. Based on 6742 encounters from 2142 men who have sex with men, respondent drug use and respondent use of certain specific drugs were associated with increased unprotected anal intercourse odds. In univariate models, partner drug use was associated with increased unprotected anal intercourse odds, but in multivariate models, only non-specific knowledge of partner drug use was associated with the same. Encounters with non-regular-and-steady partners or that were not HIV-seroconcordant were associated with decreased unprotected anal intercourse odds. This is the first within-subjects comparison of drug use and unprotected anal intercourse conducted on a sample from England, and the largest of its kind. Findings are consistent with other studies, though associations between drug use and unprotected anal intercourse are shaped by social contexts that may change over time.

  16. 76 FR 59914 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Terms and Definitions for “Dependent”, “Domestic Partner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... noted that the changes to the FTR definition of ``Immediate family'' exclude opposite-sex domestic... opposite-sex domestic partners, opposite-sex domestic partners have not been included within the definition..., Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ06 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Terms and Definitions for ``Dependent...

  17. Residence in Switzerland of partners of members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    1. Definitions a) CERN Staff Rules and Regulations Article S IV 1.02 of the Staff Rules defines a "partner", irrespective of gender, as "any person linked to an employed member of the personnel by a partnership officially registered in a Member State". Partners are regarded as family members for the purposes of protection against the financial consequences of illness and accidents. b) Swiss Federal Law Under Swiss federal law, to which the text below essentially refers, the following definitions apply: "partners": a couple of the same sex (linked by a registered partnership), "common-law spouses": a couple of the opposite sex (unmarried). Provided that they are aged 18 or more and are not blood relatives, two people of the same sex ("partners") may officially register their partnership with the competent registry office in order to give it a legal framework (a civil partnership commonly known as the Federal PACS...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

  19. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  20. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  1. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  2. Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: overlapping HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Jorm, Anthony F; Samson, Luke; Joubert, Lynette; Singh, Shalini; Kermode, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  4. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  5. Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is

  6. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  7. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375

  8. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  9. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool.

  10. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  11. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  12. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  13. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  14. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  15. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  16. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  17. A Virtual Research Partner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowie, Jim; Guerrero, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal was to investigate the feasibility of creating a software agent that would be able to interact with researchers and provide them with support at a level equivalent to a human research partner...

  18. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  20. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  1. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  2. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  3. [Willingness and influencing factors of using pre-exposure prophylaxis among 301 men have sex with men in Wuhan city, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P Y; Wang, X; Liu, P L; Tan, X D; Zhou, W

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To understand willingness and influencing factors of using pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr-EP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: Snow ball sampling was employed to recruit MSM in the social spaces (like bars and bathrooms) with focused activities by MSM and internet (QQ and Wechat) in Wuhan between August and November, 2015. 304 MSM were considered eligible when they were self-identified MSM and has had sex with men in the previous 12 months, over the age of 18 and have full civil liability. On-site and online questionnaire surveys were conducted by self-designed questionnaires to collect information including demographic characteristics, sexual risks and practices, awareness of PrEP, and willingness to use PrEP. A total of 301 qualified questionnaires were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with willingness to use Pr-EP. Results: The mean age of surveyed MSM were (27.51±8.31) years, between18-61. 149 on-site survey, online were152; 131 MSM have regular homosexual partners, 170 MSM have not regular homosexual partners. Only 17.28% (52/301) had heard of Pr-EP before this survey, 18.32% (24/130) had heard of Pr-EP among those who had regular homosexual partners and those who had not accounted for 16.47% (28/170). 74.42% (224/301) had willingness to use Pr-EP after they knew Pr-EP was safe and effective through the survey. The proportion among those who had regular homosexual partners was 74.05%(74), and the proportion among those who had not was 74.71% (127); Among those who had regular homosexual partners, results suggested that those who were married/cohabiting were more likely to report a willingness to use PrEP compared to unmarried/divorced or widowed ( OR= 5.60), compared with homosexual, heterosexuality was associated with decreased odds of willingness to use Pr-EP ( OR= 0.22), compared with HIV status of sexual partner was negative or uncertain, positive infection status was

  4. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  5. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  6. Vaginal douching, condom use, and sexually transmitted infections among Chinese female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Liang, Shaoling

    2005-11-01

    Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman's risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women's misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities.

  7. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  8. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe LA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom

  9. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  10. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  11. Any condomless anal intercourse is no longer an accurate measure of HIV sexual risk behaviour in gay and other men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyi eJin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI has long been recognised as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM. A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioural surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as any CLAI do not accurately measure HIV sexual risk behaviour. Methods: Participants were 1,427 HIV-negative men from the Health in Men cohort study run from 2001 to 2007 in Sydney, Australia, with six-monthly interviews. At each interview, detailed quantitative data on the number of episodes of insertive and receptive CLAI in the last six months were collected, separated by partner type (regular vs. casual and partners’ HIV status (negative, positive, and HIV status unknown.Results: A total of 228,064 episodes of CLAI were reported during the study period with a mean of 44 episodes per year per participant (median: 14. The great majority of CLAI episodes were with a regular partner (92.6%, most of them with HIV-negative regular partners (84.8%. Participants were more likely to engage in insertive CLAI with casual than with regular partners (66.7% vs. 55.3% of all acts of CLAI with each partner type, p<0.001. Men were more likely to report CLAI in the receptive position with HIV-negative and HIV status unknown partners than with HIV-positive partners (p<0.001 for both regular and casual partners. Conclusion: Gay and other MSM engaging in CLAI demonstrate clear patterns of HIV risk reduction behaviour. As HIV prevention enters the era of antiretroviral-based biomedical approach, using all forms of CLAI indiscriminately as a measure of HIV behavioural risk is not helpful in understanding the current drivers of HIV transmission in the community.

  12. Conocimientos y actitudes de la pareja hacia la práctica de la planificación familiar en la Selva del Perú Sex partners' knowledge and attitudes towards family planning in the Peruvian rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris de la Cruz-Peñarán

    2003-12-01

    que el hombre sí lo conocía (RM: 1.57, IC 95: 1.07, 2.30. Las parejas en las que el varón tuvo un nivel de aceptación medio hacia la planificación familiar tuvieron una probabilidad mayor de no practicarla que aquéllas en las que el hombre tuvo un nivel de aceptación alto (RM: 1.90, IC 95%: 1.03, 3.48. Esta probabilidad fue aún mayor cuando el hombre tuvo un nivel de aceptación bajo hacia la planificación familiar (RM: 2.23, IC 95%: 1.10, 4.51. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento de métodos anticonceptivos y las actitudes hacia la planificación familiar entre los hombres se asocian con la práctica de ésta en la pareja. Este estudio indica que la aceptación masculina constituye un factor necesario, importante y de gran influencia en la promoción y práctica de la planificación.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of knowledge and attitudes about family planning (FP with its practice in couples of the Peruvian jungle region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the jungle region in Peru (Pucallpa and Tarapoto, among 600 couples. Males were ³15 years old and females between 15 and 49 years old, who had resided in the area for at least two years. A questionnaire was used to determine FP practices (defined as the use of modern contraceptive methods (MCM for ³12 months, as well as attitudes and knowledge regarding FP. Frequencies were compared using the chi-squared test. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between demographic variables and MCM knowledge as well as MCM utilization. The association between sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward MCM was assessed with linear regression models. RESULTS: Males with primary education or with no formal education were twice as likely to have no knowledge about MCM compared with males with professional education (OR:2.18, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.50. Females with a catholic partner were more likely to know about MCM than those whose partners did not practice any religion (OR

  13. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  14. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  15. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  16. Staggering in signature partners of A∼190 mass region of superdeformed rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discuss about ΔI=1 signature splitting in signature partner pairs of A∼190 mass region. Around twenty signature partner pairs (usually called as two bands, each with a fixed signature) have been reported in this mass region. For these signature pairs, band head moment of inertia (J 0 ) and intrinsic structure of each pair of signature partners have been found as almost identical. Also, these signature partner pairs showed large amplitude signature splitting. As each of the two signature partner forms a regular spin sequence and signature bands are not equivalent in terms of energies. This difference in energies results in signature splitting

  17. Can we improve partner notification rates through expedited partner therapy in the UK? Findings from an exploratory trial of Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Claudia; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Cassell, Jackie; Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew; James, Laura; Low, Nicola; Horner, Patrick; Clarke, Michael; Symonds, Merle; Roberts, Tracy; Tsourapas, Angelos; Johnson, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    To develop two new models of expedited partner therapy for the UK, and evaluate them for feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcome estimates to inform the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Two models of expedited partner therapy (APTHotline and APTPharmacy), known as 'Accelerated Partner Therapy' (APT) were developed. A non-randomised comparative study was conducted of the two APT models and routine partner notification (PN), in which the index patient chose the PN option for his/her partner(s) in two contrasting clinics. The proportion of contactable partners treated when routine PN was chosen was 42/117 (36%) and was significantly higher if either APT option was chosen: APTHotline 80/135 (59%), p=0.003; APTPharmacy 29/44 (66%) p=0.001. However, partner treatment was often achieved through other routes. Although 40-60% of partners in APT groups returned urine samples for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, almost none accessed HIV and syphilis testing. APT options appear to facilitate faster treatment of sex partners than routine PN. Preferences and recruitment rates varied between sites, related to staff satisfaction with existing routine PN; approach to consent; and possibly, characteristics of local populations. Both methods of APT were feasible and acceptable to many patients and led to higher rates of partner treatment than routine PN. Preferences and recruitment rates varied greatly between settings, suggesting that organisational and cultural factors may have an important impact on the feasibility of an RCT and on outcomes. Mindful of these factors, it is proposed that APT should now be evaluated in a cluster RCT.

  18. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  19. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  20. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  1. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  2. Preventing falls in residential construction: Effectiveness of engaging partners for a national social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Everly; Hannon, Sandra Wills; Baker, Robin; Branche, Christine M; Trahan, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction. The Safety Pays, Falls Cost campaign aims to prevent falls in residential construction. A critical component of our social marketing approach was to involve 70 partners in reaching target audiences. We assessed partner engagement April 2012-August 2013 through: (1) baseline partnership quality interviews (eight partners); (2) pre-/post-partner "market" readiness in-depth interviews (three partners); (3) a pre-/post- (29/31 partners) online partner engagement survey; and (4) standardized metrics to measure partner activity. We found a high level of interest and engagement that increased with the addition of prompting to action through regular communication and new resources from organizers and formation of local partnerships that were able to tailor their activities to their own communities or regions. It is feasible to leverage government-labor-management partnerships that enjoy trust among target audiences to widely disseminate campaign materials and messages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  4. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  5. Actual sexual risk and perceived risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya A. Kesler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory suggests that perceived human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk and actual HIV risk behaviour are cyclical whereby engaging in high risk behaviour can increase perceived risk, which initiates precautionary behaviour that reduces actual risk, and with time reduces perceived risk. While current perceived risk may impact future actual risk, it is less clear how previous actual risk shapes current perceived risk. If individuals do not base their current perceived risk on past behaviour, they lose the protective effect of perceived risk motivating precautionary behaviour. Our goal was to determine the impact of actual risk on perceived risk. Methods Sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited at the Maple Leaf Medical Clinic in downtown Toronto from September 2010 to June 2012. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI. Actual HIV risk (primary predictor was constructed by applying principal component analysis (PCA to eight sexual risk survey questions and comprised three components which reflected sex with casual partners, sex with HIV-positive regular partners and sex with HIV unknown status regular partners. Perceived HIV risk (outcome was measured by asking participants what the chances were that they would ever get HIV. Multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the association between actual and perceived HIV risk. Results One hundred and fifty HIV-negative MSM were recruited (median age 44.5 years [IQR 37–50 years]. Twenty percent of MSM perceived their HIV risk to be high. The odds of having a high perceived risk was significantly higher in those with high actual HIV risk indicated by low condom use with an HIV-positive regular partner compared to those with low actual HIV risk indicated by high condom use with an HIV-positive regular partner (Odds Ratio (OR 18.33, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.65–203.45. Older

  6. Do romantic partners influence each other's heavy episodic drinking? Support for the partner influence hypothesis in a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sara J; Sherry, Simon B; Molnar, Danielle S; Mushquash, Aislin R; Leonard, Kenneth E; Flett, Gordon L; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Approximately one in five adults engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED), a behavior with serious health and social consequences. Environmental, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors contribute to and perpetuate HED. Prior research supports the partner influence hypothesis where partners influence each other's HED. We examined the partner influence hypothesis longitudinally over three years in heterosexual couples in serious romantic relationships, while exploring possible sex differences in the magnitude of partner influence. One-hundred-and-seventy-nine heterosexual couples in serious relationships (38.5% married at baseline) completed a measure of HED at baseline and again three years later. Using actor-partner interdependence modelling, results showed actor effects for both men and women, with HED remaining stable for each partner from baseline to follow-up. Significant partner effects were found for both men and women, who both positively influenced their partners' HED over the three-year follow-up. The partner influence hypothesis was supported. Results indicated partner influences on HED occur over the longer term and apply to partners in varying stages of serious romantic relationships (e.g., cohabiting, engaged, married). Women were found to influence their partners' HED just as much as men influence their partners' HED. Findings suggest HED should be assessed and treated as a couples' issue rather than simply as an individual risky behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  8. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  9. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  10. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  12. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  13. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  14. The effects of intimate partner violence duration on individual and partner-related sexual risk factors among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Lee-St John, Terrence J; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among women, but less is known about mechanisms of this association and if length of relationship violence is a factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the duration of IPV and both individual and partner-related sexual risk factors that may increase women's risk for STIs and HIV. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the medical records of 2000 women. Four distinct categories defined the duration of partner violence: violence in the past year only, past year and during the past 5 years, past year plus extending for greater than 5 years, and no past year violence but a history of partner violence. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the duration of partner violence and individual sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of sexual partners, drug and/or alcohol use, anal sex) and partner-related sexual risk factors (eg, nonmonogamy, STI risk, condom nonuse). Nearly 30% of the women in the study reported a history of partner violence during their lifetime. All of the individual risk factors, as well as partner-related risk factors, were significantly associated (P violence and duration of violence. The study findings extend the knowledge related to partner violence as a risk factor for STIs/HIV, highlighting the effects of partner violence duration on the health of women. Assessing for lifetime experiences of partner violence may improve outcomes for women and their families. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...

  16. Adult sex ratio variation : Implications for breeding system evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szekely, T.; Weissing, F. J.; Komdeur, J.

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to

  17. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  18. Motivators and barriers for HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Kristina Ingemarsdotter; Berglund, Torsten; Bergström, Jakob; Eriksson, Lars E; Tikkanen, Ronny; Thorson, Anna; Forsberg, Birger C

    2016-12-01

    To explore motivators and barriers to HIV testing and to assess the factors associated with testing among men who have sex with men. Previous research has considered fear, worries and structural barriers as hindrances to HIV testing among men who have sex with men. However, few studies have included assessments of actual HIV testing when exploring barriers or motivators for such testing. The design of the study was a stratified cross-sectional online survey (n = 2373). Factor analysis was conducted to analyse the barriers and motivators for HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess predictors for HIV testing. Many men who have sex with men test for HIV regularly, and specific reasons for testing were having unprotected sex or starting/ending a relationship. A lack of awareness and a perception of being at low risk for exposure were common reasons for never being tested. Fear and anxiety as well as barriers related to the use of test services remain important hindrances for testing. Predictors associated with having been tested within the past 12 months were: younger age (15-25 years old compared with 47+); knowledge on where to take an HIV test on short notice as well as having talked with a counsellor, having received condoms for free, or having had unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners within the last 12 months. Easily accessible test services offering testing and counselling on short notice should be available for all men who have sex with men. Outreach activities, distribution of free condoms and testing at venues where men who have sex with men meet are important prevention add-ons that can contribute to increased awareness about HIV and testing. Test services must ensure confidentiality and health care professionals who meet men who have sex with men for testing need competency with regards to men who have sex with men sexual health needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  20. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  1. [Analysis on the intention of marriage and the influence factors among unmarried men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Guong-Gui; Fan, Jing; Zhao, Xi-He; Li, Ke

    2012-10-01

    To understand the intention on marriage and the related influence factors among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using the snowball sampling method, an anonymous questionnaire survey was achieved by recruiting MSM. A total number of 308 people were included in this survey, the numbers of 'planning to get married' was 34.4%, intended not to get married accounted for 65.6%; and the average age of intending to marry was (28.1 ± 3.3) years old. The intended marriage partners were ordinary women accounted for 83.8%, while another 16.2% were lesbians. Reasons for getting married were under social pressure (65.1%), under family pressure (12.3%), and under personal desire (22.6%). Those who intended to remain contact with gay after marriage accounted for 66.7%, with 16.2% did not and those were not sure accounted for 17.1%. Using the multivariate analysis method, results showed that the independent factors for intention of marriage were: age, sexual orientation, registration for residency, cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners, number of anal sex in the last week, proportion of intention to get married was relatively low among those who were over 35 years of age and their residence of registration were in the city. However those who were bisexual, with uncertain sexual orientation, and with low cumulative numbers of regular sexual partners as well as less anal sex in the past week, occupied higher proportions. MSM population under our current study showed a high percentage on marriage intention which posed serious challenges to the society and families. AIDS prevention on this population seemed to be impacted by demographic characteristics and sexual behavior.

  2. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  3. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  4. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  5. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...prefers a medical research focus. Subsuming medical under HA/DR attempts to minimize those differences. There were dissenting views on the proposed...positive view of USARPAC engagement activities, they were still able to develop ideas for ways to improve engagement activities by modifying or

  6. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  7. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  8. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  9. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  10. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  11. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  12. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  13. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  14. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  15. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  16. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  17. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  18. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  19. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  20. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  1. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  2. Transgender female sex workers’ HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. Methods We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. Results HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women’s first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This

  3. Transgender female sex workers' HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R; Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women's first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This was considerably lower than

  4. [Intimate partner violence: study with female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración

    2011-08-01

    Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  6. The Effects of Relationship Type, Partner Intent, and Gender on the Selection of Relationship Maintenance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B. Christine; Pearson, Judy C.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that relationship type did not affect the maintenance strategies that partners chose; however, the partners' relationship intent and the sex-composition of the dyad had a significant impact on the selection of directness strategies. Suggests that individuals are not necessarily more likely to select directness strategies than balance or…

  7. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  8. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  9. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  10. Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; Grulich, Andrew E; Simpson, Judy M

    2014-11-01

    Background It is important to have current and reliable estimates of the frequency and correlates of condom use among Australian adults. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years, from all states and territories, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews. The overall participation rate among eligible people was 66.2%. Although most respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of those who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in that year. Condom use in the last year was associated with youth, speaking a language other than English at home, bisexual identity, greater education, residence in major cities, lower income and having multiple sexual partners in the last year. One-quarter of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse and one-sixth of these were put on after genital contact. Condom use during most recent vaginal sex was associated with youth, lower income, having sex with a non-regular partner and not using another form of contraception. Condom use appears to have increased between 2001-02 and 2012-13. Consistent with other research, this study showed that condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception. There may be a need to highlight among people with multiple sexual partners the fact that non-barrier methods of contraception do not offer protection against sexually transmissible infections. The finding that many condoms were applied after genital contact suggests a need to promote both use and correct use of condoms.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Vizcarra Larrañaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having experienced some psychological abuse, 26% reported physical violence at least once in their lifetime. Associated factors to receive physical violence were: sex, suffering psychological violence, favourable attitudes towards violence, and low religious participation. Associated factor to receive psychological violence was: sex, physical violence received, favourable attitudes towards the violence, and the length of the relationship. Discussion: Typical features of intimate partner violence in college life settings seem to favor its invisibility, thus turning it into a difficult phenomenon to approach and to prevent.

  12. Distributions and trends in sexual behaviors and HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P F; Wilson, David P

    2012-07-24

    HIV prevalence is increasing at a concerning rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Numerous studies have reported on levels of behaviors of Chinese MSM for different types of sexual partnerships, such as regular, non-commercial casual and commercial. This study aims to investigate the trends HIV incidence rates in relation to their risk sexual behaviors and partnership types among Chinese MSM. Through a comprehensive literature research from available English and Chinese literature databases, we collated relevant information of sexual behaviors of Chinese MSM. Further, with the utilization of a mathematical optimization approach, this study reconciles the distributions of sexual behavioral data over the last decade and infers the heterogeneous distributions of behavioral patterns among Chinese MSM. Distributions of high-risk behavioural indicators, including the number of sexual partners, number of sexual acts and condom usage in the past 6 months, are calibrated to available empirical data. Based on the resultant temporal trends in these distributions, the trends in HIV incidence rates associated with each type of partnership among MSM in China are also estimated. A total of 55 qualified articles have been identified. An average MSM has approximately 0.96 (95% CI, 0.59-1.18) regular, 3.75 (1.72-6.25) casual and 1.61 (0.97-2.78) commercial partners over a 6 month period and 4.33 (2.81-6.46), 1.42 (0.62-3.08), 1.48 (0.79-3.30) sexual acts per partnership respectively, corresponding to a total of 11.87 (8.87-15.25) acts. Condom usage has increased significantly during 2002-2010, at annual increases of 3.58% (2.98-4.12%), 5.55% (4.55-6.54%), and 5.03% (4.19-5.74%) for regular, casual and commercial partners respectively. These behavioral data implies an increase in HIV incidence of approximately 3.3-fold, from 2.04 (1.96-2.12) to 7.02 (6.71-7.35) per 1000 person-years during the same period. The proportion of new infections attributed to regular

  13. Changing sex risk behaviors, gender norms, and relationship dynamics among couples in Cape Town, South Africa: Efficacy of an intervention on the dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Zule, William A; Carney, Tara; Browne, Felicia A; Ndirangu, Jacqueline; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2018-05-18

    South Africa continues to experience new HIV infections, with the highest risk among Black Africans living in poor communities. Most HIV prevention interventions target women or men separately and only a small number target couples jointly. This study examines varying strategies to engage women and men around HIV prevention and improved couple interactions. The study comprises three arms: (1) a couple-based intervention delivered to women and men jointly; (2) women and men both offered a gender-focused intervention that is delivered to them separately; and (3) an intervention offered to women only and their male partners receive standard HIV testing and counseling (comparison arm). Between June 2010 and April 2012, men were identified in and around drinking establishments in a large disadvantaged community in Cape Town and asked to participate in the study if they drink regularly, had recent unprotected sex with their partner, and have a female partner who was willing to participate in the study. A total of 299 couples completed the baseline assessment and 276 were included in the analysis of sexual risk, partner communication, conflict resolution, and gender norm outcomes at baseline and six-month follow-up. Couples that participated in the couple-level intervention and couples where both partners received the intervention separately had better couple-level gender norms than couples in the comparison arm (women only receive intervention). Further, couples in the couple-level intervention and the both partners exposed separately arms were more likely to have the man only report consistent condom use than neither partner report consistent condom use than couples in the comparison arm. Community-based HIV prevention intervention programs need to consider strategies to engage women and men and, if feasible, reach both partners jointly. Couple-level interventions are promising to improve gender norms and subsequently improve health outcomes, including reduced HIV risk

  14. Care partner: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Wang, Wei; Moore, Mel; Nagle, Cate

    The use of the term care partner has increased, particularly in the chronic disease literature; however, the concept has not been well defined. The purpose of this concept analysis was to define and assist nurses to better understand the concept of care partner. The method by Walker and Avant was used for this literature-based concept analysis. Care partnering includes providing assistance to an individual with a health condition to meet their self-care deficits, the commitment to a care partner relationship, and the recognition that people with self-care deficits are care partners contributing to their own care. Emphasizing the care partner dyad in nursing may contribute to improved patient care outcomes both in the acute and chronic settings. It is recommended that nurses view the person with the condition as a contributor and partner in their own care in the context of a larger care partnership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  16. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  17. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  18. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  19. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  20. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  1. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-15

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  4. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  5. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  6. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  7. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile.

  8. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Vientiane Capital, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sarah; Phimphachanh, Chansy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Manivong, Sisavath; Khamsyvolsvong, Sod; Lattanavong, Phonesay; Sisouk, Thongchanh; Toledo, Carlos; Scherzer, Martha; Toole, Mike; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-28

    Men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. Here we report the results of the first assessment of HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in this group in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Between August and September 2007, 540 men were enrolled from venues around Vientiane, using venue-day-time sampling. Men of Lao nationality, 15 years and over, reporting oral or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months were eligible for participation. Demographic and socio-behavioural information was self-collected using hand-held computers. Oral fluid was tested for HIV infection. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. The median age of participants was 21 years; the HIV prevalence was 5.6%. Of participants, 39.6% reported exclusive attraction to men and 57.6% reported sex with women. Of those who reported having regular and nonregular sexual partner(s) in the past 3 months, consistent condom use with these partners was 14.4 and 24.2%, respectively. A total of 42.2% self-reported any sexually transmitted infection symptoms and 6.3% had previously been tested for HIV. Suicidal ideation was reported by 17.0%, which was the only variable significantly and independently associated with HIV infection in multivariate analysis. Although the HIV prevalence is low compared with neighbouring countries in the region, men who have sex with men in Lao People's Democratic Republic are at high behavioural risk for HIV infection. To prevent a larger HIV epidemic occurrence and transmission into the broader community, higher coverage of HIV prevention interventions is required.

  9. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  10. Trends in risk behaviors among female sex workers in south India: priorities for sustaining the reversal of HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Edwin Sam, Asirvatham; Kumar Pandian, Arvind; Thenmozhi, Mani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi

    2013-01-01

    HIV epidemic in India is predominantly concentrated in subgroups of population, such as female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, whose behavior exposes them to a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. This paper aims to present the changing patterns of socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated factors among FSWs over 11 years. Multistage cluster sampling with probability-proportional-to-size (PPS) method was used in the surveys. A sample of 400 FSWs was studied every year. The mean age and literacy at the baseline level increased significantly over the years. House-based sex increased by 40% from 43.3% in 1997 to 83% in 2008 (p<0.001). Condom use at last sex with one-time clients; consistent condom use (CCU) with one-time and regular clients indicated increasing trends. FSWs reported low levels of condom use at last sex (14.5% in 1997 to 5% in 2008; p<0.001) and CCU (12.6% in 2004 to 3.6% in 2008; p<0.01) with regular partners. FSWs who used condom with one-time clients at last sex reported significantly less STI symptoms. A two-third reduction in genital ulcers was found from 13.1% in 1997 to 4.5% in 2008 (p<0.001). Nonliterate and hotel-based sex workers were 1.6 (1.0-2.5; 95% CI) and 2.2(1.3-3.7; 95% CI) times more likely to have reported STI symptoms. The percentage of FSWs who underwent HIV testing increased (p<0.001); similarly, a 20% increase was found in FSWs who availed counseling services from 65.2% in 1997 to 85.4% in 2008 (p<0.001). Poor, illiterate, and marginalized were more likely to get involved in risky behaviors which suggest the need for structural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategy.

  11. Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

    2009-10-01

    Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group.

  12. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  13. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  14. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  15. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  16. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    relationship is formed across two socially significant groups: ethnic, religious, region/caste, thus the present study has broad relevance. This proposal delineates the demographic details, intervention process of two ethnically mixed- marriage cases. Cases’ analyses are combined with relevant results from...... an empirical study (Singla, 2015) about intermarried couples to present lessons for counselling and psychotherapy good practices. The couples in the two cases and ten in-depth interviews based empirical study are formed across ethnic/religious borders - one partner is native Danish and the other originates...... from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Cultural historical psychology forms the background of the theoretical framework of the study, while a combination of intersectionality (Moodley, 2011), everyday life perspective and transnationalism forms the foreground. The lessons learnt for counselling...

  17. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  18. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  19. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  20. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....

  1. Regularization methods in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S

    2012-01-01

    Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B

  2. Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )

  3. HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk to primary female partners of men being released from prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A; Faigeles, Bonnie; Comfort, Megan; Seal, David; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Belcher, Lisa; Morrow, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Incarcerated men in the US are at increased risk for HIV, STDs and hepatitis, and many men leaving prison have unprotected sex with a primary female partner immediately following release from prison. This paper addresses risk to the primary female partners of men being released from prison (N = 106) by examining the prevalence of men's concurrent unprotected sex with other partners or needle sharing prior to and following release from prison (concurrent risk). Rates of concurrent risk were 46% prior to incarceration, 18% one month post release, and 24% three months post release. Multivariate analysis showed concurrent risk was significantly associated with having a female partner who had one or more HIV/STD risk factors and having a history of injection drug use. Findings demonstrate need for prevention programs for incarcerated men and their female partners.

  4. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  5. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  6. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  7. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women (N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner’s alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner’s physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners’ alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples. PMID:26478657

  8. Sexual Preferences and Presentation on Geosocial Networking Apps by Indian Men Who Have Sex With Men in Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoton, Jayson; Wilkerson, J Michael; Mengle, Shruta; Patankar, Pallav; Rosser, B R Simon; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2016-10-31

    The affordability of smartphones and improved mobile networks globally has increased the popularity of geosocial networking (GSN) apps (eg, Grindr, Scruff, Planetromeo) as a method for men who have sex with men (MSM) to seek causal sex partners and engage with the queer community. As mobile penetration continues to grow in India, it is important to understand how self-presentation on GSN app is relevant because it offers insight into a population that has not been largely studied. There is very little information about how Indian MSM discuss their sexual preferences and condom preferences and disclose their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status with potential sex partners on Web-based platforms. The objective of this study was to describe how self-presentation by Indian MSM on GSN apps contributes to sexual preferences, HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI) disclosure, and if the presentation differs due to proximity to the Greater Mumbai or Thane region. Between September 2013 and May 2014, participants were recruited through banner advertisements on gay websites, social media advertisements and posts, and distribution of print materials at outreach events hosted by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and HIV service organizations in Maharashtra, India. Eligible participants self-identified as being MSM or hijra (transgender) women, living in Maharashtra, aged above 18 years, having regular Internet access, and having at least one male sex partner in the previous 90 days. Indian MSM living inside and outside the Greater Mumbai or Thane region reported an average of 6.7 (SD 11.8) male sex partners in the last 3 months; on average HIV status of the sex partners was disclosed to 2.9 (SD 8.9). The most commonly used websites and GSN apps by MSM living inside Greater Mumbai or Thane region were Planetromeo, Grindr, and Gaydar. Results demonstrated that MSM used smartphones to access GSN apps and stated a preference for both condomless and protected

  9. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  11. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  12. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  13. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  14. Correlates of condomless anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tijuana, Mexico: The role of public sex venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Goodman-Meza, David; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    Condomless anal sex between male partners is the primary risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of condomless anal sex have been well-studied in developed countries, but they have received less attention in lower-to-middle income countries (LMIC), where MSM are often subject to stigma, discrimination, intolerance, and even the criminalization of same sex behavior. In Mexico, a LMIC where traditional views on homosexuality are common, HIV prevalence among MSM is high (16.9%), yet little research has been conducted on the correlates of condomless anal sex in this high-risk population. The present study examined correlates of condomless anal sex among 201 MSM recruited in Tijuana, Mexico, with a focus on the role of public sex venues in relation to sexual risk behavior. Eligibility requirements were: biologically male, 18 years of age or older, resident of Tijuana, and self-reported anal or oral sex with a male partner in the past year. Participants completed an interviewer-administered, demographic and psychosocial survey, and were tested for HIV and syphilis. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model was tested to identify correlates of condomless anal sex. Thirty-eight percent of participants (N = 76) reported condomless anal sex with a male partner in the past 2 months. Higher levels of condomless anal sex were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, greater sexual compulsivity, and more frequent seeking out of sex partners in a public venue in the past 2 months. In view of these findings, we recommend the development of multi-level, "combination" interventions, which in the Mexican context should include enhanced condom promotion and distribution, improved availability and access to mental health treatment and counseling services, and expanded HIV/STI testing in public venues.

  15. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  16. On the equivalence of different regularization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)

  17. The uniqueness of the regularization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1981-01-01

    On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)

  18. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  19. Community Collectivization and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India: Evidence from Two Rounds of Behavioral Tracking Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejella, Shanti; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2016-04-01

    Community collectivization is an integral part of condom use and HIV risk reduction interventions among key population. This study assesses community collectivization among female sex workers (FSWs), and explores its relationship with sex workers' consistent condom use (CCU) with different partners considering the interaction effect of time and collectivization. Data were drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional surveys collected during 2010 (N1 = 1986) and 2012 (N2 = 1973) among FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Results of the multiple logistic regression analysis show that, CCU with regular and occasional clients increased over the inter-survey period among FSWs with a high collective efficacy (AOR 2.9 and 6.1) and collective agency (AOR 14.4 and 19.0) respectively. The association of high levels of collectivization with CCU and self-efficacy for condom use are central to improve the usefulness and sustainability of HIV prevention programs worldwide.

  20. Who has sex with whom? Characteristics of heterosexual partnerships reported in a national probability survey and implications for STI risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew J; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; McManus, Sally; Erens, Bob; Cassell, Jackie A

    2009-02-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk is determined both by partner numbers and partnership characteristics. Studies describing only recent partnership(s) overestimate long-term partnerships and underestimate the contribution of casual partnerships to STI transmission in populations. We describe all heterosexual partnerships in the past year in terms of partnership type, age and geographical mixing and how these characteristics relate to condom use. Probability sample survey of 11 161 men and women aged 16-44 resident in Britain, 1999-2001. Computer-assisted self-interviews asked respondents about partner numbers and detailed questions about their three most recent partnerships. We weight these data to represent partnerships for which detailed questions were not asked to present estimates for the population of partnerships. Of 15 488 heterosexuals partnerships, 39.1% (95% CI 36.6-41.7%) of men's partnerships were 'not (yet) regular' vs 20.0% (95% CI 18.2-21.9%) of women's partnerships. While condoms were used at last sex in 37.1% (95% CI 35.0-39.3%) of men's and 28.8% (95% CI 27.1-30.6%) of women's partnerships, and for 55.3% (95% CI 52.6-58.0%) of first sex with new partners, these proportions declined with age. When partnerships involved an age difference of 5+ years [26.2% (95% CI 23.0-29.6%) of men's and 36.5% (95% CI 33.0-40.1%) of women's partnerships], condoms were less commonly used at first sex than when partners were closer in age [44.1% (95% CI 39.1-48.4%) vs 60.8% (95% CI 57.3-64.2%)]. Sex occurred within 24 h in 23.4% (95% CI 19.7-27.5%) of men's and 10.7% (95% CI 8.3-13.6%) of women's partnerships. A substantial minority of partnerships in the population is casual. The proportion of partnerships not protected by condoms is high, especially for partnerships involving larger age differences and people in their 30s and 40s. Condom use with new partners needs to be promoted among all age-groups.

  1. Infection among Commercial Sex Workers in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of HHV8 seropositivity was conducted among commercial sex workers in Jos aimed at determining the prevalence in relation to history of STD, duration of prostitution, age and number of sexual partners per day. Antibodies to HHV8 were detected by enzyme linked - immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Advanced ...

  2. Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Before or During Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Internet Sample from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cui; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2015-01-01

    We explored factors associated with alcohol use before or during sex among a sample of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia who were recruited online for the study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that having sex under the influence of alcohol was associated with having multiple male partners, seeking partners primarily through gay bar/gym/dance party/friends, selling sex and using multiple drugs during the past 6 months, and unprotected anal sex. More efforts are...

  3. Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.

  4. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  5. Implementing a Randomized Controlled Trial through a Community-Academia Partnered Participatory Research: Arte con Salud Research-Informed Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboa-Ortega, Patricia; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Miranda-Díaz, Christine

    2017-06-01

    "Arte con Salud" is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention tailored for Puerto Rican women who have sex with men. The intervention curriculum was refined through a community-academic collaboration between Taller Salud, the UPRCayey Campus, and the UCC-School of Medicine, subsided in 2012-13 by PRCTRC. The collaboration has been crucial to validate the impact of using art as a tool to facilitate sexual negotiation skills and safer sexual practices among adult women have sex with men participating in HIV prevention education. This article describes the vision, valley, victory phases endured to establish a community-academia partnership based on the CPPR framework as an effective mean to implement a randomized controlled trial intervention (RCT). We also discuss the barriers, outcomes, and lessons learned from this partnership. Some of the identified solutions include: setting goals to secure funding, regular meetings, and the inclusion of undergraduate level students to assist in the implementation of the intervention. These solutions helped to build trust among the community and academic partners. As a result of this collaboration, a total of 86 participants were enrolled and 5 competitive research grants have been submitted. The community-academic collaboration was essential in order to build a solid research infrastructure that addresses the complexities of HIV prevention education among groups of Puerto Rican women.

  6. Australian men's sexual practices in saunas, sex clubs and other male sex on premises venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.

  7. Patterns of Gender-Based Violence and Associations with Mental Health and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah T; Flaherty, Brian P; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Ngina, Jacqueline; McClelland, R Scott; Simoni, Jane; Graham, Susan M

    2018-03-30

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among female sex workers (FSWs) and is associated with multiple HIV risk factors, including poor mental health, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Prior studies have focused on GBV of one type (e.g. physical or sexual) or from one kind of perpetrator (e.g., clients or regular partners), but many FSWs experience overlapping types of violence from multiple perpetrators, with varying frequency and severity. We examined the association between lifetime patterns of GBV and HIV risk factors in 283 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Patterns of GBV were identified with latent class analysis based on physical, sexual, or emotional violence from multiple perpetrators. Cross-sectional outcomes included depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, disordered alcohol and other drug use, number of sex partners, self-reported unprotected sex, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions, and a combined unprotected sex indicator based on self-report or PSA detection. We also measured HIV/STI incidence over 12 months following GBV assessment. Associations between GBV patterns and each outcome were modeled separately using linear regression for mental health outcomes and Poisson regression for sexual risk outcomes. Lifetime prevalence of GBV was 87%. We identified 4 GBV patterns, labeled Low (21% prevalence), Sexual (23%), Physical/Moderate Emotional (18%), and Severe (39%). Compared to women with Low GBV, those with Severe GBV had higher scores for depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and disordered alcohol use, and had more sex partners. Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. Women with Physical/Moderate Emotional GBV had more sex partners and a higher prevalence of unprotected sex than women with Low GBV, but no differences in mental health. HIV/STI incidence did not differ significantly by GBV

  8. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...

  9. Effects of potential partners' physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status on sexuality and partner selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J M; Levy, G D

    1990-04-01

    Male (n = 170) and female (n = 212) college students viewed photographs, which had been prerated for physical attractiveness, of three opposite-sex individuals. These photographs were paired with three levels of occupational status and income. Subjects indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy and marital potential with the portrayed individuals. Analyses of variance, correlations, and trend analyses supported the hypotheses. Compared to men, women are more likely to prefer or insist that sexual intercourse occur in relationships that involve affection and marital potential, and women place more emphasis than men do on partners' SES in such relationships. Consequently, men's SES and their willingness and ability to invest affection and resources in relationships may often outweigh the effects of their physical attractiveness in women's actual selection of partners. These results and the literature reviewed are more consistent with parental investment theory than with the view that these sex differences are solely the result of differential access to resources and differential socialization.

  10. Powerful and Powerless Emotions in Partner Conflicts: Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Valor-Segura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is inherent in all types of interpersonal relationships. It has especially important consequences in relationships involving high levels of interdependence, such as intimate relationships. Emotions are important to understand how people behave in their interpersonal relationships. Results from other studies suggest that women express powerless emotions like guilt, sadness or fear, and men express powerful emotions like anger or contempt. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of emotions that men and women feel when in conflictive situations with their partner. In addition, we examined the effect of emotions on the prevalence of partner conflicts. A total of 142 undergraduate students participated in our study. We used a mixed factorial design with 5 different types of interpersonal conflicts as a within participants variable, and sex as a between-participants variable. Participants then rated the emotions felt in each conflictive situation, as well as the frequency of partner conflicts. Results showed sex differences in emotions in each conflictive situation. Women felt all emotions more intensely. In men, however, powerful emotions predicted a higher prevalence of partner conflicts.

  11. Partnering for Success (OIT Customer Day Partner Recognition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-04-01

    Office of Industrial Technologies document produced for 2002 Customer Day event, which features industry partners who have worked with OIT to achieve outstanding energy efficiency achievements from January 2001 to the present.

  12. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outsi...

  13. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  14. Community-based prevention leads to an increase in condom use and a reduction in sexually transmitted infections (STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM and female sex workers (FSW: the Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has an estimated 2.0 million to 3.1 million people living with HIV; it has the highest number of HIV-positive people in Asia and ranks third in the world. The Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP was implemented in 2002 to conduct targeted prevention intervention geared towards female sex workers (FSW and men who have sex with men (MSM in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. This paper reports the overall changes in behaviour and STI outcomes between 2003/4 and 2007 and also describes the changes attributed to the FPP. Methods The evaluation used two cross-sectional surveys among MSM and FSW at 24 sites in AP. Surveys were implemented using a similar methodology. Univariate analyses were conducted by comparing means: baseline vs. four-year follow-up and FPP vs. non-FPP. For both MSM and FSW, random and fixed-effects logit regression models at the site level were estimated for condom use with last partner, syphilis sero-positivity and HSV 2 sero-positivity. In addition, for FSW we estimated models for condom use with regular partner, and for MSM we estimated models for condom use with last female partner. Results Among MSM, fixed-effects analysis revealed that FPP was positively correlated with the probability of condom use with last female sexual partner and negatively correlated with the individual probability of sero-positivity to syphilis and HSV 2. Among FSW, the FPP intervention was significantly correlated with increased condom use with regular partners and with lower probability of STI sero-positivity. Discussion Important changes in behaviours related to an increase in prevention activities translated to reductions in STI sero-prevalence in AP, India. In contrast with non-FPP sites, the FPP sites experienced an intense community approach as part of the FPP intervention, and the general increase in condom use and its effect on STI sero-prevalence reflected the efficacy of these intense prevention activities focused on

  15. Class of regular bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.

  16. Sex Differences in Implicit Association and Attentional Demands for Information about Infidelity1

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime W. Thomson; Shilpa Patel; Steven M. Platek; Todd K. Shackelford

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emot...

  17. Sexual risk behavior and type of sexual partners in transnational indigenous migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.

  18. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Having critical management tools gives foreign investors the chance to maximize their investment, minimize their risk and develop a mutually profitable business with a Chinese partner. This concludes our series on this topic.

  19. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  20. Sex. Dev.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubiczka, S.; Schröder, C.; Ullmann, R.; Volleth, M.; Ledig, S.; Gilberg, E.; Kroisel, P.; P. Wieacker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9 . Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct ...

  1. Early Sex Work Initiation and Violence against Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.

  2. Effects of relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol on women's risky sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A

    2009-06-01

    This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions.

  3. Condom use with "casual" and "main" partners: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Celia M; Vazquez, Elizabeth A; Brown, Larry K; Litvin, Erika B; Pugatch, David

    2006-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes about and behaviors toward condom use with "casual" vs. "main" sexual partners. Participants were sexually active adolescents aged 15-21 years (n = 1316) recruited from primary care clinics and through outreach activities in three major cities in the United States. Assessment of condom use within the past 90 days, relevant attitudes, substance use, and demographic data were obtained via audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Participants were divided into two groups: the 65% who reported main partners only (MP group) and the 35% who had at least one casual partner (CP group). Adolescents in the MP group were more likely to be female, whereas males were significantly more likely to report casual partners. Race/ethnicity, age, education level, household income, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history were unrelated to group status (i.e., sexual partner type). Greater substance use and riskier attitudes were reported by teens in the CP group. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past 90 days was substantial and equivalent between the main and casual partner groups (19.2 vs. 21.5, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that perceptions of main partner attitudes toward condom use and condom use expectations were significantly related to condom use with MPs, but that attitudes were not related to condom use with CPs. Adolescents with either casual or main partners may be at continued risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and STIs, given high rates of unprotected sex. Interventions that do not target attitudes and practices related to casual partners as compared with main partners may miss an opportunity to change risk behaviors. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding an adolescent's perception of partner types in order to design effective interventions.

  4. Romance tourism or female sex tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2014-01-01

    Love, sex and the female traveller: romance tourism or female sex tourism? The phenomenon of women travelling in search of relationships with local men in developing countries has been studied for the last 20 years. However, it appears little known in travel medicine. Relevant literature was found through PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest and Google Scholar. The reference lists of selected articles identified further sources. Historical records of women travellers to far-away countries abound. Then, as now, women not only searched for the erotic 'other' but made romance and sex the purpose of their trip. Today, increasing numbers of women travel to destinations in developing countries where sex with local men is the main attraction. This pastime raises concerns not only for the women themselves but for the local men involved as well as their sex partners and the local communities. Although more research is necessary, comparing the criteria that describe men travelling for sex and relationships and women travelling for sex and relationships appears to suggest that there is very little difference between the two, regardless of what the pursuit is called. Women looking for sex with local men are sex tourists, too. Recognition of this fact needs to influence the pre and post travel care of female travellers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2006-01-01

    In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T......: The expectation of the regularization function, i.e., takes the same value in the posterior and prior distribution. We present three examples: two simulations, and application in fMRI neuroimaging....

  6. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  7. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Blondelle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical

  8. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults.Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 1...

  9. Relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Y; Horne, Sharon G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships with respect to their current level of stress, internalized homophobia, perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, and social support. Four groups were compared according to their current type of race relationship (ethnic minority women with White partners, White partners only, both ethnic minority partners, and White women with ethnic minority partners). No significant differences were found in terms of children and income; however, ethnic minority women with ethnic minority partners reported lower education attainment than the other groups. Relationally, there were no significant differences by race relationship for social support, relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, or stress. Internalized homophobia was lowest for interracial partnerships (ethnic minority paired with White partner). These findings are discussed in relationship to minority stress.

  10. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  11. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  12. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  13. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  14. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  15. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  16. Does beauty catch the eye?: Sex differences in gazing at attractive opposite-sex targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, I.; Holland, R.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  17. Gazing behavior during mixed-sex interactions: Sex and attractiveness effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Holland, R.W.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  18. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  19. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  20. The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Luchies, Laura B; Finkel, Eli J; Hunt, Lucy L

    2014-05-01

    A central element of interdependence theory is that people have standards against which they compare their current outcomes, and one ubiquitous standard in the mating domain is the preference for particular attributes in a partner (ideal partner preferences). This article reviews research on the predictive validity of ideal partner preferences and presents a new integrative model that highlights when and why ideals succeed or fail to predict relational outcomes. Section 1 examines predictive validity by reviewing research on sex differences in the preference for physical attractiveness and earning prospects. Men and women reliably differ in the extent to which these qualities affect their romantic evaluations of hypothetical targets. Yet a new meta-analysis spanning the attraction and relationships literatures (k = 97) revealed that physical attractiveness predicted romantic evaluations with a moderate-to-strong effect size (r = ∼.40) for both sexes, and earning prospects predicted romantic evaluations with a small effect size (r = ∼.10) for both sexes. Sex differences in the correlations were small (r difference = .03) and uniformly nonsignificant. Section 2 reviews research on individual differences in ideal partner preferences, drawing from several theoretical traditions to explain why ideals predict relational evaluations at different relationship stages. Furthermore, this literature also identifies alternative measures of ideal partner preferences that have stronger predictive validity in certain theoretically sensible contexts. Finally, a discussion highlights a new framework for conceptualizing the appeal of traits, the difference between live and hypothetical interactions, and the productive interplay between mating research and broader psychological theories.

  1. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  2. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  3. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker females attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Japan: a nationwide case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Hideko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs reported in STI surveillance increased rapidly for women in Japan during the 1990s, the sexual behavior of women potentially at risk of STI infection remains unknown. Methods In order to determine the demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker (SW females attending STI clinics, female attendees (n = 145, excluding SW, from nine clinics across Japan and female controls from the general population (n = 956, both aged 18-50 years, were compared using two data sets of nationwide sexual behavior surveys conducted in 1999. Results Although the occupation-type and education level were unrelated to STI clinic attendance in multivariate analysis, non-SW females attending STI clinics were younger (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99, and more likely to be unmarried (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.77 than the controls from the general population. In the previous year, STI clinic attendees were more likely to have had multiple partnerships (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.42, 6.71 and unprotected vaginal sex with regular partners (AOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.64, and tended to have had their first sexual intercourse at a younger age (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.89, 3.54 and more unprotected vaginal and/or oral sex with casual partners (AOR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.75, 5.71. Identical sexual behavior patterns were observed between the female attendees with a current diagnosis of STI (n = 72 and those before diagnosis (n = 73 and between those with a past history of STI (n = 66 and those without (n = 79. Conclusion These results indicate that not only multiple partnerships or unprotected sex with casual partners, but also unprotected vaginal sex within a regular partnership is prevalent among non-SW female STI clinic attendees. The identical sexual behavior patterns observed between female attendees with a current STI diagnosis and those without, and between those attendees

  4. Investigating factors for increased gonorrhoea re-infection in men who have sex with men attending a genitourinary clinic: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L; Lawrence, D; Soni, S; Llewellyn, C; Dean, G

    2017-08-01

    The number of confirmed cases of gonorrhoea increased by one-third in England from 2013 to 2014 and the incidence increased by 32% in men who have sex with men (MSM). In our clinic, annual incidence increased by 28.8% (2013) and re-infection (second infection within one-year of initial infection) rose from 6.7% as a proportion of total infections (2009) to 19.4% (2013). The aim of this study was to explore reasons for repeat gonorrhoea infections among MSM. We interviewed 16 MSM about knowledge and awareness of gonorrhoea, antibiotic resistance and attitudes towards safe sex. We used qualitative methods to investigate the potential causes for the rise in gonorrhoea re-infection. Mobile applications were used to meet casual sex partners and arrange impromptu group-sex parties with partner anonymity making contact tracing difficult. The use of recreational drugs was widespread. It was suggested that new technologies could also be used to increase awareness of STI trends and services for at-risk individuals. Participants were concerned about global antibiotic resistance, but felt that behaviour would not change unless there was local evidence of this. Despite knowing gonorrhoea prevalence was high, participants felt their behaviour was unlikely to change and frequently felt resigned to repeat infections. The use of geosocial networking applications to arrange sexual encounters may be contributing to a rise in STIs, as well as recreational drugs, alcohol and sex parties. Networking applications could increase awareness and advertise testing opportunities. In some cases, risk-taking behaviours are unlikely to change, and for these men, regular sexual health screens should be encouraged to detect and treat infections earlier and reduce onward spread.

  5. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash

    Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services

  6. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  8. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management.......Developments in the construction industry, with a lack of productivity increases compared to manufacturing industry in general, have amongst other things led to the use of Partnering, which is a form of collaboration which attempts to counteract the distrust and the sub-optimisation which...

  9. Sex as an obligation and interpersonal communication among Norwegian heterosexual couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Skogerbø, Åshild

    2009-01-01

    with manifest distressing reduced sexual desire had had obligatory sex. Among women with symptoms of mild reduced sexual desire, there was an association between obligatory sex and lack of acknowledgement of one's sexual needs, as well as a lack of communication with one's partner regarding how to be sexually...... pleased. In men with manifest reduced sexual desire there was an association between obligatory sex and discussion of one's sexual needs, and sexual fantasies with the partner. Thus, men with desire problems seem to communicate with their partner about their sexuality, whereas women seem not to talk...

  10. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  11. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-04-19

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  12. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  13. From recreational to regular drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...

  14. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  15. Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Holm, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach for large-eddy simulation (LES) is obtained by combining a "regularization principle" with an explicit filter and its inversion. This regularization approach allows a systematic derivation of the implied subgrid model, which resolves the closure problem. The central role of

  16. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines...

  17. Sexual Networks and HIV Risk among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Van Tieu

    Full Text Available Sexual networks may place U.S. Black men who have sex with men (MSM at increased HIV risk.Self-reported egocentric sexual network data from the prior six months were collected from 1,349 community-recruited Black MSM in HPTN 061, a multi-component HIV prevention intervention feasibility study. Sexual network composition, size, and density (extent to which members are having sex with one another were compared by self-reported HIV serostatus and age of the men. GEE models assessed network and other factors associated with having a Black sex partner, having a partner with at least two age category difference (age difference between participant and partner of at least two age group categories, and having serodiscordant/serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI in the last six months.Over half had exclusively Black partners in the last six months, 46% had a partner of at least two age category difference, 87% had ≤5 partners. Nearly 90% had sex partners who were also part of their social networks. Among HIV-negative men, not having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners and lower density were associated with having a Black partner; larger sexual network size and having non-primary partners were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference; and having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners was associated with SDUI. Among HIV-positive men, not having non-primary partners was associated with having a Black partner; no sexual network characteristics were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference and SDUI.Black MSM sexual networks were relatively small and often overlapped with the social networks. Sexual risk was associated with having non-primary partners and larger network size. Network interventions that engage the social networks of Black MSM, such as interventions utilizing peer influence, should be developed to address stable partnerships, number of partners, and

  18. Partnering for Canada's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenderman, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    ''Partnering'' is an evolving relationship that could lead to a partnership or joint ownership. Babcock and Wilcox (BW) has used a variety of forms of contracting and partnering to develop global strategy for the supply of its products, both fossil and nuclear steam generating equipment. A strategic mix of consortia, strategic alliances and joint ventures has provided the impetus for BW to lead in worldwide market share in many categories, including the supply of nuclear replacement steam generators to the USA since 1992. The implication is that continuing cooperation with BW will benefit the Canadian nuclear industry. 6 refs., 12 figs

  19. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  20. Cross-cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: a social-role analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2006-01-01

    In developed western nations, both sexes commit acts of physical aggression against their partners. Data from 16 nations showed that this pattern did not generalize to all nations. The magnitude and direction of the sex difference was highly correlated with national-level variations in gender empowerment and individualism-collectivism. As gender equality and individualism increased, the sex difference in partner violence moved in the direction of lesser female victimization and greater male victimization. A second analysis of 52 nations showed that 3 indexes of women's victimization were also inversely correlated with gender equality and individualism. Sexist attitudes and relative approval of wife beating were also associated with women's victimization rates, but general levels of violent crime were not. The findings are discussed in terms of a social role approach to variations in sex differences between cultures.

  1. Partner-Level Factors Associated with Insertive and Receptive Condomless Anal Intercourse Among Transgender Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, Milan F; Segura, Eddy R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R; Clark, Jesse L

    2017-08-01

    Condomless anal intercourse among transgender women (TW) in Peru has been shown to vary by the type of partner involved (e.g. primary vs. casual vs. transactional sex partner), but no previous studies have explored variations in partner-level patterns of condom use according to type of anal intercourse. We evaluated the relationship between partnership characteristics and condom use during insertive (IAI) versus receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among TW with recent, non-female partners. Condomless IAI was more common with transactional and casual sex partners and by TW who self-reported HIV-uninfected serostatus (p < 0.05), alcohol use disorders, or substance use before sex. Condomless RAI was more common with primary partners and by TW who described their HIV serostatus as unknown (p < 0.05). Examining partner-level differences between condomless IAI and RAI reveals distinct patterns of HIV/STI risk among TW, suggesting a need for HIV prevention strategies tailored to the specific contexts of partners, practices, and networks.

  2. Spectrum of female commercial sex work in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Jean De Dieu; Simaléko, Marcel Mbéko; Ngbale, Richard; Grésenguet, Gérard; Brücker, Gilles; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Classification of professional and non-professional female sex workers (FSWs) into different categories, never previously reported in the Central African Republic (CAR), may be useful to assess the dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, design operational intervention programmes to combat HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to adapt these programmes to the broad spectrum of sexual transactions in the CAR. Our study proposes a socio-behavioural classification of FSWs living in the CAR and engaged in transactional and commercial sex. Thus, the aims of the study were these: (i) to categorize FSWs according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui and (ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as an outcome. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2013 to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work (CSW) in Bangui among 345 sexually active women having more than 2 sexual partners, other than their regular partner, during the prior 3 months and reporting to have received money or gifts in return for their sexual relationships. According to socio-behavioural characteristics, FSWs were classified into six different categories. Professional FSWs, constituting 32.5% of the interviewed women, were divided in two categories: pupulenge (13.9%), i.e., dragonflies (sometimes called gba moundjou, meaning literally look at the White) consisting of roamers, who travel around the city to hotels and nightclubs seeking wealthy clients, with a preference for French men; and the category of kata (18.6%), i.e., FSWs working in poor neighbourhoods. Non-professional FSWs, constituting 67.5% of the interviewed women, were divided into four categories: street and market vendors (20.8%), students (19.1%), housewives (15.7%) and unskilled civil servants (11.9%). In general, CSW in the CAR presents a remarkably heterogeneous phenomenon. Risk

  3. An iterative method for Tikhonov regularization with a general linear regularization operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tikhonov regularization is one of the most popular approaches to solve discrete ill-posed problems with error-contaminated data. A regularization operator and a suitable value of a regularization parameter have to be chosen. This paper describes an iterative method, based on Golub-Kahan

  4. OLC Partners with the People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which Oglala Lakota College (South Dakota) helps to strengthen the cultural fabric of the Lakota community and how it has partnered with other institutions of higher learning throughout the state. Reports that the college has a number of community-based initiatives that emphasize the relationship between academics and ancestral…

  5. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...

  6. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  7. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Hierarchical regular small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)

  10. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  11. Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2010-01-01

    The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.

  12. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  13. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arnocky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women who were currently in heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures of frequency and severity of health problems, anticipated partner infidelity, and intensity of jealousy felt in their current relationship. Mediation analyses showed that health problems predicted greater anticipated partner infidelity and jealousy scores and that anticipated partner infidelity mediated the links between health and jealousy for both frequency and severity of health problems, controlling for both sex and relationship duration. These findings suggest that unhealthy people perceive themselves to be at a mating disadvantage, experiencing associated differences in perceptions and emotions surrounding their romantic partners’ fidelity.

  14. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    Key words: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), quantitative sexing, Siberian tiger. INTRODUCTION. Animal molecular sexing .... 43:3-12. Ellegren H (1996). First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc.

  15. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Endorsement of Social and Personal Values Predicts the Desirability of Men and Women as Long-Term Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Guilherme S; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Jeffery, Austin J; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2017-01-01

    A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2). The current study employed a 2 (sex of prospective partner: male vs. female) × 2 (values of prospective partner: personal vs. social) × 2 (physical attractiveness of prospective partner: unattractive vs. highly attractive) mixed-model design. Participants were 339 undergraduates (174 men, 165 women), with ages varying between 18 and 33 years ( M = 19.9, SD = 3.6), and mostly in a romantic relationship (53.7%). Participants reported interest in a long-term relationship with prospective partners depicted in four scenarios (within subjects), each varying along the dimensions of values (personal vs. social) and physical attractiveness (unattractive vs. highly attractive). Individuals endorsing personal values (vs. social values) and men (vs. women) endorsing personal values were rated as less desirable as long-term partners. The current research adds to the partner preferences literature by demonstrating that an individual's ascribed values influence others' perceptions of desirability as a long-term partner and that these effects are consistently sex differentiated, as predicted by an evolutionary perspective on romantic partner preferences.

  17. Diagrammatic methods in phase-space regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Halpern, M.B.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1987-11-01

    Using the scalar prototype and gauge theory as the simplest possible examples, diagrammatic methods are developed for the recently proposed phase-space form of continuum regularization. A number of one-loop and all-order applications are given, including general diagrammatic discussions of the nogrowth theorem and the uniqueness of the phase-space stochastic calculus. The approach also generates an alternate derivation of the equivalence of the large-β phase-space regularization to the more conventional coordinate-space regularization. (orig.)

  18. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  19. A comparison of HIV-risk behaviors between young black cisgender men who have sex with men and young black transgender women who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro

    2018-06-01

    This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.

  20. Predictors of unprotected sexual intercourse among female commercial sex workers in Kano, North-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U M Lawan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Sex workers engage in unhealthy sex for social and economic reasons. They should be empowered through vocational training to acquire sustainable sources of income. Regulatory authorities should also work with development partners/Non-governmental organisations (NGOs to package and implement a formidable health strategy/intervention for the control of substance abuse and promotion of safer sex among both the sex workers and their clients.

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU) among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers' use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients' CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized. PMID:26316978

  2. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  3. Geometric regularizations and dual conifold transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Lazaroiu, Calin I.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a geometric regularization for the class of conifold transitions relating D-brane systems on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces to certain flux backgrounds. This regularization respects the SL(2,Z) invariance of the flux superpotential, and allows for computation of the relevant periods through the method of Picard-Fuchs equations. The regularized geometry is a noncompact Calabi-Yau which can be viewed as a monodromic fibration, with the nontrivial monodromy being induced by the regulator. It reduces to the original, non-monodromic background when the regulator is removed. Using this regularization, we discuss the simple case of the local conifold, and show how the relevant field-theoretic information can be extracted in this approach. (author)

  4. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  5. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  6. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  7. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  8. Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...

  9. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  10. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. [Sex tourism and AIDS: doctors between duty and powerlessness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, Guido; Ploem, Corrette

    2014-01-01

    What can a doctor do if he knows that an HIV-positive patient who is refusing antiretroviral therapy is going on a sex tourism holiday to Thailand, for example? A doctor in a moral dilemma could break professional confidentiality in order to protect any sexual partners, but in this case these partners are not known. In practice, the only thing the doctor can do is to talk to the patient about his responsibility to prevent infection of others and to point out the risks of unsafe sex for the patient himself.

  13. The influence of observers’ sex on attention-demanding performance depends on performers’ sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing (PES indicates the slower responses after errors than after correct responses. Prior studies mainly focus on how the observation errors influence one own’s performance, there is no study investigating how other’s monitoring influence one own’s performance. Additionally, the issue that whether social context influences the PES effect differently for females and males is still unclear. To address aforementioned issues, we required the participants to interact with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner to complete a color flanker task together (they sat next to each other, Experiment 1. One was the performer (perform the flanker task, and the other was the observer (monitor the error responses of performer. They alternated their roles in two successive blocks. To further verify the role of the interaction context, a control experiment was conducted in the individual context (Experiment 2. The results revealed that (1 larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2 the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3 larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4 females’ performances were influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males’ performances were merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner. Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1 interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2 females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.

  14. Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two risk models. ... The analysis is based on data from the 2003 Demographic and Health survey ... multiple partners, Nigeria, risk perception, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to HIV ...

  15. HIV prevention among male clients of female sex workers in Kaolack, Senegal: results of a peer education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P

    2000-02-01

    This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p money for unprotected sex (p taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges.

  16. Partner violence, power and gender differences in South African adolescents’ HIV/STI behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEITELMAN, Anne M.; JEMMOTT, John B.; BELLAMY, Scarlett L.; ICARD, Larry D.; O'LEARY, Ann; HEEREN, G. Anita; NGWANE, Zolani; RATCLIFFE, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low relationship power and victimization by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been linked to HIV risks among adult females and adolescent girls. This article examines associations of IPV and relationship power with sexual-risk behaviors and whether the associations differ by gender among South African adolescents. Methods Sexual-risk behaviors (multiple partners in past 3 months; condom use at last sex), IPV, and relationship power were collected from 786 sexually experienced adolescents (mean age = 16.9) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa during the 54-month follow-up of a HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention trial. Logistic regression examined associations of sexual-risk behaviors with IPV and relationship power and whether the associations differed by gender. Results Adolescent boys were less likely to report condom use at last sex (p=.001) and more likely to report multiple partners (pPower interaction (p=.004) indicated that as relationship power increased, self-reported condom use at last sex increased among girls, but decreased among boys. A Gender x IPV interaction (p=.004) indicated that as IPV victimization increased, self-reports of having multiple partners increased among boys, but not among girls. As relationship power increased, self-reports of having multiple partners decreased irrespective of gender. Conclusions HIV risk-reduction interventions and policies should address gender differences in sexual-risk consequences of IPV and relationship power among adolescents and promote gender equity. PMID:27111184

  17. HIV transmission risk among HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples: dyadic processes of partner selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A; Kalichman, Seth C

    2009-04-01

    Selecting sex partners of the same HIV status or serosorting is a sexual risk reduction strategy used by many men who have sex with men. However, the effectiveness of serosorting for protection against HIV is potentially limited. We sought to examine how men perceive the protective benefits of factors related to serosorting including beliefs about engaging in serosorting, sexual communication, and perceptions of risk for HIV. Participants were 94 HIV negative seroconcordant (same HIV status) couples, 20 HIV serodiscordant (discrepant HIV status) couples, and 13 HIV positive seroconcordant (same HIV status) couples recruited from a large gay pride festival in the southeastern US. To account for nonindependence found in the couple-level data, we used multilevel modeling which includes dyad in the analysis. Findings demonstrated that participants in seroconcordant relationships were more likely to believe that serosorting reduces concerns for condom use. HIV negative participants in seroconcordant relationships viewed themselves at relatively low risk for HIV transmission even though monogamy within relationships and HIV testing were infrequent. Dyadic analyses demonstrated that partners have a substantial effect on an individual's beliefs and number of unprotected sex partners. We conclude that relationship partners are an important source of influence and, thus, intervening with partners is necessary to reduce HIV transmission risks.

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  19. If you've got it, flaunt it: humans flaunt attractive partners to enhance their status and desirability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Winegard

    Full Text Available Mating decisions are influenced by conspecifics' mate choices in many species including humans. Recent research has shown that women are more attracted to men with attractive putative partners than those with less attractive partners. We integrate these findings with traditional accounts of social signaling and test five hypotheses derived from it. In our study, 64 men and 75 women were paired with attractive and unattractive opposite-sex putative partners and asked whether they would prefer to give surveys to peers or to older adults. Consistent with predictions, both men and women wanted to show off (flaunt attractive partners by administering surveys to peers and both men and women wanted to hide (conceal unattractive partners from peers by administering surveys to older adults. These decisions were mediated by how participants expected others to evaluate their status and desirability when they administered the surveys, consistent with partners serving a social signaling function in humans.

  20. If you've got it, flaunt it: humans flaunt attractive partners to enhance their status and desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Benjamin M; Winegard, Bo; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Mating decisions are influenced by conspecifics' mate choices in many species including humans. Recent research has shown that women are more attracted to men with attractive putative partners than those with less attractive partners. We integrate these findings with traditional accounts of social signaling and test five hypotheses derived from it. In our study, 64 men and 75 women were paired with attractive and unattractive opposite-sex putative partners and asked whether they would prefer to give surveys to peers or to older adults. Consistent with predictions, both men and women wanted to show off (flaunt) attractive partners by administering surveys to peers and both men and women wanted to hide (conceal) unattractive partners from peers by administering surveys to older adults. These decisions were mediated by how participants expected others to evaluate their status and desirability when they administered the surveys, consistent with partners serving a social signaling function in humans.