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Sample records for regular preschool classroom

  1. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences. Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play

  2. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  3. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205

  4. Supporting primary school teachers in differentiating in the regular classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, Tessa H.S.; Hulsbeek, Manon; Gijlers, Hannie

    Many primary school teachers experience difficulties in effectively differentiating in the regular classroom. This study investigated the effect of the STIP-approach on teachers' differentiation activities and self-efficacy, and children's learning outcomes and instructional value. Teachers using

  5. The Student with Albinism in the Regular Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Julia Robertson

    This booklet, intended for regular education teachers who have children with albinism in their classes, begins with an explanation of albinism, then discusses the special needs of the student with albinism in the classroom, and presents information about adaptations and other methods for responding to these needs. Special social and emotional…

  6. Regular classroom assessment as a means of enhancing Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an action research which employed regular classroom tests to help students learn and understand some concepts in electricity and magnetism. The participants of the study were 35 Level 200 B.Ed. (Basic Education, JSS Option) pre-service science teachers of the University of Education, Winneba in the ...

  7. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

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    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  8. Preschool Teachers' Views about Classroom Management Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Sak, Ikbal Tuba; Sak, Ramazan; Tezel-Sahin, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This survey-based quantitative study investigates 310 Turkish preschool teachers' views about classroom management, using the following six models of disciplinary strategy: behavioral change theory, Dreikurs' social discipline model, Canter's assertive discipline model, the Glasser model of discipline, Kounin's model, and Gordon's teacher…

  9. Exploring Bilingual Pedagogies in Dual Language Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the language practices of four Spanish/English dual language (DL) preschool teachers, focusing on the ways in which the teachers mediate bilingual interactions with students and distribute Spanish and English across different classroom discourse functions. Findings reveal teachers' flexible and strategic…

  10. Physical therapy in preschool classrooms: successful integration of therapy into classroom routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerak, Darlene Massey; Kirkpatrick, Dana B; Nelson, Kristal C; Propes, June H

    2003-01-01

    This exploratory investigation identifies factors that contribute to success of physical therapy services delivered in the context of the daily routines in preschool classroom settings. Ten pediatric physical therapists from rural and urban communities across North Carolina served as informants during telephone interviews. Qualitative analysis of the data led to the identification of six major themes: interactions among classroom personnel, impact of the classroom environment, individual characteristics of the child, logistical considerations, administrative policies and practices, and service delivery options. All 10 informants shared the perception that the cooperation and commitment of the teacher was essential for successful incorporation of therapy activities in classroom routines. Furthermore, the informants agreed that multiple models of service delivery were necessary to meet the individual needs of children. These results lead the authors to question the wisdom of promoting any one service delivery model as "best practice" and suggest guidelines for successful integration of physical therapy in the preschool classroom.

  11. Perceptions of Prospective Pre-School Teachers Regarding Children's Right to Participate in Classroom Activities

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    Koran, Nihan; Avci, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the behaviours of pre-school teachers working with children aged between 4 and 6 years with regard to their right to participate in classroom activities. In this context, pre-school teacher's negative or positive applications regarding children's participation rights were revealed. Furthermore, preschool teachers'…

  12. Preschool Teachers' Use of Music in the Classroom: A Survey of Park District Preschool Programs

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    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how preschool teachers use music and identify the types of music activities available to children in their classrooms. Preschool teachers (N = 178) at park district programs throughout a large state in the American Midwest responded to an online questionnaire. Although teachers acknowledged using music…

  13. Social Skills, Problem Behaviors and Classroom Management in Inclusive Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Esra G.; Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine preschool teachers' classroom management skills and investigate the relationships between teachers' classroom management skills and inclusion students' social skills and problem behaviors. Relational screening model was used as the research method. Study group consisted of 42 pre-school teachers working in Kocaeli…

  14. Circle Time Revisited: How Do Preschool Classrooms Use This Part of the Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres S.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Champagne, Carly R.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2018-01-01

    Circle time is a near universally used preschool activity; however, little research has explored its nature, content, and quality. This study examined activity types, teacher and child talk, child engagement, and classroom quality in a sample of public preschool classrooms in an urban, high-poverty school district. Results demonstrated that…

  15. Classroom Interaction in Regular and Special Education Middle Primary Classrooms in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmak, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Samir Dukmak is an assistant professor in the Department of Special Education in the Faculty of Education at the United Arab Emirates University. The research reported in this article investigated the frequency, types of and reasons for student-initiated interactions in both regular and special education classrooms in the United Arab Emirates…

  16. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  17. The Role of Classroom-Level Child Behavior Problems in Predicting Preschool Teacher Stress and Classroom Emotional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison Hope; Raver, C. Cybele; Morris, Pamela A.; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Despite the abundance of research suggesting that preschool classroom quality influences children's social-emotional development, the equally important and related question of how characteristics of children enrolled in a classroom influence classroom quality has rarely been addressed. The current article focuses on this…

  18. Adapting the curriculum of a student in the regular classroom

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    Cindy Lorena Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research, adapting the curriculum of a student in the regular classroom, based on a multi-skilled inclusive education whose data was collected between 2010 and 2011 from Colegio Real de los Andes. The study was based on the author’s personal experience with student population inside their regular classroom activities. The author was motivated by the desire to know how one could contribute to society’s expectations on an inclusive and integrated education that takes into account the human being as a unique being endowed with different potentials, great expectations, and dreams that nurture him or her into a major player in his or her dignified project of life that will, in turn, contribute towards their full personality growth and hence strengthen their academic skills. Similarly, this will be of great value towards commitment and devotion for inclusion, construed as a paramount import to educational formation. Hence, the dedication of educators in this inclusivity is a fundamental feature not only from the conceptual point of view, but more importantly, as a fundamental element in the essence of an educator, which must be, a human being formed in the richness of values openly projected on a pedagogy without any prejudice and preconceptions during a pedagogical dispensation.

  19. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

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    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

  20. The Influence of Group Training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on Preschool Teachers' Classroom Management Strategies

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    Carlson, John S.; Tiret, Holly B.; Bender, Stacy L.; Benson, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in preschool teachers' perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8-10-week period for…

  1. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

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    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  2. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  3. Use of Graphic Systems in the Routine of a Regular Classroom with a Disabled Student

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    Deliberato, Débora; Nunes, Leila Regina d'Oliveira Paula

    2015-01-01

    The school environment adapted to the diversity of students is an important goal, but it is a challenge when it comes to the diversity of students with disabilities. The aim of this study was to describe the use of graphic systems in the routine of a preschool classroom through a collaborative program. The study included a teacher, 22 children of…

  4. Instructional Activities and the Quality of Language in Chilean Preschool Classrooms

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    Strasser, Katherine; Darricades, Michelle; Mendive, Susana; Barra, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines the association between preschool classroom activity and the quality of the language spoken by teachers and children. Eighteen classrooms serving low-income children between the ages of 3 and 4 in Santiago de Chile were audio-recorded during one morning shift. Recordings were transcribed and segmented into…

  5. The Reliability and Structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in German Pre-Schools

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    Stuck, Andrea; Kammermeyer, Gisela; Roux, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, R. C., K. M. La Paro, and B. K. Hamre. 2008. "Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Manual Pre-K." Baltimore, MD: Brookes) and the quality of interactional processes in a German pre-school setting, drawing on a sample of 390…

  6. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers w...

  8. Comparison of Preschoolers' Narratives, the Classroom Book Environment, and Teacher Attitudes toward Literacy Practices in Korea and the United States

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    Lee, Young-Ja; Lee, Jeehyun; Han, Myae; Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean and U.S. preschoolers' personal and fictional narratives, their classroom book environments, and their teachers' attitudes about reading aloud. The participants were 70 Korean and American 3- and 4-year-olds enrolled in 2 university lab preschools and their 4 teachers. The structures and content of the preschoolers'…

  9. catering for children with special needs in the regular classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Unfortunately, public schools in Nigeria are often times over crowded and lack the .... schools where the population far exceeds the number allowed by law. (ii) Inability to ... Maintaining Effective Classroom Control and. Discipline. In: S. A. ...

  10. A Method and a Model for Describing Competence and Adjustment: A Preschool Version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna D.

    A preschool version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory which provides a method for collecting valid data on a child's classroom behavior from day care and preschool teachers, was developed to complement the earlier form which was developed and validated for elementary school populations. The new version was tested with a pilot group of twenty-two…

  11. Goodness of Fit between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories

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    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…

  12. Interactions of Chemistry Teachers with Gifted Students in a Regular High-School Chemistry Classroom

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    Benny, Naama; Blonder, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Regular high-school chemistry teachers view gifted students as one of several types of students in a regular (mixed-ability) classroom. Gifted students have a range of unique abilities that characterize their learning process: mostly they differ in three key learning aspects: their faster learning pace, increased depth of understanding, and…

  13. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

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    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  14. Assessment of Quality for Inclusive Programs in Greek Preschool Classrooms

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    Fyssa, Aristea; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the practices that Greek teachers use to support the inclusion of children with disabilities in general preschools. Fifty-two preschool units for children between 4 and 6 years of age participated in this study. Data were collected through systematic observation with the use of the Inclusive…

  15. Examining the relationship between the creativity levels of the classroom environment and the preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Züleyha Yuvacı; Hacer Elif Dağlıoğlu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the creative classroom environments and the creative thinking skills of six-year old children in three central districts (Melikgazi, Kocasinan and Talas) of Kayseri province in Turkey. The participants of the study included 51 teachers and 357 students in their classes. The teachers who participated in this study were administered “the Pre-school Creative Classroom Environment Scale” for their perception of the level of creativ...

  16. Teachers' Views about the Education of Gifted Students in Regular Classrooms

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    Neşe Kutlu Abu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate classroom teachers’ views about the education of gifted students in regular classrooms. The sample of the study is composed of ten primary school teachers working in the city of Amasya and had gifted students in their classes. In the present study, phenomenological research design was used. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed descriptively in the QSR N-Vivo package program. The findings showed that teachers did not believe a need for differentiating curriculum for gifted students; rather they expressed that regular curriculum was enough for gifted students. Based on the findings, it is clear that teachers need training both on the need of differentiated education for gifted students and strategies and approaches about how to educate gifted students. Teachers’ attitudes towards gifted students in regular classrooms should be investigated so that teachers’ unsupportive beliefs about differentiation for gifted students also influence their attitudes towards gifted students.

  17. The Problems of Novice Classroom Teachers having Regular and Alternative Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Taneri, Pervin Oya; Ok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to understand the problems of classroom teachers in their first three years of teaching, and to scrutinize whether these problems differ according to having regular or alternative teacher certification. The sample of this study was 275 Classroom Teachers in the Public Elementary Schools in districts of Ordu, Samsun, and Sinop in the Black Sea region. The data gathered through the questionnaire were subject to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Res...

  18. The Relation of Work Environment and Stress in Classroom Management among Preschool Teachers

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    Abdul Said Ambotang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to observe how far preschool teachers endure stress in carrying out their job which is influenced by the work climate including the management of classroom. This research is carried out by choosing a group of 55 preschool teachers as respondents in the district of Keningau Sabah. Data is analyzed using descriptive method (mean, inferential (T-test Statistic, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Result showed that there were high positive relationships between the work climate with stress level among the teachers. (r = 0.807, p<0.01 and classroom management with level of stress (r = 0.770, p< 0.01. It is hoped that with the information obtained by this research will assist the Malaysian Ministry of Education in planning and designing a suitable programme to overcome the stress problem faced by teachers especially preschool teachers towards improving the teaching profession quality in the near future.

  19. Gender Equity in Picture Books in Preschool Classrooms: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Michelle B.; McBride, Brent A.

    A study examined the frequency with which males and females are represented in picture books available in preschool classrooms. Three areas were examined: pronoun usage and gender of characters; the frequency of gender-neutral pronouns and characters; and written text compared to teachers' wording when reading aloud. The study involved 11 head and…

  20. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

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    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  1. The "Learning in Regular Classrooms" Initiative for Inclusive Education in China

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    Xu, Su Qiong; Cooper, Paul; Sin, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to understand the Learning in Regular Classrooms (LRC) initiative for inclusive education in China. First, the paper reviews the policy, legislation, and practice in relation to the LRC. It then goes on to explore the specific social-political context of the LRC, and compares the Chinese LRC with the Western…

  2. Findings on the Development and Use of Technology-Infused Curricula in Preschool Classrooms. Interactive STEM Research Brief

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    Stiles, Jennifer; Louie, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Mobile tablets are becoming more prevalent in educational settings, but little is known about the impact of using technology-infused curricula in preschool classrooms. The research summarized in this brief suggests that well-designed tablet-based activities can indeed improve student learning outcomes at the preschool level. These positive…

  3. Classroom Preschool Science Learning: The Learner, Instructional Tools, and Peer-Learning Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Jamie M.

    The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to

  4. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms

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    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  5. The Role of Relational and Instructional Classroom Supports in the Language Development of At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Carolyn S.; McGinty, Anita S.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which preschool classroom supports--relational support (RS) and instructional support (IS)--are associated with children's language development and whether these associations vary as a function of children's language ability. The language skills of 360 children within 95 classrooms were assessed using an…

  6. Pre-School Teachers' Classroom Management Competency and the Factors Affecting Their Understanding of Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Alakoc, Pirpir; Ozturk Samur, Ayse; Angin, Duriye Esra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research was carried out to determine the classroom management competency and the levels of perception of understanding of discipline among preschool teachers, the effect of their classroom management competency and understanding of discipline on child-teacher relationship, the relationship between interpersonal problem-solving and…

  7. Conceptual systems and teacher attitudes toward regular classroom placement of mildly mentally retarded students.

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    Feldman, D; Altman, R

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a teacher personality construct (abstract vs. concrete conceptual system) and two pupil variables (race, school behavior) on 454 regular classroom teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming were determined. Following administration of the Conceptual Systems Test, teachers were randomly assigned a profile of a mildly mentally retarded student that held pupil IQ and school achievement constant while varying pupil's race and school behavior. Subjects responded on an integration inventory comprised of three subscales: social-psychological classroom environment, self-actualization, and classroom cohesiveness. Results revealed a significant main effect on the behavior variable and a significant Personality X Race interaction on all inventory dimensions, suggesting that these teachers perceived maladaptive behavior of mainstreamed retarded students as a significant threat to a conducive instructional atmosphere and the capability of nonretarded students to achieve to their potential. These results have implications for inservice training for teachers based on the pupil race and teacher conceptual system findings.

  8. The impact of the inclusion of students with handicaps and disabilities in the regular education science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Cathey Nolan

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of the inclusion of students with handicaps and disabilities in the regular education science classroom. Surveys were mailed to the members of the Alabama Science Teachers Association to obtain information from teachers in inclusive classrooms. Survey responses from teachers provide insight into these classrooms. This study reports the results of the teachers surveyed. Results indicate multiple changes occur in the educational opportunities presented to regular education students when students with handicaps and disabilities are included in the regular science classroom. Responding teachers (60%) report omitting activities that formerly provided experiences for students, such as laboratory activities using dangerous materials, field activities, and some group activities. Also omitted, in many instances (64.1%), are skill building opportunities of word problems and higher order thinking skills. Regular education students participate in classes where discipline problems related to included students are reported as the teachers most time consuming task. In these classrooms, directions are repeated frequently, reteaching of material already taught occurs, and the pace of instruction has been slowed. These changes to the regular classroom occur across school levels. Many teachers (44.9%) report they do not see benefits associated with the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classroom.

  9. Teaching English to a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Classroom in Indonesia

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    Ni Nyoman Padmadewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of students with special needs has been increasing significantly in Indonesia recently and the better understanding as well as supportive school programs is urgently needed. It was found out that schools and teachers in Indonesia had very limited preparedness either in teaching skills or material development to meet the actual needs of the students. This study then aimed at investigating appropriate strategies of teaching English to a student with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD included in a regular classroom. This research was in the form of a case study conducted in North Bali Bilingual School. The data were collected through observations and interviews. The findings show that the Individual Education Plan (IEP provided with visual media through co-teaching, differentiated instruction and also through a “buddy program” are found appropriate to help the student learn English as a foreign language. These strategies are effective to be implemented in an inclusive classroom program.

  10. Preschool Deployment of Evidence-Based Social Communication Intervention: JASPER in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shire, Stephanie Y; Shih, Wendy; Gelfand, Carolyn; Kasari, Connie

    2016-06-01

    Few research-developed early intervention models have been deployed to and tested in real world preschool programs. In this study, teaching staff implemented a social communication modularized intervention, JASPER, in their daily program. Sixty-six preschool children with autism in twelve classrooms (12 teachers) were randomized to receive immediate JASPER training (IT) or were waitlisted (WL) for 3 months with a 1-month follow up. Measures of core deficits (initiations of joint engagement, joint attention gestures and language, play skills) and standardized cognitive measures were improved for IT over WL children. IT teachers achieved and maintained high fidelity. Teachers can implement evidence-based interventions with significant improvements in core deficits of their children with ASD.

  11. Returning Special Education Students to Regular Classrooms: Externalities on Peers’ Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    Policy reforms to boost full inclusion and conventional return flows send students with special educational needs (SEN) from segregated settings to regular classrooms. Using full population micro data from Denmark, I investigate whether becoming exposed to returning SEN students affects...... on test score gains of moderate size (-0.036 SD), while no significant effect is found in non-reform years. The results are robust to sensitivity checks. The negative exposure effect is significant only for boys, but does not differ by parental education or grade-level....

  12. Low-Cost, Scalable Classroom-Based Approach to Promoting Physical Activity in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Sagdalen, Vanessa; Manohar, Chinmay U; Levine, James A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of short activity breaks in preschool children. The hypotheses were that preschool children receiving three five-minute activity breaks per day would increase (a) school time physical activity and (b) education scores compared to a control group not receiving the intervention. For 8 weeks, the Intervention Group (n = 13) incorporated three 5-minute activity breaks into their classroom time while the Control Group (n = 12) did not incorporate the activity breaks. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Education was assessed using standardized methods. After 8 weeks, the preschool children in the Intervention Group increased their school time physical activity from 11,641 ± (SD) 1,368 Acceleration Units (AU)/ hour to 16,058 ± 2,253 AU/hour (P < 0.001). The children in the control group did not increase their physical activity (11,379 ± 2,427 cf 11,624 ± 2,441; ns). Students in the Intervention Group improved their education scores more than students in the control group (18 ± 12 cf 8 ± 7 points, P = 0.01); Letter Recognition improved in particular (9 ± 6 cf 2 ± 4 points, P = 0.001). The incorporation of three 5-minute activity breaks was associated with increased school time physical activity and improved learning.

  13. Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gun Joo; Oh, Geun Sug; Im, Young Bin; Song, Sung Ki; Ahn, Young Chull

    2011-01-01

    This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4∼23.3 .deg. C and 17.5∼29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17∼25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases

  14. Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gun Joo; Oh, Geun Sug; Im, Young Bin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sung Ki [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Ahn, Young Chull [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4{approx}23.3 .deg. C and 17.5{approx}29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17{approx}25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases.

  15. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, Leslie M; Downer, Jason T; Vitiello, Virginia E

    2012-07-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children's interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children's interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions.

  16. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  17. Expressive Morphological Skills of Dual Language Learning and Monolingual German Children: Exploring Links to Duration of Preschool Attendance, Classroom Quality, and Classroom Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly-Marlen Bihler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has been documenting environmental factors that support preschoolers’ vocabulary skills. However, less is known about how environmental factors are related to morphological skills of dual language learners (DLLs and single language learners (SLLs. We examined connections with preschool experiences by investigating the effects of duration of preschool attendance, classroom quality, and classroom composition variables (percentage of DLLs and percentage of children from families with a low socio-economic status on preschoolers’ expressive morphological skills. Several multilevel regression models were estimated using cross-sectional data from 835 children (n = 255 DLLs aged 30–47 months. These children were nested in 169 preschool classrooms in Germany. As a control task, we also investigated children’s phonological processing abilities, for which we found, as expected, no differences between DLLs and SLLs. Our main finding was that DLL children scored lower in expressive morphological skills than their German monolingual peers, but this difference was considerably smaller in classrooms that scored high in instructive teacher–child interactions (measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System for pre-kindergarten children; CLASS Pre-K. Taken together, these results support the notion that supportive teacher–child instructive interactions have a positive impact on the development of DLLs’ morphological skills.

  18. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  19. Profiles of Teacher-Child Interaction Quality in Preschool Classrooms and Teachers' Professional Competence Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Chen, Liang; Fan, Xitao

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates early childhood education (ECE) teachers' self-reported and observed teacher-child interaction quality (TIQ) and the associated teachers' professional competence features using a latent profile analysis (LPA) approach to identify the variations in the quality of classroom experiences in Chinese preschools. A total of 164…

  20. Efficacy of a Self-Monitoring Tool for Improving the Quality of the Language Environment in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Mendive, Susana; Vergara, Daniela; Darricades, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study evaluated the impact of a self-monitoring intervention on preschool teachers' use of language and on children's language growth. Nineteen classrooms from Santiago de Chile participated (10 intervention, 9 control). Twice a week, intervention teachers filled out a checklist to monitor the language stimulation they…

  1. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  2. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  3. Predicting Teacher Participation in a Classroom-Based, Integrated Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H; Willoughby, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    Preschools provide a promising setting in which to conduct preventive interventions for childhood problems, but classroom programs can only be effective if teachers are willing and able to implement them. This study is one of the first to investigate predictors of the frequency of teacher participation in a classroom-based, randomized controlled trial of an integrated prevention program for preschoolers. The intervention was designed to promote school readiness with an integrated social and academic program, to be implemented by teachers with the support of classroom consultants. The current study is part of a larger project conducted with Head Start and community child care centers that serve primarily economically disadvantaged families; 49 teachers from 30 centers participated in this study. Overall, teachers conducted approximately 70% of the program activities. Participation decreased significantly over time from the first to the final week of the intervention, and also decreased within each week of the intervention, from the first to the final weekly activity. Teachers working at community child care centers implemented more intervention activities than did Head Start teachers. Teacher concerns about the intervention, assessed prior to training, predicted less participation. In addition, teachers' participation was positively related to their perception that their centers and directors were supportive, collegial, efficient, and fair, as well as their job satisfaction and commitment. Teacher experience, education, ethnicity, and self-efficacy were not significantly related to participation. In multi-level models that considered center as a level of analysis, substantial variance was accounted for by centers, pointing to the importance of considering center-level predictors in future research.

  4. Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms. A specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBillinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11 to 13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47% were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic, and 28 students (53% were not (non-symbolic, based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post test performances (p. < .05. Surprisingly, non-symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p. < .05. The results indicate that the operational definition used in the present study may be useful in further studies relating the capability to show symbolic behavior and students’ activity and participation in classroom settings.

  5. "It's a hurricane! it's a hurricane!": can music facilitate social constructive and sociodramatic play in a preschool classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Angela; Burns, M Susan

    2006-12-01

    Sustaining attention and successfully engaging with others in collaborative play are important accomplishments focused on in preschool classrooms and childcare centers. In addition, music is frequently used in early childhood classrooms, and even recommended as an environmental feature to motivate and regulate children's behavior. Although pretend play provides appealing opportunities for developing these social abilities, no studies to date have explored the use of music as a tool to motivate and sustain constructive and social pretend play. Results from the current study indicate that within 1 preschool classroom, more sustained play (with fewer interruptions) occurred when music played as compared to when no music played in the background. In addition, significantly more dyadic play occurred when slower music played in the background, than when no music played.

  6. The Effect of Tier 2 Intervention for Phonemic Awareness in a Response-to-Intervention Model in Low-Income Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Harmon, Mary Towle; Gray, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention that was designed to increase the phonemic awareness skills of low-income preschoolers who were enrolled in Early Reading First classrooms. Method: Thirty-four preschoolers participated in a multiple baseline across participants treatment design. Tier 2 intervention for…

  7. Commitment to Classroom Model Philosophy and Burnout Symptoms among High Fidelity Teachers Implementing Preschool Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Drew; Alessandri, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Novotny, Stephanie; Boyd, Brian; Hume, Kara; Sperry, Laurie; Odom, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Teacher commitment to classroom model philosophy and burnout were explored in a sample of 53 teachers implementing three preschool models at high levels of fidelity for students with autism: Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH); Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and…

  8. Nurturing Mathematical Promise in a Regular Elementary Classroom: Exploring the Role of the Teacher and Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a case study of an in-classroom program based on ability grouping for Year 2 (ages 6-7) primary (elementary) children identified as high ability in mathematics. The study examined the role of classroom setting, classroom environment, and teacher's approach in realizing and developing mathematical promise. The…

  9. Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Regular Education Classrooms in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseery, Fahad. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated teachers attitudes toward including Deaf and hard of hearing (D/hh) students in regular education classrooms in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the study analyzed how the teachers' attitudes toward inclusion were influenced by the following variables: teaching position, training on inclusion the teachers had received, years of…

  10. From Picturebook to Multilingual Collage: Bringing Learners’ First Language and Culture into the Pre-school Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McGilp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a project with a small group of children learning English as an a language (EAL at a pre-school in Scotland. The project however could be replicated across the globe, in any classroom with a diverse range of learners, with particular benefit to minority and newly arrived migrant children. At the project’s core was the aim to bring the children’s first language and culture into the classroom, drawing in particular on Cummin’s (1984 Common Underlying Proficiency model, which asserts that knowledge of one language can assist learners in their acquisition of another. The project used multicultural picturebooks to validate the learner’s experiences and culture, and then called on parents’ funds of knowledge to make the children’s first language visible in the classroom. This joint working between the children, parents and the pre-school culminated in the production of a multilingual collage – a prominent display that recognises the value of the children’s first language in the classroom, builds bridges between home and school and is reflective, and proud, of an increasingly multilingual Scotland.

  11. A Baseline Study of Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking in the Preschool Classroom (Un Estudio de Base sobre Estrategias para la Promoción de Pensamiento Critico en las Aulas de Preescolar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jenny Melo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different incidents of critical thinking in five preschool classrooms in one school, and the instructional strategies preschool teachers employed in the development of children's critical thinking. The participants in this study were five self-contained preschool teachers and their corresponding…

  12. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.

  13. K--12 science educator perception of instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday-Cashwell, Janet Rose

    2000-10-01

    Selected K--12 public school science educators in 14 eastern North Carolina counties were surveyed to examine their perceptions of their undergraduate preparation programs with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom. A quantitative study, this research examined science educator preparedness in instructing students with learning disabilities by evaluating educator perception in regard to mainstrearned and inclusive educational settings. Specifically, two null hypotheses were tested. Null hypothesis I stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' perceptions of their undergraduate teacher education preparation programs and their perceptions of their abilities to instruct students needing accommodations on behalf of their learning disabilities in mainstrearned or inclusive settings. Participants' responses to perception as well as value statements regarding opinions, adaptations, and undergraduate training with respect to mainstreaming and inclusion were evaluated through t-test analyses of 22 Likert-scale items. Null hypothesis 1 was not accepted because a statistically significant difference did exist between the educators' perceptions of their undergraduate training and their perceived abilities to instruct students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive settings. Null hypothesis 2 stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' attained educational level; grade level currently taught, supervised or chaired; and years of experience in teaching science, supervising science education, and/or chairing science departments in selected North Carolina public schools and their opinions of their undergraduate teacher education program with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive educational settings. Null hypothesis 2 was evaluated through an analysis of

  14. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  15. Teaching social-communication skills to preschoolers with autism: efficacy of video versus in vivo modeling in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlyn P

    2013-08-01

    Video modeling is a time- and cost-efficient intervention that has been proven effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the comparative efficacy of this intervention has not been examined in the classroom setting. The present study examines the relative efficacy of video modeling as compared to the more widely-used strategy of in vivo modeling using an alternating treatments design with baseline and replication across four preschool-aged students with ASD. Results offer insight into the heterogeneous treatment response of students with ASD. Additional data reflecting visual attention and social validity were captured to further describe participants' learning preferences and processes, as well as educators' perceptions of the acceptability of each intervention's procedures in the classroom setting.

  16. Promoting Expressive Language in Young Children with or At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Shepley, Collin; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often demonstrate delays in expressive communication, impacting their ability to independently function in typical environments. Individuals with ASD who develop expressive language during early childhood experience better outcomes later in life; therefore, examination of naturalistic language interventions (NLIs) remain an important area of investigation. The current study used a multiple probe design across participants to examine the effects of a classroom-based NLI on various expressive language targets in three preschool-aged children demonstrating characteristics of ASD. Findings suggest the intervention had positive and maintained effects on trial-based use of language targets, as well as concomitant changes in commenting, requesting, and phrase complexity. Implications regarding implementation of NLIs within typical classroom play activities are discussed.

  17. Creativity in the regular classroom: perceptions of gifted and non-gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda do Carmo Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perception of gifted and non-gifted students with respect to the climate for creativity in the classroom, in the disciplines of Mathematics and Portuguese Language, and to investigate the relationship between creativity and perception of classroom climate for creativity. Twenty-one gifted and 27 non-gifted 6th grade students who attended a public school in Brazil participated in the study. The gifted students evaluated teacher’s support to the students’ expression of ideas in Mathematics in a more satisfactory way compared to non-gifted, and they also showed greater interest in learning Mathematics in comparison to Portuguese Language. A positive correlation between creativity and perception of classroom climate was found for gifted students, and negative correlation for non-gifted students.

  18. A Closer Look at Teacher-Child Relationships and Classroom Emotional Context in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, Christine N.; La Paro, Karen M.; Rouse, Heather L.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children's early classroom experiences, particularly their interpersonal interactions with teachers, have implications for their academic achievement and classroom behavior. Teacher-child relationships and classroom interactions are both important aspects of children's early classroom experiences, but they are not typically considered…

  19. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  20. The Irie Classroom Toolbox: developing a violence prevention, preschool teacher training program using evidence, theory, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, I describe the development of the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a school-based violence prevention, teacher training program for use with children aged 3-6 years. In-depth interviews were conducted with Jamaican preschool teachers, who had participated in a trial of a classroom behavior management program, at posttest (n = 35) and 5 years later (n = 20). An on-going process evaluation was also conducted. Teachers' preferred behavior management strategies and training methods were documented, and enablers and barriers to implementation were identified. Teachers were most likely to adopt strategies that they liked, found easy to use, and were effective. These included paying attention to positive behavior and explicitly teaching children the expected behavior. Teachers preferred active, hands-on training strategies based on social-cognitive theories. Enablers to intervention implementation included positive teacher-facilitator relationships, choice, collaborative problem solving, teachers recognizing benefits of the intervention, group support, and provision of materials. Barriers to intervention implementation were also identified. These data were integrated with behavior change theory (i.e., the behavior change wheel and theoretical domains framework) to develop an intervention grounded in common core elements of evidence-based programs while also utilizing teachers' perspectives. The resulting program is a low cost, adaptable intervention that should be suitable for training preschool teachers in other low-resource settings. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Expanding the Horizons for Critical Literacy in a Bilingual Preschool Classroom: Children's Responses in Discussions with Gender-Themed Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores how picture books can be used in bilingual classrooms to support more critical understandings of gender stereotypes by preschool children. The research uses a reader-response perspective that stresses the importance of the reader's role in interpreting texts as well as sociocultural theory to analyze the social dynamics…

  2. Bilingual Education: Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Emphasis. Indian Legends and Felt Board Cut-Out Characters. Readings and Activities for Pre-School and Early Elementary School Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth; And Others

    Designed for use in preschool and early elementary school classrooms, this collection of eight American Indian legends provides patterns for making feltboard cutouts of their characters and props to be used in story telling activities. Seven of the legends originate with the Hupa, Karuk, or Yurok Indians of northwestern California and one is from…

  3. The Relationship between Classroom Quality-Related Variables and Engagement Levels in Swedish Preschool Classrooms: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Susana; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood…

  4. An owl in the classroom : development of an interactive storytelling application for preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    In research there is a considerable interest in developing interactive educational systems. However, the typical classroom remains a rather low-tech environment. Allowing teachers to create, adapt and share interactive learning applications might increase the uptake of technology in the classroom.

  5. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  6. Interactive Book Reading with Expository Science Texts in Preschool Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Busch, Jamie D.; Dinnesen, Megan Schneider; Guo, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Expository, or informational, text can be defined as a type of nonfiction that describes a topic categorically by moving from subtopic to subtopic with the intent to teach content or convey information (Maloch & Bomer, 2013). One vehicle for teaching the text structure and language of expository text to preschool-age children is through…

  7. Effects of a Classroom-Based Pre-Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Alyssa R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…

  8. Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillia Natsiopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

  9. Quality of life and self-determination in students with disabilities included in regular classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel Muñoz Cantero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, quality of life and self-determination begin to position itself as a key axis in interventions aimed at students with disabilities, motivating the interest of researchers and professionals to know their general well-being. This article evaluates the quality of life and self-determination of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities enrolled in regular schools. A case study methodology, descriptive-interpretative, is used through mixed data collection methods. The instruments used are Questionnaire for Assessment the Quality of Life in Teen Students (CCVA and ARC-INICO Scale for Assessment Self-Determination (for 14 students and interviews (for four teachers. A descriptive statistical analysis, contextualized by the extracted information from the interviews, was conducted. The results show high scores in different domains of quality of life, apart from emotional well-being, community inclusion and self-determination that are improvable. Adequate perception of students is observed about their ability to make decisions, choices and a good predisposition take control in different areas of their life. It is necessary to continue inquiring about the impact of educational environment, attitude and perception of teachers and the opportunities offered to students to act self-determined and increase their quality of life.

  10. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  11. Precursor models construction at preschool education: an approach to improve scientific education in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRINA PATRICIA CANEDO- IBARRA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore young children scientific precursor models construction and how the designed teaching strategy was successful for improving science learning at preschool in a social context. We describe how 6 years old children built a precursor model of flotation based on density. The exploratory study used a qualitative data collection and analysis following a pre-interview, instructional process and post-interview design. On analyzing children’s answers after the instructional period, we realized that several children were led to both the construction of a precursor model and a general qualitative upgrade in reasoning. We conclude that learning activities were effective and that the approach used in this study may help expand and improve teaching and learning of scientific concepts in preschool education

  12. Self-perceptions and social–emotional classroom engagement following structured physical activity among preschoolers: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Vazou

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of providing structured PA program to preschoolers. Moreover, these initial findings suggest that purposely designed, structured PA may help advance the social–emotional engagement and perceived competence of preschool children.

  13. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  14. Effects of a Redesigned Classroom on Play Behaviour among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek; Gözen, Göksu; Firat, Zehra Saadet; Kefeli, Hatice; Aslan, Büsra

    2016-01-01

    Current research exists regarding the play behaviour of students in various settings and with varying abilities. Regardless, there needs to be improved understanding of how students' play behaviour is affected when their classroom environment is significantly redesigned. This study examined, over a 21-week period between December 2013 and May…

  15. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  16. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom. In this section of Resonance, we in'Vite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or in'Vite responses, or ... "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and .... Now we can approach the question from a different viewpoint.

  17. Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Dan

    This paper addresses classroom design trends and the key issues schools should consider for better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Classroom space design issues when schools embrace technology are discussed, as are design considerations when rooms must accommodate different grade levels, the importance of lighting, furniture…

  18. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  19. The Relationships between Parenting Stress, Parenting Behaviour and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Behaviour Problems in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Anthony, Bruno J.; Glanville, Denise N.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Waanders, Christine; Shaffer, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively…

  20. Attention-getting skills of deaf children using American Sign Language in a preschool classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M

    2015-07-01

    Visual attention is a necessary prerequisite to successful communication in sign language. The current study investigated the development of attention-getting skills in deaf native-signing children during interactions with peers and teachers. Seven deaf children (aged 21-39 months) and five adults were videotaped during classroom activities for approximately 30 hr. Interactions were analyzed in depth to determine how children obtained and maintained attention. Contrary to previous reports, children were found to possess a high level of communicative competence from an early age. Analysis of peer interactions revealed that children used a range of behaviors to obtain attention with peers, including taps, waves, objects, and signs. Initiations were successful approximately 65% of the time. Children followed up failed initiation attempts by repeating the initiation, using a new initiation, or terminating the interaction. Older children engaged in longer and more complex interactions than younger children. Children's early exposure to and proficiency in American Sign Language is proposed as a likely mechanism that facilitated their communicative competence.

  1. Differentiating Instruction "in the Regular" Classroom: How To Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, Diane

    This book provides a wide variety of strategies for differentiating instruction for students in grades 3-12. Chapter 1 presents an overview of differentiated content, process, and product, and the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom. Chapter 2 focuses on the first step of differentiation: gathering information about students. Chapter…

  2. Relations between Age, Autism Severity, Behavioral Treatment and the Amount of Time in Regular Education Classrooms among Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Tasneem L.

    2012-01-01

    Under federal law, students with disabilities have the right to be educated in classrooms with students without disabilities. For students with autism, social, communication, and behavioral deficits make inclusion difficult. The severity of deficits change over time, and therefore, so too do the effects of these deficits upon inclusion. Although…

  3. The role of context in preschool learning: a multilevel examination of the contribution of context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality to low-income children's approaches to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ximena; Vitiello, Virginia E; Fuccillo, Janna M; Greenfield, Daryl B; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J

    2011-04-01

    Research suggests that promoting adaptive approaches to learning early in childhood may help close the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children. Recent research has identified specific child-level and classroom-level variables that are significantly associated with preschoolers' approaches to learning. However, further research is needed to understand the interactive effects of these variables and determine whether classroom-level variables buffer the detrimental effects of child-level risk variables. Using a largely urban and minority sample (N=275) of preschool children, the present study examined the additive and interactive effects of children's context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality dimensions on children's approaches to learning. Teachers rated children's problem behavior and approaches to learning and independent assessors conducted classroom observations to assess process quality. Problem behaviors in structured learning situations and in peer and teacher interactions were found to negatively predict variance in approaches to learning. Classroom process quality domains did not independently predict variance in approaches to learning. Nonetheless, classroom process quality played an important role in these associations; high emotional support buffered the detrimental effects of problem behavior, whereas high instructional support exacerbated them. The findings of this study have important implications for classroom practices aimed at helping children who exhibit problem behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decoding Skills Acquired by Low Readers Taught in Regular Classrooms Using Clinical Techniques. Research Report No. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Elizabeth; Fischer, Phyllis

    This study evaluated the decoding skills acquired by low readers in an experimental project that taught low readers in regular class through the use of clinical procedures based on a synthetic phonic, multisensory approach. An evaluation instrument which permitted the tabulation of specific decoding skills was administered as a pretest and…

  5. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom ... sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning ... Is there any well charaderised example of.

  6. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. ! Quantum Theory of the Doppler Effed. Generally text books give only the wave ...

  7. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a foru11J. for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Point Set Topological ... a new way of looking at this problem and we will prove.

  8. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. ... I shall give the solution to the problem, along with relevant.

  9. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. ... research, could then both inject greater vigour into teaching of ... ture, forestry and fishery sciences, management of natural resources.

  10. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and .... Research Institute, Bangalore ... From Bohr's theory we can calculate v = (En - En -1) / h the ... important reason for the failure of the qualitative arguments. An.

  11. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  12. Attitudes of a group of primary school teachers towards the educational inclusion of hearing-impaired learners in regular classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, K; Ross, E

    1998-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated a link between the attitudes of regular education teachers and the success of inclusion of learners with special educational needs. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of a group of junior primary school teachers from the Gauteng area towards the inclusion of hearing-impaired children into regular classes. A survey research design was employed which utilized a questionnaire as the research tool. Analysis of results indicated that the teachers surveyed were relatively positive in their attitudes towards inclusion. Greater exposure to disability in terms of training and experience was related to more positive attitudes. Similarly, more positive attitudes were related to greater perceived competence in teaching hearing-impaired pupils. All of the teachers surveyed felt that speech-language pathologists and audiologists (SLPs & As) should be involved in facilitating inclusion of hearing-impaired children. Many of the respondents expressed concern regarding their lack of training, knowledge and skills. The findings from the research project highlight the need for an adequate training and support system for teachers prior to the implementation of an inclusive educational policy, and the potential role of SLPs & As in this regard.

  13. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  14. Distance Coaching for Pre-Service Teachers: Impacts on Children's Functional Communication in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storie, Sloan; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi; Ottley, Jennifer Riggie

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a post hoc analysis of child data from a single-case multiple-probe study of pre-service teachers' use of communication strategies before, while, and after receiving distance coaching. Data were analyzed for the number of functional communication utterances used by groups of preschool children with and without…

  15. Irie Classroom Toolbox: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial of a universal violence prevention programme in Jamaican preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Vera-Hernández, Marcos; Alderman, Harold; Walker, Susan

    2016-05-10

    We aim to determine the effectiveness of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Jamaican preschools, on reducing the levels of aggression among children at school, and violence against children by teachers. This is a 2-arm, single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Clusters are 76 preschools in Kingston, and all teachers and classrooms in the selected schools are included in the study. In addition, a random sample of up to 12 children in the 4-year-old classes have been selected for evaluation of child-level outcomes. The intervention involves training teachers in classroom behaviour management and in strategies to promote children's social-emotional competence. Training is delivered through five full-day workshops, monthly in-class coaching over 2 school terms, and weekly text messages. The primary outcome measures are: (1) observed levels of child aggression and (2) observed violence against children by teachers. Secondary outcomes include observations of the levels of children's prosocial behaviour and the quality of the classroom environment, teachers' reports of their mental health, teacher-reported child mental health, direct tests of children's self-regulation and child attendance. If this intervention were effective at improving the caregiving environment of young children in school, this would have significant implications for the prevention of child mental health problems, and prevention of violence against children in low and middle-income countries where services are often limited. The intervention is integrated into the school system and involves training existing staff, and thus, represents an appropriate strategy for large-scale implementation and benefits at the population level. Ethical consent for the study was given by the School of Psychology Ethics and Research Committee, Bangor University (ref: 2014-14167), and by the University of the West Indies Ethics Committee (ref: ECP 50

  16. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  17. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Figure 1. An antibubble photographed with a white backdrop. contrast to the case of soap bubbles,. Soap bubbles float in air and descend due to gravity on account of higher density of the soap solution, while antibubbles rise due to buoyancy of the air film and float just below the surface of the soap solution.

  18. The Day-to-Day Reality of Teacher Turnover in Preschool Classrooms: An Analysis of Classroom Context and Teacher, Director, and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Deborah J.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; Hegde, Archana V.; Shim, Jonghee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine teacher turnover comprehensively by triangulating the experiences of teachers, directors, parents, and children through actual, "real-time" turnover transitions. We intentionally examined turnover with a small sample size (N = 13 classrooms) to facilitate comprehensive data collection utilizing…

  19. Positioning masculinities and femininities in preschool EFLl1 education

    OpenAIRE

    CASTAÑEDA-PEÑA, HAROLD

    2008-01-01

    Positioning Masculinities and Femininities in Preschool EFL Education seeks to describe and interpret how masculinities and femininities are communicated in the preschool EFL classroom and is aimed at discussing whether those masculinities and femininities are likely to have an impact on the preschoolers' learning of English as a foreign language. Preschoolers' classroom interactions taking place in a Colombian kindergarten, videotaped from 2004 to 2006, are analysed via ideas of 'positioning...

  20. The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs in Early Stimulation age into the regular classroom environment, at Nursery Schools, of an average municipality Vale dos Sinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cátia Loose Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education in Brazil has been widely discussed in all areas of the educational. The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN in mainstream schools is increasingly frequent, though still many aspects need to be rethought. This work aimed at checking how the subjects with SEN in Early Stimulation age, from zero to three years and 11 months are included into the regular classroom environment, at Nursery Schools, of an average municipality - Vale dos Sinos. This work involved a cross-sectional survey of quantitative and descriptive statistics. The data collection was carried out directly from a structured questionnaire with open and closed questions, directed to all principals of the thirteen Nursery Schools in the referred municipality. From the thirteen schools of the municipality only one did not take part of the research since there was no enrollment of children with special needs there, totalizing 46 children in processes of educational inclusion. From those, twelve children (26.8% were benefited with an Early Stimulation service maintained by the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children of that referred municipality, Thirty children (65,2% enrolled in school at the initiative of his own family e four children (8% by intervention of the Wakefield council. In this sense, we believe that the professionals of the Early Stimulation have the responsibility of promoting and conveying its importance and, mainly, the benefits of Early Stimulation for the whole development of individuals, as well as its contribution to a process of inclusive education.

  1. Teaching Social-Communication Skills to Preschoolers with Autism: Efficacy of Video versus in Vivo Modeling in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Video modeling is a time- and cost-efficient intervention that has been proven effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the comparative efficacy of this intervention has not been examined in the classroom setting. The present study examines the relative efficacy of video modeling as compared to the more widely-used…

  2. Effects of Classroom Management Profiles of Pre-School Teachers on Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Children

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Şermin; AYDOĞAN, Yasemin; KAVAK, Şule; MERCAN, Zerrin

    2018-01-01

    Thisresearch was conducted to determine the classroom management profile ofpreschool teachers and to examine the influence of teachers' classroommanagement profiles on children's social skills and problem behaviors. Theresearch was carried out in 2015-2016 educational year with teachers workinginkindergartens affiliated to Provincial Directorate of National Education inGaziantep province center and children in their classes. The study groupconsists of 485 children and 45 teachers wh...

  3. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Students in a Regular Classroom: Effectiveness of a Self-Management Procedure Using a Tactile Prompt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika; Glassenbury, Michele; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Self-management strategies have been shown to be widely effective. However, limited classroom-based research exists involving low performing but developmentally normal high school-aged participants. This study examined the effectiveness of a self-management strategy aimed at increasing on-task behavior in general education classrooms with students…

  4. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  5. An Electric Preschool: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marjorie W.

    An electric preschool is a classroom or center for children 3 to 5 years of age in which the curriculum with its supportive activities, materials, and equipment depends more on technology that is powered by electricity than on manually operated objects. Certainly, preschoolers need stimulating and safe environments managed by adults who allow them…

  6. Effects of Academic and Non-Academic Instructional Approaches on Preschool English Language Learners' Classroom Engagement and English Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    This research compared the relative impact of different preschool activities on the development of bilingual students' English-language skills. The study investigated whether bilingual preschool children would engage more, and use more of their second language (English), during free-play (non-academic) versus teacher-structured (academic)…

  7. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Students in a Regular Classroom: Effectiveness of a Self-Management Procedure Using a Tactile Prompt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.W.; Anderson, A.; Glassenbury, M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lang, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Self-management strategies have been shown to be widely effective. However, limited classroom-based research exists involving low performing but developmentally normal high school-aged participants. This study examined the effectiveness of a self-management strategy aimed at increasing on-task

  8. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  9. Acolhendo e atuando com alunos que apresentam paralisia cerebral na classe regular: a organização da escola Reveiving and working with pupils who present cerebral palsy in the regular classroom: school organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo Lins Vieira de Melo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo situar aspectos relativos a uma análise empreendida em duas escolas regulares da cidade do Natal/RN, a respeito de como têm se organizado, do ponto de vista ambiental e pedagógico, para incluir o aluno com paralisia cerebral em seu contexto. Com base no objetivo proposto, foi realizado um estudo descritivo do tipo estudo de caso. A coleta de informações realizou-se através da observação e da entrevista semi-estruturada. Os dados foram analisados tomando por base cinco categorias: projeto políticopedagógico; programa de informação e sensibilização; apoio da direção escolar; recursos pedagógicos adaptados; adequação do ambiente físico. A partir dos resultados foi possível identificar, em relação à organização ambiental e pedagógica das escolas investigadas, que de uma maneira geral necessitam: priorizar a elaboração do projeto pedagógico, levando em consideração os princípios da educação inclusiva; investir na formação continuada e apoiar mais os professores em sua prática pedagógica; desenvolver programas de orientação à comunidade escolar com vistas a desmistificar preconceitos e informar sobre as potencialidades do aluno com paralisia cerebral; buscar parcerias junto a outros profissionais e convênios para aquisição de recursos pedagógicos e equipamentos específicos para favorecer o processo de ensino-aprendizagem desse alunado; adequar a estrutura física das escolas visando assegurar a acessibilidade e a autonomia do aluno com paralisia cerebral no ensino regular.This study aimed to point out aspects requiring analysis in two regular schools of the city of Natal/RN, as to organization requirements, from the point of view of context and pedagogy, so as to enable the inclusion of students with cerebral palsy. A descriptive study was carried out, using a case study format. Data was collected through observation and semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed based

  10. Promoting Positive Peer Interactions in the Preschool Classroom: The Role and the Responsibility of the Teacher in Supporting Children's Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in expanding and supporting children's play and interactions with peers. This manuscript provides specific guidelines for interventions teachers can use to promote successful peer interactions in preschool settings. The strategies discussed include: (a) preparing the physical environment for play (e.g., toy…

  11. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  12. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  13. Nutrition Knowledge Assessment of Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Plum, Jane Meacham Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A game with food and nutrition related pictures was developed to provide an opportunity for a classroom teacher to interview preschool children for assessment of nutrition knowledge concepts. Specifically, knowledge of vegetable concepts which included identification of the food, the food group, the source, preparation methods and use by the body was measured. The assessment was administered to five groups of children (ages two and one-half to five years) in preschools and child care center...

  14. A survey on parental expectations toward preschool programs

    OpenAIRE

    菊池, 知美

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what parents expect from preschool programs. Pilot Study tried to construct a scale to measure parental expectations toward preschools. Based on weekly observation of children at a preschool, interviews with their teachers, and open-end questionnaires filled in by mothers, the parental expectations were hypothesized to involve four dimensions of children's competencies: intellectual abilities, good classroom attitude, sociability, and interactions....

  15. Preschool Teachers' Endorsement of Instructional Practices: An Interprofessional Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Dubasik, Virginia L.; Moss DiDonato, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool teacher's instructional practices are one component of high-quality early education classrooms that have the potential to directly influence young children's school readiness and success; therefore, the type and quality of instructional practices used by preschool teachers should be explored. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  16. Computer Education and Computer Use by Preschool Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have found that teachers seldom use computers in the preschool classroom. However, little research has examined why preschool teachers elect not to use computers. This case study focused on identifying whether community colleges that prepare teachers for early childhood education include in their curriculum how teachers can effectively…

  17. Differentiated Rates of Growth across Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Richard G.; Kim, Do-Hong; Durham, Sean; Burts, Diane C.

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates why preschool children who are dual language learners (DLLs) are not a homogeneous group. An empirically developed model of preschool DLL subgroups, based on latent class analysis, was presented. The model reflects three separate subgroups of DLL children present in many classrooms where DLL children are served: Bilinguals,…

  18. Sharing Expository Texts with Preschool Children in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Busch, Jamie; Guo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Although a general limited availability of expository texts currently exists in preschool special education classrooms, expository tests offer speech-language pathologists (SLPs) a rich context for addressing the language goals of preschool children with language impairment on their caseloads. Thus, this article highlights the differences between…

  19. Positioning masculinities and femininities in preschool EFL education

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda - Peña, Harold; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2008-01-01

    Positioning Masculinities and Femininities in Preschool EFL Education seeks to describe and interpret how masculinities and femininities are communicated in the preschool EFL classroom and is aimed at discussing whether those masculinities and femininities are likely to have an impact on the preschoolers’ learning of English as a foreign language. Preschoolers’ classroom interactions taking place in a Colombian kindergarten, videotaped from 2004 to 2006, are analysed via ideas of ‘positioning...

  20. Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in…

  1. Increasing implementation of special education instruction in mainstream preschools: direct and generalized effects of nondirective consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C A; Killen, C C; Baumgart, D

    1989-01-01

    Two studies evaluated a consultation strategy for increasing teachers' implementation of instruction related to specific Individualized Education Plan objectives for handicapped children mainstreamed into regular preschool programs. In the first study, teachers viewed videotaped sequences of regular classroom routines and were asked to generate ideas for embedding IEP-related instruction into those routines. All teachers demonstrated increases in instructional behaviors in targeted routines, and 2 of the 3 teachers increased instruction in additional settings that had not been the focus of the consultation. Children demonstrated concomitant increases in IEP-targeted behaviors. In follow-up questionnaires and interviews, teachers reported increased confidence in their ability to implement specialized instruction. These findings were replicated in a second study in which the videotaping was replaced by teacher interview, and in which the consultation was carried out by a previously untrained special education teacher.

  2. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  3. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  4. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  5. Education of staff in preschool aged classrooms in child care centers and child outcomes: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falenchuk, Olesya; Perlman, Michal; McMullen, Evelyn; Fletcher, Brooke; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-01-01

    Staff education is considered key to quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. However, findings about associations between staff education and children's outcomes have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of associations between ECEC staff education and child outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between staff education and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Titles, abstracts and paper reviews as well as all data extraction were conducted by two independent raters. Of the 823 studies reviewed for eligibility, 39 met our inclusion criteria. Research in this area is observational in nature and subject to the inherent biases of that research design. Results from our systematic review were hampered by heterogeneity in how staff education was defined, variability in whose education was measured and the child outcomes that were assessed. However, overall the qualitative summary indicates that associations between staff education and childhood outcomes are non-existent to very borderline positive. In our meta-analysis of more homogeneous studies we identified certain positive, albeit very weak, associations between staff education and children's language outcomes (specifically, vocabulary and letter word identification) and no significant association with a mathematics outcome (WJ Applied Problems). Thus, our findings suggest that within the range of education levels found in the existing literature, education is not a key driver of child outcomes. However, since we only explored levels of education that were reported in the literature, our findings cannot be used to argue for lowering education standards in ECEC settings.

  6. Exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities from regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...

  7. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Preschool Personnel Exposure to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaļužnaja Darja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.

  9. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  10. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  11. An Examination of Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Practices in Spanish: Before and after Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Shared book reading is a prominent practice in preschools; however, limited research has examined this practice in classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). This study investigated the shared book reading practices of seven preschool teachers of Spanish-speaking ELLs to describe their vocabulary instructional practices before and after…

  12. Motor competence and characteristics within the preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Larissa; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Dowda, Marsha; Williams, Harriet G; Brown, William H; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R

    2017-08-01

    Environmental characteristics within preschools that influence children's motor competence are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the contribution of various preschool environmental characteristics to children's locomotor, object control, and total gross motor scores. Cross-sectional, observational study of 3-5 year-old children (n=229) from 22 preschools in South Carolina. The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study (CHAMPS) Motor Skills Protocol assessed MC. Preschool directors provided information regarding policies and practices. The research team measured playgrounds and classrooms, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised assessed preschool quality. Time spent in open space and electronic media use were also assessed using direct observation. The aforementioned variables predicted children's object control, locomotor, and total gross motor scores. Classroom size/child ratio, teacher education, playground size, electronic media use, and trips to outside organizations emerged as significant predictors of locomotor score and total motor score. The object control model was non-significant. Preschools may be able to promote motor competence by allowing children more time in open spaces, structured activity experiences, and by expanding existing outdoor playground space whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Space Requirement Applicable in Private Preschools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Naziah Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working or studying in a comfortable environment enhances not only well-being, but also satisfaction and therefore increase the productivity and learning. The numbers of private preschool in Malaysia boost every year. Frequently they operate in premises that have been fully refurbished. This has invited the questions on the building capability and space condition to provide a good environment to the children during the learning activities. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. Yet, these adaptive-reused buildings are doubtful. This research focused to identify the characteristics of the buildings’ physical and condition as well as the scenario of refurbished private preschool in accordance with the standard. Observation particularly on space and pupils density either it is reckoning with the authorities’ requirements. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. The data obtained from the observation and staff’s interview to 237 preschool (771 classrooms. The data revealed in most of preschools, the occupants in the classrooms were over the limit regulating by the authority. The data obtained was analyzed to become a reference and benchmark to the authorities to prepare the private preschool’s applications.

  14. Language-Rich Early Childhood Classroom: Simple but Powerful Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Erin Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…

  15. Structured Play Therapy Groups for Preschoolers: facilitating the emergence of social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susan; Stark, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, we have developed a working model of Structured Play Therapy Groups for Preschoolers, an innovative treatment approach designed to address the needs of young children ages 3 to 5 struggling to adjust to the social demands of their preschool classrooms. These short-term therapy groups facilitate development of the young child's social competence and capacity to participate effectively in a classroom environment. Although the literature on therapy groups for children suggests that preschoolers are not yet evolved enough developmentally to engage actively in a group process, our experience indicates otherwise. The model of treatment presented here will therefore challenge that contention with the claim that not only can preschoolers participate in a structured therapy group of peers but they can, by virtue of that very participation, benefit in ways that will prepare them (as they transition from preschool to kindergarten) for the ever-increasing demands of their ever-expanding social milieus.

  16. Capturing the Magic of Classroom Training in Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiken, Marilyn E.; Milland, Russ; Wagner, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Organizations today are faced with the challenges of expanding their traditional classroom-based approaches into blended learning experiences which integrate regular classrooms, virtual classrooms, social learning, independent reading, on the job learning and other methodologies. Our team converted a two-day classroom-based program, taught from…

  17. When Does Preschool Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We have many reasons to invest in preschool programs, including persistent gaps in school readiness between children from poorer and wealthier families, large increases in maternal employment over the past several decades, and the rapid brain development that preschool-age children experience. But what do we know about preschool education's…

  18. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  19. Segismundo y su torre: la literatura áurea como recurso para el tratamiento de la integración en el aula de Educación Infantil / Segismundo and his Tower: Golden Age Literature as a Resource for the Treatment of Integration in the Preschool Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Vara López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo se propone demostrar el potencial educativo que posee el teatro del Siglo de Oro, en concreto La vida es sueño. Para ello se plantea una experiencia didáctica destinada a los estudiantes del Grado en Educación Infantil de la Universidad de Córdoba. Esta actividad trata de concienciar a futuros docentes, maestros en activo, así como a la comunidad educativa en general, sobre los beneficios de la literatura como herramienta para el tratamiento de la integración y la inclusión en las aulas. Abastract This article aims to demonstrate the educational potential of the theater of the Golden Age, particularly La vida es sueño. For that, we propose a teaching experience designed for students of the Degree in Preschool Education at the University of Cordoba. This activity tries to educate future teachers, teachers in service, as well as the educational community as a whole on the benefits of literature as a tool for the treatment of integration and inclusion in the preschool classroom.

  20. Impacts of a Comprehensive School Readiness Curriculum for Preschool Children at Risk for Educational Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy, Jeanine L.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Klein, Alice; Starkey, Prentice; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Villiers, Jill; Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a cluster-randomized study of an integrated literacy- and math-focused preschool curriculum, comparing versions with and without an explicit socioemotional lesson component to a business-as-usual condition. Participants included 110 classroom teachers from randomized classrooms and approximately eight students…

  1. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  2. Telling Stories Digitally: An Experiment with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman-Karoglu, Aslihan

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of the new technologies, twenty-first-century learning involves the application of new media in educational environments. Digital storytelling (DST) is a method that blends traditional storytelling with new technologies. This study was designed to compare the conceptual understanding of preschool students in DST classrooms with…

  3. Dimensionality of the California Preschool Social Competency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, David L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Structure and construct validity of the California Preschool Social Competency Scale was investigated. Five factors were interpreted: considerateness; extraversion; task orientation; verbal facility; and response to the unfamiliar. The first three were found to be similar to the three dimensions of the Classroom Behavior Inventory. (Author/BW)

  4. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project, 1998-1999. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP) focused on two broad areas: (1) readiness for kindergarten; and (2) promotion of language and literacy in the classroom and at home. Key findings include the following: (1) most children who were ineligible because of family income status successfully transitioned to kindergarten; (2) several…

  5. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  6. Rearview Mirror: Reflections on a Preschool Car Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Sallee

    This book documents the work of a master preschool teacher, her co-teachers, student teachers, and very young children as they explored the automotive laboratory adjacent to their early childhood classroom at a community college. In addition to introducing the project approach, the master teacher also introduced the staff and students to…

  7. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  8. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Yancey, Antronette K

    2012-08-01

    Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA). SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation) over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers' PA levels.

  9. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  10. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  11. Teaching Play Skills to Visually Impaired Preschool Children: Its Effect on Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Latife

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…

  12. Effects of Class-Wide Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behaviors of Preschoolers with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Mine Sonmez; Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy

    2015-01-01

    The effects of class-wide self-monitoring on the on-task behaviors of preschoolers with developmental disabilities were determined. Also examined were whether the on-task behaviors of preschoolers with developmental disabilities had approximated the level of typically developing peers at the end of intervention, and classroom teachers and…

  13. The Development and Validation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System to Characterize Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and…

  14. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  15. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  16. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  17. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  18. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  19. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Sofiya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA. SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Discussion Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers’ PA levels. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01588392

  20. The Classroom Chefs: A Children's Picture Cookbook for Nutrition Education. Teachers Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Margaret; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans and recipes designed for use with preschool children, discusses the need for early nutrition education, and offers suggestions for conducting cooking activities in the classroom. Specific ideas are provided to involve handicapped children in cooking experiences. Nutrition education in the preschool is…

  1. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  2. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  3. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  4. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool teachers. Observational data were collected on practices. Teachers self-reported on language and culture beliefs, Spanish speaking ability, and classroom composition. Results indicated that teachers, including those who spoke Spanish, used few linguistically responsive practices to support preschool DLLs. Only Spanish-speaking ability was related to practices. Implications for targeted professional development are discussed.

  5. The determinants of strategic thinking in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D

    2018-01-01

    Strategic thinking is an essential component of rational decision-making. However, little is known about its developmental aspects. Here we show that preschoolers can reason strategically in simple individual decisions that require anticipating a limited number of future decisions. This ability is transferred only partially to solve more complex individual decision problems and to efficiently interact with others. This ability is also more developed among older children in the classroom. Results indicate that while preschoolers potentially have the capacity to think strategically, it does not always translate into the ability to behave strategically.

  6. Attitudes of Preschool Teachers toward the Integration of Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Lily L.; Kubo, H. Richard

    Forty-six supervisors and teachers were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward integration of handicapped children in a regular preschool program, the helpfulness of supportive services, and the necessary conditions for the integration of their programs. Findings showed that the majority of teachers were in favor of integration and supportive…

  7. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  8. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  9. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  10. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  11. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  12. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  13. A NATIONAL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING TELEVISED MATERIALS FOR THE FORMAL EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUKERJI, ROSE; AND OTHERS

    TO SUPPLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH CULTURALLY STIMULATING EXPERIENCES, A TV SERIES, "ROUNDABOUT," WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN WASHINGTON, D.C. INNER-CITY PRESCHOOL AND DAY CARE CENTERS. THE 15-MINUTE PROGRAMS WERE TO INTRODUCE NEW EXPERIENCES AND SUPPLEMENT REGULAR ACTIVITIES. IT WAS HOPED THAT THE CHILDREN WOULD IDENTIFY…

  14. The Differential Effects of the Use of Handwriting without Tears® Modified Gray Block Paper to Teach Two Preschool Students with Developmental Delays Capital Letter Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jessica; McLaughlin, T. F.; Neyman, Jen; Donica, Denise K.; Robison, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of Handwriting Without Tears (HWT) modified gray block paper with letter writing on two preschool students diagnosed with developmental delays in pre-academics. Two students were selected from a self-contained special education preschool classroom in the Pacific Northwest. All…

  15. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  16. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  17. A qualitative study of teacher's perceptions of an intervention to prevent conduct problems in Jamaican pre-schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing evidence base showing the efficacy of school-based interventions to prevent conduct problems but few evaluations have addressed teachers' perceptions of these programmes. Teachers' views on the acceptability, feasibility and usefulness of an intervention will influence implementation fidelity and programme sustainability and can help further our understanding of how the intervention works and how it may be improved. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Programme supplemented by a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills was conducted in inner-city pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica. Three pre-schools comprising 15 classrooms participated in the intervention which involved seven monthly teacher workshops and 14 weekly child lessons in each class. At the end of the intervention in-depth individual interviews were conducted with each intervention teacher. Teachers reported benefits to their own teaching skills and professional development, to their relationships with children and to the behaviour, social-emotional competence and school readiness skills of the children in their class. Teachers also reported benefits to teacher-parent relationships and to children's behaviour at home. A hypothesis representing the teachers' perceptions of how the intervention achieved these benefits was developed. The hypothesis suggests that intervention effects were due to teachers' gains in skills and knowledge in three main areas: (1) a deeper understanding of young children's needs and abilities; (2) increased use of positive and proactive strategies; and (3) explicitly teaching social and emotional skills. These changes then led to the variety of benefits reported for teachers, children and parents. Teachers reported few difficulties in implementing the majority of strategies and strongly recommended wider dissemination of the intervention. The intervention was valued by Jamaican pre-school teachers and teachers felt they were able to

  18. Promoting Social and Emotional Competencies among Young Children in Croatia with Preschool PATHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Mihic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies is an evidence-based universal prevention program focused on promoting children’s social and emotional competencies and reducing the likelihood of behaviour problems and negative relationships with peers and teachers. This paper examines changes in the social and emotional competencies of the first children to participate in Preschool PATHS in Croatia. This study included 164 children, ages 3-6, in 12 preschool classrooms in three cities across Croatia, who participated in the classroom-based Preschool PATHS curriculum. At the beginning and end of the preschool year, teachers completed wellvalidated and reliable assessments of social and emotional competencies on each child. Hierarchical linear models revealed statistically significant and substantial improvements in prosocial behaviour, emotion regulation, emotion symptoms, peer problems, relational aggression, conduct problems, and hyperactive-impulsive behaviour. Study findings reveal significant changes in children’s social and emotional competencies during preschool. This time may present a unique opportunity to buttress children’s skills and improve long-term school success through the implementation of a rigorous empiricallyvalidated prevention program such as Preschool PATHS.

  19. Nature in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    ‘Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....

  20. Teachers' Literal and Inferential Talk in Early Childhood and Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiante, Sabrina F.; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Justice, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined preschool teachers' literal talk (LT) and inferential talk (IT) during shared book readings in early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms. We aimed to characterize and compare teachers' LT and IT in these 2 classroom contexts and determine whether differences in LT…

  1. Classroom quality at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and

  2. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  3. Making Health Easier: Healthy Changes Start in Preschool

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the efforts of one educational organization, Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), to keep kids healthy at an early age. Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. LAUP teaches kids healthy habits and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and providing nutritious snacks.

  4. Preschool wheeze: pathogenetic factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    trigger wheeze are more likely to have asthma compared to those with ... The role of airway infections in preschool wheeze ... and immunocompromised patients, with children younger than five ... expiratory flows and volumes were observed in.

  5. Preschool Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  6. Challenges to preschool teachers in learner's acquisition of English as Language of Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra du Plessis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism in classrooms is currently prompting debate and has significantly impacted on schooling in South Africa over the last decade. At present South African educators face the challenge of coping with and finding solutions to culturally and linguistically diverse urban school contexts which did not exist before. In many South African communities young learners, without any prior knowledge of English, are enrolled in English preschools. Preschool teachers have the demanding task of preparing these multilingual preschoolers for formal schooling in English, and, in addition, are pressurised by parents or caregivers who expect their children to be fluent in English by the time they enter primary school. A group of preschool teachers in a specific urban, multilingual preschool context expressed concern about multilingual preschool learners' academic performances and their future, and requested advice and support from speech-language therapists. To investigate this need, an exploratory, descriptive, contextual research design, incorporating the quantitative perspective, was selected to describe the specific educational context of multilingual preschools in the Pretoria central business district (CBD and the Sunnyside area. Results indicated that the participants perceived certain personal challenges while supporting the preschool learners acquiring English as Language of Learning and Teaching (ELoLT. These participants expressed a need for knowledge and support.

  7. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  8. Informing the Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support in Singapore Preschools

    OpenAIRE

    LILY HUI SING LAU

    2017-01-01

    This thesis sought to inform the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) in Singapore preschools. Findings indicated that SWPBS implementation is likely to be perceived as needed by teachers, and that there is a need to focus on training teachers in SWPBS primary tier classroom management practices when SWPBS is implemented. Additionally, the Classroom Check-Up consultation model was shown to be a promising coaching model to be included in SWPBS training. A major cont...

  9. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  10. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  11. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  12. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  13. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  14. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  15. Representing Young Children with Disabilities in Classroom Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; LaRoe, Joyce; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam

    2000-01-01

    The "Inventory of Disability Representation" was administered to 92 teachers representing kindergarten, community child care, or preschool settings. Low scores across settings indicated that classrooms typically do not have materials that represent or depict children with diverse abilities. Reasons cited by teachers are noted as are benefits…

  16. One Classroom, One iPad, Many Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Victoria B.; Johnson, Christi; Scherfen, Anneliese

    2018-01-01

    Every day, we are surrounded by stories in print, on social media, in blogs, on the radio, and in stories from our friends and family. The ways people make meaning and communicate are increasingly multimodal and digital; yet, the preschool classroom, for all its multimodal learning, is sometimes devoid of technology. In this action research…

  17. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  18. Supporting Classroom Transitions between Daily Routines: Strategies and Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between daily routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…

  19. Teaching Expository Comprehension Skills in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Black, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot project implemented and evaluated a theme-based unit designed to teach expository comprehension skills to young children in four preschool classrooms. Method: The program and the unit were collaborative efforts of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and early childhood educators. Within topically related units, 71 children ages…

  20. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  1. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  2. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  3. Preschool teachers' perception and use of hearing assistive technology in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H; Poole, Bridget; Muñoz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    This study explored how often sound-field amplification and personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems are used in preschool classrooms, teacher perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of using hearing assistive technology, and teacher recommendations for hearing assistive technology use. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were professionals who provided services to preschool-age children who are deaf or hard of hearing in public or private schools. A total of 306 surveys were sent to 162 deaf education programs throughout the United States; 99 surveys were returned (32%). Simple statistics were used to describe the quantitative survey results; content analysis was completed on open-ended survey comments. Surveys were received from teachers working at listening and spoken language preschool programs (65%) and at bilingual-bicultural and total communication preschool programs (35%). Most respondents perceived that hearing assistive technology improved students' academic performance, speech and language development, behavior, and attention in the classroom. The majority of respondents also reported that they definitely would or probably would recommend a sound-field system (77%) or personal FM system (71%) to other educators. Hearing assistive technology is frequently used in preschool classrooms of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, with generally positive teacher perceptions of the benefits of using such technology.

  4. Measuring preschool learning engagement in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Simone E; Calkins, Susan D; Leerkes, Esther M

    2018-03-01

    Learning engagement is a critical factor for academic achievement and successful school transitioning. However, current methods of assessing learning engagement in young children are limited to teacher report or classroom observation, which may limit the types of research questions one could assess about this construct. The current study investigated the validity of a novel assessment designed to measure behavioral learning engagement among young children in a standardized laboratory setting and examined how learning engagement in the laboratory relates to future classroom adjustment. Preschool-aged children (N = 278) participated in a learning-based Tangrams task and Story sequencing task and were observed based on seven behavioral indicators of engagement. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity for a behavioral engagement factor composed of six of the original behavioral indicators: attention to instructions, on-task behavior, enthusiasm/energy, persistence, monitoring progress/strategy use, and negative affect. Concurrent validity for this behavioral engagement factor was established through its associations with parent-reported mastery motivation and pre-academic skills in math and literacy measured in the laboratory, and predictive validity was demonstrated through its associations with teacher-reported classroom learning behaviors and performance in math and reading in kindergarten. These associations were found when behavioral engagement was observed during both the nonverbal task and the verbal story sequencing tasks and persisted even after controlling for child minority status, gender, and maternal education. Learning engagement in preschool appears to be successfully measurable in a laboratory setting. This finding has implications for future research on the mechanisms that support successful academic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Participation in sports practice and motor competence in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Rocha Queiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical model suggests that motor competence during early childhood is related to one's current and future health status and that practicing sports seems to be playing a special role in creating such competence. This study aimed to compare performance in gross motor skills among preschoolers participating in regular sports practice (SP and those not participating (NSP, including comparisons by gender. The study uses secondary data from a population-based study of performance regarding the locomotor and object control skills of preschoolers (3 to 5 years old. Preschoolers were assigned to groups SP or NSP, paired by age and sex according to skills: locomotor (n = 54; 30 boys or object control (n = 37; 17 boys. Analysis of variance showed that the SP group outperformed the NSP one, and there were gender differences only within SP group. Starting to practice sports during early childhood helps to build motor competence and benefits both genders.

  6. The Mathematical Development Beliefs Survey: Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about the Learning and Teaching of Early Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mathematical Development Beliefs Survey was developed to measure early childhood teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning in the preschool classroom. This instrument was designed to measure beliefs concerning (a) age-appropriateness of mathematics instruction, (b) classroom locus of generation of mathematical knowledge…

  7. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  8. Flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Tobias Kidde; Jørgensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver Flipped Classroom som et didaktisk princip, der kan være med til at organisere og tilrettelægge en undervisning, med fokus på forskellige læringsformer. Det handler om at forstå Flipped Classroom som en opdeling i 2 faser og 3 led, som samlet set skaber en didaktisk organisering....

  9. Preschool Teachers' Perception and Use of Hearing Assistive Technology in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H.; Poole, Bridget; Munoz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored how often sound-field amplification and personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems are used in preschool classrooms, teacher perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of using hearing assistive technology, and teacher recommendations for hearing assistive technology use. Method: The study used a cross-sectional survey…

  10. The Effectiveness of Computers on Vocabulary Learning among Preschool Children: A Semiotic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoz, Tutku; Can, Dilek Tüfekci

    2016-01-01

    Semiotics has recently achieved some prominence as a theoretical foundation for foreign language learning/teaching. Though there have been a number of research on the semiotics in foreign language learning, the practical use of semiotics in preschool classroom environment still remains unanswered. What is more, the effectiveness of computers on…

  11. ICT and Play in Preschool: Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated early childhood teachers' beliefs about information and communications technology (ICT) and play in preschool, as well as their confidence in integrating ICT in the classroom. A 28-item questionnaire was compiled and administered to 190 early childhood teachers in Greece. Although ICT play (which can provide learning…

  12. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  13. "Banana Starts with Yellow": Curricular Implications of Preschoolers Missing a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Ruth; Kragler, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant investments over the past decade in the expansion and improvement of preschool programs, too many children, particularly poor children, enter kindergarten behind their peers. Because it is critical that voluntary pre-kindergarten (VPK) classrooms offer educational programs that both address the needs and developmental levels of…

  14. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  15. The Association between Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Developmentally Appropriate Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim Amin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs could predict their self-reported practices about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A related purpose was to examine whether classroom size and teachers' experience are significant predictors of their self-reported beliefs and practices. A total…

  16. Social Outcomes Associated with Media Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…

  17. Building a Model of Support for Preschool Children with Speech and Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Natalie; Ohi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language disorders impede young children's abilities to communicate and are often associated with a number of behavioural problems arising in the preschool classroom. This paper reports a small-scale study that investigated 23 Australian educators' and 7 Speech Pathologists' experiences in working with three to five year old children…

  18. Exploring Elephant Seals in New Jersey: Preschoolers Use Collaborative Multimedia Albums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Victoria B.

    2012-01-01

    VoiceThread is a website that allows users to create multimedia slideshows, or "threads," and then open these threads to other users for commentary or collaboration. This article shares the experiences of one multiage (3- to 5-year-olds) preschool classroom's use of VoiceThread. The purpose of the article is to introduce early childhood educators…

  19. Building Alliance for Preschool Inclusion: Parents of Typically Developing Children, Attitudes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; Maine, Erica; McNeil, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes of parents of typically developing children enrolled in inclusive 3-year-old and 4-year-old preschool classrooms. Using a qualitative approach, guided by ecological system theory semi-structured interviews with parents (N = 7) were completed. Several common themes related to…

  20. Effects of Responding to a Name and Group Call on Preschoolers' Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Lauren; Hanley, Gregory P.; Roberson, Aleasha A.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed teacher-child relations with respect to children's name calls, instructions, and compliance in a preschool classroom. The most frequent consequence to a child's name being called was the provision of instructions. We also observed a higher probability of compliance when children attended to a name call. Next, we evaluated the effects…

  1. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  2. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  3. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  4. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  5. Exploring the Role of the Speech-language Therapist in City Centre Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra du Plessis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the perception of the strengths and challenges that face city centre preschool teachers and preschool learners in the acquisition of English as medium of instruction and to use the results to explore the role of speech-language therapists in this context. A descriptive survey, incorporating a quantitative data collection method, was selected as the research design and a questionnaire was developed as a survey instrument. The findings identified the strengths as including the creative communication strategies employed by the pre-schoolers and the innovative techniques of the teachers. Perceived challenges include a cultural and linguistic mismatch between teachers and learners and communication barriers that cause emotional and behavioural problems in classrooms. The study suggests that speech-language therapists need to consider and employ service delivery models instead of traditional models with the preschool teachers.

  6. Planning and Evaluating Educational Work in Slovene Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batistič Zorec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the changes in Slovene preschools subsequent to Slovenia’s independence in 1991. In the socialist period, the national education programme for preschools was highly structured, goaland content-oriented and subject to schoolization. The Curriculum for Preschools (1999 brought conceptual changes towards education “based on the child” and the process approach, as well as giving more autonomy to preschool teachers and their assistants. In the empirical study, we examine changes in planning and evaluating educational work compared to the past. The results show that the majority of professional workers have reduced the high level of structure and rigidity in planning, and that there is better cooperation between preschool teachers and teachers’ assistants. Unlike in the past, most professional workers regularly evaluate their educational work. As the data was gathered in two phases, before and after the training of professional workers in the Reggio Emilia concept, we also search for the (probably indirect influencesof this training. We conclude that after the training the participation of children in planning and evaluating educational work is higher.

  7. The Regular Education Initiative: A Deja Vu Remembered with Sadness and Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Larry B.

    1991-01-01

    This article compares the ideals of the regular education initiative to provide services for learning-disabled students within the regular classroom to the ideals and resulting negative effects (e.g., homelessness) of the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill during the 1960s. Resistance to efforts to decrease or eliminate special education…

  8. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  9. Regular classroom assessment as a means of enhancing Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    Teacher Trainees' understanding of concepts in electricity ..... get enough time to do remediation on the concepts they could not provide valid responses to. Descriptive .... Since current is the flow of electrons through a conductor, it cannot bui.

  10. Catering for children with special needs in the regular classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Policy on Education specifically stipulates that there is need for equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children irrespective of any real or imagined disabilities (FNG 2004). The policy further states that Education of children with special needs shall be free at all levels and all necessary facilities that ...

  11. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  12. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  13. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  14. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  15. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  16. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  17. Toys for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    In emphasizing the importance of play and toys in a child's development, this article describes the kinds of toys suitable for preschool children of all ages. Floor toys, building and hammering toys, transport, and imaginative and creative play are some of the topics covered. (JK)

  18. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  19. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  20. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  1. Student Engagement In Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    There is general agreement that to thrive and learn at their best, students must be engaged. However, schools face a particular challenge to provide a suitable and engaging learning environment for SEN (special educational needs) students who are educated in general education classes. Using data......-students as for other students. This highlights the need for better inclusion initiatives aimed at strengthening engagement of SEN-students in regular classrooms....

  2. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-09-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  3. Exploratory behaviour, emotional wellbeing and childcare quality in preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Barandiaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children exploratory behaviour and the quality of structural childcare and process in preschools. The study also examined how childcare quality affects the relationship between emotional wellbeing and exploratory behaviour. The sample comprised 206 children from 40 classrooms in 20 preschools, together with their teachers. The children's age ranged between 37 and 64 months (M = 50.96, SD = 6.54. The results indicated that children cared for by more sensitive teachers engaged in more exploratory behavior. However, no moderating effect was found of teacher sensitivity on the positive relationship between exploratory behavior and wellbeing. Finally, some factors linked to the quality of structural childcare also influenced exploratory behavior, although to a lesser extent.

  4. Evaluation of a "Flipped Classroom" Approach in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, Ole Jakob; Heggernes, Tarjei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a "flipped classroom" approach is evaluated using three different datasets. We use student evaluations of the "flipped classroom" in particular, in addition to regular course evaluations and exam results for the past three years in order to allow for statistical comparisons. Overall, the results are quite…

  5. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  6. Classroom Management Affects Literacy Development of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Justin D.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Many children with behavior problems perform poorly academically and can disrupt regular classroom instruction. Although good classroom management strategies can benefit children with behavior problems, it is not clear whether these students need consistently good classroom management across the early elementary school years to improve their…

  7. Identifying Canadian Teacher Candidates' Needs for Training in the Use of Inclusive Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To identify teacher candidates' needs for training in inclusive classroom assessment, the present study investigated teacher candidates' beliefs about inclusive classroom assessments for all students educated in regular classrooms, including those with special needs and English language learners. An innovative theoretical assessment model,…

  8. Preschool Teachers' Emotional Socialization Responses to 4-6 Year-Old Turkish Preschoolers' Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  10. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  11. Young children's communication and literacy: a qualitative study of language in the inclusive preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, C

    1995-06-01

    Interactive and literacy-based language use of young children within the context of an inclusive preschool classroom was explored. An interpretivist framework and qualitative research methods, including participant observation, were used to examine and analyze language in five preschool classes that were composed of children with and without disabilities. Children's language use included spoken, written, signed, and typed. Results showed complex communicative and literacy language use on the part of young children outside conventional adult perspectives. Also, children who used expressive methods other than speech were often left out of the contexts where spoken language was richest and most complex.

  12. Preschool Predictors of Kindergarten Language Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore a variety of cognitive and social variables which are most relevant to children’s linguistic success in an educational setting. The study examines kindergarten English language outcomes in classrooms containing monolingual English speaking children and bilingual children who speak English and one other language. Data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning Multistate Study of Pre-Kindergarten (2001-2003 regarding classroom and student characteristics were used for bilingual (N = 120 and monolingual (N = 534 children. Hierarchical regression analysis (Study 1 and path analysis (Study 2 were conducted to determine the cognitive and social variables present in preschool that are most predictive of English skills in kindergarten. The results of the studies demonstrate that social variables were important for both monolingual and bilingual children. Personality variables were more predictive for monolingual children, whereas teacher relationship variables were more important for bilingual children. Simple and routine adult interaction was predictive of English skills in both groups, which may indicate the importance of implicit learning over explicit instruction in early language acquisition. The present studies found different predictors of English language skills for monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners.

  13. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  14. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  15. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  16. Making Health Easier: Healthy Changes Start in Preschool

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-19

    This podcast highlights the efforts of one educational organization, Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), to keep kids healthy at an early age. Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. LAUP teaches kids healthy habits and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and providing nutritious snacks.  Created: 9/19/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  17. Defining Nature-Based Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based early childhood education. Nature-based preschool. Nature preschool. Forest kindergarten. Nature kindergarten. Waldkindergarten. Forest school. These are a few of the program terms currently being discussed among early childhood environmental education professionals in the United States. Why is there so much discussion about the names…

  18. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  19. [Quality scale for preschool spirometry interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francisca; Bedregal, Paula; Ubilla, Carlos; Barrientos, Hortensia; Caussade, Solange

    2017-02-01

    Since 2007, there are international guidelines for implementation and interpretation of spirometry in preschool children. A percentage of these patients cannot obtain maneuvers that meet all eligibility criteria. The objective of this study was to develop a quality scale for interpreting these partially acceptable spirometry. Delphi methodology was used, which allows to reach consensus among experts analyzing a defined problem. We invited to participate pediatric pneumologists dedicated to lung function and who participated actively in scientific specialty societies in Chile. Successive rounds were conducted with questionnaires about criteria used to assess spirometry in preschool children. These criteria define the acceptability of spirometric maneuvers according to international guidelines. Proposed quality grades were “very good”, “good”, “fair” and “bad”. Thirteen of the 15 invited experts accepted our invitation. In the first round 9 disagreed with the degree of “regular” quality. In the second round this was removed and 11 experts answered, 9 of them agreed with the use of this new version. The most contentious criterion was the end of expiration. Most experts agreed with the final scale, using “very good”, “good” and “bad” judgments. This would help to improve the performance of spirometry in children between 2 and 5 years.

  20. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  1. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  2. Preschool Math Exposure in Private Center-Based Care and Low-SES Children's Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Degol, Jessica L.; Elliott, Leanne; Scharphorn, Laura; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Palmer, Kalani M.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study examined the amount of exposure to math activities that children of low socioeconomic status (SES) encounter in private community-based preschool classrooms and whether greater time in these activities predicted higher math skills. Three cohorts of 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited from 30 private…

  3. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  4. Three Approaches to Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence: A Summary of Impact and Implementation Findings from Head Start CARES

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This summary describes the Head Start CARES research project, which evaluated three classroom-based approaches to enhancing children's social-emotional development: (1) The Incredible Years Teacher Training Program; (2) Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies); and (3) Tools of the Mind--Play. The three social-emotional…

  5. The Role of In-Class Physical Arrangements in Supporting Preschool Children's Behavior Regulation Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk Kara, H. Gozde

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the role of physical arrangements within the classroom in the development of behavior regulation skill of preschool children. From among the types of action research, the technical/scientific/cooperative action research was employed in the current study. In the selection of the participants, one of the…

  6. The Social Networks of Children With and Without Disabilities in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura; Sawyer, Brook

    2017-09-01

    Interaction with peers is an important contributor to young children's social and cognitive development. Yet, little is known about the nature of social networks within preschool inclusive classrooms. The current study applied a social network analysis to characterize children's peer interactions in inclusive classrooms and their relations with children's disability status. The participants were 485 preschoolers from 64 early childhood special education (ECSE) inclusive classrooms. Results from teachers' report of children's social networks showed that children with disabilities formed smaller play networks compared to their typically developing peers in the classroom, but no evidence indicated that children with disabilities engaged in more conflict networks than their counterparts. Children's play and conflict networks were segregated by children's disability status.

  7. Virtual Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  8. Classroom Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzard, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian company Antarctica Flights runs summer sightseeing trips out of Australian capital cities to tour the Antarctic coast. The Laby Foundation of the University of Melbourne, through its "Classroom Antarctica" program, sponsored Kent Street High School science teacher, Ms Suzy Urbaniak and 18 of her students to take the trip, to…

  9. Employing Handwriting without Tears® to Teach a 4-Year-Old Preschool Student to Write His Name with the Appropriate Size, Shape, and Form Combined with an Imitate/Trace/Copy/Memory Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Emalia C.; McLaughlin, Thomas; Derby, K. Mark; Weber, Kimberly P.; Donica, Denise K.; McKenzie, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prewriting and handwriting curriculum Handwriting Without Tears® (HWT) in a preschool setting with a single student who has developmental delays and a suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Data were collected during the regular preschool day. The behavior…

  10. Ability to Categorize Food Predicts Hypothetical Food Choices in Head Start Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the classroom: Teaching science in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.N. DEJONCKHEERE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N= 57 and the children were 4–6 years old. In order to assess children’s attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of scientific reasoning skills, we designed a simple task in which a need for information gain was created. Compared to controls, children in the post-test showed significant learning gains in the development of the so-called control of variables strategy. Indeed, they executed more informative and less uninformative explorations during their spontaneous play. Furthermore, the importance of such programmes was discussed in the field of STEM education.

  12. Work and family life of childrearing women workers in Japan: comparison of non-regular employees with short working hours, non-regular employees with long working hours, and regular employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Masako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Maruyama, Soichiro

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed the working and family life characteristics, and the degree of domestic and work strain of female workers with different employment statuses and weekly working hours who are rearing children. Participants were the mothers of preschoolers in a large Japanese city. We classified the women into three groups according to the hours they worked and their employment conditions. The three groups were: non-regular employees working less than 30 h a week (n=136); non-regular employees working 30 h or more per week (n=141); and regular employees working 30 h or more a week (n=184). We compared among the groups the subjective values of work, financial difficulties, childcare and housework burdens, psychological effects, and strains such as work and family strain, work-family conflict, and work dissatisfaction. Regular employees were more likely to report job pressures and inflexible work schedules and to experience more strain related to work and family than non-regular employees. Non-regular employees were more likely to be facing financial difficulties. In particular, non-regular employees working longer hours tended to encounter socioeconomic difficulties and often lacked support from family and friends. Female workers with children may have different social backgrounds and different stressors according to their working hours and work status.

  13. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  14. Many languages, one classroom teaching dual and English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Nemeth, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Even the most experienced teacher can feel a bit unsure about meeting the unique needs of children from different language backgrounds. Many Languages, One Classroom applies the latest information about best practices to all aspects of a preschool program. Organized by interest areas and times of the day, you'll find everything you need to open the doors of literacy and learning for English language learners during dramatic play, outdoor play, reading, science, blocks, and circle time.

  15. Riddle in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Ferjančič, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    In this work, in theoretical part, I would like to explore and present: (1) the theory of riddle and forms in which it appears; (2) the historical origin of riddles; (3) the emergence of the first riddles in Slovenia; (4) the characteristics of literary riddles and definition how riddles are formed; (5) the importance of the riddles in the preschool period, since most of them are for younger generation; (6) different ways of setting and solving riddles with the youngest according to their abi...

  16. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  17. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  18. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  19. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  20. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  1. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  2. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    ; and as a communication and documentation tool. In addition, by addressing the teachers’ values and attitudes to the role of ICT in early childhood, the paper also unpacks the stances of teachers who consider ICT to be unsuitable for early childhood education. The findings of this study may bring some clarity......This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...

  3. Effects of Training and Feedback on Teachers' Use of Classroom Preventive Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen M.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of in-service training with performance feedback on preschool teachers' use of classroom preventive practices. Three practices designed to prevent challenging behavior were selected: transition preparations, rule reminders, and social-emotional teaching strategies. Following a brief training on each practice,…

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior in Early Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian D.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Payne, Steven W.; Zonneveld, Kimberley L. M.; Harper, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses (FA) with 4 typically developing preschool children during ongoing classroom activities and evaluated treatments that were based on FA results. Results of each child's FA suggested social-positive reinforcement functions, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus time-out was effective in…

  5. MORE MINUTES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES SUPPORT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of physical education classes in 12 fundamental motor skills (FMS. Preschool students (M = 6.09±0.5 years old were randomly assigned to a control group (6 boys and 7 girls who performed the regular preschool class (which includes one 30- minutes session per week; experimental group 1 (6 boys and 6 girls who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or experimental group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks (n=38. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 before and after the study. A one-way MANOVA reflected a similar behavior in al FMS in the pre-test. A two-way MANOVA (group x time reflected no interaction in the 12 FMS; also in the 6 object control FMS; but there was an interaction in the 6 locomotor FMS. In conclusion, 90-minutes of physical education classes per week only benefit the FMS of galloping and hopping.

  6. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  7. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  8. Literacy Standards for Preschool Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Paynter, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Preschool and kindergarten teachers can help young learners meet early literacy standards without sacrificing developmentally appropriate practice. Several professional associations have described appropriate expectations for children of different age levels known as milestones, developmental accomplishments, and benchmarks. (MLH)

  9. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  10. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  11. Examining the gardens of the preschool education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Orçan Kaçan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to reveal current features and practices of the gardens of the preschool education institutions, the obstacles to being qualified gardens in the schools and professional trainings related to the gardens which the teachers want to participate in. The population of the study consists of the teachers working in preschool education institutions in 2014-2015 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 56 preschool teachers who have been willing to participate in the study in the preschool education institutions under the Ministry of National Education which have been selected randomly from the population. The study is a survey study, and a questionnaire form has been prepared by the researchers by investigating related domestic and foreign literature to analyze the views of the teachers related to gardens. The questionnaire form consisted of sections like general information, garden features and applications of the schools, obstacles to gardens in the schools, professional trainings related to garden that the teachers want to participate in. In the analysis of the data obtained in the direction of the goals of the study, frequency and percentage distribution from descriptive statistical techniques have been used. As a result of the research, it was determined that half of the schools had the garden and the other half did not have the garden. Teachers have stated that the majority of school gardens use grasses, wild habitats and ornamental plants, use more than half of the school gardens for activities, and that these activities are mostly play, movement, science and field trips. The majority of teachers reported budget deficiencies and inadequate space as obstacles to the quality gardening of schools. In addition, they reported that the majority of them want to participate in professional training fields related to garden-based teaching such as outdoor classroom management, language and math, nutrition, science and

  12. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  13. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  14. Effects of preschool education in mixed and targeted classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, A.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    One of the remaining questions in the field of early childhood education is whether efforts aiming to promote the school readiness skills of young learners should be targeted specifically at children at risk for delays in these basic skills or whether efforts should be aimed at all young children

  15. Affectivity in the Preschool Classroom: Reflections from Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Villalobos González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on those teaching experiences that have a strong influence on students and allow teachers to grow as individuals as well as professionals.  The author approaches positive affection towards students, which allows children to be emotionally well adjusted, consequently, promoting their desire to learn, attend classes, and have good social relationships with their peers, and allows teachers to have confidence and high self-esteem. Emphasis is placed on the fact that educators must treat students well, know their family environment, solve their emotional deficiencies, if any, and show empathy towards them. In short, teachers are encouraged to give priority to affective relationships in their pedagogical practice.  The author also includes some experiences from her professional practices, where affection towards children was essential.

  16. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  17. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  18. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  19. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  20. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  1. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  2. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  3. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  4. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  5. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  6. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  7. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  8. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  9. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  10. Pre-School Education in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    The extent and nature of preschool education in Europe is discussed, with reference to England and Wales, France, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Reports on preschool education in these countries give examples of both an early and a late start to compulsory education, very extensive and very limited preschool provision, and the effects of…

  11. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  12. Differential effects of the classroom on African American and non-African American's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.

  13. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  14. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  15. Individual children's interactions with teachers, peers, and tasks : The applicability of the inCLASS Pre-K in Danish preschools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline L.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    Social competence in a preschool setting, defined as children's success in interacting with peers and teachers, and showing adaptive classroom and task-related behavior, has shown to be predictive of subsequent positive social-emotional, academic, and school outcomes. Social competence is partly

  16. Training the Hippocampus and Amygdala of Preschool Children by Means of Priming Tasks: Should Parents Rather Focus on Learning of Facts than Reading Fairytales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, U.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main functions of the human brain is memory, and this forms the basis of learning and is the cornerstone of IQ. One of the important aims for both parents and educators of preschool children is to improve or develop the child's self-application of intelligence in the classroom, which indirectly involves memory capability development.…

  17. Coordinated Translanguaging Pedagogy as Distributed Cognition: A Case Study of Two Dual Language Bilingual Education Preschool Coteachers' Languaging Practices during Shared Book Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Ryan; Gort, Mileidis

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a pair of Spanish/English dual language bilingual education (DLBE) preschool teachers enacted their bilingualism while working cohesively and simultaneously toward common instructional goals. We drew on classroom video data, field notes, and other relevant artifacts collected weekly during shared readings of English- and…

  18. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  19. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-15

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)

  20. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  1. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  2. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  3. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  4. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  5. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  6. Islamic Pre-School Management and Its Implications towards Students’ Learning Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosniati Hakim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education in schools had not completely assessed the development of students’ character and personality. Therefore, additional religious education through non-formal education and religious practices were needed in Islamic Pre-Schools. It provided a forum to foster, develop, cultivate, and transform the religious value of the students to improve their personality. The purpose of this research was to examine social phenomenon that occur naturally through the facts related to management activities of students. Qualitative research was used in this study where the data taken from head of Islamic pre-school and the school deputy, teacher, staffs, mosque administrators of Baitul Haadi, administrator of the school, staffs of Ministry of Religious Affairs as well as Islamic pre-school inspectors, parents, community leaders, and administrators of professional organizations. The finding showed that students’ management applied in Islamic pre-school through the management functions is able to provide the successful of student’s education and learning implementation. It was also found that student management applied in Islamic pre-school is planning activities of students’ admission process through the administration regularly with various regulations related to the success of education. Thus, it is expected that the government will provide the guidance and implement constant supervision in accordance with applicable regulations.

  7. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  8. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  9. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  11. The State of Preschool 2012: State Preschool Yearbook. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Carolan, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, Jen; Squires, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "State Preschool Yearbook" profiles state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. The "Yearbook" compares each state program's standards against a checklist of 10 research-based quality standards benchmarks. Although the benchmarks against which the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER)…

  12. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  13. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....

  14. Regularization methods in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S

    2012-01-01

    Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B

  15. Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )

  16. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children’s cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs  with preschool children investigating the ...

  17. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  18. Training of Classroom Relevant Behaviors with the "Staats Box." Technical Report #9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, Sarah; And Others

    This case study of a kindergarten boy in the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) suggests that specific operant training in school-relevant behaviors can facilitate classroom adjustment if the training is coordinated with the regular classroom teacher. The subject, considered unmanageable, hyperactive, and aggressive by the staff at his…

  19. Utilizing Multimedia Database Access: Teaching Strategies Using the iPad in the Dance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostashewski, Nathaniel; Reid, Doug; Ostashewski, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents action research that identified iPad tablet technology-supported teaching strategies in a dance classroom context. Dance classrooms use instructor-accessed music as a regular element of lessons, but video is both challenging and time-consuming to produce or display. The results of this study highlight how the Apple iPad…

  20. Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Bruce; Apthorp, Helen; Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. Researchers randomly assigned 67 elementary schools to receive CASL materials or continue with regularly scheduled professional development. Teachers in CASL schools formed…

  1. Evaluation of the Utility of a Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis in Early Intervention Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a discrete-trial functional analysis implemented by regular classroom staff in a classroom setting. The results suggest that the discrete-trial functional analysis identified a social function for each participant and may require fewer staff than standard functional analysis procedures.

  2. Classrooms with Growing Room. Playing Smart: Enrichment in the Home. Lessons without Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    Three papers by the same author address: (1) educational methods for gifted children in the regular classroom; (2) principles of enriching the gifted child's development in the home; and (3) modifying lessons to optimally challenge gifted students. The first paper is titled, "Classrooms with Growing Room." It stresses the need for gifted children…

  3. Facebook: The Use of Social Media to Engage Parents in a Preschool Obesity Prevention Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Facebook to deliver health-related education materials to augment a preschool classroom-based obesity prevention curriculum. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (descriptive and interviews). Head Start classrooms administered by 2 large agencies (1 rural and 1 urban). Convenience sample of parents in 13 classrooms (cohort 1, 3 classrooms; cohort 2, 10 classrooms). Delivery of nutrition education curriculum content using social media (Facebook). Qualitative interviews assessed barriers and facilitators to Facebook use. Parent views, likes, and comments were measured to reflect parent engagement with Facebook. Content analyses (qualitative data) and descriptive statistics (quantitative data). Family access (views) and interaction (comments and likes) with the posts varied based on type and content of posts. Rural families were more active. Barriers to parental Facebook engagement included a desire to see more posts from classroom teachers, lack of time, and misunderstanding about privacy protections. Facilitators of parental Facebook engagement included perceived utility of the content and social support. Facebook was found to be a feasible platform to provide nutrition education and facilitated varying levels of parental engagement. Lessons learned and implications for prevention and intervention programming are offered. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preschool Inhibitory Control Predicts ADHD Group Status and Inhibitory Weakness in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Schneider, Heather; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-12-26

    Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function. Children ages 4-5 years (N = 105, 61% boys; 54 ADHD, medication-naïve) were assessed using performance measures (Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers-Commission errors, Conflicting Motor Response Test, NEPSY Statue) and caregiver (parent, teacher) ratings of inhibition (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version). Performance measures and parent and teacher reports of inhibitory control significantly and uniquely predicted ADHD group status; however, performance measures did not add to prediction of group status beyond parent reports. Performance measures did significantly predict classroom inhibitory control (teacher ratings), over and above parent reports of inhibitory control. Performance measures of inhibitory control may be adequate predictors of ADHD status and good predictors of young children's classroom inhibitory control, demonstrating utility as components of clinical assessments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  6. Evaluation of a class wide teaching program for developing preschool life skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed.

  7. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  8. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  9. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  10. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  11. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  12. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  13. Attitude of Regular and Itinerant Teachers Towards the Inclusion of Hearing Impairment Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Parhoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Inclusive education is a process of enabling all children to learn and participate effectively within mainstream school systems. It does not segregate children who have different abilities or needs. This article explores the attitudes of regular and itinerant teachers about inclusion of hearing impairment children in their schools in general education. Methods: In a descriptive Survey research design, the sample included 100 teachers (50 regular and 50 itinerant who were selected randomly, according to a multistage sampling method. Data was collected by using questionnaire with 32 questions regarding their attitudes. One-way Analysis of Variance and t-test were performed to obtain between- group comparisons. Results: The results indicated that the teacher's positive attitudes towards inclusive educational system of students with hearing impairment. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teaching experience, gender, level of teaching. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in their classrooms. Discussion: successful inclusion for hearing impairment children in regular classrooms entails the positive attitudes of Regular and itinerant teachers through a systematic programming within the classroom.

  14. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  15. Observing Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  16. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  17. Better Classroom Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskemeti, Maria; Winslade, John

    2016-01-01

    The usual approaches to classroom relationships are either teacher-centred or student-centred. This book breaks new ground in its exploration of relationship-centred classrooms. In relationship-centred classrooms, the teacher and the student are equally important. That shifts the focus to the quality of their interaction and whether it is…

  18. Science Education in Preschool: How to Assimilate the Reggio Emilia Pedagogy in a Turkish Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    This commentary manuscript, which was part of a larger research project, aimed to show how teachers can help preschoolers construct their knowledge of science and meet preschool science standards successfully in a Reggio Emilia approach. The demonstrations for preschool teachers are summarized as follows: be inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach;…

  19. Transition between Swedish Preschool and Preschool Class: A Question about Interweaving Care and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Tarja; Meier, Joanna; Frank, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights teachers' experiences with transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class, i.e. from the daycare centre to the formal school. One assumption was that transition activities, to favour continuity in the long-term, need to focus on children's learning within the target areas that the policy documents specify for preschool.…

  20. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  1. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  2. Collaboration between Mathematics Facilitators and Preschool Teachers Using the Innovative "Senso-Math" Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassidov, Dina; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study of the innovative "Senso-Math" preschool program and the reactions of both the facilitators, who underwent a special training program, and the preschool teachers in whose classes the program was implemented. The goal of the program is to enhance mathematical development in preschool children…

  3. Preschool Teachers' Views on Competence in the Context of Home and Preschool Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tuula; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss preschool teachers' views regarding competence within their profession in the context of home and preschool collaboration. The question addressed is as follows: In what situations do preschool teachers perceive that their competence becomes visible for parents? The results, based on interviews…

  4. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  5. Mothers’ views of their preschool child’s screen-viewing behaviour: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina F. Bentley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on screen-viewing in preschool children has predominantly focused on television viewing. The rapid development of mobile devices (e.g. tablets, smart phones and e-readers and the increase in their use by preschool children means there is a need to understand how and why these devices are used by this age group. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ views of their preschool children’s screen viewing behaviour (including mobile devices and investigate how preschool children use different screen-viewing devices. Methods One-to-one, semi-structured interviews with mothers of preschool children (aged between 2 and 4 years old. Mothers were recruited through preschools, nurseries, and mother and toddler groups located within four areas of varying socio-economic status within Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Twenty-six mothers were interviewed. Mobile devices were regularly used as a form of screen-viewing for most children but were used on an ad hoc basis rather than being a habitual activity. The reasons and influences of mobile device use described by mothers were similar to that of television viewing. However, the portability of mobile devices meant that they were often used outside of the home as a distraction tool. Their multi-functionality meant that they could be used as a portable television, or for purposeful learning through educational games and applications. Some mothers showed concerns over mobile device use by their child, whilst others felt it was an important and useful educational tool. Although the majority of mothers felt they needed to set rules and restrictions for mobile device use, many mothers felt that they are also a necessary and unavoidable part of life. Conclusions Mothers in this study suggested that mobile device use by preschool children is common. More research is needed to determine the impact of mobile device use in preschool

  6. Mothers' views of their preschool child's screen-viewing behaviour: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Georgina F; Turner, Katrina M; Jago, Russell

    2016-08-04

    Research on screen-viewing in preschool children has predominantly focused on television viewing. The rapid development of mobile devices (e.g. tablets, smart phones and e-readers) and the increase in their use by preschool children means there is a need to understand how and why these devices are used by this age group. The aim of this study was to explore mothers' views of their preschool children's screen viewing behaviour (including mobile devices) and investigate how preschool children use different screen-viewing devices. One-to-one, semi-structured interviews with mothers of preschool children (aged between 2 and 4 years old). Mothers were recruited through preschools, nurseries, and mother and toddler groups located within four areas of varying socio-economic status within Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Twenty-six mothers were interviewed. Mobile devices were regularly used as a form of screen-viewing for most children but were used on an ad hoc basis rather than being a habitual activity. The reasons and influences of mobile device use described by mothers were similar to that of television viewing. However, the portability of mobile devices meant that they were often used outside of the home as a distraction tool. Their multi-functionality meant that they could be used as a portable television, or for purposeful learning through educational games and applications. Some mothers showed concerns over mobile device use by their child, whilst others felt it was an important and useful educational tool. Although the majority of mothers felt they needed to set rules and restrictions for mobile device use, many mothers felt that they are also a necessary and unavoidable part of life. Mothers in this study suggested that mobile device use by preschool children is common. More research is needed to determine the impact of mobile device use in preschool children, how much time preschool children spend using mobile devices

  7. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  8. On the equivalence of different regularization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)

  9. The uniqueness of the regularization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1981-01-01

    On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)

  10. Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: the moderating role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-09-01

    The current study investigates whether established associations between physical aggression and low autonomic nervous system arousal, as indexed by heart rate and blood pressure, also apply to the study of the development of relational aggression. Baseline heart rate and blood pressure were collected in two samples of preschoolers, and teachers reported on classroom physical and relational aggression. In Study 1, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure were related to increased engagement in relational aggression among older preschoolers. In Study 2, lower heart rate and blood pressure predicted increased engagement in classroom physical and relational aggression concurrently and across a preschool year in some cases. Low baseline arousal-aggression associations were strongest for children with poorer self-regulation abilities, whereas high self-regulation appeared to protect children with low heart rate and blood pressure from engagement in aggressive classroom behavior. These findings suggest the utility of examining baseline physiological measures in the study of relational aggression as well as physical aggression. Implications for interventions targeted to physical and relational aggression in early childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From the Theory of Play into the Practice in Kindergarten: Verification of the Original Didactic Toys for Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Hana

    2017-12-01

    influence on selected toys in kindergarten environment. Discussion: The findings suggest that it is not prospective to focus solely on the toy itself. In agreement with Pyle and Bigelow (2015, it is possible to monitor the impact of playing on the development of children's social, emotional and educational skills. Based on the observation and interviews with both children and teachers, we have come to the view that it is increasingly important to support the didactic thinking of preschool teachers. We also considered the issue in the sense of feedback for authors of the toys and for future preschool teachers. Child-based research opens up the opportunity to interpret and analyse their own childhood perspective reflected in their own social worlds, emphasizing the complexity of understanding their experiences through the eyes of adults. Limitations: We consider important to point out certain limits of the presented research, given the circumstances that a sample of 15 classrooms observed in the total number of 4 kindergartens cannot bring results to be presented for wider generalizability. The intentional choice of toys for preschool children could also belong to the possible limits of this research. Conclusions: Children do not choose a toy for the purpose of conscious development of fine motor skills or with the aim to strengthen their social relationships with other children. Children just play. And they can play with toys similar to the original products made by students and verified in this research. Choosing toys and activities suitable for preschool children can also be a challenge for experienced teachers.

  12. Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.

  13. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  14. Stuck in the moment: Cognitive inflexibility in preschoolers following an extended time period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eGarcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschoolers display surprising inflexibility in problem solving, but seem to approach new challenges with a fresh slate. We provide evidence that while the former is true the latter is not. Here, we examined whether brief exposure to stimuli can influence children’s problem solving following several weeks after first exposure to the stimuli. We administered a common executive function task, the Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires children to sort picture cards by one dimension (e.g., color and then switch to sort the same cards by a conflicting dimension (e.g., shape. After a week or after a month delay, we administered the second rule again. We found that 70% of preschoolers continued to sort by the initial sorting rule, even after a month delay, and even though they are explicitly told what to do. We discuss implications for theories of executive function development, and for classroom learning.

  15. Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Abdullah, Che Anuar Che; Idris, Mohd Noor; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning in private preschool in Malaysia. A total 61 teachers from 10 private preschools in the district of Mualim in the state of Perak Malaysia were randomly chosen in this survey research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were knowledgeable about the educational ICT application. However, the findings revealed that the teachers' level of ICT integration is still at the low level. This is based on the results of a study that most of the teachers are normal users and ICT application was used for their own work rather than using it in their teaching and learning in the classroom. In addition, the findings indicated that teachers' awareness towards the important of ICT in teaching and learning is not encouraging and this issue is related to the training provided, equipment and time constraints that hinder the integration of ICT.

  16. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  17. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  18. Enhancing Equity in the Classroom by Teaching for Mathematical Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Sarah R.; Sriraman, Bharath; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Equity is an important element of educational discourses pertaining to mathematics and science education. Creativity is an aspect of the classroom that is often ignored due to curricular constraints and the burden of testing. However mathematics offers avenues to infuse the regular curricula with activities that are thought provoking and require…

  19. Infusing Creativity into Eastern Classrooms: Evaluations from Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vivian M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Infusing creativity elements into regular classroom was an important movement in recent Asian educational reforms. A large-scale research study was conducted in Hong Kong to explore the possibilities, outcomes and difficulties of this kind of curriculum change from students' perspectives. Based mainly on Western creativity literature, this study…

  20. Class of regular bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.

  1. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Berčnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in alternative educational approaches, such as the Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia approaches, and Slovenian public preschool institutions. They envisage that different educational approaches in preschool education perceive the importance and role of cooperation with parents differently and conclude that there are various models of cooperation, which can be demonstrated through a theoretical analysis of the aforementioned alternative preschool approaches. In their view, partnership promotes a shared commitment to the quality realisation of educational goals; it also develops understanding and an ethos of openness in the relationship between all actors in the process of care and education of preschool children.

  3. Intercultural sensitivity in preschool institution

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana; Popeska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The multicultural society, in which we live, implies the existence of continuous process of personality, formation, and defining her identity. Understanding and respecting our self, respecting the others around us, perceiving our own attitudes, values, but also respecting the culture, values of the other, different from our self, the development of the so-called intercultural sensitivity, begins at the earlies age, first at the family, and after in an organized way in the preschool institutio...

  4. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need.  Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social.   Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...

  5. Musical competence of preschool teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Grdešič, Irena

    2012-01-01

    My diploma deals with musical competencies of preschool teachers. Music education includes many different activities: singing various songs, playing different instruments, listening to music, being creative while listening to music and creating the music itself. It is of utmost importance that kindergarten teachers are capable of mediating music to the children and are able to incorporate it into the every day of their kindergarten activities. Music helps calm children down, it relaxes them, ...

  6. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. For this research is selected preschool institution - kindergarten "Radost" (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development.

  7. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. Material and methods: For this research is selected preschool institution – kindergarten „Radost” (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. Research results: According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). Conclusion: The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development. PMID:26889099

  8. Emotional and organizational supports for preschoolers' emotion regulation: Relations with school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig S; Denham, Susanne A; Curby, Timothy W; Bassett, Hideko H

    2016-03-01

    Preschool teachers, like parents, support children in ways that promote the regulation capacities that drive school adjustment, especially for children struggling to succeed in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore the emotionally and organizationally supportive classroom processes that contribute to the development of children's emotion regulation and executive control. Emotion regulation and executive control were assessed in 312 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children. The 44 teachers of these children completed questionnaires asking about 3 components of children's school adjustment: Positive/Engaged, Independent/Motivated, and Prosocial/Connected. Observations of classroom emotional and organizational supports were conducted. Results of multilevel models indicated emotion regulation was significantly associated with the Positive/Engaged school adjustment component, but only when teachers' emotional and organizational supports were taken into account. Children with lower levels of emotion regulation, who were also in less supportive classrooms, had the lowest scores on the Positive/Engaged component. Children's executive control was associated with the Independent/Motivated and Prosocial/Connected components independently of teacher effects. In general, moderate support was found for the notion that teachers' supports can be particularly helpful for children struggling to regulate their emotions to be better adjusted to school. Children's emotionally salient classroom behaviors, and teachers' emotion scaffolding, are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children’s Social Skills and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children’s first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives. PMID:26949286

  10. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Special Education Reform Towards Inclusive Education: Blurring or Expanding Boundaries of Special and Regular Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    China has developed a three-tier special education service delivery system consisting of an array of placement options of special schools, special classes and learning in regular classrooms (LRC) (with the LRC as the major initiative) to serve students with disabilities after 1980s responding to the international trend of inclusive education…

  12. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  13. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  14. ADHD in Preschool: Approaches and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Due to the prevalence of ADHD, there is a need for early intervention at the preschool level to improve children's chance of academic success in later years. Yet few preschool teachers are trained to meet the challenges children with ADHD present. This paper gives a rationale and curriculum for teacher training in ADHD, with an emphasis on Social…

  15. Sustaining Preschoolers' Engagement during Interactive Writing Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    Interactive writing is a developmentally appropriate activity used to enhance children's literacy development in the preschool setting. This article describes the unique needs of preschoolers as emerging writers, including their developing fine motor skills, early literacy skills, and social skills related to group writing. Strategies are provided…

  16. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  17. The Importance of Music in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna; Gustavsson, Hans-Olof

    2015-01-01

    At a few universities in Sweden students can chose a preschool teacher education programme with a music profile. At one of these universities, a study was undertaken that aimed to explore student teachers' understanding of self as musician, their future professional role as a preschool teacher and how the education equips for that. Sixteen…

  18. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  19. Characteristics of Preschoolers with Lower Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Findlay, Leanne C.; Nelson, Larry J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify preschool children with "age-inappropriate" less positive self-perceptions, and to explore their parental and peer relationships as compared to their classmates with "age normal" self-perceptions. Participants were n = 127 preschool children ([M.sub.age] = 54.98 mos., SD = 8.21). Data were collected…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Language Use in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Sohyun

    2013-01-01

    Preschool teachers' language use has been described in recent research, as preschoolers' language development is found to be an important preparation for later reading development. Based on existing research on teachers' language use in sociodramatic play, however, it is still unclear how teachers use their language specifically in sociodramatic…

  1. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  2. Conducting an Introductory Biology Course in an Active Learning Classroom: A Case Study of an Experienced Faculty Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, David; Guzey, S. Selcen

    2014-01-01

    A case study is described that examines the beliefs and practices of a university instructor who teaches regularly in an active learning classroom. His perspective provides insights into the pedagogical practices that drive his success in these learning spaces.

  3. The Relation of Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Students' Social Skills to Students' Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties: A Study of Preschool Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of students' emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool classrooms. Specifically, the study examined (a) the link between teachers' perceptions of their own emotional intelligence and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties, (b) the link between teachers'…

  4. Virtual classroom project

    OpenAIRE

    Gmeiner, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to provide students with disabilities the same in class learning experience through virtual reality technology, 360-degree video capture, and the use of Arduino units. These technologies will be combined to facilitate communication between teachers in physical classrooms with students in virtual classrooms. The goal is to provide a person who is affected by a disability (which makes it hard to be in a traditional classroom) the same benefits of a safe and interactive learnin...

  5. Teaching Astronomy Classes and Labs in a Smart Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliucci, Nicole E.

    2017-01-01

    Saint Anselm College is a small liberal arts college in New Hampshire with an enrollment of approximately 1900 students. All students are required to take one science course with a laboratory component. Introduction to Astronomy is now being offered in regular rotation in the Department of Physics, taking advantage of the new "smart" classrooms with the technology and set up to encourage active learning. These classrooms seat 25 students and feature 5 "pods," each with their own screen that can be hooked up to a student computer or one of the iPads available to the professor. I will present how these classrooms are used for Introduction to Astronomy and related courses under development for active learning. Since the class requires a laboratory component and New Hampshire weather is notably unpredictable, the smart classroom offers an alternative using freely available computer simulations to allow for an alternative indoor laboratory experience.

  6. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  7. Teacher Perceptions of Multilevel Policies and the Influence on Nutrition Education in North Carolina Head Start Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda D; Goodell, L Suzanne; Hegde, Archana; Stage, Virginia C

    2017-05-01

    To develop a theory that explains the process of how teachers' perception of multilevel policies may influence nutrition education (NE) teaching strategies in Head Start preschools. Semistructured telephone interviews. North Carolina Head Start preschools. Thirty-two Head Start teachers. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Following a grounded theory approach, authors coded interview data for emergent themes. Two primary themes emerged during analysis, including teachers' policy perceptions and teacher-perceived influence of policy on NE. A theoretical model was developed to explain how teachers' perceptions of policies influenced NE (eg, teaching strategies) in the classroom. Teachers discussed multiple policy areas governing their classrooms and limiting their ability to provide meaningful and consistent NE. How teachers perceived the level of regulation in the classroom (ie, high or low) influenced the frequency with which they used specific teaching strategies. Despite federal policies supporting the provision of NE, teachers face competing priorities in the classroom (eg, school readiness vs NE) and policies may conflict with standardized NE curricula. To understand how Head Start centers develop local policies, additional research should investigate how administrators interpret federal and state policies. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flipped Classroom Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile Ozdamli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flipped classroom is an active, student-centered approach that was formed to increase the quality of period within class. Generally this approach whose applications are done mostly in Physical Sciences, also attracts the attention of educators and researchers in different disciplines recently. Flipped classroom learning which wide-spreads rapidly in the world, is not well recognized in our country. That is why the aim of study is to attract attention to its potential in education field and provide to make it recognize more by educators and researchers. With this aim, in the study what flipped classroom approach is, flipped classroom technology models, its advantages and limitations were explained.

  9. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Early Childhood Classrooms in the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.; Noh, Jina; Heo, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of critical features associated with positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in early childhood classrooms in the United States and South Korea. Each country has a distinct approach to providing early education for young children. There is some evidence that preschool teachers' approaches to…

  11. Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2006-01-01

    In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T......: The expectation of the regularization function, i.e., takes the same value in the posterior and prior distribution. We present three examples: two simulations, and application in fMRI neuroimaging....

  12. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  13. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Blondelle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical

  14. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults.Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 1...

  15. METHOD OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Rubinchik

    2015-01-01

    The article suggests a methodology of historical research of preschool education. The analysis of theoretical and methodical provisions for the education of preschool children. Discusses the importance of the achievements of the Soviet system of preschool upbringing and education. Shows the principles, directions, methods and conditions for their implementation when working with children of preschool age. Discusses the state of childhood in modern Russia, problems of development of preschool ...

  16. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  17. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  18. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  19. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  20. The Characteristics and Extent of Participation of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Regular Classes in Australian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des; Hyde, Merv

    2002-01-01

    A national randomly selected survey of a sample of deaf and hard-of-hearing students included in regular classes from kindergarten to high school in Australian preschools and schools was conducted via a questionnaire to itinerant teachers working with such students. This article reports the analysis of a questionnaire that surveyed the demographic characteristics of such students and a set of characteristics of their behavior in their placement in terms of "participation" in aspects of regular class activities. These aspects were level of integration, academic participation, level of independence, and social participation. Data are reported and analyzed in terms of the above demographic and participatory characteristics of the students. We consider comparisons with comparable reports from the United States and Great Britain and discuss implications for deaf and hard-of-hearing students included in regular classes.

  1. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-04-01

    Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pbreakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James D.

    Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

  3. Classroom -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to· teaching and learning science. Logarithm and agM. In [1] we had discussed the evaluation.

  4. Classroom -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Proving a Result in Combinatorics using Equations.

  5. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  6. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...

  7. Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamli, Fezile; Asiksoy, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Flipped classroom is an active, student-centered approach that was formed to increase the quality of period within class. Generally this approach whose applications are done mostly in Physical Sciences, also attracts the attention of educators and researchers in different disciplines recently. Flipped classroom learning which wide-spreads rapidly…

  8. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  9. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-04-19

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  10. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  11. From recreational to regular drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...

  12. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  13. Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Holm, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach for large-eddy simulation (LES) is obtained by combining a "regularization principle" with an explicit filter and its inversion. This regularization approach allows a systematic derivation of the implied subgrid model, which resolves the closure problem. The central role of

  14. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines...

  15. Adopted preschool child with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    STAŇKOVÁ, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor´s work was written based on personal experience and practice with a family in which a pre-school child with ADHD syndrom lives. The intended objective is to provide pieces of advice to many parents. This work could serve as a guide in searching effective strategies for a child with attention and hyperactivity deficit disorder. The second objective is to share experience and educational methods when dealing with an adopted child diagnosed with the ADHD syndrom at the age of three...

  16. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Słonka Karina; Dyas Manuela; Słonka Tadeusz; Szurmik Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Słonka Karina, Dyas Manuela, Słonka Tadeusz, Szurmik Tomasz. Motor performance of preschool children. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):1308-1323. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1045272 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5028 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/836989 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017...

  17. Preschool education studentsʼ attitude towards inclusion in preschool educational context

    OpenAIRE

    Skubic, Darija; Vidrih, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the attitudes of preschool education students regarding inclusive teaching/inclusive practices. As a research instrument a questionnaire with 17 statements, referred to education, practices and policies of inclusion was developed. 118 students of the preschool education study programme at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana participated in the study. There were 3 different groups of students: 25 students of the 2nd year of preschool educat...

  18. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  19. Prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi, Sitana M; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2016-08-01

    Dental caries in preschool children remains a major dental public health problem and affects significant numbers of children in developed and developing countries. The incidence is increasing in developing countries, such as Sudan, because of lifestyle changes, absence of oral health-preventive services and inadequate access to oral health care. This study assessed the prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan, and described the correlation between the mean decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) score for primary teeth with toothbrushing and sugar consumption. The subjects were 553 preschool children with their mothers/guardians, selected by random sampling from the kindergartens of the seven localities of Khartoum State, Sudan. Data were obtained through clinical examination using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) examination data-capture sheet and through structured administered interviews with mothers/guardians. The prevalence of dental caries was 52.4%, with a mean dmft score of 2.3. There was an increase in the dmft scores with increasing age. The frequency of children who brushed their teeth regularly at least once a day was high (83.4%), lower dmft scores were associated with starting toothbrushing earlier in life and with increased frequency of brushing per day. Eating sugar-containing food was significantly associated with dmft score. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be high among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children, and caries experience increased with age. This was mostly associated with sugar consumption and therefore calls for educational interventions to control sugar intake. The toothbrushing habit is well established in Khartoum State, Sudan, as a large number of children were found to be brushing their teeth regularly. No significant association was found between feeding habits and dmft score. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  1. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  2. Digital Games, Songs and Flashcards and their Effects on Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taghizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate (a the effect of digital games, songs, and flashcards on vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL preschool learners and (b the young learners‟ performance on mid-course tests of vocabulary with different topics. The participants included 350 preschool female learners in Oshnaviyeh, a town in Western Azarbaijan Province and were divided into three tablet, song, and traditional groups. Pre and post-tests of vocabulary and four mid-course tests based, on the learnt vocabularies, were administered during the research. The materials also consisted of a digital game, 16 songs, a structured student book, a workbook, and 60 flashcards. The analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the vocabulary knowledge of preschool learners who learnt vocabularies via games, songs, and flashcards. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in the three groups‟ mid-course tests with different topics. The findings recommend that using different techniques in the classroom considering learners‟ interest and needs can improve vocabulary knowledge of young learners.

  3. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  4. An iterative method for Tikhonov regularization with a general linear regularization operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tikhonov regularization is one of the most popular approaches to solve discrete ill-posed problems with error-contaminated data. A regularization operator and a suitable value of a regularization parameter have to be chosen. This paper describes an iterative method, based on Golub-Kahan

  5. Managing Your Classroom for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Harry; Wong, Rosemary; Rogers, Karen; Brooks, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Effective teachers view classroom management as a process of organizing and structuring classroom events for student learning. Creating a well-managed classroom with established procedures is the priority of a teacher the first two weeks of school. In an elementary classroom where each day may have a different array of subjects and at different…

  6. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Hierarchical regular small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)

  9. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  10. Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2010-01-01

    The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.

  11. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  12. Improving Learning Outcomes: The iPad and Preschool Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Chmiliar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The digital age has reached early childhood, and the use of touch screens by young children is common place. Research on the use of touch screen tablets with young children is becoming more prevalent; however, less information is available on the use of touch screen tablets to support young children with disabilities. Touch screen tablets may offer possibilities to preschool children with disabilities to participate in learning in a digital way. The iPad provides easy interaction on the touch screen and access to a multitude of engaging early learning applications. This paper summarizes a pilot study with 8 young children with disabilities included in a preschool classroom, who were given iPads to use in class and at home for a period of 21 weeks. Systematic observations, classroom assessments, and teacher and parent interviews documented the improvements in learning outcomes for each child in many areas including, but not limited to: shape and color recognition, letter recognition, and tracing letters throughout six research cycles.

  13. Improving Learning Outcomes: The iPad and Preschool Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiliar, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The digital age has reached early childhood, and the use of touch screens by young children is common place. Research on the use of touch screen tablets with young children is becoming more prevalent; however, less information is available on the use of touch screen tablets to support young children with disabilities. Touch screen tablets may offer possibilities to preschool children with disabilities to participate in learning in a digital way. The iPad provides easy interaction on the touch screen and access to a multitude of engaging early learning applications. This paper summarizes a pilot study with 8 young children with disabilities included in a preschool classroom, who were given iPads to use in class and at home for a period of 21 weeks. Systematic observations, classroom assessments, and teacher and parent interviews documented the improvements in learning outcomes for each child in many areas including, but not limited to: shape and color recognition, letter recognition, and tracing letters throughout six research cycles.

  14. Classroom Research by Classroom Teachers, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume celebrates teachers as life-long learners of the art of teaching, by presenting 21 action research studies designed and implemented by classroom teachers. A "How To Get Started" section outlines action research steps and offers worksheets. Descriptions of the research studies begin with ethnographic studies, which include "Adopt a…

  15. Diagrammatic methods in phase-space regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Halpern, M.B.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1987-11-01

    Using the scalar prototype and gauge theory as the simplest possible examples, diagrammatic methods are developed for the recently proposed phase-space form of continuum regularization. A number of one-loop and all-order applications are given, including general diagrammatic discussions of the nogrowth theorem and the uniqueness of the phase-space stochastic calculus. The approach also generates an alternate derivation of the equivalence of the large-β phase-space regularization to the more conventional coordinate-space regularization. (orig.)

  16. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  17. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills in community pre-schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks

    2009-09-01

    School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth

  18. Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sjödin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  19. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  20. Mannerisms: A Preschool Practitioner's Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The extent and nature of remediation are said to depend on careful observation of children in the environment. Remedial techniques appropriate for older children must be adapted to meet the individual situation of each preschool visually handicapped child. (Author)

  1. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities......This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  2. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  3. Geometric regularizations and dual conifold transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Lazaroiu, Calin I.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a geometric regularization for the class of conifold transitions relating D-brane systems on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces to certain flux backgrounds. This regularization respects the SL(2,Z) invariance of the flux superpotential, and allows for computation of the relevant periods through the method of Picard-Fuchs equations. The regularized geometry is a noncompact Calabi-Yau which can be viewed as a monodromic fibration, with the nontrivial monodromy being induced by the regulator. It reduces to the original, non-monodromic background when the regulator is removed. Using this regularization, we discuss the simple case of the local conifold, and show how the relevant field-theoretic information can be extracted in this approach. (author)

  4. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  5. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  6. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  7. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  8. Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...

  9. What is science in preschool and what do teachers have to know to empower children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina; Gullberg, Annica

    2014-06-01

    In this article we problematize the purpose of teaching science in preschool and the competences preschool teachers need in order to conduct science activities in the classroom. The empirical data were collected through an action research project with five preschool and primary school teachers (K-6). In the first section of this paper we use one situation, a floating-sinking experiment, as an illustration of how two different epistemological perspectives generate different foci on which kind of science teaching competences can be fruitful in preschool settings. In the first perspective, the central goal of science teaching is the development of the children's conceptual understanding. With this perspective, we found that the science activities with children were unsuccessful, because their thoughts about concepts did not develop as expected, the situation even enhanced a "misconception" concerning density. Moreover, the teacher was unsuccessful in supporting the children's conceptual learning. The second perspective uses a feminist approach that scrutinizes science, where we investigate if the floating-sinking activity contributes to a feeling of participation in a scientific context for the children and if so how the teacher promotes this inclusion. This second perspective showed that the children's scientific proficiency benefited from the situation; they had a positive experience with density which was reinforced by the teacher. The children discovered that they had power over their own learning by using an experimental approach. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that there are competences other than subject matter knowledge that are also important when preschool teachers engage children in scientific activities. Through process-oriented work with the teacher group, we identified four concrete skills: paying attention to and using children's previous experiences; capturing unexpected things that happen at the moment they occur; asking questions that

  10. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  11. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role of part...

  12. Who Goes to Preschool and Why Does It Matter? Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Yarosz, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    In a world shaped by global competition, preschool education programs play an increasingly vital role in child development and school readiness. There is growing awareness that early learning's impacts persist across children's life spans, affecting educational achievement, adult earning and even crime and delinquency. Preschool education is…

  13. Hidden Spaces and Places in the Preschool: Withdrawal Strategies in Preschool Children's Peer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…

  14. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more…

  15. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  16. For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

  17. Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  18. Goodbye Classrooms (Redux).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the location of corporate training in view of modern technology. Indicates that training will be brought out of the classroom and to the work station. Describes training programs offered at several large corporations. (JOW)

  19. Classroom -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. ! Energy transfer in an elastic collision. One may intuitively feel that in an elastic ...

  20. Constructive Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Norin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews classroom management strategies that are child-centered and consistent with constructivist approaches to education, in which teachers create situations that facilitate learning. Describes strategies including techniques for establishing dialog, cognitive interventions (including self management and conflict resolution), cognitive…