WorldWideScience

Sample records for regular flavor fluoride

  1. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  2. Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalescence® ... Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  3. Heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs

  4. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  5. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  6. Flavor physics without flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.

    2018-04-01

    We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.

  7. Fluoride analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C S

    1963-01-01

    The methods and procedures for the detection and estimation of fluoride are varied and numerous. The problems of sampling, contamination, and loss in sampling waters, plant and animal tissues and atmospheres are discussed, along with brief descriptors of methods most commonly used. Techniques for separating fluorides from matrixes are discussed, as well as gravimetric, calorimetric, and spectrophotometric analytical techniques.

  8. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  9. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed

  10. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... return on investment for community water fluoridation (including productivity losses) ranged from $4 in small communities of ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  11. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  13. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...

  14. Scandium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, P.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A new modification of scandium fluoride has been synthesised. The compound is deficient in fluorine, with the composition ScF 2.76 . It belongs to the tetragonal system, lattice parameters being a=3.792 and c=6.740 A and may be obtained at low temperatures by the decomposition of the precursor NH 4 ScF 4 . The reaction is topotactic, tetragonal parameters of the precursor are a=4.021 and c=6.744 A. Structural relationships with various fluorides and ammonium aminofluorides are discussed. This synthesis route with IR-assisted decomposition should be considered as a soft-chemistry approach. (orig.)

  15. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception.......Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...

  16. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  17. Flavor physics and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Lectures on flavor physics presented at the 2012 CERN HEP Summer School. Content: 1) flavor physics within the Standard Model, 2) phenomenology of B and D decays, 3) flavor physics beyond the Standard Model

  18. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  19. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  20. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated

  1. Fluoride uptake into the developing enamel and dentine of sheep incisors following daily ingestion of fluoridated milk or water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttress, T.W.; Suckling, G.W.; Gao, J.; Coote, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The caries preventive action of fluoride is common knowledge, although some of the mechanisms involved remain equivocal. At present, raised local levels of fluoride at, or in, the surface of tooth enamel is the most commonly accepted explanation of the anti-cariogenic action of fluoride. However, fluoride incorporated as fluorapatite into the tooth during its formation remains a possible alternative or complementary anti-cariogenic mechanism. If so, regular ingestion of fluoride during tooth formation is beneficial. Although use of fluoridated water is the preferred method in public health programmes, access to suitable potable water is required, and often this in not feasible. Fresh, preserved, or dried cow's milk products are widely used as nutritional and dietary items in most populations, particularly for young children. Milk is a practical, controllable means for regular delivery of fluoride. Processing of milk is commonly centralised and uses standardised conditions, allowing easy supplementation of fluoride for distribution to communities. The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of availability of fluoride ingested in milk compared with fluoride ingested in water by measuring fluoride deposition in the developing permanent incisors of young sheep. Incisors were analysed using a proton microprobe. (author). 18 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-09-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. Interest in this field may be provisionally divided into two general classes: Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states; open flavor states: The D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; and charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note we emphasize that there are many missing states in both categories -- states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to us would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular states. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner bar B decay remains to be seen. We suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  3. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-01-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. (I) Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states. (II) Open flavor states (a) the D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; (b) Charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note the authors emphasize that there are many missing (undiscovered) states in both categories - states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to the authors would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular status. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner B decay remains to be seen. The authors suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undetermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  4. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  5. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  6. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...... symmetry G_f, with a non-abelian G_f as well as theories with non-abelian G_f and CP....

  7. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind

  8. Simple picture for neutrino flavor transformation in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Fuller, George M.; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2007-10-01

    We can understand many recently discovered features of flavor evolution in dense, self-coupled supernova neutrino and antineutrino systems with a simple, physical scheme consisting of two quasistatic solutions. One solution closely resembles the conventional, adiabatic single-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism, in that neutrinos and antineutrinos remain in mass eigenstates as they evolve in flavor space. The other solution is analogous to the regular precession of a gyroscopic pendulum in flavor space, and has been discussed extensively in recent works. Results of recent numerical studies are best explained with combinations of these solutions in the following general scenario: (1) Near the neutrino sphere, the MSW-like many-body solution obtains. (2) Depending on neutrino vacuum mixing parameters, luminosities, energy spectra, and the matter density profile, collective flavor transformation in the nutation mode develops and drives neutrinos away from the MSW-like evolution and toward regular precession. (3) Neutrino and antineutrino flavors roughly evolve according to the regular precession solution until neutrino densities are low. In the late stage of the precession solution, a stepwise swapping develops in the energy spectra of νe and νμ/ντ. We also discuss some subtle points regarding adiabaticity in flavor transformation in dense-neutrino systems.

  9. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, BJ; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. INTERVENTIONS: One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per...... in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program....

  10. Multisensory flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.W.; Nestor, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for producing large, single, oriented crystals of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) has been developed which overcomes the limitations of current growing methods. This process has been reduced to practice and has yielded oriented crystals 17.5 x 17.5 x 5 cm 3 . Currently nearing completion is a system for producing 35 x 35 x 7.5 cm 3 single crystals. A scale up to one-meter-square is considered feasible. This crystal growing process makes possible the fabrication of very large CaF 2 windows. Suitability for very high power lasers, however, requires attention to properties beyond mere size. A process to generate higher purity growth stock (starting material) was also developed. The additional purification of the growth stock contributes to lower bulk absorption, the absence of color centers and increased radiation hardness. Also identified were several specific impurities which correlate with radiation hardness. A correlation was found between color centers induced by laser radiation and ionizing radiation. Other CaF 2 crystal properties such as tensile strength, absorption and laser damage thresholds were studied and are discussed

  12. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ... solid-phase micro extraction procedures. It also presents important updates on GC-olfactometry as a tool for studying flavor synergy effects"-- "Sample preparation techniques for isolating and concentrating flavor and odor-active chemicals...

  13. Story of Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Info Health Topics Fluoride Share The Story of Fluoridation It started as an observation, that ... this time using photospectrographic analysis, a more sophisticated technology than that used by McKay. Churchill asked an ...

  14. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  15. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  16. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  17. Lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D. Brooks, M.; Hogan, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    The connection of rare decays to supersymmetric grand unification is highlighted, and a review of the status of rare decay experiments is given. Plans for future investigations of processes that violate lepton flavor are discussed. A new result from the MEGA experiment, a search for μ + → e + γ, is reported to be B.R. -11 with 90% confidence

  18. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  19. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  20. The mystery of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed

  1. Fluoride metabolism in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R; Shorthouse, M

    1964-04-04

    Grass seedlings exposed to inorganic fluoride solutions do not take up appreciable amounts of fluoride until concentrations of more than 1.0 mM (19 p.p.m.) are used. No formation of organic fluoride has been found, even with exposure to 15.75 mM fluoride, indicating that there is no formation of fluoroacetate or similar compounds. 8 references, 2 tables.

  2. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  3. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Nk, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet; Nagpal, Rashmi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-04

    Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and fragrances, it is valuable to have a repository of flavor molecules, their natural sources, physicochemical properties, and sensory responses. FlavorDB (http://cosylab.iiitd.edu.in/flavordb) comprises of 25,595 flavor molecules representing an array of tastes and odors. Among these 2254 molecules are associated with 936 natural ingredients belonging to 34 categories. The dynamic, user-friendly interface of the resource facilitates exploration of flavor molecules for divergent applications: finding molecules matching a desired flavor or structure; exploring molecules of an ingredient; discovering novel food pairings; finding the molecular essence of food ingredients; associating chemical features with a flavor and more. Data-driven studies based on FlavorDB can pave the way for an improved understanding of flavor mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Flavored quantum Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Lee, Christopher; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Tulin, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We derive from first principles, using nonequilibrium field theory, the quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the dynamics of flavor oscillations, collisions, and a time-dependent mass matrix in the early universe. Working to leading nontrivial order in ratios of relevant time scales, we study in detail a toy model for weak-scale baryogenesis: two scalar species that mix through a slowly varying time-dependent and CP-violating mass matrix, and interact with a thermal bath. This model clearly illustrates how the CP asymmetry arises through coherent flavor oscillations in a nontrivial background. We solve the Boltzmann equations numerically for the density matrices, investigating the impact of collisions in various regimes.

  5. The mystery of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  7. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  8. Behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.A.; Klokman, V.R.; Morozova, Z.E.; Ziv, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products (europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium) in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides. It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride

  9. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  10. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ...)-olfactometry, and electronic-nose technology, this new edition discusses the significant advantage of these methods for flavor and odor studies in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries...

  11. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    .... Written from a practical, problem-solving perspective, it discusses the chemical structures of key flavor and fragrance compounds, contains numerous examples and chromatograms, and emphasizes novel...

  12. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  13. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  14. Low-levels of fluoride in plaque and saliva and their effects on the demineralisation and remineralisation of enamel; role of fluoride toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, R J M; Navada, R; Walia, R

    2004-01-01

    To summarise support for current consensus on the likely means by which fluoride toothpastes reduce caries and review some relevant studies of the effect of low levels of fluoride on the demineralisation and remineralisation of enamel. The major anti-caries effect of fluoride toothpastes is thought to result from small but protracted elevations in levels of fluoride in plaque and saliva. Fluoride incorporated into enamel systemically does not reduce enamel solubility sufficiently to exert an anti-caries effect. Fluoride has the potential to exert an anti-caries benefit largely through three mechanisms; inhibition of demineralisation, promotion of remineralisation and interference with bacterial growth and metabolism. However, the low levels of fluoride thought to influence caries are insufficient to have a significant effect via the latter mechanism. Thus reductions in caries resulting from the use of fluoride toothpastes can be linked to modification of the demineralisation/remineralisation balance by direct effects on dental mineral exerted topically by low levels of fluoride. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that low levels of fluoride, typical of those found after many hours in resting plaque and saliva, and resulting from the regular use of fluoride toothpastes, can have a profound effect on enamel demineralisation and remineralisation.

  15. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  16. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yasamichi; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2017-06-18

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  17. The flavor-locked flavorful two Higgs doublet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Robinson, Dean J.; Tuckler, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new framework to generate the Standard Model (SM) quark flavor hierarchies in the context of two Higgs doublet models (2HDM). The `flavorful' 2HDM couples the SM-like Higgs doublet exclusively to the third quark generation, while the first two generations couple exclusively to an additional source of electroweak symmetry breaking, potentially generating striking collider signatures. We synthesize the flavorful 2HDM with the `flavor-locking' mechanism, that dynamically generates large quark mass hierarchies through a flavor-blind portal to distinct flavon and hierarchon sectors: dynamical alignment of the flavons allows a unique hierarchon to control the respective quark masses. We further develop the theoretical construction of this mechanism, and show that in the context of a flavorful 2HDM-type setup, it can automatically achieve realistic flavor structures: the CKM matrix is automatically hierarchical with | V cb | and | V ub | generically of the observed size. Exotic contributions to meson oscillation observables may also be generated, that may accommodate current data mildly better than the SM itself.

  18. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  19. Flavored model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S 4 , the dihedral group D 5 and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, √((m d )/(m s ))= vertical stroke V us vertical stroke and √((m d )/(m s ))= vertical stroke (V td )/(V ts ) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D n and D' n . As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle θ C , i.e. vertical stroke V us(cd) vertical stroke cos((3π)/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, θ 23 =(π)/(4), and vanishing θ 13 in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  20. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  1. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Kata Rošin-Grget; Kristina Peroš; Ivana Šutej; Krešimir Bašić

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F–) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard t...

  2. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; NK, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and ...

  3. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes......The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...

  4. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  5. Preparation of bromine fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-01

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided

  6. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  7. The flavoring of the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.W.; Manesis, E.K.

    1977-03-01

    A theoretical review and a detailed phenomenological description of the 'flavoring' of the bare Pomeron pole at t=0 (i.e. the non-diffractive renormalization of its multiperipheral unitarity sum by strange quarks, charmed quarks, diquarks,...) are presented. From an 'unflavored' intercept α=0.85 to a 'flavored' intercept α approximately 1.08, probably close to the bare intercept of the Reggeon Field Theory. NN, πN, and KN total cross sections and real to imaginary amplitude ratios are treated. No oscillations are observed. Particular attention is paid to 2 sigmasub(KN) - sigmasub(πN) which rises monotonically. A closely related combination of inelastic diffraction cross sections is presented which decreases monotonically, indicating that vacuum amplitudes are not simply the sum of a Pomeron pole and an ideally mixed f. In fact it is argued that a Pomeron +f structure is neither compatible with flavoring nor with schemes in which flavoring is somehow absorbed away. In contrast, flavoring is required for consistency with experiment by the Chew-Rosenzweig hypothesis of the Pomeron-f identity. A description of flavoring threshold effects on the Reggeon Field Theory at current energies is presented

  8. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G.; Hansen, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency Δ m 2 /2E. However, even in the simple case of a ν e beam interacting with an opposite-moving ν-bar e beam, and allowing for spatial inhomogeneities, the growth rate of the fastest-growing Fourier mode is of order μ=√2 G F  n ν , a typical ν–ν interaction energy. This growth rate is much larger than the vacuum oscillation frequency and gives rise to flavor conversion on a much shorter time scale. This phenomenon of 'fast flavor conversion' occurs even for vanishing Δ m 2 /2E and thus does not depend on energy, but only on the angle distributions. Moreover, it does not require neutrinos to mix or to have masses, except perhaps for providing seed disturbances. We also construct a simple homogeneous example consisting of intersecting beams and study a schematic supernova model proposed by Ray Sawyer, where ν e and ν-bar e emerge with different zenith-angle distributions, the key ingredient for fast flavor conversion. What happens in realistic astrophysical scenarios remains to be understood

  9. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014. Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  10. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  11. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  12. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Rošin-Grget

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F– into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard tissue. The source of this fluoride could either be fluorapatite (formed due to the incorporation of fluoride into enamel or calcium fluoride (CaF2-like precipitates, which are formed on the enamel and in the plaque after application of topical fluoride. Calcium fluoride deposits are protected from rapid dissolution by a phosphate –protein coating of salivary origin. At lower pH, the coating is lost and an increased dissolution rate of calcium fluoride occurs. The CaF2, therefore, act as an efficient source of free fluoride ions during the cariogenic challenge. The current evidence indicates that fluoride has a direct and indirect effect on bacterial cells, although the in vivo implications of this are still not clear. Conclusion. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the action of fluoride is very important for caries prevention and control. The effectiveness of fluoride as a cariostatic agent depends on the availability of free fluoride in plaque during cariogenic challenge, i.e. during acid production. Thus, a constant supply of low levels of fluoride in biofilm/saliva/dental interference is considered the most beneficial in preventing dental caries.

  13. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošin-Grget, Kata; Peroš, Kristina; Sutej, Ivana; Bašić, Krešimir

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F-) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard tissue. The source of this fluoride could either be fluorapatite (formed due to the incorporation of fluoride into enamel) or calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like precipitates, which are formed on the enamel and in the plaque after application of topical fluoride. Calcium fluoride deposits are protected from rapid dissolution by a phosphate -protein coating of salivary origin. At lower pH, the coating is lost and an increased dissolution rate of calcium fluoride occurs. The CaF2, therefore, act as an efficient source of free fluoride ions during the cariogenic challenge. The current evidence indicates that fluoride has a direct and indirect effect on bacterial cells, although the in vivo implications of this are still not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the action of fluoride is very important for caries prevention and control. The effectiveness of fluoride as a cariostatic agent depends on the availability of free fluoride in plaque during cariogenic challenge, i.e. during acid production. Thus, a constant supply of low levels of fluoride in biofilm/saliva/dental interference is considered the most beneficial in preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  14. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  15. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of tooth decay" on the label. The Controversy Over Fluoride Opponents of water fluoridation have questioned ... Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit ...

  16. Lepton-flavor violating mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galon, Iftah; Kwa, Anna [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California,Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Tanedo, Philip [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-03-13

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV γ-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  17. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  18. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride has been used as the most effective anti-caries agent for over five decades. It functions not only on the dental hard tissues, but also as an antimicrobial agent. It is known that oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride, which may affect the effectiveness of fluoride in

  19. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  20. Flavorful Ways to New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The workshop is intended to bring together young PhD students and postdocs with international renown representatives of the field of flavor physics. The workshop is specifically intended for PhD students and young postdocs. The overview talks about four big topics in flavor physics are given by international experts. The informal atmosphere should lead to fruitful discussions between the young and the experienced scientists. Furthermore, the participants themselves are invited to present their own work. Thus all young academics will get insights into selected fields of current research.

  1. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  2. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  3. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. AIM: To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare...... the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste....... After a 1-week run-in period, 0.1 mL of the two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Profluorid Varnish) was topically applied in a randomized order. Baseline and experimental urine was collected during 6-h periods. The fluoride content was determined with an ion-sensitive electrode. RESULTS...

  4. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the in vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. Poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks (Perspex, n=3 per group) were painted with 80 ± 5 mg fluoride varnish (n=10) and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Then, blocks were placed into either 1% citric acid (pH 2.27) or 0.3% citric acid (pH 3.75) solutions (n=3 per solution and varnish) for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. Saliva and acid solutions were analyzed for fluoride content. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA (varnish, solution, time). The three-way interaction was significant (p>0.0001). Fluoride release and release patterns varied considerably between varnishes. Fluoride release in saliva varied by a factor of more than 10 between varnishes. Some varnishes (CavityShield, Nupro, ProFluorid, Vanish) showed higher fluoride release in saliva than during the first 5 min of acid exposure, whereas other varnishes (Acclean, Enamel-Pro, MI Varnish, Vella) showed the opposite behavior. There was little difference between acidic solutions. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varies considerably and also depends on the dissolution medium. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the consumption of acidic drinks after fluoride varnish application should be avoided to optimize the benefit/risk ratio.

  5. Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jared A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-07-08

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  6. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  7. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  8. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueji, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction) or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure) signal (unconditioned stimulus, US), animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning) are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammillary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  9. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ≅ mt/mb ≅ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models

  10. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Santopinto, E.

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  11. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  12. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p......H and available fluoride concentration with equilibrium being achieved within 24 h. A site activation process involving the uptake of fluoride was also observed at the initial stages of sorption. This behaviour was attributed to a layer expansion process of the clay during sorption. The maximum fluoride sorption...... capacity was found to be 18.3 meq/100 g at pH 6 and 8.6 meq/100 g at pH 7. A competitive Langmuir sorption isotherm where sorption is dependant on both pH and fluoride concentration is employed to characterise the experimental sorption and desorption data. The sorption and desorption isotherms revealed...

  14. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of ‘Fluoride and Oral Health’ has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fl uoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published...

  15. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e + e - annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  16. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and C P -violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified, where a strongly coupled conformal field theory is achieved after SUSY is softly broken. The defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and tau production at the LHC, accompanied by large missing energy. Also, direct detection signals of dark matter may be more challenging to find than in conventional SUSY scenarios.

  17. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  18. Flavor symmetry in the large Nc limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, G.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Lipkin, H.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1991-01-01

    An essential difference between two-flavor and three-flavor descriptions of baryons in large N c QCD is discussed in detail. For N c ≥3 a state with the SU(3) flavor quantum numbers of the proton must contain a number of strange quarks n s ≥(N c -3)/3, while a state with no strange quarks must have extra hypercharge Y-1 = 3/N c -1. The extra strangeness or extra hypercharge which vanishes for N c = 3 is spurious for the physical proton. This problem does not arise in two-flavor QCD, where the flavor-SU(2) Skyrmion may give a good approximation for nucleon-pion physics at low energies below strangeness threshold. But any nucleon model with SU(3) flavor symmetry which is interpreted as arising from the large N c limit in QCD can lead to erroneous conclusions about the spin and flavor structure of the proton. 12 refs

  19. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  20. Flavor Beyond the Standard Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Soreq, Yotam

    2012-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the observed pattern of quark masses is the consequence of a statistical distribution of Yukawa couplings within the multiverse. We employ the anthropic condition that only two ultra light quarks exist, justifying the observed richness of organic chemistry. Moreover, the mass of the recently discovered Higgs boson suggests that the top Yukawa coupling lies near the critical condition where the electroweak vacuum becomes unstable, leading to a new kind of flavor puzzle and to a new anthropic condition. We scan Yukawa couplings according to distributions motivated by high-scale flavor dynamics and find cases in which our pattern of quark masses has a plausible probability within the multiverse. Finally we show that, under some assumptions, these distributions can significantly ameliorate the runaway behavior leading to weakless universes.

  1. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare decays is presented.

  2. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  3. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  4. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  5. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  6. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  7. Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors

  8. Flavor changing Z0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, A.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of the Z 0 , the particle mediating the weak neutral interaction of the SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) electroweak theory, is anxiously awaited and is expected to occur at the next generation of accelerators. Large projected Z 0 production rates will make the study of rare decay modes possible. The predicted sixth quark flavor, or top, has also not been discovered and may be too heavy to produce by t anti t. Therefore it is natural to study the feasibility of producing the top quark via a flavor changing neutral current decay process such as t anti c. Flavor changing neutral currents are also of interest for the constraints on theories that they give. For three generations, the branching ratios are found to be no larger than about 10 -10 , thus essentially ruling out discovery of the top quark by this process. If there is a fourth generation, however, a supermassive b' quark can greatly increase the rates. As the b' mass is varied from 25 GeV to 1 TeV, and for reasonable choices of the other parameters, the branching ratios can be as large as about 10 -8 to about 10 -3 . A potential form of CP violation is also considered in that latter case, but is small

  9. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, H [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fuller, G M [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Carlson, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: hduan@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: carlson@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}.

  10. Flavorful leptoquarks at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Nišandžić, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    B -physics data and flavor symmetries suggest that leptoquarks can have masses as low as a few O (TeV ) , predominantly decay to third generation quarks, and highlight p p →b μ μ signatures from single production and p p →b b μ μ from pair production. Abandoning flavor symmetries could allow for inverted quark hierarchies and cause sizable p p →j μ μ and j j μ μ cross sections, induced by second generation couplings. Final states with leptons other than muons including lepton flavor violation (LFV) ones can also arise. The corresponding couplings can also be probed by precision studies of the B →(Xs,K*,ϕ )e e distribution and LFV searches in B -decays. We demonstrate sensitivity in single leptoquark production for the large hadron collider (LHC) and extrapolate to the high luminosity LHC. Exploration of the bulk of the parameter space requires a hadron collider beyond the reach of the LHC, with b -identification capabilities.

  11. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  12. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm

  13. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  14. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar Vineet; Bhatnagar Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralizat...

  15. Fluoride varnish reduces white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Imran

    2008-01-01

    This was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) set in a community dental practice. The test varnish was a commercially available product, Fluor Protector (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), containing 0.1% fluoride as difluorosilane in a polyurethane varnish base. The placebo varnish applied had an identical composition but without fluoride. The incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions (WSL) on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars were recorded, as scored from digital photographs by two independent examiners. In the case of disagreement, cases were re-examined until a consensus was achieved. The incidence of WSL during the treatment period was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish group compared with 25.3% placebo group (P <0.001). The mean progression score was significantly lower in the fluoride varnish group than in the placebo group, (0.8 +/- 2.0 vs 2.6 +/- 2.8; P <0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 18% and the number-needed-to-treat was calculated to be 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-10.9). The results strongly suggest that regular topical fluoride varnish applications may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base during treatment with fixed appliances.

  16. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  17. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep...... constitute important constraints on models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and unparticle physics....

  18. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavor physics and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  20. Heavy flavor measurements and new physics searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in measuring and theoretically understanding flavor-changing processes, and the corresponding constraints derived on possible extensions of the Standard Model (SM). A clear message emerges from present data: if physics beyond the SM is not far from the TeV scale (hence it is directly accessible with present and future high-energy facilities), it must have a highly non-trivial flavor structure in order to satisfy the existing low-energy flavor-physics bounds. However, this structure has not been clearly identified yet and its investigation is the main purpose of future experiments in flavor physics

  1. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Del Razo, Luz María

    2010-11-05

    Halfway through the twentieth century, fluoride piqued the interest of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and in in vivo experimental models. Until the 1990s, the toxicity of fluoride was largely ignored due to its "good reputation" for preventing caries via topical application and in dental toothpastes. However, in the last decade, interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. In recent years, several investigations demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress and modulate intracellular redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, as well as alter gene expression and cause apoptosis. Genes modulated by fluoride include those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications and signal transduction. The primary purpose of this review is to examine recent findings from our group and others that focus on the molecular mechanisms of the action of inorganic fluoride in several cellular processes with respect to potential physiological and toxicological implications. This review presents an overview of the current research on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on biological targets and their possible mechanisms of involvement in fluoride cytotoxicity. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which fluoride affects cells, with an emphasis on tissue-specific events in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Root caries prevention via sodium fluoride, chlorhexidine and silver diamine fluoride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göstemeyer, Gerd; Kohls, Anna; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk

    2018-01-31

    Uncertainty exists as to how to best prevent root caries development. The aim of the present study was to compare sodium fluoride (NaF), chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnishes (V) and rinses (R) regarding their caries preventive effect in an artificial caries biofilm model. 140 bovine root dentin samples were cut, polished and embedded. Samples were allocated to seven treatment groups (n = 20/group): Four varnishes (applied once prior biofilm challenge): 38% SDF (SDFV), 35% CHX-varnish (CHXV), 22,600 ppm NaF-varnish (NaFV), placebo-varnish (PV); two rinses (applied once daily during biofilm challenge): 500 ppm NaF solution (NaFR), 0.1% CHX solution (CHXR); one untreated group. Caries was induced in a multi-station, continuous-culture Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) biofilm model. Bacteria were inoculated 1 × daily, while 2% sucrose was supplied 8 ×/day followed by artificial saliva for 10 min. After 12 days, mineral loss (ΔZ) was measured in the effect area and adjacent to the varnished areas. Bacterial counts were assessed on de-Man-Rogosa-Sharpe agar. ΔZ was significantly lower in the NaFR group compared with all other groups. Varnishes did not significantly prevent mineral loss in adjacent areas. None of the agents had a significant antimicrobial effect on LGG. Regular fluoride rinses showed highest root caries-preventive effect.

  3. An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüsemann, Erna Johanna Zegerina; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors

  4. Bootstrap bound for conformal multi-flavor QCD on lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-07-08

    The recent work by Iha et al. shows an upper bound on mass anomalous dimension γ{sub m} of multi-flavor massless QCD at the renormalization group fixed point from the conformal bootstrap in SU(N{sub F}){sub V} symmetric conformal field theories under the assumption that the fixed point is realizable with the lattice regularization based on staggered fermions. We show that the almost identical but slightly stronger bound applies to the regularization based on Wilson fermions (or domain wall fermions) by studying the conformal bootstrap in SU(N{sub f}){sub L}×SU(N{sub f}){sub R} symmetric conformal field theories. For N{sub f}=8, our bound implies γ{sub m}<1.31 to avoid dangerously irrelevant operators that are not compatible with the lattice symmetry.

  5. The influence of salivary variables on fluoride retention in dental plaque exposed to a mineral-enriching solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Nakagaki, H; Arai, K; Pearce, E I F

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine interindividual differences in salivary variables related to plaque accumulation and to estimate their influence on the fluoride retention in plaque in vivo by a mineral-enriching solution. Two saliva samples were taken from 10 subjects, once after brushing and once after 24 h without brushing. Calcium, phosphate and monofluorophosphatase (MFPase) activity in the saliva samples were determined. The salivary flow rate and the debris index were also recorded. After plaque had formed over 3 days within in situ plaque-generating devices, subjects were instructed to rinse with a mineral-enriching mouthrinse three times a day on 4 consecutive days. Plaque exposed to distilled water plus flavoring agents served as a control. Fluoride-free dentifrice was used during the experimental period. Twenty-four hours after the last rinsing, the samples were removed from the mouth, and fluoride and mineral distributions in plaque analyzed using a method previously reported by the authors. Salivary flow, MFPase activity and calcium concentration in saliva were significantly higher after 24 h of plaque accumulation. Rinsing with the mineral-enriching solution produced retention of fluoride and phosphate in the outer and middle layers of plaque. Salivary calcium concentration had a direct effect on fluoride uptake in plaque, but no obvious relationship was found between other salivary variables and the plaque fluoride retention. The salivary calcium effect may be due to enhanced bacterial cell wall binding of fluoride via calcium bridging. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  7. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  8. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  9. Growth of fluoride treated Kalanchoe pinnata plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H N; Applegate, H G

    1962-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata plants can absorb fluoride through roots. The absorption is related to the amount of fluoride applied to the soil. There appeared to be a relationship between the amount of fluoride adsorbed and the subsequent growth of the plants. Plants which adsorbed the largest amounts of fluoride had the greatest increase in growth.

  10. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  11. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hypercentral constituent quark model; charmed and beauty baryons; hyper-Coulomb plus power potential. Abstract. Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement ...

  12. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi, A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-01-01

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era

  15. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  16. A flavor sector for the composite Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchi, Luca, E-mail: vecchi@lanl.gov

    2013-11-25

    We discuss flavor violation in large N Composite Higgs models. We focus on scenarios in which the masses of the Standard Model fermions are controlled by hierarchical mixing parameters, as in models of Partial Compositeness. We argue that a separation of scales between flavor and Higgs dynamics can be employed to parametrically suppress dipole and penguin operators, and thus effectively remove the experimental constraints arising from the lepton sector and the neutron EDM. The dominant source of flavor violation beyond the Standard Model is therefore controlled by 4-fermion operators, whose Wilson coefficients can be made compatible with data provided the Higgs dynamics approaches a “walking” regime in the IR. Models consistent with all flavor and electroweak data can be obtained with a new physics scale within the reach of the LHC. Explicit scenarios may be realized in a 5D framework, the new key ingredient being the introduction of flavor branes where the wave functions of the bulk fermions end.

  17. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2007-11-01

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b→s(d) transition observables in B d and B s decays, taking the constraint from the B s - anti B s mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes μ → eγ, τ → μγ and τ → eγ for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  18. FLUORIDE TOXICITY – A HARSH REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bandlapalli Pavani; Mandava Ragini; David Banji; Otilia J F Banji; N Gouri Pratusha

    2011-01-01

    There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflec...

  19. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  20. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  1. Lepton flavor non-conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Leontaris, G.K.; Vergados, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we review the most prominent lepton flavor violating processes (μ → eγ, μ → 3e, (μ - , e -) conversion, M - M oscillations etc.), in the context of unified gauge theories. Many currently fashionable extensions of the standard model are considered, such as: i) extensions of the fermion sector (right-handed neutrino); ii) minimal extensions involving additional Higgs scalars (more than one isodoublets, singly and doubly charged isosinglets, isotriplets with doubly charged members etc.); iii) supersymmetric or superstring inspired unified models emphasizing the implications of the renormalization group equations in the leptonic sector. Special attention is given to the experimentally most interesting (μ - , e - ) conversion in the presence of nuclei. The relevant nuclear aspects of the amplitudes are discussed in a number of fashionable nuclear models. The main features of the relevant experiments are also discussed, and detailed predictions of the above models are compared to the present experimental limits. (Author)

  2. Searches for lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1986-01-01

    The search for lepton flavor violation has reached considerable sensitivity, but with only null results so far. The experiments are sensitive to new particle in the 1 to 100 TeV range arising in a variety of theories, although the constraints on the masses of such particles improve only as the inverse fourth power of branching ratios. Presenting, neutrinoless μe conversion in the field of a nucleus provides the most serious constraints for many models. New experiments on rare kaon decays γe conversion and μ → eγ will result in improved sensitivity in the next few years. Ignoring theoretical prejudice, it is important to study many different processes in the hope uncovering some new effects

  3. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liang [Hebei Normal University, Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China); Qiao, Cong-Feng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub bs} x [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub du} tetraquark currents with J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m{sub s}, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle. (orig.)

  4. Beryllium production using beryllium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, Carlos Henrique

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the beryllium production by thermal decomposition of the ammonium beryllium fluoride, followed by magnesium reduction, obtained in the small pilot plant of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - Nuclear Engineering Institute

  5. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  6. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  7. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek [Fermilab,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD, 20742-4111 (United States); Kilic, Can [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway Stop C1608, Austin, TX, 78712-1197 (United States); Verhaaren, Christopher B. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD, 20742-4111 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In such a scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. For dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. The next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.

  8. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele; Weiler, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3) U x SU(3) D which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  9. A flavor protection for warped Higgsless models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Curtin, David

    2009-01-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D Higgsless models on a Randall-Sundrum (RS) background, and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) which satisfies electroweak and flavor constraints. The 'new custodially protected representation' is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and an 'RS-GIM' mechanism for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual Higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero-mode approximation, which are significant for Higgsless-type models.

  10. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  11. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enam...

  12. Enhancement of Saharan groundwater quality by reducing its fluoride concentration using different materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ramdani, Amina

    2014-04-15

    According to the environmental protection regulations, fluoride concentration is considered as a substance of priority for assessment of drinking water quality to determine their impacts on the environment and public health. Saharan groundwater (Algeria) contains an excess of fluoride ions. Regular consumption of this water by the population of the region may cause endemic fluorosis. To solve this problem, we propose to treat this water by adsorption on different materials, such as activated alumina (AA), sodium clay (SC), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in order to enhance its quality by reducing its fluoride concentration. The maximum adsorption is achieved with an adsorption capacity of the order of 0.9, 0.667, and 0.370 mg/g and with a percentage of 90, 83.4, and 73.95% for AA, HAP, and SC, respectively. Indeed, the acidity and alkalinity of the medium significantly affect the adsorption of fluoride ions. Results deduced from the curves of adsorption isotherms of fluoride ions showed that the retention is predictable from these isotherms in agreement with the Langmuir model. The low removal of fluoride ions was observed in presence of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) ions. Finally, AA material proved to be the best adsorbent for fluoride ions removal. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. (S3)3 theories of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    The author presents a supersymmetric theory of flavor based on the discrete flavor group (S 3 ) 3 . The model can account for the masses and mixing angles of the standard model, while maintaining sufficient sfermion degeneracy to evade the supersymmetric flavor problem. The author demonstrates that the model has a viable phenomenology and makes one very striking prediction: the nucleon decays predominantly to Kl where l is a first generation lepton. He shows that the modes n → K 0 bar ν e , p → K + bar ν e , and p → K 0 e + occur at comparable rates, and could well be discovered simultaneously at the SuperKamiokande experiment

  14. Topological phase in two flavor neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Poonam

    2009-01-01

    We show that the phase appearing in neutrino flavor oscillation formulae has a geometric and topological contribution. We identify a topological phase appearing in the two flavor neutrino oscillation formula using Pancharatnam's prescription of quantum collapses between nonorthogonal states. Such quantum collapses appear naturally in the expression for appearance and survival probabilities of neutrinos. Our analysis applies to neutrinos propagating in vacuum or through matter. For the minimal case of two flavors with CP conservation, our study shows for the first time that there is a geometric interpretation of the neutrino oscillation formulae for the detection probability of neutrino species.

  15. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three- body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index υ. The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, J P = 1/2 + and 3/2 + baryons are computed for different power indices, υ starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index υ = 1.0. (author)

  16. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  17. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  18. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  19. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  2. Flavored Tobacco Product Use in Youth and Adults: Findings From the First Wave of the PATH Study (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Ambrose, Bridget K; Cummings, K Michael; Stanton, Cassandra A; Rose, Shyanika W; Feirman, Shari P; Tworek, Cindy; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cohn, Amy M; Conway, Kevin P; Niaura, Raymond S; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013-2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use. Current flavored (including menthol) tobacco product use was highest in youth (80%, aged 12-17 years); and young adult tobacco users (73%, aged 18-24 years); and lowest in older adult tobacco users aged ≥65 years (29%). Flavor was a primary reason for using a given tobacco product, particularly among youth. Eighty-one percent of youth and 86% of young adult ever tobacco users reported that their first product was flavored versus 54% of adults aged ≥25 years. In multivariable models, reporting that one's first tobacco product was flavored was associated with a 13% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among youth ever tobacco users and a 32% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among adult ever users. These results add to the evidence base that flavored tobacco products may attract young users and serve as starter products to regular tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Progress in Flavor Physics (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We present a pedagogical introduction to quark flavor physics, within and beyond the Standard Model. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenology of B and D decays, in view of recent and possible future results at the LHC experiments.

  4. Theoretically palatable flavor combinations of astrophysical neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio

    2015-07-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  5. Prospects in lepton-flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental situation regarding lepton-flavor conservation is reviewed and upcoming experiments are described. It is concluded that future improvements in experimental sensitivities will require higher flux, higher quality muon and kaon beams

  6. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periments have generated much interest in the spectroscopy of heavy flavor baryons ... the point of view of simple systems to study three-body problems. ..... One of the authors (PCV) acknowledges the financial support from the University.

  7. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín

    2016-12-20

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  8. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  9. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  10. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  11. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  12. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3 He), the A and A * phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A * phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A * phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  13. LHC benchmarks from flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ierushalmi, N.; Iwamoto, S.; Lee, G.; Nepomnyashy, V.; Shadmi, Y. [Physics Department, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology,Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-07-12

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark — stop, scharm, or sup — is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. Even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM’s are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  14. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On flavor violation for massive and mixed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Capolupo, A.; Ji, C.R.; Vitiello, G.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss flavor charges and states for interacting mixed neutrinos in QFT. We show that the Pontecorvo states are not eigenstates of the flavor charges. This implies that their use in describing the flavor neutrinos produces a violation of lepton charge conservation in the production/detection vertices. The flavor states defined as eigenstates of the flavor charges give the correct representation of mixed neutrinos in charged current weak interaction processes.

  16. Fluoride level in saliva after bonding orthodontic brackets with a fluoride containing adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Arends, J; Helseth, H; Dijkman, G; vanderKuijl, M

    The fluoride level in saliva is considered an important parameter in caries prevention. Elevation of the salivary fluoride level by a fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesive would most likely be beneficial in the prevention of enamel caries. In this study, the fluoride level in saliva was

  17. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Basic research design: Double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years...

  18. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  19. ADSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM WATER USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Currently available treatment methods for removal of excess fluoride from water are broadly divided into three ... the application of nanoparticles as sorbents for fluoride removal. Sundaram [26] studied the ... Characterization of adsorbent.

  20. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  1. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  2. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  3. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  4. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  5. No Calcium-Fluoride-Like Deposits Detected in Plaque Shortly after a Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, G.L.; Tenuta, L.M.A.; Schumacher, G.E.; Chow, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Plaque ‘calcium-fluoride-like’ (CaF2-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 μg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2...

  6. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF 6 and UO 2 F 2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF 6 , UO 2 F 2 , and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    estimate of D(M)FT PF was 23% (95% CI, 18% to 29%; I² = 54%), from the 13 trials that contributed data for the permanent teeth meta-analysis (moderate quality evidence).We found limited information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of the treatment regimen in the included trials. Three trials incompletely reported data on tooth staining, and one trial incompletely reported information on mucosal irritation/allergic reaction. None of the trials reported on acute adverse symptoms during treatment. This review found that supervised regular use of fluoride mouthrinse by children and adolescents is associated with a large reduction in caries increment in permanent teeth. We are moderately certain of the size of the effect. Most of the evidence evaluated use of fluoride mouthrinse supervised in a school setting, but the findings may be applicable to children in other settings with supervised or unsupervised rinsing, although the size of the caries-preventive effect is less clear. Any future research on fluoride mouthrinses should focus on head-to-head comparisons between different fluoride rinse features or fluoride rinses against other preventive strategies, and should evaluate adverse effects and acceptability.

  8. Effects of fluorides on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, F

    1975-11-01

    Fluorine compounds known to be air pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrachloride, are highly poisonous to plants even at ppm - ppb levels. As solid microparticles, acidic sodium fluoride and cryolite cause problems by adhering to plant leaves and absorbing into plant bodies. Plants are classified by their susceptibility to hydrogen fluoride: gladiolus, apricot, buckwheat, turnip and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are most susceptible showing slight injury at less than 5 ppb for 7-9 days; maize, pepper, and dahlia are fairly susceptible, followed by azalea, rose, lilac, and alfalfa, then by oak and tomato. Gladiolus is used as an indicator plant. The exposure factor for one species was known. The symptoms of plants exposed to gaseous fluorine compounds are described in detail at various concentrations. The causal mechanism of the injuries due to fluorine compounds is described in detail, with the method of determining the fluorine content of plant parts. 7 references.

  9. Photosynthesis of ammonium uranous fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fekey, S.A.; Zaki, M.R.; Farah, M.Y.

    1975-01-01

    This study pertains to utilisation of solar energy for ethanol photosynthesis of ammonium uranous fluoride, that satisfies nuclear specifications needed for calcio- or magnesiothermy. Insolation in autumn using 4-10% ethanol in 5-20 g uranium/litre at initial pH 3.25 gave practically 99.8% yield in two hours, independant of 1.0 to 2.0 stoichiometric NH 4 F. With ultraviolet light, the yield varied between 30 and 60%, even after four hours irradiation. Stirring and heating to 60 0 C raised the tap density of the dried double fluorides from 1.48 at 30 0 C, to 1.85 g/cm 3 at 60 0 C. The texture increased also in fineness to 100% 50μ aggregates. The powders satisfy nuclear purity specifications. Thermograms indicated preferential decomposition of double fluoride at 375 0 C in controlled atmosphere to obtain nuclear pure anhydrous uranium tetrafluoride

  10. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μb = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the

  11. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  12. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  13. Regularization dependence on phase diagram in Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, H.; Kimura, D.; Inagaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the regularization dependence on meson properties and the phase diagram of quark matter by using the two flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model. The model also has the parameter dependence in each regularization, so we explicitly give the model parameters for some sets of the input observables, then investigate its effect on the phase diagram. We find that the location or the existence of the critical end point highly depends on the regularization methods and the model parameters. Then we think that regularization and parameters are carefully considered when one investigates the QCD critical end point in the effective model studies

  14. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  15. A fMRI study on the impact of advertising for flavored e-cigarettes on susceptible young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-05-01

    E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels. Participants (N = 26) were college-age young adults who had tried an e-cigarette and were susceptible to future e-cigarette use. They viewed advertisements in fMRI for sweet/fruit and tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, menthol and regular cigarettes, and control images of sweets/fruits/mints with no tobacco product. Cue-reactivity was measured in the nucleus accumbens, a brain biomarker of product preference. Advertisements randomly contained warning labels, and recognition of health warnings was tested post-scan. Visual attention was measured using eye-tracking. There was a significant effect of e-cigarette condition (sweet/tobacco/control) on nucleus accumbens activity, that was not found for cigarette condition (menthol/regular/control). Nucleus accumbens activity was greater for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarette advertisements and did not differ compared with control images of sweets and fruits. Greater nucleus accumbens activity was correlated with poorer memory for health warnings. These and exploratory eye-tracking findings suggest that advertising for sweet/fruit flavors may increase positive associations with e-cigarettes and/or override negative associations with tobacco, and interfere with health warnings, suggesting that one way to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes to youth and educate youth about e-cigarette health risks is to regulate advertising for flavors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  17. Flavor Alignment via Shining in RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels which allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon VEV on the IR brane...

  18. The occurrence and geochemistry of fluoride in some natural waters of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaciri, S. J.; Davies, T. C.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years the acquisition of considerable additional data on the hydrogeochemical behaviour of fluoride in natural waters of Kenya has been made possible by extensive surface-water and groundwater sampling campaigns as well as by improvements in analytical techniques. Ultimately, the principal source of fluoride relates to emissions from volcanic activity associated with the East African Rift System. Through various intermediate steps, but also directly, fluoride passes into the natural water system and components of the food chain. Ingestion by man is mainly through drinking water and other beverages. River waters in Kenya generally have a fluoride concentration lower than the recommended level (1.3 ppm) for potable water, thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. Groundwaters and lake waters show considerably higher fluoride contents, resulting in the widespread incidence of fluorosis in areas where groundwater is the major source of drinking water, and lake fish is a regular component of the diet. This paper presents a synthesis of the data so far obtained on the sources and distribution of fluoride in the hydrological system of Kenya, examines the extent of fluorine toxicity and puts forward recommendations to combat or minimise the problem.

  19. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  20. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  1. Toxic effects of fluoride on organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Huan; Chen, Liang; Kong, Ming; Qiu, Lipeng; Lü, Peng; Wu, Peng; Yang, Yanhua; Chen, Keping

    2018-04-01

    Accumulation of excess fluoride in the environment poses serious health risks to plants, animals, and humans. This endangers human health, affects organism growth and development, and negatively impacts the food chain, thereby affecting ecological balance. In recent years, numerous studies focused on the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. These studies have demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress, regulate intracellular redox homeostasis, and lead to mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alter gene expression. This paper reviews the present research on the potential adverse effects of overdose fluoride on various organisms and aims to improve our understanding of fluoride toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  3. Fluoride remediation using floating macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Six aquatic macrophytes, such as Pistia stratiotes, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphoides indica, Lemna major, Azolla pinnata,and Eichhornia crassipes were considered for remove fluoride from aqueous solution. Five different concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 100 ppm of fluoride solution were taken in 1 L plastic container. Fixed weight (20 g of macrophytes along with 500 ml fluoride solution was taken in each plastic container for 72 hours observation. Results demonstrated all the macrophytes show highest fluoride removal during 24 h to 48 h, but after 72 h their efficiency reduced drastically. The species N. indica showed better removal efficiency than other experimental macrophytes. In general, pigment measurement data indicated higher concentration at 72 h. However, Pistia sp. showed higher concentration of pigmentation at intermediate time interval (48 h. Higher level of dry weight to fresh weight ratio was recorded for L. major and A. pinnata at all concentrations, excepting at 10 ppm. In addition, all macrophytes showed lower RGR at higher concentration. Isotherm study indicated that macrophyte C. demersum is a good fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm whereas L. major with Langmuir isotherm during 24 hours.

  4. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H"± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.

  5. Heavy flavor production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto-Pérez, Nestor; Capella, A; Pajares, C; Salgado, C A

    2001-01-01

    Heavy flavor production off nuclei is studied in the small x/sub F/ region of the produced heavy system. Corrections to the usually employed perturbative QCD factorization formula are considered in the framework of the Glauber-Gribov model. Transition from low to high energies is taken into account by using finite energy cutting rules. The low energy limit of the obtained results coincides with the probabilistic formula usually employed for quarkonium absorption. At finite energies both rescattering of the heavy flavor and corrections to nucleon parton densities inside nuclei appear, the latter also affecting lepton pair production. It turns out that at asymptotic energies both open heavy flavor and quarkonium are equally absorbed. The numerical differences between the results obtained with the probabilistic formula and the exact one are <20% up to LHC energies, and ~1/2% at SPS energies. (18 refs).

  6. Lepton flavor violation induced by dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Ferreira, C. P.; Goertz, Florian; Guzzo, M. M.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Santos, A. C. O.

    2018-04-01

    Guided by gauge principles we discuss a predictive and falsifiable UV complete model where the Dirac fermion that accounts for the cold dark matter abundance in our Universe induces the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays μ →e γ and μ →e e e as well as μ -e conversion. We explore the interplay between direct dark matter detection, relic density, collider probes and lepton flavor violation to conclusively show that one may have a viable dark matter candidate yielding flavor violation signatures that can be probed in the upcoming experiments. In fact, keeping the dark matter mass at the TeV scale, a sizable LFV signal is possible, while reproducing the correct dark matter relic density and meeting limits from direct-detection experiments.

  7. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N_f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N_f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N_c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  8. Lepton flavor violation and seesaw symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristizabal Sierra, D., E-mail: daristizabal@ulg.ac.be [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Department AGO (Belgium)

    2013-03-15

    When the standard model is extended with right-handed neutrinos the symmetries of the resulting Lagrangian are enlarged with a new global U(1){sub R} Abelian factor. In the context of minimal seesaw models we analyze the implications of a slightly broken U(1){sub R} symmetry on charged lepton flavor violating decays. We find, depending on the R-charge assignments, models where charged lepton flavor violating rates can be within measurable ranges. In particular, we show that in the resulting models due to the structure of the light neutrino mass matrix muon flavor violating decays are entirely determined by neutrino data (up to a normalization factor) and can be sizable in a wide right-handed neutrino mass range.

  9. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics,University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with “bulk” standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a “little hierarchy problem” remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of “vectorlike confinement”, with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ∼O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early “preview” of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  10. On the Flavor Structure of Natural Composite Higgs Models & Top Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2014-01-01

    We explore the up flavor structure of composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone-boson Higgs models, where we focus on the flavor anarchic minimal $SO(5)$ case. We identify the different sources of flavor violation in this framework and emphasise the differences from the anarchic Randall-Sundrum scenario. In particular, the fact that the flavor symmetry does not commute with the symmetries that stabilize the Higgs potential may constrain the flavor structure of the theory. In addition, we consider the interplay between the fine tuning of the model and flavor violation. We find that generically the tuning of this class of models is worsen in the anarchic case due to the contributions from the additional fermion resonances. We show that, even in the presence of custodial symmetry, large top flavor violating rate are naturally expected. In particular, $t\\to cZ$ branching ratio of order of $10^{-5}$ is generic for this class of models. Thus, this framework can be tested in the next run of the LHC as well as in other future...

  11. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  12. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  13. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1) R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  14. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  15. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays μ → eγ, τ → μγ, and τ → eγ which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and to search for phenomenological

  16. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  17. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions.

  18. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-06

    In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  19. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  20. Flavor mixing via dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics of the quark gluon plasma. The author interested in the complexity of the flavor structure of hadron wavefunctions. This issue bears upon the validity of the quenched approximation in lattice gauge theory and the structure of the QCD vacuum, both of which have been central issues here

  1. Flavor symmetry breaking and meson masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Roberts, Craig D.; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Tandy, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is used to derive mass formulas for neutral pseudoscalar mesons. Flavor symmetry breaking entails nonideal flavor content for these states. Adding that the η ' is not a Goldstone mode, exact chiral-limit relations are developed from the identity. They connect the dressed-quark propagator to the topological susceptibility. It is confirmed that in the chiral limit the η ' mass is proportional to the matrix element which connects this state to the vacuum via the topological susceptibility. The implications of the mass formulas are illustrated using an elementary dynamical model, which includes an Ansatz for that part of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel related to the non-Abelian anomaly. In addition to the current-quark masses, the model involves two parameters, one of which is a mass-scale. It is employed in an analysis of pseudoscalar- and vector-meson bound-states. While the effects of SU(N f =2) and SU(N f =3) flavor symmetry breaking are emphasized, the five-flavor spectra are described. Despite its simplicity, the model is elucidative and phenomenologically efficacious; e.g., it predicts η-η ' mixing angles of ∼-15 deg. and π 0 -η angles of ∼1 deg

  2. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2004 physics pp. 1407–1416. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos. YOSEF NIR1 and YAEL SHADMI2. 1Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. 2Physics Department, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.

  3. Flavor SU(3) in hadronic B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.

    1998-11-01

    Here we shall outline a few methods that use the flavor SU(3) symmetry in the decays of B mesons to determine the angles of the unitarity triangle and to identify the decay modes which would display a significant CP violation. (author)

  4. Experimental Overview of Open Heavy Flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweda, Kai

    2017-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the experimental overview of the production of open heavy flavor at the international conference Strangeness in Quark Matter 2016 . Instead of a comprehensive overview, I focus on a few topics which the reader might find particularly interesting. (paper)

  5. Recent CMS Results on Flavor Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present the latest results of the CMS experiment in the field of flavor physics. The observation of a new beauty baryon in decays to Xi(b) and a prompt pion is discussed along with recent measurements Lambda_b baryon and quarkonium production cross sections. Finally, we describe the search for rare decays of charmed mesons to dimuons.

  6. Extraordinary phenomenology from warped flavor triviality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, Cedric; Gedalia, Oram; Lee, Seung J.; Perez, Gilad; Ponton, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Anarchic warped extra dimensional models provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. They can also account for the observed flavor hierarchies, but only at the expense of little hierarchy and CP problems, which naturally require a Kaluza-Klein (KK) scale beyond the LHC reach. We have recently shown that when flavor issues are decoupled, and assumed to be solved by UV physics, the framework's parameter space greatly opens. Given the possibility of a lower KK scale and composite light quarks, this class of flavor triviality models enjoys a rather exceptional phenomenology, which is the focus of this Letter. We also revisit the anarchic RS EDM problem, which requires m KK ≥12 TeV, and show that it is solved within flavor triviality models. Interestingly, our framework can induce a sizable differential tt-bar forward-backward asymmetry, and leads to an excess of massive boosted di-jet events, which may be linked to the recent findings of the CDF Collaboration. This feature may be observed by looking at the corresponding planar flow distribution, which is presented here. Finally we point out that the celebrated standard model preference towards a light Higgs is significantly reduced within our framework.

  7. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  8. Precursors of chicken flavor. II. Identification of key flavor precursors using sensory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Farmer, Linda J

    2005-08-10

    Sensory evaluation was used to identify flavor precursors that are critical for flavor development in cooked chicken. Among the potential flavor precursors studied (thiamin, inosine 5'-monophosphate, ribose, ribose-5-phosphate, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate), ribose appears most important for chicken aroma. An elevated concentration (added or natural) of only 2-4-fold the natural concentration gives an increase in the selected aroma and flavor attributes of cooked chicken meat. Assessment of the volatile odor compounds by gas chromatography-odor assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that ribose increased odors described as "roasted" and "chicken" and that the changes in odor due to additional ribose are probably caused by elevated concentrations of compounds such as 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 3-methylthiopropanal.

  9. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  10. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  11. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  12. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  13. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  14. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  15. The effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-07-01

    Flavor is one of the key factors that can limit the application and shelf life of dried dairy ingredients. Many off-flavors are caused during ingredient manufacture that carry through into ingredient applications and decrease consumer acceptance. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder (WMP). Whole milk powder was produced from standardized pasteurized whole milk that was evaporated to 50% solids (wt/wt), homogenized in 2 stages with varying pressures (0/0, 5.5/1.4, 11.0/2.8, or 16.5/4.3 MPa), and spray dried. Whole milk powder was evaluated at 0, 3, and 6 mo of storage at 21°C. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Volatile compounds were analyzed by sorptive stir bar extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fat globule size in condensed whole milk and particle size of powders were measured by laser diffraction. Surface free fat, inner free fat, and encapsulated fat of WMP were measured by solvent extractions. Phospholipid content was measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering. Furosine in WMP was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Increased homogenization pressure decreased cardboard and painty flavors, volatile lipid oxidation compound concentrations, fat globule size in condensed milk, surface free fat, and inner free fat in WMP. Encapsulated fat increased and phospholipid-to-encapsulated fat ratio decreased with higher homogenization pressure. Surface free fat in powders increased cardboard flavor and lipid oxidation. These results indicate that off-flavors were decreased with increased homogenization pressures in WMP due to the decrease in free fat. To decrease off-flavor intensities in WMP, manufacturers should carefully evaluate these parameters during ingredient manufacture. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  16. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  17. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  18. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mamede,Maria Eugênia de Oliveira; Kalschne,Daneysa Lahis; Santos,Adriana Pereira Coelho; Benassi,Marta de Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A) was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B), pineapple (C), jabuticaba (D), mango (E) and cashew (F). The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Ove...

  19. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  20. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  1. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  2. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  3. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, F

    1970-07-15

    Symptoms of fluorosis in plants are chlorotic markings around the tip or edges of young leaves. Examples of damage to plants and livestock by fluorides are listed, including the retarded growth of silkworms fed on mulberry leaves polluted by more than 30 ppm fluorides. Plants can be classified into six groups according to their resistance to hydrogen fluoride. Threshold values of the fluoride concentration range from 5-10 ppb for the plants. Gladiolus is normally employed as a plant indicator for hydrogen fluoride and silkworms as indicator insects. The relationship between plant damage by fluorides and exposure time, density, soil, fertilizer, meteorology and location are examined. Several preventive measures are listed, including the spraying of water or lime on plant leaves. It is concluded that the establishment of an environmental standard is difficult because of the extremely high sensitivity of the plants to the gas. 8 references.

  4. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF 4 and UF 6 , including UF 4 (solid and gas), U 4 F 17 (solid), U 2 F 9 (solid), UF 5 (solid and gas), U 2 F 10 (gas), and UF 6 (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior

  5. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by pumice: case study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    conditions, the fluoride removal efficiency from Kuhbonan water by 2.8 mg/L fluoride was 74.64%. Eventually ... industrial wastewater containing fluoride is a key ..... solution using silica ceramic: Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium studies.

  6. Flavor and CP violations from sleptons at the Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-C.

    1997-12-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor and CP violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. They will contribute to the lepton flavor violation processes, such as μ→eγ, which can be probed far below the current bound with an intense muon source at the front end of the muon collider. In addition, if sleptons can be produced at the muon collider, the flavor violation can occur at their production and decay, allowing us to probe the flavor mixing structure directly. Asymmetry between numbers of μ + e - and e + μ - events will be a sign for CP violation in supersymmetric flavor mixing

  7. Purification process of uranium hexafluoride containing traces of plutonium fluoride and/or neptunium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.; Bethuel, L.; Carles, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this process impure uranium hexafluoride is contacted with a metallic fluoride chosen in the group containing lead fluoride PbF 2 , uranium fluorides UFsub(4+x) (0 3 at a temperature such as plutonium and/or neptunium are reduced and pure uranium hexafluoride is recovered. Application is made to uranium hexafluoride purification in spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  8. Fluoride ions vs removal technologies: A study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagvir; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Literature reported that drinking water is a precious and scarce resource and it has to be protected and kept free from any kind of contamination. Further, it has to be used carefully without wasting. Literature also reported that fluoride bearing rocks are abundant in India, as a result, fluoride leaches out and contaminates the adjacent water and soil resources. A high concentration of fluoride ions in ground water increases up to more than 30 mg/L. This high concentration of fluoride ions ...

  9. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  10. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  11. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  12. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James W.; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in B. subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound...

  13. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  14. Arrest of Root Carious Lesions via Sodium Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Silver Diamine Fluoride In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Göstemeyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the root carious lesion arrest of chlorhexidine (CHX and silver diamine fluoride (SDF varnishes and/or sodium fluoride rinses (NaF in vitro. Background: Effective and easily applicable interventions for treating root carious lesions are needed, as these lesions are highly prevalent amongst elderly individuals. Methods: In 100 bovine dentin samples, artificial root carious lesions were induced using acetic acid and a continuous-culture Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm model. One quarter of each induced lesion was excavated and baseline dentinal bacterial counts assessed as Colony-Forming-Units (CFU per mg. Samples were allocated to one of four treatments (n = 25/group: (1 untreated control; (2 38% SDF or (3 35% CHX varnish, each applied once, plus 500 ppm daily NaF rinse in the subsequent lesion progression phase; and (4 daily NaF rinses only. Samples were re-transferred to the biofilm model and submitted to a cariogenic challenge. After six days, another quarter of each lesion was used to assess bacterial counts and the remaining sample was used to assess integrated mineral loss (ΔZ using microradiography. Results: ΔZ did not differ significantly between control (median (25th/75th percentiles: 9082 (7859/9782 vol % × µm, NaF (6704 (4507/9574 and SDF 7206 (5389/8082 (p < 0.05/Kruskal–Wallis test. CHX significantly reduced ΔZ (3385 (2447/4496 compared with all other groups (p < 0.05. Bacterial numbers did not differ significantly between control (1451 (875/2644 CFU/µg and NaF (750 (260/1401 (p > 0.05. SDF reduced bacterial counts (360 (136/1166 significantly compared with control (p < 0.05. CHX reduced bacterial counts (190 (73/517 significantly compared with NaF and control (p < 0.05. Conclusion: CHX varnish plus regular NaF rinses arrested root carious lesions most successfully.

  15. Flavor physics and right-handed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaq, Saba

    2010-08-20

    The Standard Model of particle physics only provides a parametrization of flavor which involves the values of the quark and lepton masses and unitary flavor mixing matrix i.e. CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa) matrix for quarks. The precise determination of elements of the CKM matrix is important for the study of the flavor sector of quarks. Here we concentrate on the matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke. In particular we consider the effects on the value of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from possible right-handed admixtures along with the usually left-handed weak currents. Left Right Symmetric Model provide a natural basis for right-handed current contributions and has been studied extensively in the literature but has never been discussed including flavor. In the first part of the present work an additional flavor symmetry is included in LRSM which allows a systematic study of flavor effects. The second part deals with the practical extraction of a possible right-handed contribution. Starting from the quark level transition b{yields}c we use heavy quark symmetries to relate the helicities of the quarks to experimentally accessible quantities. To this end we study the decays anti B{yields}D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} which have been extensively explored close to non recoil point. By taking into account SCET (Soft Collinear Effective Theory) formalism it has been extended to a maximum recoil point i.e. {upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '} >>1. We derive a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a single universal form factor {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}) up to hard-scattering corrections. Symmetry relations on form factors for exclusive anti B {yields} D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} transition has been derived in terms of {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}). These symmetries are then broken by perturbative effects. The perturbative corrections to symmetry-breaking corrections to first order in the strong

  16. Phenomenology of flavor-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenology of a new economical supersymmetric model that utilizes dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation for the generation of the sparticle spectrum and the hierarchy of fermion masses is discussed. Similarities between the communication of supersymmetry breaking through a messenger sector and the generation of flavor using the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism are exploited, leading to the identification of vector-like messenger fields with FN fields and the messenger U(1) as a flavor symmetry. An immediate consequence is that the first and second generation scalars acquire flavor-dependent masses, but do not violate flavor changing neutral current bounds since their mass scale, consistent with ''effective supersymmetry,'' is of order 10 TeV. We define and advocate a ''minimal flavor-mediated model'' (MFMM), recently introduced in the literature, which successfully accommodates the small flavor-breaking parameters of the standard model using order 1 couplings and ratios of flavon field VEVs. The mediation of supersymmetry breaking occurs via two-loop logarithm-enhanced gauge-mediated contributions, as well as several one-loop and two-loop Yukawa-mediated contributions for which we provide analytical expressions. The MFMM is parametrized by a small set of masses and couplings, with values restricted by several model constraints and experimental data. Full two-loop renormalization group evolution is performed, correctly taking into account the negative two-loop gauge contributions from heavy first and second generations. Electroweak symmetry is radiatively broken with the value of μ determined by matching to the Z mass. The weak scale spectrum is generally rather heavy, except for the lightest Higgs boson, the lightest stau, the lightest chargino, the lightest two neutralinos, and of course a very light gravitino. The next-to-lightest sparticle always has a decay length that is larger than the scale of a detector, and is either the lightest stau

  17. The use of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among children with disability in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiang, Hsien-Hsiung; Chiu, Li-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The oral health of children with disability is often not as good as that of other children. In view of improving their oral health, this study aims to explore the utilization of fluoride varnish services among children with disability in Taiwan and its relevant influencing factors. With children under the age of 5 as subjects, this study is conducted based on the database of Ministry of the Interior, Executive Yuan, ROC in 2008, coupled with information gathered between 2006 and 2008 on preventive health care and health insurance from the Bureau of Health Promotion and the National Health Research Institute, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis, this study examined the factors determining the use of fluoride varnish with logistic regression analysis. Research revealed that fluoride varnish is used by up to 9.84% of children with disability; the use increases with age and decreases with increased level of disability, but is remarkably higher in those with catastrophic illness/injury. The probability of fluoride varnish use is lower among those living in areas of lower urbanization (levels 5-7) and higher among those whose parents have higher premium-based monthly salaries. Recommendations include (1) providing a differential pricing scheme for fluoride varnish based on the level of disability of the child, (2) promoting proactively among dentists to carry out regular fluoride varnish in rural areas and collaboration with pediatricians to provide convenient services and (3) targeting families in low socioeconomic brackets, improving knowledge of fluoride varnish. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary fluoride output in children following the use of a dual-fluoride varnish formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I, children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM TM. After 1-month interval (phase II, the same amount (0.2 mL of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, ColgateTM was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. CONCLUSIONS: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

  19. Fluoride barriers in Nb/Pb Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, H.; Tanabe, K.; Michikami, O.; Igarashi, M.; Beasley, M. R.

    1985-03-01

    Josephson tunnel junctions are fabricated using a new class of artificial barriers, metal fluorides (Al fluoride and Zr fluoride). These fluoride barriers are deposited on the surface of a Nb base electrode, which are previously cleaned using a CF4 cleaning process, and covered by a Pb counterelectrode. The junctions with both Al fluoride and Zr fluoride barriers exhibit good tunneling characteristics and have low specific capacitance. In the case of Zr fluoride, it is observed that reasonable resistances are obtained even at thickness greater than 100 A. This phenomenon might be explained by tunneling via localized states in Zr fluoride.

  20. Developmental fluoride exposure influenced rat's splenic development and cell cycle via disruption of the ERK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanqin; Zhang, Kankan; Ren, Fengjun; Wang, Jundong

    2017-11-01

    Excessive fluoride exposure has been reported to cause damage to spleen. Neonatal period is characterized by rapid proliferation and differentiation of lymphocyte in the spleen. Children may be more sensitive to the toxicity of fluoride compared to the adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal exposure (from neonatal period to early adulthood) to fluoride on the development of spleen on a regular basis and the underlying signal pathway. Results showed a marked decrease in spleen weight index and altered morphology in the spleen of fluoride-treated group on PND-84, which reflected fluoride inhibition of the development of spleen. Fluoride exposure induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes and decreased the mRNA expression of IL-2, which indicated compromised baseline lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen. Time course research from 3-wk-of-age until 12-wk-of-age showed an adverse and cumulative impact of fluoride on the development of spleen. In view of the key role of MAPK/ERK pathway in lymphocyte development, Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK-2/c-fos mRNA expression and ERK/p-ERK protein expression were detected. Results showed despite a transitory increase in mRNA expression from PND-42 to PND-63 in fluoride-treated group, the expression of these genes on PND-84 decreased significantly compared with PND-42 or PND-63. NaF significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK protein on PND-84. Taken together, these results emphasized the vital role of ERK pathway in the interfered development of spleen induced by a high dose of fluoride exposure in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of toothpaste and fluoride content in toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwilu, Emil N; Frencken, Jo E; Mulder, Jan

    2008-10-01

    To determine the use of toothpaste, the reasons behind its irregular use, the cost perceptions, and the fluoride concentrations in locally manufactured toothpaste. A total of 978 dental patients attending 13 dental clinics for 2 weeks in June 2007 completed a pre-tested questionnaire on toothpaste use. Toothpaste was collected from shops in Dar es Salaam and analyzed at the laboratory of the Dental School in Amsterdam. Logistic regression was applied to determine the relative importance of independent variables on usage and perceptions about the cost of toothpaste. Eighty-six percent of respondents used toothpaste daily. Of the 130 who used toothpaste less than once a day, 57.7% gave financial reasons for their irregular use. Toothpaste was perceived as expensive by 34.8% of respondents. Urban residents were five times more likely than rural residents to use toothpaste. Younger respondents were more likely than older respondents: to perceive toothpaste as important, to brush their teeth, to use toothpaste, and to brush their teeth regularly. All toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania had free fluoride concentrations below 400 ppm. Most respondents used toothpaste regularly and one-third regarded it as expensive. Toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania had free fluoride concentrations below the optimum levels for dental caries prevention. For a well-functioning Basic Package of Oral Care, the authority responsible for oral health has to take measures aimed at lowering the price of toothpaste, and toothpaste manufacturers have to ensure that their products have the optimal fluoride concentration for dental caries prevention.

  2. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  3. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  4. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  5. Possibility of new dibaryons containing heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leandri, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent paper we have shown that the possibility of including heavy flavor in the dibaryon sector can lead to some new favored configurations (relative to the baryon-baryon threshold). In this study we extend our previous work by a systematic study of all the physical Qq 5 systems in a simple chromomagnetic model. In the first part we assume that the q quarks belong to the fundamental irrep of SU(3) F and that the Q quark has infinite mass. These assumptions are subsequently relaxed by introducing two mass parameters δ and η. Once these symmetries are broken we gain access in our model to a large number of new dibaryons containing heavy flavor. Some of them could be stable against decay via strong interactions, and we indicate the most favorable cases

  6. Studies of heavy flavored jets with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with identified partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. We present recent results of heavy flavor jet spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions. New measurements to be presented include the dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions and a finalized c-jet measurement in pPb collisions based on new data collected during the 2015 heavy-ion run period at the LHC.

  7. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)548062; Weuste, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light- flavored right-handed squark at a 3 TeV e+e collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two- photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant kt algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for e+e- collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  8. Flavor changing strings and domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.; Senjanovic, G.

    1993-04-01

    We consider the cosmological consequences of a spontaneous breaking of non-abelian discrete symmetries, which may appear as a natural remnant of a continuous symmetry, such as a family symmetry. The result may be a stable domain wall across which an electron would turn into a muon (orν e into ν μ ) or a flavor analogue of an Alice string-domain wall structure with the same property. (author). 16 refs

  9. New signatures of flavor violating Higgs couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-06-24

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) pp→thh (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top-up-Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) pp→tH{sup 0}, where H{sup 0} is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels H{sup 0}→tu,WW,ZZ,hh and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the thh final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter space, it is superior to other searches, including searches for flavor violating top quark decays (t→hq). (3) H{sup 0}→τμ, again in the context of a 2HDM. This channel is particularly well motivated by the recent CMS excess in h→τμ, and we use the data from this search to constrain the properties of H{sup 0}.

  10. The New Flavor of Higgsed Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Recent LHC bounds on squark masses combined with naturalness and flavor considerations motivate non-trivial sfermion mass spectra in the supersymmetric Standard Model. These can arise if supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector via new extended gauge symmetries. Such extended symmetries must be spontaneously broken, or confined, complicating the calculation of soft masses. We develop a new formalism for calculating perturbative gauge-mediated two-loop soft masses for gauge...

  11. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  12. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  13. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  14. Neutrino flavor evolution in neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the flavor evolution of neutrinos emitted from the disklike remnant (hereafter called "neutrino disk") of a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. We specifically follow the neutrinos emitted from the center of the disk, along the polar axis perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We carried out two-flavor simulations using a variety of different possible initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra and, for comparison, three-flavor simulations in specific cases. In all simulations, the normal neutrino mass hierarchy was used. The flavor evolution was found to be highly dependent on the initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra; in particular, we found two broad classes of results depending on the sign of the initial net electron neutrino lepton number (i.e., the number of neutrinos minus the number of antineutrinos). In the antineutrino-dominated case, we found that the matter-neutrino resonance effect dominates, consistent with previous results, whereas in the neutrino-dominated case, a bipolar spectral swap develops. The neutrino-dominated conditions required for this latter result have been realized, e.g., in a BNS merger simulation that employs the "DD2" equation of state for neutron star matter [Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044019]. For this case, in addition to the swap at low energies, a collective Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism generates a high-energy electron neutrino tail. The enhanced population of high-energy electron neutrinos in this scenario could have implications for the prospects of r -process nucleosynthesis in the material ejected outside the plane of the neutrino disk.

  15. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Ogilvie, M.C.; DeGrand, T.A.; DeTar, C.; Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.

    1992-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of quantum chromo-dynamics at finite temperature on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks and of Wilson quarks on 6 x 12 3 lattices in order to study the crossover from the low temperature hadronic regime to the high temperature regime. We investigate the properties of the objects whose exchange gives static screening lengths by reconstructing their correlated quark-antiquark structure. (orig.)

  16. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in the big bang is reexamined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle-physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big-bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid

  17. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durieux, Gauthier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Grossman, Yuval; Kuflik, Erik [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Koenig, Matthias [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Mainz Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Ray, Shamayita [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Calcutta Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    2015-12-15

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z-boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  18. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  19. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Itsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  20. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Mario; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; Davies, C.H.; Di Lodovico, Francesca; Dingfelder, Jochen C.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donati, Simone; Dungel, W.; Egede, Ulrik; Eigen, Gerald; Faccini, Riccardo; Feldmann, Thorsten; Ferroni, Fernando; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Franco, Enrico; Fujikawa, M.; Furic, Ivan K.; Gambino, Paolo; Gardi, E.; Gershon, Timothy John; Giagu, Stefano; Golowich, Eugene; Goto, Toru; Greub, C.; Grojean, Christophe; Guadagnoli, Diego; Haisch, U.A.; Harr, Robert Francis; Hoang, Andre H.; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Jaffe, D.E.; Juttner, Andreas; Jager, Sebastian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Koppenburg, Patrick Stefan; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Krokovny, P.; Kronfeld, Andreas Samuel; Laiho, J.; Lanfranchi, G.; Latham, Thomas Edward; Libby, James F.; Limosani, A.; Lopes Pegna, David; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lubicz, Vittorio; Lunghi, Enrico; Luth, Vera G.; Maltman, K.; Marciano, William Joseph; Martin, Emilie Claire Mutsumi; Martinelli, Guido; Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; Masiero, A.; Mateu, V.; Mescia, Federico; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Moulson, Matthew; Neubert, Matthias; Neufeld, Helmut; Nishida, Shohei; Offen, Nils; Palutan, M.; Paradisi, Paride; Parsa, Z.; Passemar, Emilie; Patel, M.; Pecjak, B.D.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Pich, Antonio; Pierini, Maurizio; Plaster, Brad; Powell, Brian Alfred; Prell, Soeren Andre; Rademaker, J.; Rescigno, Marco; Ricciardi, Stefania; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, E.; Rotondo, Marcello; Sacco, Roberto; Schilling, Christopher James; Schneider, Olivier; Scholz, Enno E.; Schumm, Bruce Andrew; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Sciascia, Barbara; Serrano, Justine; Shigemitsu, J.; Shipsey, Ian P.J.; Sibidanov, A.L.; Silvestrini, Luca; Simonetto, Franco; Simula, Silvano; Smith, Christopher; Soni, A.; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sordini, Viola; Sozzi, Marco S.; Spadaro, Tommaso; Spradlin, Patrick Michael; Stocchi, Achille; Tantalo, Nazario; Tarantino, Cecilia; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Tonelli, Diego; Towner, I.S.; Trabelsi, K.; Urquijo, Phillip; Van de Water, R.S.; Van Kooten, Richard J.; Virto, Javier; Volpi, Guido; Wanke, R.; Westhoff, Susanne; Wilkinson, G.; Wingate, Matthew Bowen; Xie, Y.; Zupan, Jure

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...

  1. Masses, flavor mix and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussard, L.

    2004-06-01

    The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)

  2. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  3. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fluoride ions vs removal technologies: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagvir Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature reported that drinking water is a precious and scarce resource and it has to be protected and kept free from any kind of contamination. Further, it has to be used carefully without wasting. Literature also reported that fluoride bearing rocks are abundant in India, as a result, fluoride leaches out and contaminates the adjacent water and soil resources. A high concentration of fluoride ions in ground water increases up to more than 30 mg/L. This high concentration of fluoride ions causes many harmful and dangerous effects on our datum. Fluoride ions in larger quantities i.e. 20–80 mg/day taken over a period of 10–20 years result in crippling and skeletal fluorosis, severely damaging the bone. In the present scenario, there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of fluoride treatment technologies. Possibilities of reducing the high fluorine content in groundwater are by defluorination process/dilution with the surface water which is a very simple technique but the addition of Ca2+ ions to a solution in contact with fluorite when experimented in distilled water caused an appreciable decrease in fluoride concentration. In this review article, we emphasized the relationship between high concentrations of fluoride ions and their compounds and their health impact.

  5. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  6. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  7. Diethylenetriaminium hexafluoridotitanate(IV fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lhoste

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C6H21N4[TiF6]F, was synthesized by the reaction of TiO2, tris(2-aminoethylamine, HF and ethanol at 463 K in a microwave oven. The crystal structure consists of two crystallographically independent [TiF6]2− anions, two fluoride anions and two triply-protonated tris(2-aminoethylamine cations. The Ti atoms are coordinated by six F atoms within slightly distorted octahedra. The anions and cations are connected by intermolecular N—H...F hydrogen bonds.

  8. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 6/, including UF/sub 4/ (solid and gas), U/sub 4/F/sub 17/ (solid), U/sub 2/F/sub 9/ (solid), UF/sub 5/ (solid and gas), U/sub 2/F/sub 10/ (gas), and UF/sub 6/ (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior.

  9. Niobium electrodeposition from molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Niobium electrodeposition from molten alkali fluorides has been studied aiming the application of this technic to the processes of electrorefining and galvanotechnic of this metal. The effects of current density, temperature, niobium concentration in the bath, electrolysis time, substrate nature, ratio between anodic and cathodic areas, electrodes separation and the purity of anodes were investigated in relation to the cathodic current efficiency, electrorefining, electroplating and properties of the deposit and the electrolytic solution. The work also gives the results of the conctruction and operation of a pilot plant for refractory metals electrodeposition and shows the electrorefining and electroplating compared to those obtained at the laboratory scale. (author) [pt

  10. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  11. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  12. Determination of Fluoride in Different Toothpaste Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamau, N.G.; Njoroge, M.; Njau, M.

    1998-01-01

    Fluoride ion selective electrode was used to determine fluoride ion concentrations in seven brands of toothpaste. These were the only available formulations found in Kenya. The brands were classified into three groups-fluoridated, non fluoridated or not indicated. However, there was no independent indication of their quantitative composition. The analysed brands had fluoride content between 0.0033% and 0.096%. These values compared favourably with those obtained elsewhere. The calculated lowest limit of detection (LLD) was 0.01 ppmF- . The mean calibration curve gave a slope of of -50.0mV. which was not significantly different from the theoretical value of 5.88mV at 23 degrees celsius at 95% confidence level

  13. Inhibition of cellular oxidation by fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borei, H

    1945-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the inhibition by fluoride of the oxidative processes which occur in the cell by way of the cytochrome oxidase-cytochrome system. Some chemical and physical properties of the fluoride ion are discussed, together with certain quantitative methods for the determination of fluoride. An exhaustive review of the literature concerning the effect of fluoride on enzymic processes has been compiled. The experiments have shown that the point of the attack by fluoride is to be found among the cytochromes. The inhibitory mechanism appears to be such that the haemoprotein is prevented from taking part in the preceding and succeeding links in the reaction chain. The blocking action leaves the prosthetic group of the haemoprotein completely unchanged. The experimental results indicate the formation of a fluorophosphoprotein complex, analogous to that found in the case of enolase. Magnesium may possibly play a part in this process.

  14. Soft X-ray imaging by optically stimulated luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bonfigli@frascati.enea.it; Almaviva, S.; Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Reale, L. [Universita de L' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Larciprete, R. [ISC-CNR, Sezione Montelibretti, Via Salaria, Km. 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    An innovative X-ray imaging detector based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride is presented. Regular photoluminescent patterns produced on LiF samples by different intense X-ray sources, like synchrotrons, laser plasma sources and a capillary discharge laser have been investigated by a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. The use of a LiF-based imaging plate for X-ray microscopy is also discussed showing microradiographies of small animals.

  15. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino masses. Numerically, they are found typically much larger, and not necessarily correlated with, Jarlskog-like invariants. Finally, the formalism is adapted to deal with a third class of flavor structures, sensitive to the flavored U (1) phases, and used to study the impact of the strong CP-violating interaction and the interplay between the neutrino Majorana phases and possible baryon and/or lepton number violating interactions.

  16. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino masses. Numerically, they are found typically much larger, and not necessarily correlated with, Jarlskog-like invariants. Finally, the formalism is adapted to deal with a third class of flavor structures, sensitive to the flavored U(1 phases, and used to study the impact of the strong CP-violating interaction and the interplay between the neutrino Majorana phases and possible baryon and/or lepton number violating interactions.

  17. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  18. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  19. Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings. The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater. At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher ...

  20. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  1. Evaluation of toxic action of fluorides on agricultural plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grishko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of potassium fluoride, sodium fluoride and ammonium fluoride for pea, maize, oat and onion was studied. It was found that the level of the toxic influence had grown with increase of fluoride concentration in the media of growth (from 5 to 100 mg of F–/l. By increase of the toxic influence the agricultural crops are disposed in the following row: oat < onion < maize < pea. Ammonium fluoride demonstrates lesser toxicity, than potassium and sodium fluorides. Under low concentrations of fluoride compounds (5 and 10 mg of F–/l stimulation of roots growth is noted only for the oat.

  2. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  3. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Flavor Tagging with Deep Neural Networks at Belle II

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment is mainly designed to investigate the decay of B meson pairs from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays, produced by the asymmetric electron-positron collider SuperKEKB. The determination of the B meson flavor, so-called flavor tagging, plays an important role in analyses and can be inferred in many cases directly from the final state particles. In this talk a successful approach of B meson flavor tagging utilizing a Deep Neural Network is presented. Monte Carlo studies show a significant improvement with respect to the established category-based flavor tagging algorithm.

  5. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T.; /Kansas U.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D0 experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B{sup 0} and B{sub S} system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B{sup 0} mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  6. Collective three-flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol

    2008-06-01

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos emitted from a core collapse supernova interact among themselves, giving rise to collective flavor conversion effects that are significant near the neutrinosphere. We develop a formalism to analyze these collective effects in the complete three-flavor framework. It naturally generalizes the spin-precession analogy to three flavors and is capable of analytically describing phenomena like vacuum/Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations, synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations, and spectral split. Using the formalism, we demonstrate that the flavor conversions may be “factorized” into two-flavor oscillations with hierarchical frequencies. We explicitly show how the three-flavor solution may be constructed by combining two-flavor solutions. For a typical supernova density profile, we identify an approximate separation of regions where distinctly different flavor conversion mechanisms operate, and demonstrate the interplay between collective and MSW effects. We pictorialize our results in terms of the “e3-e8 triangle” diagram, which is a tool that can be used to visualize three-neutrino flavor conversions in general, and offers insights into the analysis of the collective effects in particular.

  7. Flavor at the TeV scale with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2000-01-01

    Theories where the standard model fields reside on a 3-brane, with a low fundamental cutoff and extra dimensions, provide alternative solutions to the gauge hierarchy problem. However, generating flavor at the TeV scale while avoiding flavor-changing difficulties appears prohibitively difficult at first sight. We argue to the contrary that this picture allows us to lower flavor physics close to the TeV scale. Small Yukawa couplings are generated by ''shining'' badly broken flavor symmetries from distant branes, and flavor and CP-violating processes are adequately suppressed by these symmetries. We further show how the extra dimensions avoid four dimensional disasters associated with light fields charged under flavor. We construct elegant and realistic theories of flavor based on the maximal U(3) 5 flavor symmetry which naturally generate the simultaneous hierarchy of masses and mixing angles. Finally, we introduce a new framework for predictive theories of flavor, where our 3-brane is embedded within highly symmetrical configurations of higher-dimensional branes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Flavor alignment via shining in Randall-Sundrum models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Perez, Gilad; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down-type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels that allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon vacuum expectation value on the IR brane (at the price of some moderate tuning), or by extending the Higgs sector. The flavor changing effects from the radiatively induced Yukawa mixing terms are at around the current upper experimental bounds. We also show the generic bounds on UV-brane induced flavor violating effects, and comment on possible additional flavor violations from bulk flavor gauge bosons and the bulk Yukawa scalars.

  9. Study on creation of an indocalamus leaf flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.

  10. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  11. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  12. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  13. Precision Light Flavor Physics from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    In this thesis we present three distinct contributions to the study of light flavor physics using the techniques of lattice QCD. These results are arranged into four self-contained papers. The first two papers concern global fits of the quark mass, lattice spacing, and finite volume dependence of the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants, computed in a series of lattice QCD simulations, to partially quenched SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory (chiPT). These fits determine a subset of the low energy constants of chiral perturbation theory -- in some cases with increased precision, and in other cases for the first time -- which, once determined, can be used to compute other observables and amplitudes in chiPT. We also use our formalism to self-consistently probe the behavior of the (asymptotic) chiral expansion as a function of the quark masses by repeating the fits with different subsets of the data. The third paper concerns the first lattice QCD calculation of the semileptonic K0 → pi-l +nul ( Kl3) form factor at vanishing momentum transfer, f+Kpi(0), with physical mass domain wall quarks. The value of this form factor can be combined with a Standard Model analysis of the experimentally measured K0 → pi -l+nu l decay rate to extract a precise value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element Vus, and to test unitarity of the CKM matrix. We also discuss lattice calculations of the pion and kaon decay constants, which can be used to extract Vud through an analogous Standard Model analysis of experimental constraints on leptonic pion and kaon decays. The final paper explores the recently proposed exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA). This algorithm has been shown to drastically reduce the memory footprint required to simulate single quark flavors on the lattice relative to the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, while also offering modest O(20%) speed-ups. We independently derive the exact one flavor action, explore its

  14. Flavor mixing with quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    The last year has brought such a wealth of new information on heavy flavors that meaningful bounds can now be placed on all fermion mass related parameters in the Standard Model. The status of the KM matrix is reviewed with particular emphasis on the theoretical uncertainties. B 0 -anti B 0 mixing is reevaluated and CP violation is discussed as it is observed in K/sub L/ decays and as it hopefully can be studied in B decays. The report is concluded with short remarks on neutrino oscillations

  15. Lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.

    2014-06-01

    Recent measurements of lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons are presented and interpreted in the context of theoretical models, especially the Heavy Quark Expansion. Decay widths and decay width differences in the B s 0 - B-bar s 0 system are discussed from the studies of decays into the final states J/ψK + K - , J/ψπ + π - , D s + D s - , K + K - and D s ± π ± . Lifetime measurements of the baryons Λ b 0 , Ξ b - , Ξ b 0 , and Ω b - are also shown. (author)

  16. Search for Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Physics motivation and phenomenology of muon to electron conversion (μ - +N(A,Z)→e - +N(A,Z)) in a muonic atom, which is one the most important muon processes to search for lepton flavor violation of charged leptons, are presented. Prospects for future experiments at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) in Japan, such as the COMET experiment for a sensitivity of less than 10 -16 as the first stage, and then the PRISM/PRIME experiment for a sensitivity of less than 10 -18 as the ultimate stage, are discussed.

  17. Flavor profile of radiation processed food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Flavor is one of the major quality attributes that play an important role in driving consumer choices and preferences for food. Among the several attributes that decide the flavor quality of any food, aroma and taste are the most important. While volatile constituents contribute to aroma, taste is a perception stimulated by non-volatile principles of food. Radiation processing of food has in recent years assumed increasing importance as a method for hygenization. At the doses employed for food irradiation no significant qualitative changes in the aroma constituents have been reported in most cases. An increase in perceived aroma has however been observed in several radiation processed foods. Besides volatile aroma compounds non-volatile aroma precursors are ubiquitous in plant kingdom. These compounds have been reported to exist largely as bound glycosidic conjugates and are known to undergo breakdown during processing and storage. This results in release of free aroma, thereby, modifying the flavor quality of the product. No report, however, exists on the effect of radiation processing on these bound aroma precursors. Four major class of food namely spices, oil seeds, fruits and beverages were therefore taken up for a detailed study. With respect to aroma, an enhanced breakdown of aroma precursors namely isoeugenol and 4-vinyl guaiacol glycosides and release of free aglycones was demonstrated to result in an increased aroma quality of radiation processed monsooned coffee. Breakdown of phenyl ethanol glucoside resulted in a fruitier note to pomegranate while enhanced spicy note of irradiated nutmeg arise as a result of radiolytic break down p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside precursor and release of free p-cymene-7-ol. An increased color quality of irradiated saffron was a result of the formation of free carotene aglycones namely crocetin from its glycosidic precursors while changes in perceived taste quality of radiation processed soybean could be attributed to

  18. Naturalness, SUSY heavy higgses and flavor constraints

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will demonstrate that supersymmetric (SUSY) higgses provide an important diagnostic for electroweak naturalness in the SUSY paradigm. I first review the naturalness problem of the Standard Model (SM) and SUSY as one of its most promising solutions. I study the masses of heavy Higgses in SUSY theories under broad assumptions, and show how they are constrained by their role in Electroweak symmetry breaking. I then show how Flavor Physics severely constrains large parts of SUSY parameter space, otherwise favored by naturalness. If SUSY Higgses are not discovered at relatively low mass during the next LHC run, this tension will further increase, disfavoring naturalness from SUSY.

  19. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral BsBs meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent Bs flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: Bs → Dsπ(ππ) and Bs → Dslv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B+ and B0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B0 oscillation frequency yields Δmd = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps-1. The search for Bs oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb-1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the Bs meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the Bs samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps-1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps-1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of Bs mixing beyond the

  20. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C.; Ogilvie, M.C. (Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); DeGrand, T.A. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Physics Dept.); DeTar, C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Physics Dept.); Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics); Sugar, R.L. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Toussaint, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); MIMD Lattice Computations (MILC) Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of quantum chromo-dynamics at finite temperature on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks and of Wilson quarks on 6 x 12[sup 3] lattices in order to study the crossover from the low temperature hadronic regime to the high temperature regime. We investigate the properties of the objects whose exchange gives static screening lengths by reconstructing their correlated quark-antiquark structure. (orig.).

  1. Probing the Randall-Sundrum geometric origin of flavor with lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Blechman, Andrew E.; Petriello, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The anarchic Randall-Sundrum model of flavor is a low energy solution to both the electroweak hierarchy and flavor problems. Such models have a warped, compact extra dimension with the standard model fermions and gauge bosons living in the bulk, and the Higgs living on or near the TeV brane. In this paper we consider bounds on these models set by lepton flavor-violation constraints. We find that loop-induced decays of the form l→l ' γ are ultraviolet sensitive and incalculable when the Higgs field is localized on a four-dimensional brane; this drawback does not occur when the Higgs field propagates in the full five-dimensional space-time. We find constraints at the few TeV level throughout the natural range of parameters, arising from μ-e conversion in the presence of nuclei, rare μ decays, and rare τ decays. A tension exists between loop-induced dipole decays such as μ→eγ and tree-level processes such as μ-e conversion; they have opposite dependences on the five-dimensional Yukawa couplings, making it difficult to decouple flavor-violating effects. We emphasize the importance of the future experiments MEG and PRIME. These experiments will definitively test the Randall-Sundrum geometric origin of hierarchies in the lepton sector at the TeV scale

  2. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  3. New Insight on the Response of Bacteria to Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Breaker, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biolog...

  4. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity ...

  5. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ullah; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nazish Shahani

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, tox...

  6. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  7. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  8. Mechanisms of toxicity and biomarkers of flavoring and flavor enhancing chemicals in emerging tobacco and non-tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjot; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-05-15

    Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs. In this review, we have discussed the in vitro and in vivo data on toxicity of flavoring chemicals in lung cells. We have further discussed the common flavoring agents, such as diacetyl and menthol, currently available detection methods, and the toxicological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and DNA damage in cells, mice, and humans. Finally, we present potential biomarkers that could be utilized for future risk assessment. This review provides crucial parameters important for evaluation of risk associated with flavoring agents and flavoring enhancers used in tobacco products and ENDS. Future studies can be designed to address the potential toxicity of inhaled flavorings and their biomarkers in users as well as in chronic exposure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Although fluoride is plentiful in the environment and is commonly used at high concentrations in oral hygiene products, little has been known about how biological systems overcome the toxic effects of this anion. We demonstrate that a protein called FEX in many fungi is essential for cell survival in the presence of high fluoride concentrations. The protein is required for the rapid expulsion of cytoplasmic fluoride, indicating that many eukaryotic species that carry FEX genes likely avoid fl...

  10. No calcium-fluoride-like deposits detected in plaque shortly after a sodium fluoride mouthrinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2010-01-01

    Plaque 'calcium-fluoride-like' (CaF(2)-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 microg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2), centrifuged, and the recovered plaque fluid combined and analyzed using microelectrodes. The plaque mass from aliquot 1 was retained. The plaque mass from aliquot 2 was extracted several times with a solution having the same fluoride, calcium and pH as the plaque fluid in order to extract the plaque CaF(2)-like deposits. The total fluoride in both aliquots was then determined. In a second experiment, the extraction completeness was examined by applying the above procedure to in vitro precipitates containing known amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits. Nearly identical fluoride concentrations were found in both plaque aliquots. The extraction of the CaF(2)-like precipitates formed in vitro removed more than 80% of these deposits. The results suggest that either CaF(2)-like deposits were not formed in plaque or, if these deposits had been formed, they were rapidly lost. The inability to form persistent amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits in plaque may account for the relatively rapid loss of plaque fluid fluoride after the use of conventional fluoride dentifrices or rinses. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Morais, Weslanny A; Passos, Vanara F; Lima, Juliana P M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2014-05-01

    Fluoride-containing materials have been suggested to control enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets during the treatment with fixed appliances. The improvement of their properties has been made through innovations, such as the application of nanotechnology by incorporation of nanofillers. This in vitro study evaluated the capacity of fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization inhibition of fluoride-releasing nanofilled cement around orthodontic brackets using an artificial caries biofilm model. Forty bovine enamel discs were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into four groups (n = 10): non-fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and fluoride-releasing nanofilled composite (FN). After brackets bonding in each disc, the specimens were subjected to a cariogenic challenge through a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. After the experimental period, the biofilm formed around the brackets was collected for fluoride analysis and the mineral loss around the brackets was determined by integrated demineralization via cross-sectional microhardness measurement at 20 and 70 μm from the bracket margin. Additionally, samples of each group were subjected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis examined under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied for fluoride concentration and mineral loss data, respectively. At both distances, only RMGI statistically differed from the other groups presenting the lowest demineralization, although there was a trend to a lower demineralization of enamel around brackets in FN group. Similar condition was found to fluoride concentration and EDX/SEM analysis. Under the cariogenic exposure condition of this study, the fluoride-releasing nanofilled material had similar performance to fluoride-releasing microfilled materials. The presence of nanofillers in the fluoride

  12. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  14. Flavor universal dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, G.; Evans, N.

    1999-01-01

    The top condensate seesaw mechanism of Dobrescu and Hill allows electroweak symmetry to be broken while deferring the problem of flavor to an electroweak singlet, massive sector. We provide an extended version of the singlet sector that naturally accommodates realistic masses for all the standard model fermions, which play an equal role in breaking electroweak symmetry. The models result in a relatively light composite Higgs sector with masses typically in the range of (400 - 700) GeV. In more complete models the dynamics will presumably be driven by a broken gauged family or flavor symmetry group. As an example of the higher scale dynamics a fully dynamical model of the quark sector with a GIM mechanism is presented, based on an earlier top condensation model of King using broken family gauge symmetry interactions (that model was itself based on a technicolor model of Georgi). The crucial extra ingredient is a reinterpretation of the condensates that form when several gauge groups become strong close to the same scale. A related technicolor model of Randall which naturally includes the leptons too may also be adapted to this scenario. We discuss the low energy constraints on the massive gauge bosons and scalars of these models as well as their phenomenology at the TeV scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N f . This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and N f . Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,α c )↔(1/N f ,1/N f c ). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γ m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,N f ) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N f is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  16. Flavor-changing processes in extended technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Piai, Maurizio; Christensen, Neil; Shrock, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We analyze constraints on a class of extended technicolor (ETC) models from neutral flavor-changing processes induced by (dimension-six) four-fermion operators. The ETC gauge group is taken to commute with the standard model gauge group. The models in the class are distinguished by how the left- and right-handed (L,R) components of the quarks and charged leptons transform under the ETC group. We consider K 0 -K 0 and other pseudoscalar meson mixings, and conclude that they are adequately suppressed if the L and R components of the relevant quarks are assigned to the same (fundamental or conjugate-fundamental) representation of the ETC group. Models in which the L and R components of the down-type quarks are assigned to relatively conjugate representations, while they can lead to realistic CKM mixing and intrafamily mass splittings, do not adequately suppress these mixing processes. We identify an approximate global symmetry that elucidates these behavioral differences and can be used to analyze other possible representation assignments. Flavor-changing decays, involving quarks and/or leptons, are adequately suppressed for any ETC representation assignment of the L and R components of the quarks, as well as the leptons. We draw lessons for future ETC model building

  17. Light flavor asymmetry of nucleon sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Huiying; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The light flavor antiquark distributions of the nucleon sea are calculated in the effective chiral quark model and compared with experimental results. The contributions of the flavor-symmetric sea-quark distributions and the nuclear EMC effect are taken into account to obtain the ratio of Drell-Yan cross sections σ pD /2σ pp , which can match well with the results measured in the FermiLab E866/NuSea experiment. The calculated results also match the anti d(x)- anti u(x) measured in different experiments, but unmatch the behavior of anti d(x)/ anti u(x) derived indirectly from the measurable quantity σ pD /2σ pp by the FermiLab E866/NuSea Collaboration at large x. We suggest to measure again anti d(x)/ anti u(x) at large x from precision experiments with careful treatment of the experimental data. We also propose an alternative procedure for experimental data treatment. (orig.)

  18. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  19. Flavor structure of warped extra dimension models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2005-01-01

    We recently showed that warped extra-dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) masses lead to striking signals at B factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B physics. We also briefly study other new physics signatures that arise in rare K decays (K→πνν), in rare top decays [t→cγ(Z,gluon)], and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D 0 decays to CP eigenstates such as K S π 0 and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, ∼3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a 'CP problem' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal

  20. Flavor Structure of Warped Extra Dimension Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2004-01-01

    We recently showed, in HEP-PH--0406101, that warped extra dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV KK masses lead to striking signals at B-factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B-physics. We also briefly study other NP signatures that arise in rare K decays (K → πνν), in rare top decays [t → cγ(Z, gluon)] and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D 0 decays to CP eigenstates such as K s π 0 and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, ∼ 3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a ''CP problem'' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal

  1. Flavor gauge models below the Fermi scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Friedland, A.; Machado, P. A. N.; Mocioiu, I.

    2017-12-01

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, X, corresponding to the B - L symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, B +, D + and Upsilon decays, D-{\\overline{D}}^0 mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling g X in the range (10-2-10-4) the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in b physics, top and Z decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. The proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.

  2. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  3. Crystallography of three-flavor quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sharma, Rishi

    2006-01-01

    We analyze and compare candidate crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase that may arise in cold, dense but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. We determine the gap parameter Δ and free energy Ω(Δ) for many possible crystal structures within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, evaluating Ω(Δ) to order Δ 6 . In contrast to the two-flavor case, we find a positive Δ 6 term and hence an Ω(Δ) that is bounded from below for all the structures that we analyze. This means that we are able to evaluate Δ and Ω as a function of the splitting between Fermi surfaces for all the structures we consider. We find two structures with particularly robust values of Δ and the condensation energy, within a factor of 2 of those for the CFL phase which is known to characterize QCD at asymptotically large densities. The robustness of these phases results in their being favored over wide ranges of density. However, it also implies that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is not quantitatively reliable. We develop qualitative insights into what makes a crystal structure favorable, and use these to winnow the possibilities. The two structures that we find to be most favorable are both built from condensates with face-centered cubic symmetry: in one case, the and condensates are separately face-centered cubic; in the other case and combined make up a face-centered cube

  4. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  5. Flavor enhancement as a tool for increasing pleasantness and intake of a snack product among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, S; Kälviäinen, N; Tuorila, H

    2003-08-01

    A yogurt-like fermented oat bran product, flavored with regular and heightened concentrations of red currant aroma, was tested in two tasting sessions (side-by-side) and, between these, in a six-day home-use (monadic testing daily, 3+3 packages of the snack) by the elderly (n=50, mean age 73.7, range 63-85 years) and the young (n=58, mean age 23.1, range 18-34 years). The subjects rated the odor and flavor intensity and pleasantness and also conducted an odor detection and identification test. In home-use, the subjects reported the quantity consumed, willingness to eat, buy or recommend the snack. The young outperformed the elderly in the olfactory test. The heightened aroma samples were initially rated as less pleasant by both age groups, but among the elderly, the ratings given to the two samples merged during exposure. For the young, the large difference in perceived odor and flavor intensities reflected marked differences in pleasantness, while the elderly were less responsive to intensity differences in their pleasantness ratings. Overall, both age groups ate less of the heightened aroma sample. Despite the impaired olfactory capabilities of the elderly, no clear indication of benefit of the enhanced flavor was found for either pleasantness or intake.

  6. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  7. Method for identifying particulate fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufts, B J

    1960-01-01

    A method is described for identifying particulates containing fluorides and other complex fluorine compounds such as fluorosilicate in samples collected on membrane filters. The filter is treated with lead chloride to precipitate lead chlorofluoride at each fluoride-containing spot. This microspot is identified by examination in a light microscope. Sulfate and phosphate, which also precipitate if present, can be distinguished and do not interfere. Calibrations are given for the fluorides and the more insoluble salts, relating the original particle size to the reaction site size. Thus, the mass of the particles can be calculated. Results of some field tests in an area of fluoride pollution are given, and compared with standard testing procedures.

  8. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.; Howerton, W.B.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca 2+ -Al 3+ ) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 10 3 (vs approx. 500 for the Ca 2+ -Al 3+ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO 3 vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 10 6 and 10 4 , respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO 3 solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 10 4

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride with alizarin complexone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczenko, Z; Lenarczyk, L [Politechnika Warszawska (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The modification of direct spectrophotometric method of fluoride determination by alizarin complexone has been developed. It was shown that the lanthanum alizarin complexone chelate is more convenient than that of cerium (3). The influence of acetone, dioxane and dimethyl sulphoxide in water solution on the increase of sensitivity of the method and the rate of colour reaction has been determined. The optimal pH ranges for the reaction with lanthanum and cerium (3) have been estimated. Some amines having a large molecule are useful for extraction of blue fluoride complex with isobutanol. Dioctylamine was applied in a new extraction spectrophotometric procedure of fluoride determination. Conditions in reagent have been established. Both variants of the method have been applied to the fluoride determination in several chemicals. The obtained results show a good precision and accuracy.

  10. Lepton flavor violation at LEP II and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, J.L.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA

    1996-07-01

    At present, two fundamental mysteries in particle physics are the origins of electroweak symmetry breaking and the fermion mass matrices. The experimental discovery of superpartners would represent enormous progress in the understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking, but would it also allow progress on the flavor problem? To date, nearly all experimental studies of supersymmetry have ignored the possibility of flavor mixings in the sfermion sector. However, since all superpartners must be given masses, all supersymmetric theories necessarily allow for the possibility of new flavor mixings beyond the standard model. In addition, there are now many supersymmetric theories of flavor, which predict a wide variety of superpartner flavor mixings. In this study, the author examines the possibility of measuring these mixings at LEP II and the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Rare flavor changing processes, such as μ → eγ, τ → μγ, τ → eγ, b → sγ, and neutral meson mixing, already provide important constraints on the sfermion flavor mixings through the virtual effects of superpartners. However, as will be seen below, once superpartners are discovered, it will be possible to probe these mixings much more powerfully by directly observing the change in flavor occurring at the superpartner production and decay vertices

  11. Flavor changing neutral currents and the third family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, L.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a Two Higgs Doublet Model with Flavor Changing Scalar Neutral Currents arising at the tree level. All the most important constraints are taken into account and the compatibility with the present Electroweak measurements is examined. The Flavor Changing couplings involving the third family are not constrained to be very small and this allows us to predict some interesting signals of new physics

  12. Neutrino magnetic moment in a theory with lepton flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model for generating the neutrino magnetic moment of the order of 10 -10 μ B is proposed, which is based on the SU(3) lepton flavor symmetry. In such a way one can avoid the flavor changing processes. The experimental constraints on the constants of the model are considered

  13. Adolescents’ Interest in Trying Flavored E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, J.K.; Ribisl, K.M.; Brewer, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background More U.S. adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavored e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavors. Methods A national sample of adolescents (n=1,125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014-June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavors (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy, or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavor on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Results Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavored like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46-10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67-12.31), or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48-17.01) compared to tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavored e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes (preasons for the appeal of individual flavors, such as novelty and perceived prestige. PMID:27633762

  14. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  15. Symplectic symmetry of the neutrino mass for many neutrino flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Ankara Univ.

    2001-01-01

    The algebraic structure of the neutrino mass Hamiltonian is presented for two neutrino flavors considering both Dirac and Majorana mass terms. It is shown that the algebra is Sp(8) and also discussed how the algebraic structure generalizes for the case of more than two neutrino flavors. (orig.)

  16. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  17. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli; Sommer, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  18. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Valerio, Luis G.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of

  19. Fluoride method for silicon determination i silicovadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnitskaya, N.N.; Sergeev, K.I.; Shamraj, Z.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The method used was based on formation of a silicon-potassium fluoride-sodium sediment in strongly acid medium in the presence of excess potassium chloride which decreased the sediment solubility. The sediment was dissolved in hot water to titrate the resultant hydrofluoric acid with a caustic potash solution in the presence of phenolphthalein. Gravity hydrochloric and volumetric fluoride methods were used to compare the results of silicon estimation

  20. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejaoui, Imen; Mnif, Amine; Hamrouni, Bechir

    2009-01-01

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L -1 to 1,2 mg.L -1 . Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na 2 SO 4 ) > TR(CaCl 2 ) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand P s respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with

  1. Recovery of fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, R.P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A recovery procedure of fluoride ion selective electrode based upon the body radiography of inactive electrode and introduction of suitable internal regeneration solution, is developed. The recovered electrode was tested in standard solutions of fluoride ions (10 sup5) to 10 -1M showing as good performance as the new one. The fluor determination by potentiometric measurements with selective electrode is used in nuclear fuel cycle for quality control of thorium and uranium mixed oxide pellets and pellets of uranium dioxides. (author) [pt

  2. The breaking of flavor democracy in the quark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Di

    2017-09-01

    The democracy of quark flavors is a well-motivated flavor symmetry, but it must be properly broken in order to explain the observed quark mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. We reconstruct the texture of flavor democracy breaking and evaluate its strength in a novel way, by assuming a parallelism between the Q=+2/3 and Q=-1/3 quark sectors and using a nontrivial parametrization of the flavor mixing matrix. Some phenomenological implications of such democratic quark mass matrices, including their variations in the hierarchy basis and their evolution from the electroweak scale to a super-high energy scale, are also discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375207) and National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834300)

  3. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  4. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  5. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  6. Fluoride loaded polymeric nanoparticles for dental delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sanko; Escudero, Carlos; Sediqi, Nadia; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-06-15

    The overall aim of the present paper was to develop fluoride loaded nanoparticles based on the biopolymers chitosan, pectin, and alginate, for use in dental delivery. First, the preparation of nanoparticles in the presence of sodium fluoride (NaF) as the active ingredient by ionic gelation was investigated followed by an evaluation of their drug entrapment and release properties. Chitosan formed stable, spherical, and monodisperse nanoparticles in the presence of NaF and tripolyphoshate as the crosslinker, whereas alginate and pectin were not able to form any definite nanostructures in similar conditions. The fluoride loading capacity was found to be 33-113ppm, and the entrapment efficiency 3.6-6.2% for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2-0.4% (w/w) NaF, respectively. A steady increase in the fluoride release was observed for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2% NaF both in pH5 and 7 until it reached a maximum at time point 4h and maintained at this level for at least 24h. Similar profiles were observed for formulations prepared in 0.4% NaF; however the fluoride was released at a higher level at pH5. The low concentration, but continuous delivery of fluoride from the chitosan nanoparticles, with possible expedited release in acidic environment, makes these formulations highly promising as dental delivery systems in the protection against caries development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Well Waters Fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISI Ogbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05. The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011, it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride.

  8. THE USE OF FLUORIDE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kanduti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment and is always present in our lives. However, the concentration differs from area to area. Exposure can occur through diet, respiration and fluoride supplements. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Drinking water in Slovenia is not fluoridated; the amount of naturally present fluoride is very low. Fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralisation and demineralisation of tooth enamel. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their cariostatic effect. 

  9. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-01

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2) L x SU(2) R x P LR in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on ΔF=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B s 0 - anti B s 0 system, the rare decays B s,d →μ + μ - and K→πνanti ν allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  10. The flavor of the composite pseudo-goldstone Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas; Falkowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS. This together with the fact that in the pseudo-Goldstone scenario Yukawa couplings are set by a gauge coupling implies the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the fully anarchic approach to flavor in warped extra dimensions is implausible, and there have to be at least some partial flavor symmetries appearing that eliminate part of the sources for flavor violation. We also present complete expressions for the radiatively generated Higgs potential of various 5D implementations of the composite Higgs model, and comment on the 1-5 percent level tuning needed in the top sector to achieve a phenomenologically acceptable vacuum state.

  11. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  12. Chemisorption of uranium hexa-fluoride on sodium fluoride pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalburgi, A K; Sanyal, A; Puranik, V D; Bhattacharjee, B [Chemical Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    This paper comprises kinetics of chemical reaction or rather chemisorption of uranium hexafluoride gas on sodium fluoride pellets. The chemisorption is essentially irreversible at room temperature, while the process reverses at high temperature above 280 deg C. This chemisorption process was experimentally conducted in static condition at room temperature and its kinetics was studied. In the experiments, practically pure UF{sub 6} was used and the effects of gas pressure and weight of NaF pellets, were studied. In this heterogenous reaction, in which diffusion through ash layer is followed by chemical reaction, the reaction part is instantaneous and is first order with respect to gas concentration. Since the process of chemisorption is not only pure chemical reaction but also gas diffusion through ash layer, the rate constant depreciates with the percentage loading of UF{sub 6} on NaF pellets. The kinetic equation for the above process has been established for a particular size of NaF pellets and pellet porosity. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. U(3)-flavor nonet scalar as an origin of the flavor mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    According to an idea that the quark and lepton mass spectra originate in a VEV structure of a U(3)-flavor nonet scalar Φ, the mass spectra of the down-quarks and charged leptons are investigated. The U(3) flavor symmetry is spontaneously and completely broken by non-zero and non-degenerated VEVs of Φ, without passing any subgroup of U(3). The ratios (m e +m μ +m τ )/(√(m e )+√(m μ )+√(m τ )) 2 and √(m e m μ m τ )/(√(m e )+√(m μ )+√(m τ )) 3 are investigated based on a toy model

  14. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  15. Effect of xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Prevention of dental caries is one of the main strategies in contemporary pediatric dental practice. Mouth rinses are widely used as an adjunct to maintain oral hygiene. It is important for these products to be effective and safe for regular use in children. Objective : The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a newly introduced xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse in reducing levels of plaque Streptococcus mutans and to compare it with that of a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : Thirty children were randomly divided into two groups of 15 children each. Group I (study group was given a mouth rinse containing xylitol (5%, sodium fluoride (0.05% and triclosan (0.03% and Group II (control group was given a chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse. Both mouth rinses were alcohol free. Mouth rinsing was carried out twice daily, half an hour after breakfast and half an hour following dinner, for a period of 21 days under the supervision of the investigator. Results: In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the mean S. mutans count at the end of 21 days (P < 0.001. No significant difference was observed between the two mouth rinses. Conclusion: The use of a low fluoride-xylitol based mouth rinse appears to be a suitable choice for regular use in children.

  16. Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, Maria; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of five fluoride-releasing restorative materials and three dental adhesives, before and after NaF solution treatment. Five restorative materials (Fuji IX GP, GC Corp.; Ketac N100, 3M ESPE; Dyract Extra, Dentsply; Beautifil II, Shofu Inc.; Wave, SDI) and three dental adhesives (Stae, SDI; Fluorobond II - Shofu Inc.; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) were investigated before and after NaF solution treatment. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was to measure fluoride concentrations. During the 86-day period before NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP released the highest amount of fluoride among the restorative materials while Prime & Bond NT was the highest among the dental adhesives. After NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP again ranked the highest in fluoride release among the restorative materials while Fluorobond II ranked the highest among dental adhesives. It was concluded that the compositions and setting mechanisms of fluoride-containing dental materials influenced their fluoride release and recharge abilities.

  17. Effect of titanium tetrafluoride, amine fluoride and fluoride varnish on enamel erosion in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A; Ruben, JL; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 1 and 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) gels, amine fluoride (AmF) 1 and 0.25% and a fluoride varnish (FP) on the prevention of dental erosion. Two experimental groups served as controls, one with no pretreatment and another one pre-treated with a

  18. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Fluoride release and cariostatic potential of orthodontic adhesives with and without daily fluoride rinsing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, M.Y.; Sandham, A.; Rumachik, E.N.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the fluoride-release profiles and caries lesion development in an enamel model with brackets cemented with 4 orthodontic adhesives with and without daily fluoride exposure. METHODS: Four orthodontic adhesives (Ketac Cem mu, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany;

  20. Fluoride release and cariostatic potential of orthodontic adhesives with and without daily fluoride rinsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Rumachik, Elena N.; Ruben, Jan L.; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the fluoride-release profiles and caries lesion development in an enamel model with brackets cemented with 4 orthodontic adhesives with and without daily fluoride exposure. Methods: Four orthodontic adhesives (Ketac Cem mu, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany;

  1. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  2. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    properties. The relationship between overall arousal potential and hedonic response takes the shape of an inverted “U”, reaching an optimum at a certain level of arousal potential. In three independent studies, using different sets of novel beers as stimuli, consumers’ reported their hedonic response......The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative......, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer’s degree of product knowledge was found...

  3. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  4. Recent heavy flavor results from the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigo, Mirco

    2012-01-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron p(bar p) collider have pioneered and established the role of flavor physics in hadron collisions. A broad program is now at its full maturity. We report on three new results sensitive to physics beyond the standard model, obtained using the whole CDF dataset: a measurement of the difference of CP asymmetries in K + K - and π + π - decays of D 0 mesons, new bounds on the B s 0 mixing phase and on the decay width difference of B s 0 mass-eigenstates, and an update of the summer 2011 search for B (s) 0 mesons decaying into pairs of muons. Finally, the D0 confirmation of the observation of a new hadron, the χ b (3P) state, is briefly mentioned.

  5. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  6. Flavor-changing Z0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, A.

    1982-10-01

    Chapter I reviews the phenomenological situation. Simple estimates of various rates are also provided in order to convey the physical intuition necessary to guide one through the equations and numbers that follow. Chapter II presents technical aspects of the general flavor changing Z 0 decay calculation, with emphasis on the integration scheme used. Chapter III describes a number of nontrivial checks on the calculation that were performed. Chapter IV contains the entire general algebraic result for the decay rate. Chapter V describes numerical aspects of the computer evaluation, and discusses the parameter values used and the results for the three generation case. A similar presentation for the four generation case is given in Chapter VI. Chapter VII describes what experimentalists should look for in a semiquantitative way. Some possibilities for rate enhancement, and some related processes are mentioned in Chapter VIII

  7. PHENIX results on open heavy flavor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    PHENIX measures the open heavy flavor productions in p + p, Cu+Au, and Au+Au collisions at = 200 and 510 GeV using the silicon tracking detectors for mid- and forward rapidities. In Au+Au collisions, the nuclear modification of single electrons from bottom and charm hadron decays are measured for minimum bias and most central collisions. It is found that bottoms are less suppressed than charms in pT=3-5 GeV/c and charms in most central collisions are more suppressed than that in minimum bias collisions. In p + p and Cu+Au collisions, J/ψ from B meson decays are measured at forward and backward rapidities. The nuclear modification of B mesons in Cu+Au collisions is consistent with unity.

  8. Oral fluoride levels 1 h after use of a sodium fluoride rinse: effect of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gerald L; Schumacher, Gary E; Chow, Laurence C; Tenuta, Livia M A

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of free fluoride in oral fluids is an important goal in the use of topical fluoride agents. Although sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common dentifrice ingredient, the influence of this ion on plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SLS on these parameters and to examine the effect of this ion on total (or whole) plaque fluoride, an important source of plaque fluid fluoride after a sufficient interval following fluoride administration, and on total salivary fluoride, a parameter often used as a surrogate measure of salivary fluid fluoride. Ten subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h before rinsing with a 12 mmol/l NaF (228 µg/g F) rinse containing or not containing 0.5% (w/w) SLS. SLS had no statistically significant effect on total plaque and total saliva fluoride but significantly increased salivary fluid and plaque fluid fluoride (by 147 and 205%, respectively). These results suggest that the nonfluoride components of topical agents can be manipulated to improve the fluoride release characteristics from oral fluoride reservoirs and that statistically significant change may be observed in plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride concentrations that may not be observed in total plaque and total saliva fluoride concentrations.

  9. Widespread genetic switches and toxicity resistance proteins for fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jenny L; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-01-13

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion.

  10. Variable flavor scheme for final state jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrulewicz, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe a setup to treat mass effects from secondary radiation of heavy quark pairs in inclusive hard scattering processes with various dynamical scales. The resulting variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) generalizes a well-known scheme for massive initial state quarks which has been developed for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the classical region 1 - x ⁓ O(1) and which will be also discussed here. The setup incorporated in the formalism of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) consistently takes into account the effects of massive quark loops and allows to deal with all hierarchies between the mass scale and the involved kinematic scales corresponding to collinear and soft radiation. It resums all large logarithms due to flavor number dependent evolution, achieves both decoupling for very large masses and the correct massless behavior for very small masses, and provides a continuous description in between. In the bulk of this work I will concentrate on DIS in the endpoint region x → 1 serving mainly as a showcase for the concepts and on the thrust distribution for e + e - -collisions in the dijet limit as a phenomenologically relevant example for an event shape. The computations of the corrections to the structures in the factorization theorems are described explicitly for the singular terms at O(α s 2 C F T F ) arising from secondary radiation of massive quarks through gluon splitting. Apart from the soft function for thrust, which requires a dedicated calculation, these results are directly obtained from the corresponding results for the radiation of a massive gauge boson with vector coupling at O(α s ) with the help of dispersion relations, and most of the relevant conceptual and technical issues can be dealt with already at this level. Finally, to estimate the impact of the corrections I carry out a numerical analysis for secondary massive bottom and top quarks on thrust distributions at different center-of-mass energies

  11. Effective Lagrangian description of Higgs mediated flavor violating electromagnetic transitions: Implications on lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J. I.; Tututi, E. S.; Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Tlachino, F. J.; Toscano, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Higgs mediated flavor violating electromagnetic interactions, induced at the one-loop level by a nondiagonal Hf i f j vertex, with f i and f j charged leptons or quarks, are studied within the context of a completely general effective Yukawa sector that comprises SU L (2)xU Y (1)-invariant operators of up to dimension-six. Exact formulae for the one-loop γf i f j and γγf i f j couplings are presented and their related processes used to study the phenomena of Higgs mediated lepton flavor violation. The experimental limit on the μ→eγ decay is used to derive a bound on the branching ratio of the μ→eγγ transition, which is 6 orders of magnitude stronger than the current experimental limit. Previous results on the τ→μγ and τ→μγγ decays are reproduced. The possibility of detecting signals of lepton flavor violation at γγ colliders is explored through the γγ→l i l j reaction, putting special emphasis on the τμ final state. Using the bound imposed on the Hτμ vertex by the current experimental data on the muon anomalous magnetic moment, it is found that about half a hundred events may be produced in the International Linear Collider.

  12. Naturally large radiative lepton flavor violating Higgs decay mediated by lepton-flavored dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Kang, Zhaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model (SM), lepton flavor violating (LFV) Higgs decay is absent at renormalizable level and thus it is a good probe to new physics. In this article we study a type of new physics that could lead to large LFV Higgs decay, i.e., a lepton-flavored dark matter (DM) model which is specified by a Majorana DM and scalar lepton mediators. Different from other similar models with similar setup, we introduce both left-handed and right-handed scalar leptons. They allow large LFV Higgs decay and thus may explain the tentative Br(h→τμ)∼1% experimental results from the LHC. In particular, we find that the stringent bound from τ→μγ can be naturally evaded. One reason, among others, is a large chirality violation in the mediator sector. Aspects of relic density and especially radiative direct detection of the leptonic DM are also investigated, stressing the difference from previous lepton-flavored DM models.

  13. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  14. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  15. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  16. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  17. The Flavor of the Composite Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS, and imply the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the...

  18. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  19. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  20. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  1. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  2. CP violation as a probe of flavor origin in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.; Masiero, A.; Vives, O.

    1999-11-01

    We address the question of the relation between supersymmetry breaking and the origin of flavor in the context of CP violating phenomena. We prove that, in the absence of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase, a general Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with all possible phases in the soft-breaking terms, but no new flavor structure beyond the usual Yukawa matrices, can never give a sizeable contribution to ε K , ε'/ε or hadronic B 0 CP asymmetries. Observation of supersymmetric contributions to CP asymmetries in B decays would hint at a non-flavor blind mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. (author)

  3. Stringy origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ploeger, Felix; Raby, Stuart; Ratz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We study the origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries in superstring theory. We classify all possible non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries which can appear in heterotic orbifold models. These symmetries include D 4 and Δ(54). We find that the symmetries of the couplings are always larger than the symmetries of the compact space. This is because they are a consequence of the geometry of the orbifold combined with the space group selection rules of the string. We also study possible breaking patterns. Our analysis yields a simple geometric understanding of the realization of non-Abelian flavor symmetries

  4. Collider aspects of flavor physics at high Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, T.; Pape, L.; Moortgat, F.; Porod, W.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aguila, F. del; Illana, J.; Allanach, B.C.; Raklev, A.R.; Burdman, G.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Castro, N.; Carvalho, J.; Onofre, A.; Veloso, F.; Klasen, M.; Fuks, B.; Herrmann, B.; Krasnikov, N.; Andreev, Y.; Bityukov, S.; Gninenko, S.; Matveev, V.; Toropin, A.; Krauss, F.; Weiglein, G.; Polesello, G.; Tricomi, A.; Uenel, G.; Alwall, J.; Frederix, R.; Gerard, J.M.; Giammanco, A.; Herquet, M.; Kalinin, S.; Kou, E.; Lemaitre, V.; Maltoni, F.; Sierra, D.A.; Hirsch, M.K.; Valle, J.W.F.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Bartl, A.; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K.; Kernreiter, T.; Beccaria, M.; Ventura, A.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Palla, F.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Clerbaux, B.; Campos, F. de; Gouvea, A. de; Gopalakrishna, S.; Dennis, C.; Uenel, M.K.; Tseng, J.; Djouadi, A.; Ellwanger, U.; Moreau, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Roupas, Z.; Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Goto, T.; Grzadkowski, B.; Guasch, J.; Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Muentel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Hidaka, K.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hurth, T.; Ibarra, A.; Karafasoulis, C.; Kyriakis, A.; Vermisoglou, G.; Kirsanov, M.M.; Kraml, S.; Macorini, G.; Panizzi, L.; Verzegnassi, C.; Magro, M.B.; Majerotto, W.; Mehdiyev, R.; Misiak, M.; Muehlleitner, M.; Oezcan, E.; Penaranda, S.; Pittau, R.; Pukhov, A.; Renard, F.M.; Restrepo, D.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Servant, G.; Skands, P.; Slavich, P.; Sola, J.; Spira, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the ''Flavor in the era of LHC'' workshop report discusses flavor-related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at the LHC at high momentum transfer Q, both from the experimental and the theoretical perspective. We review top quark physics, and discuss the flavor aspects of several extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects, as well as the measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present publicly available computational tools related to this topic. (orig.)

  5. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomnitz Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  6. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Michael R.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  7. Applications of flavor symmetry to the phenomenology of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeding, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Some applications of flavor symmetry are examined. Approximate flavor symmetries and their consequences in the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) are considered, and found to give natural values for the possible B- and L-violating couplings that are empirically acceptable, except for the case of proton decay. The coupling constants of SU(3) are calculated and used to parameterize the decays of the D mesons in broken flavor SU(3). The resulting couplings are used to estimate the long-distance contributions to D-meson mixing

  8. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  9. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  10. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project.

  12. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project

  13. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-07-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in Bacillus subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound is potentiated by fluoride. Polymyxin B, another membrane-targeting antibiotic with a different mechanism of action, shows no such improvement. These results, along with previous findings, indicate that certain compounds that destabilize bacterial cell envelopes can enhance the toxicity of fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  15. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shahani, Nazish

    2017-08-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  16. comparative study of fluoride in alcornea cordifolia and commercial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantum

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... fluoride than the tender stem. Hence, the hard stem is a cheap source of fluoride when compared to commercial ... The importance of addition of 10% zinc .... 1st edition, Prentice Hall, Education Limited, Publisher, Edinburgh.

  17. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  18. A simple and colorimetric fluoride receptor and its fluoride-responsive organogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Xudong, E-mail: 081022009@fudan.edu.cn [College of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Yuhua Road 70, Shijiazhuang 050080 (China); Li Yajuan [College of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Yuhua Road 70, Shijiazhuang 050080 (China); Yin Yaobing; Yu Decai [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, 199 South street of Guangming, Handan 056038 (China)

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a new p-nitrophenylhydrozine-based anion receptor 1 containing cholesterol group had been designed and synthesized. It could selectively recognize fluoride among different anions tested with color changes from pale yellow to red for visual detection. Simultaneously, it could gel in cyclohexane, and the gel was also fluoride-responsive. When treated with TBAF (tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride), the gel could undergo gel-sol transition accompanied by color, morphology and surface changes. The binding mechanism had been investigated by UV-vis and {sup 1}HNMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra) titrations. From SEM (scanning electron microscope), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), IR (Infrared Spectroscopy) and CA (contact angle) experiments, it was indicated that the addition of F{sup -} could destroy the molecule assembly of host 1 in the gel state, thus resulting in the gel-to-sol transition due to the binding site competition effect. To the best of our knowledge, this was the simplest fluoride-responsive organogel with high selectivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel kind receptor for selective recognition of fluoride had been designed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its organogel was also fluoride-responsive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the simplest fluoride-responsive organogel with high selectivity.

  19. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual's health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother's milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their cariostatic effect.

  20. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    , systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on......Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research...

  1. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  2. Fluoride in dental biofilm and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Line Staun

    Dette ph.d.-projekt bidrager med ny viden om fordelingen af fluorid i dental biofilm og saliva. For at udforske koncentrationen af fluorid i naturlig (in vivo) biofilmvæske, biofilmsediment og i saliva, blev der udført to meget forskellige kliniske studier. Resultaterne fra tværsnitsstudiet (Studie...... I), hos en stor gruppe mennesker (n=42) der konsulterede en tandklinik for behandling, bekræfter tidligere viden, at der findes en naturlig biologisk variation i fluoridkoncentrationerne i biofilm fra forskellige intra-orale regioner samt mellem biofilmvæske, biofilmsediment og saliva...... fluoridkoncentrationer i underkæbefronten, intermediære koncentrationer i alle tre overkæberegioner og de laveste koncentrationer i underkæbemolarregionerne. Begge studier viser at biofilmsedimentet indeholder størstedelen af fluorid i biofilm. Set i et bredere perspektiv viser fundene at der er et omvendt forhold...

  3. Effect of atmospheric fluoride on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suketa, Y; Yamamoto, T

    1971-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between the exposure factor and foliar deposition of fluoride, or foliar burn, are introduced. Photosynthesis is adversely affected by atmospheric fluoride. The photosynthesis of a strawberry deteriorated by 50% when the strawberry was exposed to 48 ppb hydrofluoric acid for one hour. The effect of fluoride on the respiratory organs of plants is also reported. Soy beans exposed to 0.03 ppm HF had metabolic abnormalities. The total sugar quantity of leaves decreased from 242-253 mg/100 g to 111-141 mg/100 g and the non-reduced sugar/reduced sugar ratio decreased from 4.6-8.7 to 0.8-1.6. 30 references, 3 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 ± 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO 4 at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO 2 F 2 . Studies on the effect of added LiNO 3 or Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF 6 content of WF 6 gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF 6

  5. Purification method for calcium fluoride containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogami, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) containing uranium is heated in an electrolytic bath having a cathode and an anode to form a molten salt, and the molten salt is electrolytically reduced to form metal uranium deposited on the surface of the cathode. The calcium fluoride molten salt separated by the deposition of generated metal uranium on the surface of the cathode is solidified by cooling. The solidified calcium fluoride is recovered. When metal uranium is deposited on the surface of the cathode by the electrolytic reduction of the molten salt, impurities such as plutonium and neptunium are also deposited on the surface of the anodes entrained by the metal uranium. Impurities having high vapor pressures such as americium and strontium are evaporated and removed from the molten salts. Then, nuclides such as uranium can thus be separated and recovered, and residual CaF 2 can be recovered in a state easily storable and reutilizable. (T.M.)

  6. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  7. Preparation of uranium ingots from double fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Boulbin, E.

    1967-05-01

    A simple method has been developed for the preparation of uranium double fluorides and has given a new impetus to the study of the reduction of these compounds with a view to obtaining very pure uranium ingots. This reduction can be carried out using calcium or magnesium as the reducing agent, this latter metal being very interesting from the practical point of view. A comparative study of the heat balances of the reduction processes for the double fluorides and for uranium tetrafluoride has shown that reduction of the double fluorides is possible. The exact experimental conditions for these reductions have been determined. Our study has shown in particular that the reduction of the double salt UF 4 , CaF 2 by magnesium leads to the production of small (20 to 500 g) samples of high-purity uranium with a yield of 99 per cent. (author) [fr

  8. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  9. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  10. Fluoride removal performance of phosphoric acid treated lime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride in drinking water above permissible levels is responsible for dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, removal of fluoride ions from water using phosphoric acid treated lime was investigated in continuous and point-of-use system operations. In the continuous column operations, fluoride removal performance was ...

  11. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by pumice: case study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride removal from synthetic water by pumice was studied at batch experiments in this study. The effect of pH, contact time, fluoride concentration and adsorbent dose on the fluoride sequestration was investigated. The optimum conditions were studied on Kuhbonan water as a case study. The results showed that ...

  12. Coprecipitation of iron and silver with barium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, N.V.; Khamidov, B.O.; Kashina, Z.A.; Ikrami, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of trace contaminants of iron and silver at coprecipitation of barium fluoride is studied in present work. It is defined that iron almost completely coprecipitated with barium fluoride in wide range of ph 5.5-12. Silver coprecipitated with barium fluoride in ph range 4-7. The value of coprecipitation varies from 94% to 100%.

  13. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  14. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  15. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. ... This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at ... those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. ..... [12] Andrei Gritsan, ICHEP 2004, Beijing, China.

  16. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  17. μe conversion experiments. Testing charged lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Andries van der

    2004-01-01

    The recent evidence for neutrino mixing shows that lepton flavor is not a conserved quantity. Due to the smallness of the neutrino masses effective flavor changing neutral currents among charged leptons remain negligible in the Standard Model. Whereas b → sγ has a probability of O(10 -4 )μ → eγ is expected with a branching ratio around 10 -50 . Observable rates would be an unambiguous signal for physics beyond the Standard Model and indeed, many extensions of the model are constrained best by the present experimental limits on charged lepton flavor violation. In this talk I will discuss experimental searches for charged lepton flavor violation with emphasis on μe conversion in muonic atoms. (author)

  18. Can oral rehydration solution be safely flavored at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen-Jordan, C

    1997-12-01

    To determine the concentration of sodium, potassium, glucose, and osmolality of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) which have been flavored with varying amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, apple juice, or orange juice. Descriptive. Alberta Children's Hospital Chemistry Laboratory. None. Addition of varying amounts of flavoring easily available in all households to commercially available unsweetened ORS. Concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, and osmolality. Addition of fruit juices or flavor powders to commercially produced ORS does alter the electrolyte content and osmolality. When limited amounts of flavoring or juice is added, the osmolality of the solution approaches iso-osmolality. Small amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, and apple or orange juice can be added to oral rehydration solutions without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality.

  19. The color-flavor transformation of induced QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnir, Ya.

    2002-09-01

    The color-flavor transformation is applied to the U(N c ) lattice model, in which the gauge theory is induced by the chiral scalar field associated with an elementary plaquette. The flavor degrees of freedom are related with the number of generations of the auxiliary field, and flavor components of each generation are associated with all the plaquettes having a lattice site in common. The property of the dual color-flavor transformed theory, which is expressed in terms of the gauge singlets, are analyzed in d=2 and d=3 dimensions. The saddle point solution of the model in the large-N c limit is discussed. The correlations between the plaquettes, which are described by the dual theory, allows to define the dual lattice. In d=3 dimensions it is made of tetradecahedra which correspond to the cubes of the original lattice. The continuum limit of d=2 effective theory is discussed. (author)

  20. 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, Edmond Craig

    2017-12-04

    Partial support for participation for students and postdocs who wished to attend to give poster presentations at the 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV 2016) in Charlottesville, VA.

  1. The color-flavor transformation of induced QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shnir, Ya M

    2002-01-01

    The color-flavor transformation is applied to the $U(N_c)$ lattice model, in which the gauge theory is induced by the chiral scalar field associated with an elementary plaquette. The flavor degrees of freedom are related with the number of generations of the auxiliary field, and flavor components of each generation are associated with all the plaquettes having a lattice site in common. The property of the dual color-flavor transformed theory, which is expressed in terms of the gauge singlets, are analyzed in $d=2$ and $d=3$ dimensions. The saddle point solution of the model in the large-$N_c$ limit is discussed. The correlations between the plaquettes, which are described by the dual theory, allows to define the dual lattice. In $d=3$ dimensions it is made of tetradecahedra which correspond to the cubes of the original lattice. The continuum limit of $d=2$ effective theory is discussed.

  2. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-09-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kähler potential obeys the underlying S3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kähler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale.

  3. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kaehler potential obeys the underlying S 3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kaehler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale

  4. Flavors in the soup: An overview of heavy-flavored jet energy loss at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kurt E.

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, along with the first ever measurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at √s NN =5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at √s = 2.76 TeV. Measurements of b-jet and c-jet spectra are compared to pp data at √s = 2.76 TeV and to PYTHIA predictions at both 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. We observe a centrality-dependent suppression for b-jets in PbPb and a result that is consistent with PYTHIA for both charm and bottom jets in pPb collisions.

  5. Heavy-light flavor correlations and the QCD phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Chihiro [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Redlich, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss correlations between the light and heavy-light flavored mesons at finite temperature within a chiral effective theory implementing heavy quark symmetry. We show that the thermodynamics of the charmed mesons is strongly dragged by the chiral crossover dominated by the non-strange flavors. Consequently, the fluctuations carried by the states with strangeness can be used to characterize the onset of the chiral symmetry restoration.

  6. Origins of tiny neutrino mass and large flavor mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Active neutrino masses are extremely smaller than those of other quarks and leptons, and there are large flavor mixings in the lepton sector, contrary to the quark sector. They are great mysteries in the standard model, but also excellent hints of new physics beyond the standard model. Thus, questions 'What is an origin of tiny neutrino mass?' and 'What is an origin of large lepton flavor mixings?' are very important. In this paper, we overview various attempts to solve these big questions. (author)

  7. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  8. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  9. 14th Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 edition of the Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation will be held at on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on 6-9 June. The FPCP conference series was founded in 2002 through the merger of the Heavy Flavor (HF) and B Physics and CP Violation (BPCP) conference series. A list of previous FPCP venues can be found here.

  10. Enforced Electrical Neutrality of the Color-Flavor Locked Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that quark matter in the color-flavor locked phase of QCD is rigorously electrically neutral, despite the unequal quark masses, and even in the presence of an electron chemical potential. As long as the strange quark mass and the electron chemical potential do not preclude the color-flavor locked phase, quark matter is automatically neutral. No electrons are required and none are admitted

  11. Multi baryons with flavors in the Skyrme model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schat, Carlos L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scoccola, Norberto N. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    We investigate the possible existence of multi baryons with heavy flavor quantum numbers using the bound state approach to the topological soliton model and the recently proposed approximation for multi skyrmion fields based on rational maps. We use an effective interaction Lagrangian which consistently incorporates both chiral symmetry and the heavy quark symmetry including the corrections up to order {omicron}(1/m{sub Q}). The model predicts some narrow heavy flavored multi baryon states with baryon number four and seven. (author)

  12. GUT and flavor models for neutrino masses and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Davide

    2017-10-01

    In the recent years experiments have established the existence of neutrino oscillations and most of the oscillation parameters have been measured with a good accuracy. However, in spite of many interesting ideas, no real illumination was sparked on the problem of flavor in the lepton sector. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of models for neutrino masses and mixings formulated in the context of flavor symmetries, with particular emphasis on the role played by grand unified gauge groups.

  13. Multi baryons with flavors in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schat, Carlos L.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    1999-07-01

    We investigate the possible existence of multi baryons with heavy flavor quantum numbers using the bound state approach to the topological soliton model and the recently proposed approximation for multi skyrmion fields based on rational maps. We use an effective interaction Lagrangian which consistently incorporates both chiral symmetry and the heavy quark symmetry including the corrections up to order ο(1/m Q ). The model predicts some narrow heavy flavored multi baryon states with baryon number four and seven. (author)

  14. Lepton flavor violation in tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, G.; Dib, C.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    We study lepton flavor violation (LFV) in tau decays induced by heavy Majorana neutrinos within two models: (I) the standard model with additional right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, i.e., a typical seesaw-type model; (II) the standard model with left-handed and right-handed neutral singlets, which are inspired by certain scenarios of SO(10) models and heterotic superstring models with E 6 symmetry. We calculate various LFV branching ratios and a T-odd asymmetry. The seesaw model I predicts very small branching ratios for LFV processes in most of the parameter space, although in a very restricted parameter region it can reach maximal branching ratios Br(τ→μγ)∼10 -9 and Br(τ→3μ)∼10 -10 . In contrast, model II may show branching ratios Br(τ→eγ)∼10 -8 and Br(τ→3e) -9 over a sizable region of the parameter space, large enough to be tested by experiments in the near future

  15. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  16. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  17. Holographic quark gluon plasma with flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    In this work I explore theoretical and phenomenological implications of chemical potentials and charge densities inside a strongly coupled thermal plasma, using the gauge/gravity correspondence. Strong coupling effects discovered in this model theory are interpreted geometrically and may be taken as qualitative predictions for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. In particular I examine the thermodynamics, spectral functions, transport coefficients and the phase diagram of the strongly coupled plasma. For example stable mesons, which are the analogs of the QCD Rho-mesons, are found to survive beyond the deconfinement transition. A phase transition resembling 2-flavor QCD is discovered. The momentum diffusion rate of charmonium at strong coupling is significantly reduced compared to the weak coupling result, in reminiscence of the universal viscosity bound. This paper is based on partly unpublished work performed in the context of my PhD thesis. New results and ideas extending significantly beyond those published until now are stressed. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Dark Z implication for flavor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fanrong [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, R.O. (China); Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Dark Z/dark photon (Z{sup ′}) is one candidate of dark force carrier, which helps to interpret the properties of dark matter (DM). Other than conventional studies of DM including direct detection, indirect detection and collider simulation, in this work we take flavor physics as a complementary approach to investigate the features of dark matter. We give an exact calculation of the new type of penguin diagram induced by Z{sup ′} which further modifies the well-known X,Y,Z functions in penguin-box expansion. The measurement of rare decays B→K{sup (∗)}μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and B{sub s}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −} at LHC, together with direct CP violation ε{sup ′}/ε in K→ππ as well as K{sub L}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −}, are used to determine the parameter space. The size of coupling constant, however, is found to be O(1) which is much weaker than the known constraints.

  19. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-01

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated

  20. arXiv Lepton flavor universality violation without new sources of quark flavor violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-03

    We show that new physics models without new flavor violating interactions can explain the recent anomalies in the b→sℓ+ℓ- transitions. The b→sℓ+ℓ- arises from a Z′ penguin which automatically predicts the V-A structure for the quark currents in the effective operators. This framework can either be realized in a renormalizable U(1)′ setup or be due to new strongly interacting dynamics. The dimuon resonance searches at the LHC are becoming sensitive to this scenario since the Z′ is relatively light, and could well be discovered in future searches by ATLAS and CMS.

  1. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  2. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  3. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  4. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  5. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  6. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release from PRG-composites and compomer on application of topical fluoride: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhull K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To determine the fluoride release from Giomer and Compomer, using different topical fluoride regimes, and to compare the amount of fluoride release from giomer with that of compomer. Materials and Method: Forty-eight specimens of each giomer and compomer were divided into four treatment groups, namely, control group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm twice daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily + fluoridated mouthwash (225 ppm group. Each specimen was suspended in demineralizing solution for six hours and remineralizing solution for 18 hours. Fluoride release was measured in both the demineralizing solution and remineralizing solution daily for seven days. Total daily fluoride release for each specimen was calculated by adding the amount released in the demineralizing solution to that released in remineralizing solution. Results and Conclusion: The fluoride release (ppm was found to be more in Giomer when compared to Compomer. The fluoride released from Giomer and Compomer was significantly greater in the acidic demineralizing solution than in the neutral remineralizing solution. It was found that increasing fluoride exposure significantly increased fluoride release from the giomer and compomer. It was found that the fluoride release from the subgroups of giomer and compomer was in the following order: fluoridated dentifrice twice daily > fluoridated dentifrice once daily + fluoridated mouthwash > fluoridated dentifrice once daily > control group. It was found that the giomer showed a greater fluoride uptake than the compomer.

  7. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  8. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    2018-04-01

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μ b = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the freedom in choosing the position of the HFMP. We demonstrate that by choosing a sufficiently large HFMP, which could be as large as 10 times the mass of the heavy quark, one can achieve the following improvements: 1) above the HFMP the size of missing power corrections O(m) is restricted by the value of μ b and, therefore, the error associated with their omission can be made negligible; 2) additional prescriptions for the definition of cross-sections are not required; 3) the resummation accuracy is maintained and 4) contrary to the common lore we find that the discontinuity of α s and pdfs across thresholds leads to improved continuity in predictions for observables. We have considered a large set of proton-proton and electron-proton collider processes, many through NNLO QCD, that demonstrate the broad applicability of our proposal.

  9. Fermion masses and flavor mixings in a model with S4 flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun

    2010-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric model of quark and lepton based on S 4 xZ 3 xZ 4 flavor symmetry. The S 4 symmetry is broken down to Klein four and Z 3 subgroups in the neutrino and the charged lepton sectors, respectively. Tri-Bimaximal mixing and the charged lepton mass hierarchies are reproduced simultaneously at leading order. Moreover, a realistic pattern of quark masses and mixing angles is generated with the exception of the mixing angle between the first two generations, which requires a small accidental enhancement. It is remarkable that the mass hierarchies are controlled by the spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry in our model. The next to leading order contributions are studied, all the fermion masses and mixing angles receive corrections of relative order λ c 2 with respect to the leading order results. The phenomenological consequences of the model are analyzed, the neutrino mass spectrum can be normal hierarchy or inverted hierarchy, and the combined measurement of the 0ν2β decay effective mass m ββ and the lightest neutrino mass can distinguish the normal hierarchy from the inverted hierarchy.

  10. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-15

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x P{sub LR} in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on {delta}F=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B{sub s}{sup 0}- anti B{sub s}{sup 0} system, the rare decays B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and K{yields}{pi}{nu}anti {nu} allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  11. Flavor Tagging with Track Jets in Boosted Topologies with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ability to resolve and b-tag heavy flavor jets produced from the decay of boosted heavy particles, such as top quarks or Higgs bosons, is vital for the identification of new physics signatures as the LHC moves to higher energies and luminosities in 2015. Within these complex environments, resolving the different decay products can be achieved by using jets with a smaller distance parameter R. We propose the use of small-R track jets for this purpose. Track jets allow for a flexible way to identify and tag b-hadron decays independently of calorimeter jet algorithms, thus providing a robust way to integrate b-tagging with non-regular jet algorithms (i.e. large-R groomed jets) optimized for boosted topologies.

  12. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials--fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the fluoride release and recharge capabilities, and antibacterial properties, of fluoride-releasing dental restoratives, and discuss the current status concerning the prevention or inhibition of caries development and progression. Information from original scientific full papers or reviews listed in PubMed (search term: fluoride release AND (restorative OR glass-ionomer OR compomer OR polyacid-modified composite resin OR composite OR amalgam)), published from 1980 to 2004, was included in the review. Papers dealing with endodontic or orthodontic topics were not taken into consideration. Clinical studies concerning secondary caries development were only included when performed in split-mouth design with an observation period of at least three years. Fluoride-containing dental materials show clear differences in the fluoride release and uptake characteristics. Short- and long-term fluoride releases from restoratives are related to their matrices, setting mechanisms and fluoride content and depend on several environmental conditions. Fluoride-releasing materials may act as a fluoride reservoir and may increase the fluoride level in saliva, plaque and dental hard tissues. However, clinical studies exhibited conflicting data as to whether or not these materials significantly prevent or inhibit secondary caries and affect the growth of caries-associated bacteria compared to non-fluoridated restoratives. Fluoride release and uptake characteristics depend on the matrices, fillers and fluoride content as well as on the setting mechanisms and environmental conditions of the restoratives. Fluoride-releasing materials, predominantly glass-ionomers and compomers, did show cariostatic properties and may affect bacterial metabolism under simulated cariogenic conditions in vitro. However, it is not proven by prospective clinical studies whether the incidence of secondary caries can be significantly reduced by the fluoride release of

  13. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  14. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  15. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  16. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  17. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  18. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  19. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  20. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  1. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  2. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  3. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  4. Estimation of atmospheric fluoride by limed filter papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.

    1988-09-01

    The limed filter paper method of static sampling of atmospheric fluoride is reviewed in this report. Use of the technique, in conjunction with precise measurement of the absorbed fluoride and calibration with dynamic air sampling techniques, to estimate atmospheric fluoride levels, is considered to give only qualitative data (± 50%). The limed filter paper method is site specific due to variations in meteorological conditions. Its main value is to indicate seasonal and annual trends in fluoride exposure of vegetation. Subject to these considerations, the lower and upper limits of atmospheric fluoride exposure and the applicability to atmospheric fluoride estimation under routine or emergency fluoride release conditions are discussed, with special emphasis on the limiting factors

  5. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  6. New Insight on the Response of Bacteria to Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biology, which has implications for a number of issues that are central to the use of fluoride for dental care. Below I provide a summary of our findings, comment on some of the key prospects for expanding our understanding of fluoride's effects on biology, and propose some future uses of this knowledge. PMID:22327376

  7. New insight on the response of bacteria to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, R R

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biology, which has implications for a number of issues that are central to the use of fluoride for dental care. Below I provide a summary of our findings, comment on some of the key prospects for expanding our understanding of fluoride's effects on biology, and propose some future uses of this knowledge. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Adverse effects of fluoride towards thyroid hormone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggar Abdullah Idris MZ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An easily ionized fluoride compound like Sodium Fluoride (NaF has been used thus far as a dental caries prevention substance. However, fluoride ions also have a negative effect because it is very toxic. Several types of research on the effect of fluoride on guinea pigs and human beings indicate the presence synthesis obstruction of T3 and T4 that causes declined production, known as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism condition may obstruct tissue growth process and metabolism so as to impact various body organ systems. Preventive efforts against hypothyroidism caused by fluoride include avoiding diffusible fluoride compound intake, like NaF, in a long run systemic use, whereas efforts to overcome fluoride intoxication include consuming food that is rich in calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant.

  9. Fluoride concentration in urine after silver diamine fluoride application on tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. L.; Bahar, A.; Gunawan, H. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Maharani, D. A.; Toptanci, I. R.; Yavuz, I.

    2017-08-01

    Silver Diammine Fluoride (SDF), which contains fluoride, is known to inhibit tooth enamel demineralization and increase fluoride concentrations in saliva and urine. The aim of this study is to analyze the fluoride concentration in urine after application of SDF on tooth enamel. Urine from four subjects was collected prior to, 30 minutes after, and two and three hours after the application of SDF, and an ion-selective electrode was used to measure the fluoride concentrations. There was no significant difference between time 1 and time 2, time 1 and time 3, time 1 and time 4, time 2 and 3 (p > 0.05), and there was a significant difference between time 2 and time 4 as well as time 3 and time 4 (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in the concentration of fluoride ions in urine from the baseline to 30 minutes after application, and an increase from baseline to two and three hours after the application of SDF.

  10. Unconventional fluoride conversion coating preparation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Tkacz, J.; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2017), s. 613-619 ISSN 0003-5599 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fluoride conversion coating * magnesium * corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ACMM-02-2017-1757

  11. Diffusion of fluoride in bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flim, G.J.; Arends, J.; Kolar, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of 18 F and the penetration of both F and 18 F in bovine enamel was investigated. Sodium fluoride solutions buffered at pH 7 were employed. The uptake of 18 F was measured by a method described by R. Duckworth and M. Braden, Archs. Oral. Biol., 12(1967), pp. 217-230. The penetration concentration profiles of fluoride (F, 18 F) in the enamel were measured by a sectioning technique. The 18 F uptake in enamel was proportional to approximately tsup(3/4); t being the uptake time. The 18 F concentration as a function of the position in the enamel can be described by: c*(x,t) = c 0 *(t)exp[-α*(t)x]. After correction for the initial fluoride concentration in enamel, for unlabelled fluoride the same dependency is obtained. A model based on simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction in the pores and diffusion into the hydroxyapatite crystallites will be presented. The results show that diffusion coefficients of the pores are approximately equal to 10 -10 cm 2 s -1 and in the apatite crystallites approximately equal to 10 -17 cm 2 s -1 . The limitations and the approximations of the model are discussed

  12. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  13. Uranium fluorides analysis. Titanium spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Titanium determination in uranium hexafluoride in the range 0.7 to 100 microgrammes after transformation of uranium fluoride in sulfate. Titanium is separated by extraction with N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine, reextracted by hydrochloric-hydrofluoric acid. The complex titanium-N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine is extracted by chloroform. Spectrophotometric determination at 400 nm [fr

  14. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  15. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APS sensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  17. IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjedovic, Eida; Medjedovic, Senad; Deljo, Dervis; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride is natural element that strengthens teeth and prevents their decay. Experts believe that the best way to prevent cavities is the use of fluoride from multiple sources. Studies even show that in some cases, fluoride can stop already started damage of the teeth. In children younger than 6 years fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of permanent teeth, making the teeth more resistant to the action of bacterial and acids in food. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of improving the health status of teeth after six months treatment with the use of topical fluoridation 0.5% NaF, and the level and quality of the impact of treatment with chemical 0.5% NaF on the dental health of children at age from 8 to 15 years, in relation to gender and chronological age. This study included school children aged 8 to 15 years who visited health and dental services dependent in Mostar. It is obvious that after the implementation of treatment with 5% NaF by the method of topical fluoridation, health status of subjects from the experimental group significantly improved, so that at the final review 89.71% or 61 subjects of the experimental group had healthy (cured teeth), tooth with dental caries only 5.88% or 4 respondents tooth with dental caries and filling 4.41% or 3 respondents, extracted baby tooth 14.71% or 10 respondents, while for 13.24% of respondents was identified state with still unerupted teeth. Our findings are indirectly confirmed that the six-month treatment of fluoridation with 5% NaF, contributed to statistically significant improvement in overall oral health of the experimental group compared to the control group which was not treated by any dental treatment. It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the evaluated parameters of oral health of children in the control group compared to the studied parameters of oral health the experimental group of children at the final dental examination.

  18. Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

  19. Fluoride-releasing restorative materials and secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Donly, Kevin; Flaitz, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. Risk factors for secondary caries are similar to those for primary caries development. Unfortunately, it is not possible to accurately predict which patients are at risk for restoration failure. During the past several decades, fluoride-releasing dental materials have become a part of the dentist's armamentarium. Considerable fluoride is released during the setting reaction and for periods up to eight years following restoration placement. This released fluoride is readily taken up by the cavosurface tooth structure, as well as the enamel and root surfaces adjacent to the restoration. Resistance against caries along the cavosurface and the adjacent smooth surface has been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Fluoride-releasing dental materials provide for improved resistance against primary and secondary caries in coronal and root surfaces. Plaque and salivary fluoride levels are elevated to a level that facilitates remineralization. In addition, the fluoride released to dental plaque adversely affects the growth of lactobacilli and mutans streptococci by interference with bacterial enzyme systems. Fluoride recharging of these dental materials is readily achieved with fluoridated toothpastes, fluoride mouthrinses, and other sources of topical fluoride. This allows fluoride-releasing dental materials to act as intraoral fluoride reservoirs. The improvement in the properties of dental materials with the ability to release fluoride has improved dramatically in the past decade, and it is anticipated that in the near future the vast majority of restorative procedures will employ fluoride-releasing dental materials as bonding agents, cavity liners, luting agents, adhesives for orthodontic brackets, and definitive restoratives.

  20. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.