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Luca Passerini
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.
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Gerard J Casey
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.
Baker, Julia M; Trinies, Victoria; Bronzan, Rachel N; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M; Garn, Joshua V; Sognikin, Sêvi; Freeman, Matthew C
2018-03-01
Sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminths requires a combination of chemotherapy treatment and environmental interventions, including access to safe drinking water, sufficient water for hygiene, use of clean sanitation facilities, and handwashing (WASH). We quantified associations between home-, school-, and community-level WASH characteristics and hookworm infection-both prevalence and eggs per gram of stool (intensity)-among Togolese school children in the context of community-based chemotherapy treatments administered in the country from 2010 through 2014. We analyzed data from two surveys conducted by the Togo Ministry of Health: a school-based survey of students aged 6-9 years across Togo conducted in 2009 and a follow-up survey in 2015, after four to five years of preventive chemotherapy. Data were available for 16,473 students attending 1,129 schools in 2009 and for 16,890 students from 1,126 schools in 2015. Between surveys, children in study schools received 0 to 8 rounds of deworming chemotherapy treatments. Few WASH conditions (only unimproved drinking water) were found to be significantly associated with the presence or absence of hookworms in an individual; however, quantitative eggs per gram of feces was associated with availability of unimproved drinking water, availability of improved drinking water either on or off school grounds, having a handwashing station with water available, and access to a sex-separate non-private or private latrine. The association between school WASH conditions and hookworm infection or burden often depended on the 2009 prevalence of infection, as more WASH characteristics were found to be significant predictors of infection among schools with high underlying endemicity of hookworm. Our findings emphasize the complex and often inconsistent or unpredictable relationship between WASH and hookworm. Specifically, we found that while preventive chemotherapy appeared to dramatically reduce hookworm infection, WASH was
De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation: Effect on haemoglobin of primary school children in Aboh-Mbaise. ... Aim: To compare the effect of de-worming alone and de-worming plus iron supplementation on the haemoglobin (Hb) of primary school children. ... Journal of College of Medicine Vol.
Experience with Deworming in Children
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Yu.V. Marushko
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of the treatment of parasitosis is not in doubt. The World Health Organization has included the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis into the Global strategy of development. Our study of world literature has confirmed the significant prevalence of helminthiasis and their negative impact on the health and development of children. The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of an integrated approach to deworming of children from 3 years using albendazole preparations and sorbent. Deworming with albendazole has been effective, and the addition of sorbent to the therapy contributed to a rapid decrease in the manifestations of helminthiasis.
Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...
Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas. PMID:27376503
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Julie R Harris
2015-03-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programs for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are increasingly evaluating national mass drug administration (MDA interventions. However, "unprogrammed deworming" (receipt of deworming drugs outside of nationally-run STH control programs occurs frequently. Failure to account for these activities may compromise evaluations of MDA effectiveness. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design to evaluate STH infection and unprogrammed deworming among infants (aged 6-11 months, preschool-aged children (PSAC, aged 1-4 years, and school-aged children (SAC, aged 5-14 years in Kibera, Kenya, an informal settlement not currently receiving nationally-run MDA for STH. STH infection was assessed by triplicate Kato-Katz. We asked heads of households with randomly-selected children about past-year receipt and source(s of deworming drugs. Local non-governmental organizations (NGOs and school staff participating in school-based deworming were interviewed to collect information on drug coverage. RESULTS: Of 679 children (18 infants, 184 PSAC, and 477 SAC evaluated, 377 (55% reported receiving at least one unprogrammed deworming treatment during the past year. PSAC primarily received treatments from chemists (48.3% or healthcare centers (37.7%; SAC most commonly received treatments at school (55.0%. Four NGOs reported past-year deworming activities at 47 of >150 schools attended by children in our study area. Past-year deworming was negatively associated with any-STH infection (34.8% vs 45.4%, p = 0.005. SAC whose most recent deworming medication was sourced from a chemist were more often infected with Trichuris (38.0% than those who received their most recent treatment from a health center (17.3% or school (23.1% (p = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Unprogrammed deworming was received by more than half of children in our study area, from multiple sources. Both individual-level treatment and unprogrammed preventive chemotherapy may serve an
Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2012-01-01
The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....
Near-Regular Structure Discovery Using Linear Programming
Huang, Qixing
2014-06-02
Near-regular structures are common in manmade and natural objects. Algorithmic detection of such regularity greatly facilitates our understanding of shape structures, leads to compact encoding of input geometries, and enables efficient generation and manipulation of complex patterns on both acquired and synthesized objects. Such regularity manifests itself both in the repetition of certain geometric elements, as well as in the structured arrangement of the elements. We cast the regularity detection problem as an optimization and efficiently solve it using linear programming techniques. Our optimization has a discrete aspect, that is, the connectivity relationships among the elements, as well as a continuous aspect, namely the locations of the elements of interest. Both these aspects are captured by our near-regular structure extraction framework, which alternates between discrete and continuous optimizations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on a variety of problems including near-regular structure extraction, structure-preserving pattern manipulation, and markerless correspondence detection. Robustness results with respect to geometric and topological noise are presented on synthesized, real-world, and also benchmark datasets. © 2014 ACM.
Antenatal Deworming and Materno-Perinatal Outcomes in Calabar, Nigeria
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Ubong Bassey Akpan
2018-05-01
CONCLUSION: Presumptive deworming during the antenatal period can significantly reduce the incidence of peripartum anaemia. However, more studies may be needed to prove any positive perinatal outcome.
The Role of Personality in a Regular Cognitive Monitoring Program.
Sadeq, Nasreen A; Valdes, Elise G; Harrison Bush, Aryn L; Andel, Ross
2018-02-20
This study examines the role of personality in cognitive performance, adherence, and satisfaction with regular cognitive self-monitoring. One hundred fifty-seven cognitively healthy older adults, age 55+, completed the 44-item Big-Five Inventory and were subsequently engaged in online monthly cognitive monitoring using the Cogstate Brief Battery for up to 35 months (M=14 mo, SD=7 mo). The test measures speed and accuracy in reaction time, visual learning, and working memory tasks. Neuroticism, although not related to cognitive performance overall (P>0.05), was related to a greater increase in accuracy (estimate=0.07, P=0.04) and speed (estimate=-0.09, P=0.03) on One Card Learning. Greater conscientiousness was related to faster overall speed on Detection (estimate=-1.62, P=0.02) and a significant rate of improvement in speed on One Card Learning (estimate=-0.10, Pconscientiousness were observed. Participants volunteering for regular cognitive monitoring may be quite uniform in terms of personality traits, with personality traits playing a relatively minor role in adherence and satisfaction. The more neurotic may exhibit better accuracy and improve in speed with time, whereas the more conscientious may perform faster overall and improve in speed on some tasks, but the effects appear small.
Near-Regular Structure Discovery Using Linear Programming
Huang, Qixing; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Mitra, Niloy J.
2014-01-01
as an optimization and efficiently solve it using linear programming techniques. Our optimization has a discrete aspect, that is, the connectivity relationships among the elements, as well as a continuous aspect, namely the locations of the elements of interest. Both
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...
Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiwiel, K. C.
1998-01-01
We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)
A Regularization SAA Scheme for a Stochastic Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints
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Yu-xin Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To reflect uncertain data in practical problems, stochastic versions of the mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC have drawn much attention in the recent literature. Our concern is the detailed analysis of convergence properties of a regularization sample average approximation (SAA method for solving a stochastic mathematical program with complementarity constraints (SMPCC. The analysis of this regularization method is carried out in three steps: First, the almost sure convergence of optimal solutions of the regularized SAA problem to that of the true problem is established by the notion of epiconvergence in variational analysis. Second, under MPCC-MFCQ, which is weaker than MPCC-LICQ, we show that any accumulation point of Karash-Kuhn-Tucker points of the regularized SAA problem is almost surely a kind of stationary point of SMPCC as the sample size tends to infinity. Finally, some numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the method proposed.
Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul
2015-01-01
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; and the evidence of impact on physical well-being, school attendance, school performance, and mortality. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (14 April 2015); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 4); MEDLINE (2000 to 14 April 2015); EMBASE (2000 to 14 April 2015); LILACS (2000 to 14 April 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and reference lists, and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 14 April 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, haemoglobin, and formal tests of intellectual development. We also sought data on school attendance, school performance, and mortality. We included trials that combined health education with deworming programmes. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed the trials, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. The evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. This edition of the Cochrane Review adds the DEVTA trial from India, and draws on an independent analytical replication of a trial from
Omega-3 intake in people with epilepsy under regular hemodialysis program: here to stay
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Carla Alessandra Scorza
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Among the many risk factors suggested for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, higher frequency of seizures is a very consistent issue. Furthermore, it has been established that hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of the dialysis procedure. Thus, since a possible relation between cardiovascular abnormalities and SUDEP among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program should not be neglected, we propose in this paper that omega-3 fatty acids offer opportunities for prevention of sudden cardiac death or improved treatment in people with epilepsy under the regular hemodialysis program.
Coverage of vitamin A supplementation and deworming during Malezi Bora in Kenya.
Clohossey, Paloma C; Katcher, Heather I; Mogonchi, Geoffrey O; Nyagoha, Nancy; Isidro, Marissa C; Kikechi, Evelyn; Okoth, Edgar E V; Blankenship, Jessica L
2014-09-01
Twice-yearly child health weeks are an effective way of reaching children with essential child survival services in developing countries. In Kenya, child health weeks, or Malezi Bora, were restructured in 2007 from an outreach-based delivery structure to a health facility-based delivery structure to reduce delivery costs and increase sustainability of the events. Administrative data from 2007 to 2011 have demonstrated a decrease in coverage of Malezi Bora services to targeted children. A post-event coverage (PEC) survey was conducted after the May 2012 Malezi Bora to validate coverage of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming and to inform program strategy. Nine hundred caregivers with children aged 6-59months were interviewed using a randomized, 30×30 cluster design. For each cluster, one facility-based health worker and one community-based health worker were also interviewed. Coverage of VAS was 31.0% among children aged 6-59months and coverage of deworming was 19.6% among children aged 12-59months. Coverage of VAS was significantly higher for children aged 6-11months (45.7%, n=116) than for children aged 12-59months (28.8%, n=772) (pneeds to be reviewed and reformed to meet WHO guidelines of 80% coverage with VAS. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate
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Amir M. Ben-Amram
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In contrast, we consider a class of programs that is Turing-incomplete, but strong enough to include several challenges for this kind of analysis. For a related language that has well-structured syntax, similar to Meyer and Ritchie's LOOP programs, the problem has been previously proved to be decidable. The analysis relied on the compositionality of programs, hence the challenge in obtaining similar results for flowchart programs with arbitrary control-flow graphs. Our answer to the challenge is twofold: first, we propose a class of loop-annotated flowcharts, which is more general than the class of flowcharts that directly represent structured programs; secondly, we present a technique to reuse the ideas from the work on tructured programs and apply them to such flowcharts. The technique is inspired by the classic translation of non-deterministic automata to regular expressions, but we obviate the exponential cost of constructing such an expression, obtaining a polynomial-time analysis. These ideas may well be applicable to other analysis problems.
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Thach Tran D
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners
Thériault, François L.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.
2014-01-01
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. Fro...
The effect of deworming on early childhood development in Peru: A randomized controlled trial
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Serene A. Joseph
2015-12-01
Conclusions: After 12 months of follow-up, an overall benefit of deworming on cognition, language or fine motor development was not detected. Additional integrated child and maternal interventions should be considered to prevent developmental deficits in this critical period.
UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA
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IONIŢĂ Elena
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.
Thériault, François L.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.
2014-01-01
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517) received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571) served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4%) more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children. PMID:25122469
Thériault, François L; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W
2014-08-01
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517) received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571) served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4%) more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children.
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François L Thériault
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517 received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571 served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7% and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4% more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children.
Pasaribu, A. P.; Angellee, J.; Pasaribu, S.
2018-03-01
Worm infestation is mainly caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infecting one-third of the world’s population, where the most affected are primary school children. This chronic, long-lasting infection can affect the growth aspects in children. A school-based deworming is one of the treatments recommended by WHO to counterattack worm infection in primary school children. To evaluate the effect of school-based deworming on the hemoglobin level, growth and school performance of primary school children, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted on 165 targeted populations in SukaKaro village, North Sumatra; 156 of which were then chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples’ feces- sampling, hemoglobin level, and growth chart data were recorded on the first day of study before any treatment was given. They were then divided into two groups; the first group of 80 samples did not receive any treatment, while the second group of 76 samples received 400mg of albendazole as part of a school-based deworming program. The samples were being followed up after sixth months of study. In conclusion, albendazole is able to improve the hemoglobin level, growth development, and school performance of the samples, although there were no significant differences between the two groups.
The effect of deworming on early childhood development in Peru: A randomized controlled trial.
Joseph, Serene A; Casapía, Martín; Lazarte, Fabiola; Rahme, Elham; Pezo, Lidsky; Blouin, Brittany; Gyorkos, Theresa W
2015-12-01
There is a knowledge gap on the effect of early childhood deworming on development in low- and middle-income countries. This evidence is important in the critical window of growth and development before two years of age. A randomized controlled trial of the benefit, and optimal timing and frequency, of deworming on development was conducted in Iquitos, Peru. Children were enrolled during routine 12-month growth and development visits and randomly allocated to: (1) deworming at the 12-month visit and placebo at the 18-month visit; (2) placebo at the 12-month visit and deworming at the 18-month visit; (3) deworming at the 12 and 18-month visits; or (4) placebo at the 12 and 18-month visits. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was used to assess cognitive, language and motor skills at the 12 and 24-month visits. One-way ANOVA analyses used an intention-to-treat approach. Between September 2011 and June 2012, 1760 children were enrolled. Attendance at the 24-month visit was 88.8% ( n =1563). Raw scores on all subtests increased over 12 months; however, cognitive and expressive language scaled scores decreased. There was no statistically significant benefit of deworming, or effect of timing or frequency, on any of the development scores. Baseline height and weight and maternal education were associated with development scores at 24 months. After 12 months of follow-up, an overall benefit of deworming on cognition, language or fine motor development was not detected. Additional integrated child and maternal interventions should be considered to prevent developmental deficits in this critical period.
Effects of deworming on child and maternal health: a literature review and meta-analysis.
Thayer, Winter Maxwell; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff
2017-11-07
Soil-transmitted helminth infections are widespread. Many studies have been published on the topic of deworming. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software package that uses a deterministic mathematical model to estimate the effect of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health outcomes. This review investigates the scope of available evidence for benefits of deworming treatments in order to inform a decision about possible inclusion of deworming as an intervention in LiST. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. We included studies that reported pre/post data in children younger than 5 years or pregnant women for outcomes related to mortality and growth. We excluded studies that compared different anthelminthic treatments but did not include a placebo or non-treatment group, and those that did not report post-intervention outcomes. We categorized articles by treated population (children younger than 5 years and pregnant women), experimental versus observational, mass drug administration (MDA) versus treatment, and reported outcome. We identified 58 relevant trials; 27 investigated children younger than 5 years and 11 investigated pregnant women; one reported on both children younger than 5 years and pregnant women. We conducted meta-analyses of relevant outcomes in children younger than 5 years. Deworming did not show consistent benefits for indicators of mortality, anemia, or growth in children younger than five or women of reproductive age. We do not recommend including the effect of deworming in the LiST model.
Schneider, Barry I.; Segura, Javier; Gil, Amparo; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus
2018-04-01
This is a revised and updated version of a modern Fortran 90 code to compute the regular Plm (x) and irregular Qlm (x) associated Legendre functions for all x ∈(- 1 , + 1) (on the cut) and | x | > 1 and integer degree (l) and order (m). The necessity to revise the code comes as a consequence of some comments of Prof. James Bremer of the UC//Davis Mathematics Department, who discovered that there were errors in the code for large integer degree and order for the normalized regular Legendre functions on the cut.
Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L
2016-01-01
The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were
Nijsse, R.; Ploeger, H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Mughini-Gras, L.
2016-01-01
The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples
Impact of iron supplementation and deworming on growth performance in preschool Beninese children
Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Koning, de F.L.H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
2001-01-01
To assess the effects of iron and deworming on linear growth performance of preschoolers. Design: Three-month randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The children were allocated to four treatments: iron (60 mg elemental iron/day) albendazole (200 mg/day for 3 consecutive days,
Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate
Ben-Amram, Amir M.; Pineles, Aviad
2014-01-01
We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely) decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In ...
Suppression of Tinnitus in Chinese Patients Receiving Regular Cochlear Implant Programming.
Liu, Ying; Wang, Hong; Han, Dong Xu; Li, Ming Hua; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Yu Li
2016-04-01
To assess the clinical effect of cochlear implant programming on tinnitus. Tinnitus patients (n = 234) were divided into 3 groups: (1) preoperative tinnitus (n = 108), (2) postoperative tinnitus occurring before implant switch-on at week 4 (n = 88), and (3) tinnitus occurring more than 1 year postoperatively (n = 44). Patients in each group were randomly allocated into a programming subgroup that received programming for 12 weeks postoperatively or after tinnitus occurrence or a control subgroup. Impedance testing and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) were performed preoperatively and at 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively (groups 1 and 2) or after tinnitus occurrence (group 3). Comparisons were performed using t tests and chi-square tests. Impedance was significantly lower in the programming subgroup than in the control subgroup in groups 1 and 2 at 8 and 12 weeks and in group 3 at 12 weeks. The THI scores decreased in both programming and control subgroups in all groups. However, this decrease was pronounced in the programming subgroup, whereas in the control subgroup, it occurred slowly over time. Cochlear implant programming decreases impedance and improves tinnitus symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.
The geometry of continuum regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1987-03-01
This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations
Vijayasarathi, M K; Sreekumar, C; Venkataramanan, R; Raman, M
2016-10-01
Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06 %, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09 %, 96.05 and 97.40 %, and 97.26 and 98.23 %, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50 % of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156 μg/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078 μg/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4 years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is
Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.
In "Abbott v. Burke" the New Jersey Supreme Court determined that the state constitutional guarantee to a thorough and efficient education must include a supplemental program designed to wipe out the deficits poor children bring with them to school. In this report, the Education Law Center draws on educational research to identify the…
Miller, Darcy E.
1991-01-01
Describes the Integrated Special Education-English Project (ISEP) which facilitated the gradual integration of special education and English teacher preparation programs. A description of the ISEP model and a case study are included. The case study indicated student teachers who participated in the ISEP improved special education and English…
Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar: results of 7 years of deworming.
Tun, Aung; Myat, Su Mon; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Montresor, Antonio
2013-08-01
After a baseline survey in 2003 which showed an overall parasitological prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths of 69.7% in school children (prevalence of ascariasis 48.5%, prevalence of trichuriasis 57.5% and prevalence of hookworm infection 6.5), a national deworming programme was established. After 7 years of implementation, it had resulted in a significant reduction of STH prevalence (prevalence of any STH 21%, prevalence of ascariasis 5.8%, prevalence of trichuriasis 18.6% and prevalence of hookworm infection 0.3%) as well as a reduction of the infections of moderate-heavy intensity from 18.5% at baseline to less than 7%. The results are encouraging and a reduction of the frequency of deworming can be envisaged in two of four ecological areas of Myanmar. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Regularization by External Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.
2016-01-01
Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naomi E Clarke
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect nearly 1.5 billion individuals globally, and contribute to poor physical and cognitive development in children. STH control programs typically consist of regular delivery of anthelminthic drugs, targeting school-aged children. Expanding STH control programs community-wide may improve STH control among school-aged children, and combining deworming with improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH may further reduce transmission. The (SWASH-D for Worms pilot study aims to compare the differential impact of integrated WASH and deworming programs when implemented at primary schools only versus when additionally implemented community-wide.A two-arm, non-randomized cluster intervention study was conducted. Six communities were identified by partner WASH agencies and enrolled in the study. All communities received a school-based WASH and deworming program, while three additionally received a community-based WASH and deworming program. STH infections were measured in school-aged children at baseline and six months after deworming. Over 90% of eligible children were recruited for the study, of whom 92.3% provided stool samples at baseline and 88.9% at follow-up. The school WASH intervention improved school sanitation, while the community WASH intervention reduced open defecation from 50.4% (95% CI 41.8-59.0 to 23.5% (95% CI 16.7-32.0. There was a trend towards reduced odds of N. americanus infection among children who received the community-wide intervention (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.07-2.36, p = 0.32.This pilot study provides proof of principle for testing the hypothesis that community-wide STH control programs have a greater impact on STH infections among children than school-based programs, and supports the rationale for conducting a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial. High recruitment and participation rates and successful implementation of school WASH programs demonstrate study feasibility and
Estimation of the cost of large-scale school deworming programmes with benzimidazoles.
Montresor, A; Gabrielli, A F; Diarra, A; Engels, D
2010-02-01
This study estimates the cost of distributing benzimidazole tablets in the context of school deworming programmes: we analysed studies reporting the cost of school deworming from seven countries in four WHO regions. The estimated cost for drug procurement to cover one million children (including customs clearance and international transport) is approximately US$20000. The estimated financial costs (including the cost of training of personnel, drug transport, social mobilization and monitoring) is, on average, equivalent to US$33000 per million school-age children with minimal variation in different countries and continents. The estimated economic costs of distribution (including the time spent by teachers, and health personnel at central, provincial and district level) to cover one million children approximately corresponds to US$19000. This study shows the minimal cost of school deworming activities, but also shows the significant contribution (corresponding to a quarter of the entire cost of the programme) provided by health and education systems in endemic countries even in the case of drug donations and donor support of distribution costs. Copyright 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estimation of the cost of large-scale school deworming programmes with benzimidazoles
Montresor, A.; Gabrielli, A.F.; Engels, D.
2017-01-01
Summary This study estimates the cost of distributing benzimidazole tablets in the context of school deworming programmes: we analysed studies reporting the cost of school deworming from seven countries in four WHO regions. The estimated cost for drug procurement to cover one million children (including customs clearance and international transport) is approximately US$20 000. The estimated financial costs (including the cost of training of personnel, drug transport, social mobilization and monitoring) is, on average, equivalent to US$33 000 per million school-age children with minimal variation in different countries and continents. The estimated economic costs of distribution (including the time spent by teachers, and health personnel at central, provincial and district level) to cover one million children approximately corresponds to US$19 000. This study shows the minimal cost of school deworming activities, but also shows the significant contribution (corresponding to a quarter of the entire cost of the programme) provided by health and education systems in endemic countries even in the case of drug donations and donor support of distribution costs. PMID:19926104
Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J
2011-05-17
In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997-2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players.
Njomo, D W; Masaku, J; Mwende, F; Odhiambo, G; Musuva, R; Matey, E; Thuita, I G; Kihara, J H
2017-01-01
In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters. To assess the local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for programme implementation, a qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in four-sub-counties of coastal region. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were administered to 40 purposively selected opinion leaders so as to explore their perceptions of awareness creation sources, adequacy of information given, length of period of awareness creation and period between which information is given and drugs are administered. Separate IDIs were administered to pre-school teachers (41), community health extension workers (34) and primary school teachers (38). To elicit more information, 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) categorized by gender and age were conducted among parents of school-age children. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed manually by study themes. The most commonly reported source of information was school pupils. Due to low literacy levels, use of posters was regarded as ineffective and religious institutions, town criers and vernacular radio stations considered more effective. The information given during programme implementation was considered inadequate and use of complementary methods to reach all targeted children including the non-enrolled, and relay adequate information reported as important. Use of school and chief's meetings with health personnel being present was mentioned as a useful method that would allow for interaction with participants indicating that they
Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1989-01-01
An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs
Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro
2016-06-01
In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5-question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions had a mean score of 8.44 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.2) compared with a mean score of 8.63 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.1) for active sessions (P = 0.63). Slides-based classroom lectures were the most common instructional method, and faculty used an average of 5 known teaching techniques per formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.
1994-01-01
Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...
Jullien, Sophie; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
2016-01-01
Abstract Background: Documents from advocacy and fund-raising organizations for child mass deworming programmes in low- and middle-income countries cite unpublished economic studies claiming long-term effects on health, schooling and economic development. Methods: To summarize and appraise these studies, we searched for and included all long-term follow-up studies based on cluster-randomized trials included in a 2015 Cochrane review on deworming. We used Cochrane methods to assess risk of bias, and appraised the credibility of the main findings. Where necessary we contacted study authors for clarifications. Results: We identified three studies (Baird 2016, Ozier 2016 and Croke 2014) evaluating effects more than 9 years after cluster-randomized trials in Kenya and Uganda. Baird and Croke evaluate short additional exposures to deworming programmes in settings where all children were dewormed multiple times. Ozier evaluates potential spin-off effects to infants living in areas with school-based deworming. None of the studies used pre-planned protocols nor blinded the analysis to treatment allocation. Baird 2016 has been presented online in six iterations. The work is at high risk of reporting bias and selective reporting, and there are substantive changes between versions. The main cited effects on secondary school attendance and job sector allocation are from post hoc subgroup analyses, which the study was not powered to assess. The study did not find any evidence of effect on nutritional status, cognitive tests or school grades achieved, but these are not reported in the abstracts. Ozier 2016 has been presented online in four iterations, without substantive differences between versions. Higher cognitive test scores were associated with deworming, but the appropriate analysis was underpowered to reliably detect these effects. The size of the stated effect seems inconsistent with the short and indirect nature of the exposure to deworming, and a causal pathway for this
Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team
2013-01-01
Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths
van der Valk, Paul
2016-01-01
It might seem self-evident that in the transition from a supervised trainee to an independent professional who is no longer supervised, formal assessment of whether the trainee knows his/her trade well enough to function independently is necessary. This would then constitute an end of training examination. Such examinations are practiced in several countries but a rather heterogeneous situation exists in the EU countries. In the Netherlands, the training program is not concluded by a summative examination and reasons behind this situation are discussed. Quality assurance of postgraduate medical training in the Netherlands has been developed along two tracks: (1) not a single testing moment but continuous evaluation of the performance of the trainee in 'real time' situations and (2) monitoring of the quality of the offered training program through regular site-visits. Regular (monthly and/or yearly) evaluations should be part of every self-respecting training program. In the Netherlands, these evaluations are formative only: their intention is to provide the trainee a tool by which he or she can see whether they are on track with their training schedule. In the system in the Netherlands, regular site-visits to training programs constitute a crucial element of quality assurance of postgraduate training. During the site-visit, the position and perceptions of the trainee are key elements. The perception by the trainee of the training program, the institution (or department) offering the training program, and the professionals involved in the training program is explicitly solicited and systematically assessed. With this two-tiered approach high-quality postgraduate training is assured without the need for an end of training examination.
Al Nozha, Omar Mansour; Fadel, Hani T
2017-01-01
Taibah University offers regular nursing (RNP) and nursing bridging (NBP) bachelor programs. We evaluated student perception of the learning environment as one means of quality assurance. To assess nursing student perception of their educational environment, to compare the perceptions of regular and bridging students, and to compare the perceptions of students in the old and new curricula. Cross-sectional survey. College of Nursing at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument was distributed to over 714 nursing students to assess perception of the educational environment. Independent samples t test and Pearson's chi square were used to compare the programs and curricula. The DREEM inventory score. Of 714 students, 271 (38%) were RNP students and 443 (62%) were NBP students. The mean (standard deviation) DREEM score was 111 (25). No significant differences were observed between the programs except for the domain "academic self-perceptions" being higher in RNP students (P .05). Nursing students generally perceived their learning environment as more positive than negative. Regular students were more positive than bridging students. Students who experienced the new curriculum were more positive towards learning. The cross-sectional design and unequal gender and study level distributions may limit generalizability of the results. Longitudinal, large-scale studies with more even distributions of participant characteristics are needed.
Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim
2015-08-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jade Benjamin-Chung
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest
Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Bailey, Robin; Galactionova, Katya; Gwayi-Chore, Marie-Claire; Halliday, Katherine; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Juvekar, Sanjay; Kalua, Khumbo; Kang, Gagandeep; Lele, Pallavi; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Pullan, Rachel; Sarkar, Rajiv; Schär, Fabian; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Weiner, Bryan J.; Yard, Elodie; Walson, Judd
2018-01-01
Hybrid trials that include both clinical and implementation science outcomes are increasingly relevant for public health researchers that aim to rapidly translate study findings into evidence-based practice. The DeWorm3 Project is a series of hybrid trials testing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil transmitted helminths (STH), while conducting implementation science research that contextualizes clinical research findings and provides guidance on opportunities to optimize delivery of STH interventions. The purpose of DeWorm3 implementation science studies is to ensure rapid and efficient translation of evidence into practice. DeWorm3 will use stakeholder mapping to identify individuals who influence or are influenced by school-based or community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) for STH and to evaluate network dynamics that may affect study outcomes and future policy development. Individual interviews and focus groups will generate the qualitative data needed to identify factors that shape, contextualize, and explain DeWorm3 trial outputs and outcomes. Structural readiness surveys will be used to evaluate the factors that drive health system readiness to implement novel interventions, such as community-wide MDA for STH, in order to target change management activities and identify opportunities for sustaining or scaling the intervention. Process mapping will be used to understand what aspects of the intervention are adaptable across heterogeneous implementation settings and to identify contextually-relevant modifiable bottlenecks that may be addressed to improve the intervention delivery process and to achieve intervention outputs. Lastly, intervention costs and incremental cost-effectiveness will be evaluated to compare the efficiency of community-wide MDA to standard-of-care targeted MDA both over the duration of the trial and over a longer elimination time horizon. PMID:29346376
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy M Anderson
Full Text Available The London Declaration on neglected tropical diseases was based in part on a new World Health Organization roadmap to "sustain, expand and extend drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control by 2020". Large drug donations from the pharmaceutical industry form the backbone to this aim, especially for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs raising the question of how best to use these resources. Deworming for STHs is often targeted at school children because they are at greatest risk of morbidity and because it is remarkably cost-effective. However, the impact of school-based deworming on transmission in the wider community remains unclear.We first estimate the proportion of parasites targeted by school-based deworming using demography, school enrolment, and data from a small number of example settings where age-specific intensity of infection (either worms or eggs has been measured for all ages. We also use transmission models to investigate the potential impact of this coverage on transmission for different mixing scenarios.In the example settings <30% of the population are 5 to <15 years old. Combining this demography with the infection age-intensity profile we estimate that in one setting school children output as little as 15% of hookworm eggs, whereas in another setting they harbour up to 50% of Ascaris lumbricoides worms (the highest proportion of parasites for our examples. In addition, it is estimated that from 40-70% of these children are enrolled at school.These estimates suggest that, whilst school-based programmes have many important benefits, the proportion of infective stages targeted by school-based deworming may be limited, particularly where hookworm predominates. We discuss the consequences for transmission for a range of scenarios, including when infective stages deposited by children are more likely to contribute to transmission than those from adults.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clarilza Prado de Sousa
1999-11-01
Full Text Available Pretendi neste trabalho analisar os limites e possibilidades da escola integrar alunos com atraso de escolaridade em processos de educação regular, que receberam apoio de programas de aceleração da aprendizagem. Baseada nas avaliações realizadas desses programas por professores do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Psicologia da Educação da PUCSP e por pesquisadores do Núcleo de Avaliação Educacional da Fundação Carlos Chagas, discuto os resultados efetivamente alcançados considerando duas categorias de análise. Na primeira categoria, analiso os efeitos da estratégia pedagógica promovida pelos programas, nas aprendizagens e progressos dos alunos participantes. Na segunda categoria, procuro analisar as possibilidades de integração/inclusão desses alunos no processo de educação regular. Finalmente, à guisa de conclusão, procuro fazer algumas considerações teórico-metodológicas. Distinguindo integração de inclusão, discuto os limites e possibilidades que as ações dos programas têm de realmente promoverem o desenvolvimento de uma escola sem exclusão.This article analyzes the limits and possibilities for schools to include students with schooling deficits who receive support from the accelerated learning programs, in their regular education processes. Based on evaluations of these programs done by professors from the Post Graduate Program in Educational Psychology of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and by researchers from the Nucleus for Educational Evaluation of the Carlos Chagas Foundation, the results will be discussed in two analytical categories. In the first category, I analyze the effects of the teaching strategies promoted by the programs on the learning and progress of the participating students. In the second category, I seek to analyze the possibilities for integration/inclusion of these students in the regular educational process. Finally by way of conclusion, I try to make some
Okpara, Gazie S.; Agu, Agu G.
2017-01-01
Nonregular higher education in Nigeria became an integral part of the university manpower development since 1960, when the Ashby Commission recommended establishing evening degree programs. These ubiquitous programs have contributed to national capacity-building and remain relatively unmonitored by the National Universities Commission. This…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-11-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos de seis meses de um programa regular de atividade física sobre os distúrbios motores em uma pessoa idosa com a doença de parkinson. O sujeito pesquisado foi uma pessoa idosa do sexo feminino, sedentária, portadora da doença há dez anos. O programa foi desenvolvido durante seis meses com o apoio do Centro Goiano de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia. Para avaliar o nível de rigidez, a bradicinesia, a capacidade de se levantar da cadeira e se locomover e as alterações posturais foi utilizado um exame motor (BRITO, 1998, com avaliações antes e após o programa. Com dois meses de atividade física houve melhora na rigidez, na bradicinesia e no equilíbrio, contribuindo para a autonomia e independência do sujeito pesquisado. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Doença de Parkinson – Idoso – Atividade física This study aims at analyzing the effects of a six-month program of regular physical activity upon the motor disorders of an elderly Parkinson patient. The subject was an elderly, physically inactive woman, who has had Parkinson for ten years. The six-month program was developed with the help of the Centro Goiano de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia (The Goianian Center for Neurology and Neuro-surgery. A motor exam (Brito, 1998 was used to evaluate the level of rigidness, bradicinesia, the capacity to raise from a chair and walk, and posture changes. Evaluations were conducted before and after the program. After two months of regular physical activity, improvements were noticed on rigidness, bradicinesia, and balance, which brought autonomy and independence to the subject. KEY-WORDS: Parkinson - elderly - physical activity El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos de seis meses de un programa regular de actividad física sobre los disturbios motores en una persona mayor con la enfermedad de parkinson. El sujeto investigado fue una persona mayor del sexo femenino, sedentaria portadora de la enfermedad
Coordinate-invariant regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1987-01-01
A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberts Mike D
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivian A Welch, DrPhD
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, considered among the neglected tropical diseases by WHO, affect more than a third of the world's population, with varying intensity of infection. We aimed to evaluate the effects of mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths (with or without deworming for schistosomiasis or co-interventions on growth, educational achievement, cognition, school attendance, quality of life, and adverse effects in children in endemic helminth areas. Methods: We searched 11 databases up to Jan 14, 2016, websites and trial registers, contacted authors, and reviewed reference lists. We included studies published in any language of children aged 6 months to 16 years, with mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths or schistosomiasis (alone or in combination with other interventions for 4 months or longer, that reported the primary outcomes of interest. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials, controlled before–after studies, interrupted time series, and quasi-experimental studies. We screened in duplicate, then extracted data and appraised risk of bias in duplicate with a pre-tested form. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Findings: We included 52 studies of duration 5 years or less with 1 108 541 children, and four long-term studies 8–10 years after mass deworming programmes with more than 160 000 children. Overall risk of bias was moderate. Mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths compared with controls led to little to no improvement in weight over a period of about 12 months (0·09 kg, 95% credible interval [CrI] −0·09 to 0·28; moderate certainty evidence or height (0·07 cm, 95% CrI −0·10 to 0·24; moderate certainty evidence, little to no difference in proportion stunted (eight fewer per 1000 children, 95% CrI −48 to 32; high certainty evidence, cognition measured by short-term attention (−0·23 points on a
van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime
2016-01-01
This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,
Nijholt, Antinus
1980-01-01
Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular
Regular Expression Pocket Reference
Stubblebine, Tony
2007-01-01
This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp
Janmohamed, Amynah; Doledec, David
2017-07-01
To compare administrative coverage data with results from household coverage surveys for vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming campaigns conducted during 2010-2015 in 12 African countries. Paired t-tests examined differences between administrative and survey coverage for 52 VAS and 34 deworming dyads. Independent t-tests measured VAS and deworming coverage differences between data sources for door-to-door and fixed-site delivery strategies and VAS coverage differences between 6- to 11-month and 12- to 59-month age group. For VAS, administrative coverage was higher than survey estimates in 47 of 52 (90%) campaign rounds, with a mean difference of 16.1% (95% CI: 9.5-22.7; P < 0.001). For deworming, administrative coverage exceeded survey estimates in 31 of 34 (91%) comparisons, with a mean difference of 29.8% (95% CI: 16.9-42.6; P < 0.001). Mean ± SD differences in coverage between administrative and survey data were 12.2% ± 22.5% for the door-to-door delivery strategy and 25.9% ± 24.7% for the fixed-site model (P = 0.06). For deworming, mean ± SD differences in coverage between data sources were 28.1% ± 43.5% and 33.1% ± 17.9% for door-to-door and fixed-site distribution, respectively (P = 0.64). VAS administrative coverage was higher than survey estimates in 37 of 49 (76%) comparisons for the 6- to 11-month age group and 45 of 48 (94%) comparisons for the 12- to 59-month age group. Reliance on health facility data alone for calculating VAS and deworming coverage may mask low coverage and prevent measures to improve programmes. Countries should periodically validate administrative coverage estimates with population-based methods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goyvaerts, Jan
2009-01-01
This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a
Müller, Ivan; Gall, Stefanie; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Du Randt, Rosa; Steinmann, Peter; Zondie, Leyli; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg
2017-11-27
Risk maps facilitate discussion among different stakeholders and provide a tool for spatial targeting of health interventions. We present maps documenting shrinking risk profiles after deworming with respect to soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears in March 2015, October 2015 and May 2016, and subsequently treated with albendazole after each survey. The mean infection intensities for Ascaris lumbricoides were 9,554 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in March 2015, 4,317 EPG in October 2015 and 1,684 EPG in March 2016. The corresponding figures for Trichuris trichiura were 664 EPG, 331 EPG and 87 EPG. Repeated deworming shrank the risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, but should be complemented by other public health measures.
Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes
2014-08-04
Among many neglected tropical diseases endemic in Honduras, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are of particular importance. However, knowledge gaps remain in terms of risk factors involved in infection transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with STH infections in schoolchildren living in rural Honduras. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Honduran rural schoolchildren in 2011. Demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire and STH infections were determined by the Kato-Katz method. Logistic regression models accounting for school clustering were used to assess putative risk factors for infection. A total of 320 children completed the study. Prevalences for any STH and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were: 72.5%, 30.3%, 66.9% and 15.9%, respectively. A number of risk factors were identified at the individual, household, and school level. Boys were at increased odds of infection with hookworms (OR 2.33, 95% CI = 1.23-4.42). Higher socio-economic status in the family had a protective effect against infections by A. lumbricoides (OR 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99) and T. trichiura (OR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.94).Low school hygiene conditions significantly increased the odds for ascariasis (OR 14.85, 95% CI = 7.29-30.24), trichuriasis (OR 7.32, 95% CI = 3.71-14.45), mixed infections (OR 9.02, 95% CI = 4.66-17.46), and ascariasis intensity of infection (OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.05 -10.52).Children attending schools not providing deworming treatment or that had provided it only once a year were at increased odds of ascariasis (OR 10.40, 95% CI = 4.39-24.65), hookworm (OR 2.92, 95% CI = 1.09-7.85) and mixed infections (OR 10.57, 95% CI = 4.53-24.66). Poverty-reduction strategies will ultimately lead to sustainable control of STH infections in Honduras, but as shorter-term measures, uninterrupted bi
Regularities of Multifractal Measures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...
Stochastic analytic regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1984-07-01
Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse
Regular expression containment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse
2011-01-01
We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...
Supersymmetric dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.
1980-01-01
There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.
Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding
2018-04-01
This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.
Barakat, Sarah; Maguire, Sarah; Surgenor, Lois; Donnelly, Brooke; Miceska, Blagica; Fromholtz, Kirsty; Russell, Janice; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen
2017-06-26
Background : Despite cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) being regarded as the first-line treatment option for bulimia nervosa (BN), barriers such as its time-consuming and expensive nature limit patient access. In order to broaden treatment availability and affordability, the efficacy and convenience of CBT could be improved through the use of online treatments and selective emphasis on its most 'potent' components of which behavioural techniques form the focus. Method: Twenty-six individuals with BN were enrolled in an online CBT-based self-help programme and 17 completed four weeks of regular eating and food-monitoring using the online Food Diary tool. Participants were contacted for a weekly check-in phone call and had their bulimic symptom severity assessed at five time points (baseline and weeks 1-4). Results : There was a significant decrease in the frequency of self-reported objective binge episodes, associated loss of control and objective binge days reported between pre- and post-treatment measures. Significant improvements were also observed in most subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Conclusion : This study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of the potential of behavioural techniques of online CBT in the treatment of BN. Online therapy with this focus is potentially a viable and practical form of treatment delivery in this illness group. These preliminary findings support the need for larger studies using control groups.
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.
2014-01-01
Recognizing the importance of both keeping middle school students engaged and improving their math skills, Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) developed a summer school STEM program involving not only math and science instruction but also the experience of building a robot and competing with those robots in a city-wide tournament.…
Cid, Alejandro
2017-10-01
In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.
Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)
MORISHIMA Motohiro
2011-01-01
Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-04-17
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.
'Regular' and 'emergency' repair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchnik, N.V.
1975-01-01
Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)
Regularization of divergent integrals
Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David
2016-01-01
We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.
Regularizing portfolio optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre
2010-01-01
The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.
Regularizing portfolio optimization
Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre
2010-07-01
The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.
Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aslam Malik
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.
Annotation of Regular Polysemy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez Alonso, Hector
Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...
Regularity of Minimal Surfaces
Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht
2010-01-01
"Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t
Regularities of radiation heredity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.
2001-01-01
One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru
Pereira, André; Martins, Ângela; Brancal, Hugo; Vilhena, Hugo; Silva, Pedro; Pimenta, Paulo; Diz-Lopes, Duarte; Neves, Nuno; Coimbra, Mónica; Alves, Ana Catarina; Cardoso, Luís; Maia, Carla
2016-05-10
Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control. Seventy hundred and fifty multiple-choice questionnaires designed to obtain data knowledge about the meaning of zoonosis, knowledge about parasitic diseases and perception regarding their zoonotic potential, as well as the drugs, frequency and reason for deworming their animals were delivered to dog and/or cat owners from non-rural (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and rural parishes who attended veterinary medical centres from continental Portugal. A total of 536 (71.5 %) questionnaires were retrieved. Two hundred and ninety five (56.5 %) responders had heard of zoonosis/zoonoses, but only 184 (35.2 %) knew their meaning. Tick fever, mange, leishmaniosis and ascaridiosis/roundworms were the parasitic diseases from pets most frequently identified. The number of owners who recognized the different parasitoses, who stated to have heard about zoonoses and who were aware of the potential transmission of parasites from animals to humans was significantly higher in those with intermediate (i.e. ≥9 and ≤ 12 years of schooling) and/or higher academic degree (i.e. licentiate, master's and/or doctorate degrees). The combinations of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel (23.5 %) and milbemycin-praziquantel (34.5 %) were the most widely endoparasitic drugs used in dogs and in cats, respectively. The most common ectoparasiticide used in dogs was a combination of imidacloprid-permethrin (33.4 %), while in cats it was
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.
Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asiri Rathnayake
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lockstep construction and a machine that performs some operations in parallel, suitable for implementation on a large number of cores, such as a GPU. We formalize the parallel machine using process algebra and report some preliminary experiments with an implementation on a graphics processor using CUDA.
2010-12-07
... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...
Nicaragua - Property Regularization
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The focus of this performance evaluation was whether or not the Project’s program logic was sound and successful and had the intended benefits related to generating...
Abossie, Ashenafi; Petros, Beyene
2015-09-28
Helminths/HIV co-infections are very common in developing countries, especially in Africa. The effect of overlapping distribution of HIV and helminths becomes important because concomitant infection may exacerbate disease outcome of HIV infection. The study aimed at determining the effect of deworming on the immune status of helminth/HIV coinfected Pre-ART HIV patients attending three health institutions in Southern Ethiopia. 97 HIV-positive Pre-ART individuals were observed into 2 groups on the basis of helminth co-infection and no infection. Out of these, 66 study participants were helminths/HIV co-infected and the remaining 31 study participants were helminths (-)/HIV (+) control. Helminth/HIV co-infected participants CD4+ T-cell count was done at baseline, after 15 weeks and 6 months after antihelminthics treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest prevalent soil transmitted helminths in Pre-ART individuals in this study. CD4+ T-cell count in the Ascaris lumricoides/HIV co-infected was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and (P intestinal helminth parasites detected in the study. In conclusion, this finding on Ascaris lumbricoides-specific nature of immune interaction in helminth/HIV co-infection may partly explain the inconsistent reports on the role of intestinal helminths on progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Therefore, a well-designed longitudinal study on helminth species-specific HIV/helminth co-infection will be needed to fully establish the possible benefits of deworming in intestinal helminth/HIV co-infection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ingebrigtsen K
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites, both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field.
Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection
Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing
2018-06-01
The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.
Ensemble manifold regularization.
Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng
2012-06-01
We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Understanding Regular Expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doug Knox
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this exercise we will use advanced find-and-replace capabilities in a word processing application in order to make use of structure in a brief historical document that is essentially a table in the form of prose. Without using a general programming language, we will gain exposure to some aspects of computational thinking, especially pattern matching, that can be immediately helpful to working historians (and others using word processors, and can form the basis for subsequent learning with more general programming environments.
Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai
1997-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...
Updating ARI Educational Benefits Usage Data Bases for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard: 2005 - 2006
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Young, Winnie
2007-01-01
.... For the Regular component, the report includes tabulations of program participation and benefit usage, type of educational program entered, and time between separation and start of education benefits...
47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.
2010-10-01
...-137 and 225-400 MHz shall provide for a program of regular monitoring for signal leakage by... in these bands of 20 uV/m or greater at a distance of 3 meters. During regular monitoring, any leakage source which produces a field strength of 20 uV/m or greater at a distance of 3 meters in the...
2010-09-02
... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...
Online co-regularized algorithms
Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.
2012-01-01
We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks
Ikeda, Takako; Yoshimura, Masashi; Onoyama, Keiichi; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken
2014-08-06
Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations. The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection. Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model. Our
Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter
2014-01-01
Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and
Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana Hrönn; Ajjampur, Sitara S Rao; Anderson, Roy M; Bailey, Robin; Gardiner, Iain; Halliday, Katherine E; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Kalua, Khumbo; Kang, Gagandeep; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Luty, Adrian J F; Means, Arianna Rubin; Oswald, William; Pullan, Rachel L; Sarkar, Rajiv; Schär, Fabian; Szpiro, Adam; Truscott, James E; Werkman, Marleen; Yard, Elodie; Walson, Judd L
2018-01-01
Current control strategies for soil-transmitted helminths (STH) emphasize morbidity control through mass drug administration (MDA) targeting preschool- and school-age children, women of childbearing age and adults in certain high-risk occupations such as agricultural laborers or miners. This strategy is effective at reducing morbidity in those treated but, without massive economic development, it is unlikely it will interrupt transmission. MDA will therefore need to continue indefinitely to maintain benefit. Mathematical models suggest that transmission interruption may be achievable through MDA alone, provided that all age groups are targeted with high coverage. The DeWorm3 Project will test the feasibility of interrupting STH transmission using biannual MDA targeting all age groups. Study sites (population ≥80,000) have been identified in Benin, Malawi and India. Each site will be divided into 40 clusters, to be randomized 1:1 to three years of twice-annual community-wide MDA or standard-of-care MDA, typically annual school-based deworming. Community-wide MDA will be delivered door-to-door, while standard-of-care MDA will be delivered according to national guidelines. The primary outcome is transmission interruption of the STH species present at each site, defined as weighted cluster-level prevalence ≤2% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 24 months after the final round of MDA. Secondary outcomes include the endline prevalence of STH, overall and by species, and the endline prevalence of STH among children under five as an indicator of incident infections. Secondary analyses will identify cluster-level factors associated with transmission interruption. Prevalence will be assessed using qPCR of stool samples collected from a random sample of cluster residents at baseline, six months after the final round of MDA and 24 months post-MDA. A smaller number of individuals in each cluster will be followed with annual sampling to monitor trends in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.W. Magona
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Strategic application of moxidectin pour-on (Cydectin(R was evaluated in Uganda for its effect on pasture larval counts and gastrointestinal nematode faecal egg counts in village cattle kept under tethering (semi-intensive grazing management. The strategic deworming schedule involved treating cattle twice at an interval of 2 months, at the end of the 1st wet season and during the 2nd wet season. Two groups of 30 cattle, each consisting of a treated and a control group, were examined for nematode infections every 4 weeks from June 1999 to January 2000. The treated group had significantly lower mean faecal egg counts than the untreated groups (t-value = 2.47, P < 0.05. Generally, the pasture larval counts on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but not significantly so (t-value = 2.22, P = 0.068. Pasture larval counts with different nematode species on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but the differences were not significant for Haemonchus spp. (t-value=1.68, P=0.145, Oesophagostomum spp. (t-value= 1.87, P=0.111, Trichostrongylus spp. (t-value=1.93, P=0.102, Dictyocaulus spp. (t-value= -0.74, P=0.485 and Cooperia spp. (t-value=-1.00, P=0.356. Treated farms did , however, have significantly lower pasture larval counts of Bunostomum spp. (t-value=4.64, P<0.05. This study has revealed that the application ofmoxidectin pour-on on cattle has an effect on faecal egg count and pasture contamination under the tethering grazing system. Moxidectin pour-on and the strategic deworming schedule evaluated here could be used for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle by small-scale farmers who practise tethering or semi-intensive grazing management in Uganda and other tropical countries, especially where there is a bimodal rainfall pattern.
Continuum-regularized quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.
1987-01-01
The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)
Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J; Mutimura, Eugene; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Janssen, Saskia; Njunwa, Kato K; Grobusch, Martin P
2015-01-01
Deworming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be beneficial, particularly during pregnancy. We determined the efficacy of targeted and nontargeted antihelminth therapy and its effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection status, hemoglobin levels, CD4 counts, and viral load in pregnant, HIV-positive women receiving ART. Nine hundred eighty HIV-infected pregnant women receiving ART were examined at 2 visits during pregnancy and 2 postpartum visits within 12 weeks. Women were given antimalarials when malaria-positive whereas albendazole was given in a targeted (n = 467; treatment when helminth stool screening was positive) or nontargeted (n = 513; treatment at all time points, with stool screening) fashion. No significant differences were noted between targeted and nontargeted albendazole treatments for the variables measured at each study visit except for CD4 counts, which were lower (P pregnant HIV-infected women with helminth coinfections receiving ART. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Regular variation on measure chains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475
Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking
Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling
2017-01-01
In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...
On geodesics in low regularity
Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland
2018-02-01
We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2013-06-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2012-01-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197
Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp
disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...
Koporc, Kimberly M; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G; Lin, William
2015-12-01
Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.
Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, A D
2000-01-01
The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces
Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.
Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling
2018-05-01
In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.
Dimensional regularization in configuration space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1995-09-01
Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs
Regular algebra and finite machines
Conway, John Horton
2012-01-01
World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg
Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds
Trzetrzelewski, M.
2012-01-01
We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...
Strategies for regular segmented reductions on GPU
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus Wriedt; Henriksen, Troels
2017-01-01
We present and evaluate an implementation technique for regular segmented reductions on GPUs. Existing techniques tend to be either consistent in performance but relatively inefficient in absolute terms, or optimised for specific workloads and thereby exhibiting bad performance for certain input...... is in the context of the Futhark compiler, the implementation technique is applicable to any library or language that has a need for segmented reductions. We evaluate the technique on four microbenchmarks, two of which we also compare to implementations in the CUB library for GPU programming, as well as on two...
Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.
2006-01-01
In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
2011-01-20
... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630
Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties
Ikegami, D.
2010-01-01
For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.
Globals of Completely Regular Monoids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun
2015-01-01
An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.
Fluid queues and regular variation
Boxma, O.J.
1996-01-01
This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even
Fluid queues and regular variation
O.J. Boxma (Onno)
1996-01-01
textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail
Empirical laws, regularity and necessity
Koningsveld, H.
1973-01-01
In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.
1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and
Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.
2018-01-01
Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016
Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning
Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael
A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can
Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.
Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong
2016-09-01
Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.
Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2014-03-07
Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.
Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2014-01-01
Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratandeep Lamba
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Spaced IFA Supplementation is recognized as an efficacious public health program and effective preventive approach in combating anemia in adolescent girls, is cost effective and results in fewer side effects. Aim: To study the effect of: bi-weekly supplementation of IFA with and without Albendazole administration on the status of hemoglobin level in college going adolescent girls. Material and methods: An interventional study was conducted among college going girls in Agra in the age group of 16-19 years (n=300 who were randomly selected. Their Hemoglobin levels were estimated before and after intervention by the Cynmeth-hemoglobin method using Drabkin’s solution. Three groups [two study A and B and one control] of hundred girls each were randomly constituted. To the study groups, supervised bi-weekly IFA with and without Albendazole were administered respectively for three months. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical tools. Results &Discussion: The overall prevalence of anemia was 65.3%.The initial prevalence in study group reduced significantly from 80.7% to 35.5% whereas in study group B it reduced from 73.5% to 58.8% and in control it remained almost same 84.3% and 81.2% pre and post intervention respectively. The mean Hemoglobin rise observed in the study group A and B was 2.5gm/dl and 2.3 gm/dl respectively while in control group fall in the mean Hb was observed (0.1gm/dl. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls is high. Supervised IFA therapy twice a week is an effective strategy to lower the prevalence of anemia either combined or uncombined with Albendazole.
Energy functions for regularization algorithms
Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.
1991-01-01
Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.
Physical model of dimensional regularization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schonfeld, Jonathan F.
2016-12-15
We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1987-07-01
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Circuit complexity of regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koucký, Michal
2009-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009
General inverse problems for regular variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan
2014-01-01
Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Assoum
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating the effect of successive annual deworming rounds on the spatiotemporal distribution of infection prevalence and numbers at risk for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs can help identify communities nearing elimination and those needing further interventions. In this study, we aim to quantify the impact of an 8-year mass drug administration (MDA programme (from 2007 to 2014 on the spatiotemporal distribution of prevalence of STH infections and to estimate the number of school-aged children infected with STHs in Burundi. Methods During annual longitudinal school-based surveys in Burundi between 2007 and 2011, STH infection and anthropometric data for a total of 40,656 children were collected; these data were supplemented with data from a national survey conducted in 2014. Bayesian model based geostatistics (MBG were used to generate predictive prevalence maps for each STH species and year. The numbers of children at-risk of infection per district between 2008 and 2014 were estimated as the product of the predictive prevalence maps and population density maps. Results Overall, the degree of spatial clustering of STH infections decreased between 2008 and 2011; in 2014 the geographical clusters of all STH infections reappeared. The reduction in prevalence was small for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the centre and central north of the country. Our predictive prevalence maps for hookworm indicate a reduction in prevalence along the periphery of the country. The predicted number of children infected with any STH species decreased substantially between 2007 and 2011, but in 2014 there was an increase in the predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. In 2014, the districts with the highest predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms were Kibuye district (n = 128,903, Mabayi district (n = 35,302 and Kiremba (n = 87
Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.
Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter
2016-08-01
In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.
Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization
Jiang, Haiyong
2015-09-18
In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. As layout we consider a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important for digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate the layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm to automatically detect constraints. In our results, we evaluate the proposed framework on a variety of input layouts from different applications, which demonstrates our method has superior performance to the state of the art.
Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sjöstrand, Karl
2007-01-01
This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....
Regularization methods in Banach spaces
Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S
2012-01-01
Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B
Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme
PH Department
2011-01-01
Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )
RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm
Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2014-12-01
RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.
Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.
Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu
2018-04-01
Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.
Regular expressions compiler and some applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saldana A, H.
1978-01-01
We deal with high level programming language of a Regular Expressions Compiler (REC). The first chapter is an introduction in which the history of the REC development and the problems related to its numerous applicatons are described. The syntactic and sematic rules as well as the language features are discussed just after the introduction. Concerning the applicatons as examples, an adaptation is given in order to solve numerical problems and another for the data manipulation. The last chapter is an exposition of ideas and techniques about the compiler construction. Examples of the adaptation to numerical problems show the applications to education, vector analysis, quantum mechanics, physics, mathematics and other sciences. The rudiments of an operating system for a minicomputer are the examples of the adaptation to symbolic data manipulaton. REC is a programming language that could be applied to solve problems in almost any human activity. Handling of computer graphics, control equipment, research on languages, microprocessors and general research are some of the fields in which this programming language can be applied and developed. (author)
Esser, Ted H.
2012-01-01
Overall, pretest-posttest results indicated statistically significant pretest beginning program compared to posttest ending program percentage of behavioral improvement for on task, following directions, and positive interactions outcomes improvement for individual students who completed the elementary grades pro-social cognitive behavioral skills…
From inactive to regular jogger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...
76 FR 74831 - Regular Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act
2011-12-01
..., DC 20005. STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate... the Regular Board of Directors Meeting Minutes IV. Approval of the Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting Minutes V. Approval of the Corporate Administrative Committee Meeting Minutes VI. Approval...
75 FR 23218 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Servicing-Regular
2010-05-03
... collections established in the regulation are necessary for FSA to monitor and account for loan security... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Direct Loan Servicing... collection that supports Direct Loan Servicing-Regular programs. The information is used to determine...
77 FR 76078 - Regular Board of Directors Sunshine Act Meeting
2012-12-26
..., DC 20005. STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate... Regular Board of Directors Meeting Minutes IV. Approval of the Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting... Corporate Secretary. [FR Doc. 2012-31163 Filed 12-21-12; 4:15 pm] BILLING CODE 7570-02-P ...
Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons
Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn
2004-01-01
Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.
On the equivalence of different regularization methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezowski, S.
1985-01-01
The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)
The uniqueness of the regularization procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezowski, S.
1981-01-01
On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)
Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization
Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey
2018-04-01
During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.
Regular extensions of some classes of grammars
Nijholt, Antinus
Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular
Class of regular bouncing cosmologies
Vasilić, Milovan
2017-06-01
In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Navarro
2010-09-01
Full Text Available
In this study it is compared the improvement and retention of the maximum dynamic strength in 35 subjects untrained, after the application of two training programs of equal content and different loads distribution (with/without concentration of loads = SC/CC so that in one of the programs the double of total volume takes place. Measurements from high maximum weight in 1RM, maximum strength, and total average strength were taken, with the system of measurement of dynamic forces ISOCONTROL 3.6., in the exercise of squat (SQ, before (PRE -, and at the end of the treatment (POST 1, as well as after 1 (POST 2 and 2 months (POST 3 of its conclusion. Both groups improved the maximum dynamic strength of highly significant form (p<0.01 during the cycle of training (29% SC - 36% CC, not existing significant differences between groups in any of the measured variables. In conclusion, after 8 weeks of strength training, the maximum dynamic strength of significant form highly in subjects untrained can be improved, and similars gains are obtained, as much with a distribution of concentrated loads, like with a distribution without concentration of loads where half of volume has been made that in the previous one.432
KEY WORDS: Training, strength, distribution of loads, volume.
En este estudio se compara la mejora y retención de la fuerza dinámica máxima en 35 sujetos no entrenados, tras la aplicación de dos programas de entrenamiento de igual contenido y diferente distribución de la carga (sin/con concentración de cargas =SC/CC de forma que en uno de los programas se efectúa el doble de volumen total. Se tomaron mediciones de peso máximo elevado en 1RM, fuerza máxima, y fuerza media total, con el sistema de medición de fuerzas dinámicas ISOCONTROL 3.6., en el ejercicio de squat (SQ, antes (PRE-, y al final del tratamiento (POST
Iterated Process Analysis over Lattice-Valued Regular Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Midtgaard, Jan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2016-01-01
We present an iterated approach to statically analyze programs of two processes communicating by message passing. Our analysis operates over a domain of lattice-valued regular expressions, and computes increasingly better approximations of each process's communication behavior. Overall the work e...... extends traditional semantics-based program analysis techniques to automatically reason about message passing in a manner that can simultaneously analyze both values of variables as well as message order, message content, and their interdependencies.......We present an iterated approach to statically analyze programs of two processes communicating by message passing. Our analysis operates over a domain of lattice-valued regular expressions, and computes increasingly better approximations of each process's communication behavior. Overall the work...
Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue
2006-01-01
In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T......: The expectation of the regularization function, i.e., takes the same value in the posterior and prior distribution. We present three examples: two simulations, and application in fMRI neuroimaging....
Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagahama, Yoshinori.
1985-02-01
A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)
Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey Blondelle
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical
Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging
Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique
2016-01-01
Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults.Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 1...
Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions
Zech, Gunter
2011-01-01
The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2006-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Simon-Rigaud, Marie-Laure; Regnard, Jacques; Nègre, Véronique; Dumoulin, Gilles
2012-08-01
Adiponectin, the most abundant hormone produced by adipose tissue, circulates in 3 isoforms, including high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. The latter has been suggested to be a better predictor of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance associated with obesity. This study investigated changes in total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) during a 9-month in-patient treatment program based on physical exercise and a balanced diet in 32 severely obese adolescents. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and HOMA were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the program (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, a control group of 15 teenagers served as a reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, HMW adiponectin was more markedly decreased in obese adolescents than total adiponectin, and both were lower than in controls. Conversely, resistin and HOMA were higher in obese adolescents. During the program, there was a significant change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity among obese teenagers. In addition, HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW-to-total adiponectin increased throughout the study, whereas total adiponectin only increased up until the sixth month. On the contrary, resistin did not show any significant change. In obese adolescents, a long-term combination of aerobic exercise and a balanced diet, inducing change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity, markedly increased HMW adiponectin compared with total adiponectin, without any change in resistin concentrations. Our results thus suggest that the determination of HMW adiponectin could be more useful than measurement of total adiponectin in clinical settings.
Simplicity and Complexity, Regularity and Randomness : exceptional CERN colloquium
CERN. Geneva; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Landua, Rolf
2005-01-01
The concept of effective complexity, which involves discussing bit strings, utilizing algorithmic information content (AIC), and making a distinction between regularity and randomness, will be explored. Like entropy, the quantities involved all depend crucially on coarse graining and may have other context dependence as well. Besides AIC, which involves the length of programs for a universal computer, it is important to consider also quantities that depend on the execution times for such programs. In that way one can get at pseudo-ramdomness and pseudo-complexity. The presumably simple fundamental laws of physics contribute very little to the AIC of the history of the universe. Instead, almost all of that AIC comes from the results of chance events. Thus it is deeply misleading to refer to the future unified theory of the elementary particles and their interactions as a "theory of everything." Nevertheless, the search for that unified theory, the ultimate regularity in nature, remains a magnificent challenge....
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-01-01
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-04-19
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
On infinite regular and chiral maps
Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán
2015-01-01
We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.
From recreational to regular drug use
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
2011-01-01
This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...
Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions
Kahrel, Peter
2006-01-01
If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.
Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Holm, D.D.
2003-01-01
A new modeling approach for large-eddy simulation (LES) is obtained by combining a "regularization principle" with an explicit filter and its inversion. This regularization approach allows a systematic derivation of the implied subgrid model, which resolves the closure problem. The central role of
2010-07-01
... employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines...
Nonlinear Chance Constrained Problems: Optimality Conditions, Regularization and Solvers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adam, Lukáš; Branda, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 170, č. 2 (2016), s. 419-436 ISSN 0022-3239 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Chance constrained programming * Optimality conditions * Regularization * Algorithms * Free MATLAB codes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/adam-0460909.pdf
24 CFR 982.520 - Regular tenancy: Special adjustment of rent to owner.
2010-04-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.520 Regular tenancy: Special adjustment of rent to owner. (a...
An iterative method for Tikhonov regularization with a general linear regularization operator
Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.
2010-01-01
Tikhonov regularization is one of the most popular approaches to solve discrete ill-posed problems with error-contaminated data. A regularization operator and a suitable value of a regularization parameter have to be chosen. This paper describes an iterative method, based on Golub-Kahan
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-11-19
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-01-01
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Hierarchical regular small-world networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan
2008-01-01
Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-11-19
Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ly Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard
2010-01-01
The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.
Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert
2010-03-01
We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.
Diagrammatic methods in phase-space regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Halpern, M.B.; California Univ., Berkeley
1987-11-01
Using the scalar prototype and gauge theory as the simplest possible examples, diagrammatic methods are developed for the recently proposed phase-space form of continuum regularization. A number of one-loop and all-order applications are given, including general diagrammatic discussions of the nogrowth theorem and the uniqueness of the phase-space stochastic calculus. The approach also generates an alternate derivation of the equivalence of the large-β phase-space regularization to the more conventional coordinate-space regularization. (orig.)
J-regular rings with injectivities
Shen, Liang
2010-01-01
A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.
Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paola Cristofori
2003-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].
Geometric regularizations and dual conifold transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Lazaroiu, Calin I.
2003-01-01
We consider a geometric regularization for the class of conifold transitions relating D-brane systems on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces to certain flux backgrounds. This regularization respects the SL(2,Z) invariance of the flux superpotential, and allows for computation of the relevant periods through the method of Picard-Fuchs equations. The regularized geometry is a noncompact Calabi-Yau which can be viewed as a monodromic fibration, with the nontrivial monodromy being induced by the regulator. It reduces to the original, non-monodromic background when the regulator is removed. Using this regularization, we discuss the simple case of the local conifold, and show how the relevant field-theoretic information can be extracted in this approach. (author)
Fast and compact regular expression matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin
2008-01-01
We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....
Regular-fat dairy and human health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas
2016-01-01
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....
Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syzdykov Mirzakhmet
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.
Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manukova, L.A.
1982-01-01
The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained
Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure
Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui
2013-01-01
We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...
Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)
The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.
Iterative regularization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsson, Fredrik; Forsgren, Anders
2006-01-01
A common way to solve intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization problems is to use a beamlet-based approach. The approach is usually employed in a three-step manner: first a beamlet-weight optimization problem is solved, then the fluence profiles are converted into step-and-shoot segments, and finally postoptimization of the segment weights is performed. A drawback of beamlet-based approaches is that beamlet-weight optimization problems are ill-conditioned and have to be regularized in order to produce smooth fluence profiles that are suitable for conversion. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explain the suitability of solving beamlet-based IMRT problems by a BFGS quasi-Newton sequential quadratic programming method with diagonal initial Hessian estimate, and second, to empirically show that beamlet-weight optimization problems should be solved in relatively few iterations when using this optimization method. The explanation of the suitability is based on viewing the optimization method as an iterative regularization method. In iterative regularization, the optimization problem is solved approximately by iterating long enough to obtain a solution close to the optimal one, but terminating before too much noise occurs. Iterative regularization requires an optimization method that initially proceeds in smooth directions and makes rapid initial progress. Solving ten beamlet-based IMRT problems with dose-volume objectives and bounds on the beamlet-weights, we find that the considered optimization method fulfills the requirements for performing iterative regularization. After segment-weight optimization, the treatments obtained using 35 beamlet-weight iterations outperform the treatments obtained using 100 beamlet-weight iterations, both in terms of objective value and of target uniformity. We conclude that iterating too long may in fact deteriorate the quality of the deliverable plan
Access to serviced land for the urban poor: the regularization paradox in Mexico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfonso Iracheta Cenecorta
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The insufficient supply of serviced land at affordable prices for the urban poor and the need for regularization of the consequent illegal occupations in urban areas are two of the most important issues on the Latin American land policy agenda. Taking a structural/integrated view on the functioning of the urban land market in Latin America, this paper discusses the nexus between the formal and the informal land markets. It thus exposes the perverse feedback effects that curative regularization policies may have on the process by which irregularity is produced in the first place. The paper suggests that a more effective approach to the provision of serviced land for the poor cannot be resolved within the prevailing (curative regularization programs. These programs should have the capacity to mobilize the resources that do exist into a comprehensive program that links regularization with fiscal policy, including the exploration of value capture mechanisms.
Matrix of regularity for improving the quality of ECGs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Henian; Garcia, Gabriel A; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Bains, Jujhar; Wortham, Dale C
2012-01-01
The 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the gold standard for diagnosis of abnormalities of the heart. However, the ECG is susceptible to artifacts, which may lead to wrong diagnosis and thus mistreatment. It is a clinical challenge of great significance differentiating ECG artifacts from patterns of diseases. We propose a computational framework, called the matrix of regularity, to evaluate the quality of ECGs. The matrix of regularity is a novel mechanism to fuse results from multiple tests of signal quality. Moreover, this method can produce a continuous grade, which can more accurately represent the quality of an ECG. When tested on a dataset from the Computing in Cardiology/PhysioNet Challenge 2011, the algorithm achieves up to 95% accuracy. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is 0.97. The developed framework and computer program have the potential to improve the quality of ECGs collected using conventional and portable devices. (paper)
Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.
2008-12-01
The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or
Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stathis Psillos
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology. Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.
Fractional Regularization Term for Variational Image Registration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Verdú-Monedero
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Image registration is a widely used task of image analysis with applications in many fields. Its classical formulation and current improvements are given in the spatial domain. In this paper a regularization term based on fractional order derivatives is formulated. This term is defined and implemented in the frequency domain by translating the energy functional into the frequency domain and obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations which minimize it. The new regularization term leads to a simple formulation and design, being applicable to higher dimensions by using the corresponding multidimensional Fourier transform. The proposed regularization term allows for a real gradual transition from a diffusion registration to a curvature registration which is best suited to some applications and it is not possible in the spatial domain. Results with 3D actual images show the validity of this approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.
2004-01-01
We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field. (author)
Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boliang Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approaches. An important conclusion is that our online MR algorithms can handle the settings where the target hypothesis is not fixed but drifts with the sequence of examples. We also recap and draw connections to earlier works. This paper paves a way to the design and analysis of online manifold regularization algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Gao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available According to the regularization method in the inverse problem of load identification, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. Firstly, quotient function (QF is defined by utilizing the regularization parameter as a variable based on the least squares solution of the minimization problem. Secondly, the quotient function method (QFM is proposed to select the optimal regularization parameter based on the quadratic programming theory. For employing the QFM, the characteristics of the values of QF with respect to the different regularization parameters are taken into consideration. Finally, numerical and experimental examples are utilized to validate the performance of the QFM. Furthermore, the Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV method and the L-curve method are taken as the comparison methods. The results indicate that the proposed QFM is adaptive to different measuring points, noise levels, and types of dynamic load.
Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.
Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
2014-06-01
In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.
Regularity of difference equations on Banach spaces
Agarwal, Ravi P; Lizama, Carlos
2014-01-01
This work introduces readers to the topic of maximal regularity for difference equations. The authors systematically present the method of maximal regularity, outlining basic linear difference equations along with relevant results. They address recent advances in the field, as well as basic semigroup and cosine operator theories in the discrete setting. The authors also identify some open problems that readers may wish to take up for further research. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the area of difference equations, particularly those with advance knowledge of and interest in functional analysis.
PET regularization by envelope guided conjugate gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, L.; Neumaier, A.
1996-01-01
The authors propose a new way to iteratively solve large scale ill-posed problems and in particular the image reconstruction problem in positron emission tomography by exploiting the relation between Tikhonov regularization and multiobjective optimization to obtain iteratively approximations to the Tikhonov L-curve and its corner. Monitoring the change of the approximate L-curves allows us to adjust the regularization parameter adaptively during a preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration, so that the desired solution can be reconstructed with a small number of iterations
Matrix regularization of embedded 4-manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2012-01-01
We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S 2 ×S 2 , embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)⊗SU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N 2 ×N 2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S 3 also possible).
A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island
Gibson, Karen L.; Keizer, Karen; Golding, Christine
2002-01-01
A new program to address the feral cat population on Prince Edward Island was undertaken during the spring and summer of 2001. Feral cats from specific geographic areas were trapped, sedated, and tested for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Healthy cats were neutered, dewormed, vaccinated, tattooed, and released to their area of origin. A total of 185 cats and kittens were trapped and tested during a 14-week period; 158 cats and kittens as young as 6 weeks of age were n...
A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island
Gibson, Karen L.; Keizer, Karen; Golding, Christine
2002-01-01
A new program to address the feral cat population on Prince Edward Island was undertaken during the spring and summer of 2001. Feral cats from specific geographic areas were trapped, sedated, and tested for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Healthy cats were neutered, dewormed, vaccinated, tattooed, and released to their area of origin. A total of 185 cats and kittens were trapped and tested during a 14-week period; 158 cats and kittens as young as 6 weeks of age were neutered and released. Twenty-three adult cats were positive for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, or both, and were euthanized. PMID:12240526
On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.
2009-01-01
We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....
Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Gaci
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.
Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.
First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.
Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.
Regularity and irreversibility of weekly travel behavior
Kitamura, R.; van der Hoorn, A.I.J.M.
1987-01-01
Dynamic characteristics of travel behavior are analyzed in this paper using weekly travel diaries from two waves of panel surveys conducted six months apart. An analysis of activity engagement indicates the presence of significant regularity in weekly activity participation between the two waves.
Regular and context-free nominal traces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Degano, Pierpaolo; Ferrari, Gian-Luigi; Mezzetti, Gianluca
2017-01-01
Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...
Faster 2-regular information-set decoding
Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.; Schwabe, P.; Chee, Y.M.
2011-01-01
Fix positive integers B and w. Let C be a linear code over F 2 of length Bw. The 2-regular-decoding problem is to find a nonzero codeword consisting of w length-B blocks, each of which has Hamming weight 0 or 2. This problem appears in attacks on the FSB (fast syndrome-based) hash function and
Complexity in union-free regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free-path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html
Regular Gleason Measures and Generalized Effect Algebras
Dvurečenskij, Anatolij; Janda, Jiří
2015-12-01
We study measures, finitely additive measures, regular measures, and σ-additive measures that can attain even infinite values on the quantum logic of a Hilbert space. We show when particular classes of non-negative measures can be studied in the frame of generalized effect algebras.
Regularization of finite temperature string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblanc, Y.; Knecht, M.; Wallet, J.C.
1990-01-01
The tachyonic divergences occurring in the free energy of various string theories at finite temperature are eliminated through the use of regularization schemes and analytic continuations. For closed strings, we obtain finite expressions which, however, develop an imaginary part above the Hagedorn temperature, whereas open string theories are still plagued with dilatonic divergences. (orig.)
A Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Alfaro
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We introduce a Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization of loop integrals. Then we can compute the one loop quantum corrections to the photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex in the Electrodynamics sector of the Very Special Relativity Standard Model (VSRSM.
Continuum regularized Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadun, L.A.
1987-01-01
Using the machinery of stochastic quantization, Z. Bern, M. B. Halpern, C. Taubes and I recently proposed a continuum regularization technique for quantum field theory. This regularization may be implemented by applying a regulator to either the (d + 1)-dimensional Parisi-Wu Langevin equation or, equivalently, to the d-dimensional second order Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations. This technique is non-perturbative, respects all gauge and Lorentz symmetries, and is consistent with a ghost-free gauge fixing (Zwanziger's). This thesis is a detailed study of this regulator, and of regularized Yang-Mills theory, using both perturbative and non-perturbative techniques. The perturbative analysis comes first. The mechanism of stochastic quantization is reviewed, and a perturbative expansion based on second-order SD equations is developed. A diagrammatic method (SD diagrams) for evaluating terms of this expansion is developed. We apply the continuum regulator to a scalar field theory. Using SD diagrams, we show that all Green functions can be rendered finite to all orders in perturbation theory. Even non-renormalizable theories can be regularized. The continuum regulator is then applied to Yang-Mills theory, in conjunction with Zwanziger's gauge fixing. A perturbative expansion of the regulator is incorporated into the diagrammatic method. It is hoped that the techniques discussed in this thesis will contribute to the construction of a renormalized Yang-Mills theory is 3 and 4 dimensions
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M, E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: cmsendra@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-04-21
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Analytic stochastic regularization and gange invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Lima-Santos, A.
1986-05-01
A proof that analytic stochastic regularization breaks gauge invariance is presented. This is done by an explicit one loop calculation of the vaccum polarization tensor in scalar electrodynamics, which turns out not to be transversal. The counterterm structure, Langevin equations and the construction of composite operators in the general framework of stochastic quantization, are also analysed. (Author) [pt
Annotation of regular polysemy and underspecification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Bel, Núria
2013-01-01
We present the result of an annotation task on regular polysemy for a series of seman- tic classes or dot types in English, Dan- ish and Spanish. This article describes the annotation process, the results in terms of inter-encoder agreement, and the sense distributions obtained with two methods...
Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability
Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL
In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,
12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.
2010-01-01
... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit....5(b) of this part, and forwarding with its completed application funds equal to one-half of this... 1, 1979, is not required to forward these funds to the Facility until October 1, 1979. (3...
Supervised scale-regularized linear convolutionary filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard
2017-01-01
also be solved relatively efficient. All in all, the idea is to properly control the scale of a trained filter, which we solve by introducing a specific regularization term into the overall objective function. We demonstrate, on an artificial filter learning problem, the capabil- ities of our basic...
On regular riesz operators | Raubenheimer | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The r-asymptotically quasi finite rank operators on Banach lattices are examples of regular Riesz operators. We characterise Riesz elements in a subalgebra of a Banach algebra in terms of Riesz elements in the Banach algebra. This enables us to characterise r-asymptotically quasi finite rank operators in terms of adjoint ...
Regularized Discriminant Analysis: A Large Dimensional Study
Yang, Xiaoke
2018-04-28
In this thesis, we focus on studying the performance of general regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) classifiers. The data used for analysis is assumed to follow Gaussian mixture model with different means and covariances. RDA offers a rich class of regularization options, covering as special cases the regularized linear discriminant analysis (RLDA) and the regularized quadratic discriminant analysis (RQDA) classi ers. We analyze RDA under the double asymptotic regime where the data dimension and the training size both increase in a proportional way. This double asymptotic regime allows for application of fundamental results from random matrix theory. Under the double asymptotic regime and some mild assumptions, we show that the asymptotic classification error converges to a deterministic quantity that only depends on the data statistical parameters and dimensions. This result not only implicates some mathematical relations between the misclassification error and the class statistics, but also can be leveraged to select the optimal parameters that minimize the classification error, thus yielding the optimal classifier. Validation results on the synthetic data show a good accuracy of our theoretical findings. We also construct a general consistent estimator to approximate the true classification error in consideration of the unknown previous statistics. We benchmark the performance of our proposed consistent estimator against classical estimator on synthetic data. The observations demonstrate that the general estimator outperforms others in terms of mean squared error (MSE).
Complexity in union-free regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free- path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html
Bit-coded regular expression parsing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz
2011-01-01
the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...
Koporc, Kimberly M.; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G.; Lin, William
2015-01-01
Background Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007–2012. Methodology Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Principal Findings Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. Conclusions and Significance To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled. PMID:26657842
Tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Marusic, Dragan
2014-01-01
A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified.......A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified....
Female non-regular workers in Japan: their current status and health.
Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu
2016-12-07
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers' health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient.
Female non-regular workers in Japan: their current status and health
INOUE, Mariko; NISHIKITANI, Mariko; TSURUGANO, Shinobu
2016-01-01
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers’ health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient. PMID:27818453
Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students
Zahra Hamidah; Putri Teesa Santoso; RM Haryadi Karyono
2015-01-01
Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP), in the Faculty of Medicine, Univers...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, M.A.
1982-01-01
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)
Jackson, M A
1982-01-01
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.
2013-12-01
It has been demonstrated before that using Tikhonov regularization produces spherical harmonic solutions from GRACE that have very little residual stripes while capturing all the signal observed by GRACE within the noise level. This paper demonstrates a two-step process and uses Tikhonov regularization to remove the residual stripes in the CSR regularized spherical harmonic coefficients when computing the spatial projections. We discuss methods to produce mass anomaly grids that have no stripe features while satisfying the necessary condition of capturing all observed signal within the GRACE noise level.
Extreme values, regular variation and point processes
Resnick, Sidney I
1987-01-01
Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...
Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points
Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz
2018-03-01
We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.
Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecora, Louis M.; Wu Dongho; Lee, Hoshik; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward
2011-01-01
Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.
Least square regularized regression in sum space.
Xu, Yong-Li; Chen, Di-Rong; Li, Han-Xiong; Liu, Lu
2013-04-01
This paper proposes a least square regularized regression algorithm in sum space of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) for nonflat function approximation, and obtains the solution of the algorithm by solving a system of linear equations. This algorithm can approximate the low- and high-frequency component of the target function with large and small scale kernels, respectively. The convergence and learning rate are analyzed. We measure the complexity of the sum space by its covering number and demonstrate that the covering number can be bounded by the product of the covering numbers of basic RKHSs. For sum space of RKHSs with Gaussian kernels, by choosing appropriate parameters, we tradeoff the sample error and regularization error, and obtain a polynomial learning rate, which is better than that in any single RKHS. The utility of this method is illustrated with two simulated data sets and five real-life databases.
Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.
2011-01-01
Purpose/Objective(s): Adaptive techniques allow for correction of spatial changes during the time course of the fractionated radiotherapy. Spatial changes include tumor shrinkage and weight loss, causing tissue deformation and residual positional errors even after translational and rotational image...... the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...... on the original delineation and tissue deformation in the time course between scans form a better starting point than rigid propagation. There was no significant difference of locally and globally defined regularization. The method used in the present study suggests that deformed contours need to be reviewed...
Thin accretion disk around regular black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
QIU Tianqi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The Penrose′s cosmic censorship conjecture says that naked singularities do not exist in nature.So,it seems reasonable to further conjecture that not even a singularity exists in nature.In this paper,a regular black hole without singularity is studied in detail,especially on its thin accretion disk,energy flux,radiation temperature and accretion efficiency.It is found that the interaction of regular black hole is stronger than that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore,the thin accretion will be more efficiency to lost energy while the mass of black hole decreased. These particular properties may be used to distinguish between black holes.
Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.
Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong
2015-03-01
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries
Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng
2016-04-01
The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.
Analytic stochastic regularization and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Lima-Santos, A.
1987-04-01
We prove that analytic stochatic regularization braks gauge invariance. This is done by an explicit one loop calculation of the two three and four point vertex functions of the gluon field in scalar chromodynamics, which turns out not to be geuge invariant. We analyse the counter term structure, Langevin equations and the construction of composite operators in the general framework of stochastic quantization. (author) [pt
Preconditioners for regularized saddle point matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe
2011-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 91-112 ISSN 1570-2820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : saddle point matrices * preconditioning * regularization * eigenvalue clustering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2011 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2011.19.issue-2/jnum.2011.005/jnum.2011.005. xml
Analytic stochastic regularization: gauge and supersymmetry theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, M.C.B.
1988-01-01
Analytic stochastic regularization for gauge and supersymmetric theories is considered. Gauge invariance in spinor and scalar QCD is verified to brak fown by an explicit one loop computation of the two, theree and four point vertex function of the gluon field. As a result, non gauge invariant counterterms must be added. However, in the supersymmetric multiplets there is a cancellation rendering the counterterms gauge invariant. The calculation is considered at one loop order. (author) [pt
Regularized forecasting of chaotic dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollt, Erik M.
2017-01-01
While local models of dynamical systems have been highly successful in terms of using extensive data sets observing even a chaotic dynamical system to produce useful forecasts, there is a typical problem as follows. Specifically, with k-near neighbors, kNN method, local observations occur due to recurrences in a chaotic system, and this allows for local models to be built by regression to low dimensional polynomial approximations of the underlying system estimating a Taylor series. This has been a popular approach, particularly in context of scalar data observations which have been represented by time-delay embedding methods. However such local models can generally allow for spatial discontinuities of forecasts when considered globally, meaning jumps in predictions because the collected near neighbors vary from point to point. The source of these discontinuities is generally that the set of near neighbors varies discontinuously with respect to the position of the sample point, and so therefore does the model built from the near neighbors. It is possible to utilize local information inferred from near neighbors as usual but at the same time to impose a degree of regularity on a global scale. We present here a new global perspective extending the general local modeling concept. In so doing, then we proceed to show how this perspective allows us to impose prior presumed regularity into the model, by involving the Tikhonov regularity theory, since this classic perspective of optimization in ill-posed problems naturally balances fitting an objective with some prior assumed form of the result, such as continuity or derivative regularity for example. This all reduces to matrix manipulations which we demonstrate on a simple data set, with the implication that it may find much broader context.
Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization
Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero
1997-06-01
Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.
Regularity and chaos in cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastarrachea-Magnani, Miguel Angel; López-del-Carpio, Baldemar; Chávez-Carlos, Jorge; Lerma-Hernández, Sergio; Hirsch, Jorge G
2017-01-01
The interaction of a quantized electromagnetic field in a cavity with a set of two-level atoms inside it can be described with algebraic Hamiltonians of increasing complexity, from the Rabi to the Dicke models. Their algebraic character allows, through the use of coherent states, a semiclassical description in phase space, where the non-integrable Dicke model has regions associated with regular and chaotic motion. The appearance of classical chaos can be quantified calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent over the whole available phase space for a given energy. In the quantum regime, employing efficient diagonalization techniques, we are able to perform a detailed quantitative study of the regular and chaotic regions, where the quantum participation ratio (P R ) of coherent states on the eigenenergy basis plays a role equivalent to the Lyapunov exponent. It is noted that, in the thermodynamic limit, dividing the participation ratio by the number of atoms leads to a positive value in chaotic regions, while it tends to zero in the regular ones. (paper)
Solution path for manifold regularized semisupervised classification.
Wang, Gang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tao; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Lochovsky, Frederick H
2012-04-01
Traditional learning algorithms use only labeled data for training. However, labeled examples are often difficult or time consuming to obtain since they require substantial human labeling efforts. On the other hand, unlabeled data are often relatively easy to collect. Semisupervised learning addresses this problem by using large quantities of unlabeled data with labeled data to build better learning algorithms. In this paper, we use the manifold regularization approach to formulate the semisupervised learning problem where a regularization framework which balances a tradeoff between loss and penalty is established. We investigate different implementations of the loss function and identify the methods which have the least computational expense. The regularization hyperparameter, which determines the balance between loss and penalty, is crucial to model selection. Accordingly, we derive an algorithm that can fit the entire path of solutions for every value of the hyperparameter. Its computational complexity after preprocessing is quadratic only in the number of labeled examples rather than the total number of labeled and unlabeled examples.
Regularizations: different recipes for identical situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambin, E.; Lobo, C.O.; Battistel, O.A.
2004-03-01
We present a discussion where the choice of the regularization procedure and the routing for the internal lines momenta are put at the same level of arbitrariness in the analysis of Ward identities involving simple and well-known problems in QFT. They are the complex self-interacting scalar field and two simple models where the SVV and AVV process are pertinent. We show that, in all these problems, the conditions to symmetry relations preservation are put in terms of the same combination of divergent Feynman integrals, which are evaluated in the context of a very general calculational strategy, concerning the manipulations and calculations involving divergences. Within the adopted strategy, all the arbitrariness intrinsic to the problem are still maintained in the final results and, consequently, a perfect map can be obtained with the corresponding results of the traditional regularization techniques. We show that, when we require an universal interpretation for the arbitrariness involved, in order to get consistency with all stated physical constraints, a strong condition is imposed for regularizations which automatically eliminates the ambiguities associated to the routing of the internal lines momenta of loops. The conclusion is clean and sound: the association between ambiguities and unavoidable symmetry violations in Ward identities cannot be maintained if an unique recipe is required for identical situations in the evaluation of divergent physical amplitudes. (author)
Parekh, Ankit
Sparsity has become the basis of some important signal processing methods over the last ten years. Many signal processing problems (e.g., denoising, deconvolution, non-linear component analysis) can be expressed as inverse problems. Sparsity is invoked through the formulation of an inverse problem with suitably designed regularization terms. The regularization terms alone encode sparsity into the problem formulation. Often, the ℓ1 norm is used to induce sparsity, so much so that ℓ1 regularization is considered to be `modern least-squares'. The use of ℓ1 norm, as a sparsity-inducing regularizer, leads to a convex optimization problem, which has several benefits: the absence of extraneous local minima, well developed theory of globally convergent algorithms, even for large-scale problems. Convex regularization via the ℓ1 norm, however, tends to under-estimate the non-zero values of sparse signals. In order to estimate the non-zero values more accurately, non-convex regularization is often favored over convex regularization. However, non-convex regularization generally leads to non-convex optimization, which suffers from numerous issues: convergence may be guaranteed to only a stationary point, problem specific parameters may be difficult to set, and the solution is sensitive to the initialization of the algorithm. The first part of this thesis is aimed toward combining the benefits of non-convex regularization and convex optimization to estimate sparse signals more effectively. To this end, we propose to use parameterized non-convex regularizers with designated non-convexity and provide a range for the non-convex parameter so as to ensure that the objective function is strictly convex. By ensuring convexity of the objective function (sum of data-fidelity and non-convex regularizer), we can make use of a wide variety of convex optimization algorithms to obtain the unique global minimum reliably. The second part of this thesis proposes a non-linear signal
Sparsity regularization for parameter identification problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Bangti; Maass, Peter
2012-01-01
The investigation of regularization schemes with sparsity promoting penalty terms has been one of the dominant topics in the field of inverse problems over the last years, and Tikhonov functionals with ℓ p -penalty terms for 1 ⩽ p ⩽ 2 have been studied extensively. The first investigations focused on regularization properties of the minimizers of such functionals with linear operators and on iteration schemes for approximating the minimizers. These results were quickly transferred to nonlinear operator equations, including nonsmooth operators and more general function space settings. The latest results on regularization properties additionally assume a sparse representation of the true solution as well as generalized source conditions, which yield some surprising and optimal convergence rates. The regularization theory with ℓ p sparsity constraints is relatively complete in this setting; see the first part of this review. In contrast, the development of efficient numerical schemes for approximating minimizers of Tikhonov functionals with sparsity constraints for nonlinear operators is still ongoing. The basic iterated soft shrinkage approach has been extended in several directions and semi-smooth Newton methods are becoming applicable in this field. In particular, the extension to more general non-convex, non-differentiable functionals by variational principles leads to a variety of generalized iteration schemes. We focus on such iteration schemes in the second part of this review. A major part of this survey is devoted to applying sparsity constrained regularization techniques to parameter identification problems for partial differential equations, which we regard as the prototypical setting for nonlinear inverse problems. Parameter identification problems exhibit different levels of complexity and we aim at characterizing a hierarchy of such problems. The operator defining these inverse problems is the parameter-to-state mapping. We first summarize some
Learning Sparse Visual Representations with Leaky Capped Norm Regularizers
Wangni, Jianqiao; Lin, Dahua
2017-01-01
Sparsity inducing regularization is an important part for learning over-complete visual representations. Despite the popularity of $\\ell_1$ regularization, in this paper, we investigate the usage of non-convex regularizations in this problem. Our contribution consists of three parts. First, we propose the leaky capped norm regularization (LCNR), which allows model weights below a certain threshold to be regularized more strongly as opposed to those above, therefore imposes strong sparsity and...
Temporal regularity of the environment drives time perception
van Rijn, H; Rhodes, D; Di Luca, M
2016-01-01
It’s reasonable to assume that a regularly paced sequence should be perceived as regular, but here we show that perceived regularity depends on the context in which the sequence is embedded. We presented one group of participants with perceptually regularly paced sequences, and another group of participants with mostly irregularly paced sequences (75% irregular, 25% regular). The timing of the final stimulus in each sequence could be var- ied. In one experiment, we asked whether the last stim...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dustin Kai Yan Lau
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background Unlike alphabetic languages, Chinese uses a logographic script. However, the pronunciation of many character’s phonetic radical has the same pronunciation as the character as a whole. These are considered regular characters and can be read through a lexical non-semantic route (Weekes & Chen, 1999. Pseudocharacters are another way to study this non-semantic route. A pseudocharacter is the combination of existing semantic and phonetic radicals in their legal positions resulting in a non-existing character (Ho, Chan, Chung, Lee, & Tsang, 2007. Pseudocharacters can be pronounced by direct derivation from the sound of its phonetic radical. Conversely, if the pronunciation of a character does not follow that of the phonetic radical, it is considered as irregular and can only be correctly read through the lexical-semantic route. The aim of the current investigation was to examine reading aloud in normal adults. We hypothesized that the regularity effect, previously described for alphabetical scripts and acquired dyslexic patients of Chinese (Weekes & Chen, 1999; Wu, Liu, Sun, Chromik, & Zhang, 2014, would also be present in normal adult Chinese readers. Method Participants. Thirty (50% female native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers with a mean age of 19.6 years and a mean education of 12.9 years. Stimuli. Sixty regular-, 60 irregular-, and 60 pseudo-characters (with at least 75% of name agreement in Chinese were matched by initial phoneme, number of strokes and family size. Additionally, regular- and irregular-characters were matched by frequency (low and consistency. Procedure. Each participant was asked to read aloud the stimuli presented on a laptop using the DMDX software. The order of stimuli presentation was randomized. Data analysis. ANOVAs were carried out by participants and items with RTs and errors as dependent variables and type of stimuli (regular-, irregular- and pseudo-character as repeated measures (F1 or between subject
Regularized Biot-Savart Laws for Modeling Magnetic Flux Ropes
Titov, Viacheslav; Downs, Cooper; Mikic, Zoran; Torok, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.
2017-08-01
Many existing models assume that magnetic flux ropes play a key role in solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is therefore important to develop efficient methods for constructing flux-rope configurations constrained by observed magnetic data and the initial morphology of CMEs. As our new step in this direction, we have derived and implemented a compact analytical form that represents the magnetic field of a thin flux rope with an axis of arbitrary shape and a circular cross-section. This form implies that the flux rope carries axial current I and axial flux F, so that the respective magnetic field is a curl of the sum of toroidal and poloidal vector potentials proportional to I and F, respectively. The vector potentials are expressed in terms of Biot-Savart laws whose kernels are regularized at the rope axis. We regularized them in such a way that for a straight-line axis the form provides a cylindrical force-free flux rope with a parabolic profile of the axial current density. So far, we set the shape of the rope axis by tracking the polarity inversion lines of observed magnetograms and estimating its height and other parameters of the rope from a calculated potential field above these lines. In spite of this heuristic approach, we were able to successfully construct pre-eruption configurations for the 2009 February13 and 2011 October 1 CME events. These applications demonstrate that our regularized Biot-Savart laws are indeed a very flexible and efficient method for energizing initial configurations in MHD simulations of CMEs. We discuss possible ways of optimizing the axis paths and other extensions of the method in order to make it more useful and robust.Research supported by NSF, NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and AFOSR.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Frederic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla
2015-10-26
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
The use of regularization in inferential measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, J. Wesley; Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim; Uhrig, Robert E.
1999-01-01
Inferential sensing is the prediction of a plant variable through the use of correlated plant variables. A correct prediction of the variable can be used to monitor sensors for drift or other failures making periodic instrument calibrations unnecessary. This move from periodic to condition based maintenance can reduce costs and increase the reliability of the instrument. Having accurate, reliable measurements is important for signals that may impact safety or profitability. This paper investigates how collinearity adversely affects inferential sensing by making the results inconsistent and unrepeatable; and presents regularization as a potential solution (author) (ml)
Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Alejandro
2006-01-01
One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find
Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis
2010-01-01
In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...
New regularities in mass spectra of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajdalov, A.B.
1989-01-01
The properties of bosonic and baryonic Regge trajectories for hadrons composed of light quarks are considered. Experimental data agree with an existence of daughter trajectories consistent with string models. It is pointed out that the parity doubling for baryonic trajectories, observed experimentally, is not understood in the existing quark models. Mass spectrum of bosons and baryons indicates to an approximate supersymmetry in the mass region M>1 GeV. These regularities indicates to a high degree of symmetry for the dynamics in the confinement region. 8 refs.; 5 figs
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Bayesian regularization of diffusion tensor images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Jesper; Hobolth, Asger; Østergaard, Leif
2007-01-01
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fibre bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fibre orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along...... several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and thereby the diffusion tensors are subject to noise, leading to possibly flawed representations of the three dimensional fibre bundles. In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for regularizing the diffusion tensor field, fully utilizing...
Indefinite metric and regularization of electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaudin, M.
1984-06-01
The invariant regularization of Pauli and Villars in quantum electrodynamics can be considered as deriving from a local and causal lagrangian theory for spin 1/2 bosons, by introducing an indefinite metric and a condition on the allowed states similar to the Lorentz condition. The consequences are the asymptotic freedom of the photon's propagator. We present a calcultion of the effective charge to the fourth order in the coupling as a function of the auxiliary masses, the theory avoiding all mass divergencies to this order [fr
STRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVATION BY PRECISE QUADRATIC REGULARIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KOSOLAP A. I.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The problem of optimization of the structure of systems redundancy elements. Such problems arise in the design of complex systems. To improve the reliability of operation of such systems of its elements are duplicated. This increases system cost and improves its reliability. When optimizing these systems is maximized probability of failure of the entire system while limiting its cost or the cost is minimized for a given probability of failure-free operation. A mathematical model of the problem is a discrete backup multiextremal. To search for the global extremum of currently used methods of Lagrange multipliers, coordinate descent, dynamic programming, random search. These methods guarantee a just and local solutions are used in the backup tasks of small dimension. In the work for solving redundancy uses a new method for accurate quadratic regularization. This method allows you to convert the original discrete problem to the maximization of multi vector norm on a convex set. This means that the diversity of the tasks given to the problem of redundancy maximize vector norm on a convex set. To solve the problem, a reformed straightdual interior point methods. Currently, it is the best method for local optimization of nonlinear problems. Transformed the task includes a new auxiliary variable, which is determined by dichotomy. There have been numerous comparative numerical experiments in problems with the number of redundant subsystems to one hundred. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the method of precise quadratic regularization for solving problems of redundancy.
Emotion regulation deficits in regular marijuana users.
Zimmermann, Kaeli; Walz, Christina; Derckx, Raissa T; Kendrick, Keith M; Weber, Bernd; Dore, Bruce; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hurlemann, René; Becker, Benjamin
2017-08-01
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm. Relative to nonusing controls, marijuana users demonstrated increased neural activity in a bilateral frontal network comprising precentral, middle cingulate, and supplementary motor regions during reappraisal of negative affect (P marijuana users relative to controls. Together, the present findings could reflect an unsuccessful attempt of compensatory recruitment of additional neural resources in the context of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal interaction during volitional emotion regulation in marijuana users. As such, impaired volitional regulation of negative affect might represent a consequence of, or risk factor for, regular marijuana use. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4270-4279, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Efficient multidimensional regularization for Volterra series estimation
Birpoutsoukis, Georgios; Csurcsia, Péter Zoltán; Schoukens, Johan
2018-05-01
This paper presents an efficient nonparametric time domain nonlinear system identification method. It is shown how truncated Volterra series models can be efficiently estimated without the need of long, transient-free measurements. The method is a novel extension of the regularization methods that have been developed for impulse response estimates of linear time invariant systems. To avoid the excessive memory needs in case of long measurements or large number of estimated parameters, a practical gradient-based estimation method is also provided, leading to the same numerical results as the proposed Volterra estimation method. Moreover, the transient effects in the simulated output are removed by a special regularization method based on the novel ideas of transient removal for Linear Time-Varying (LTV) systems. Combining the proposed methodologies, the nonparametric Volterra models of the cascaded water tanks benchmark are presented in this paper. The results for different scenarios varying from a simple Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model to a 3rd degree Volterra series with and without transient removal are compared and studied. It is clear that the obtained models capture the system dynamics when tested on a validation dataset, and their performance is comparable with the white-box (physical) models.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2013-10-01
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities
Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David
2003-01-01
We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenfa Li
Full Text Available As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Multiview Hessian regularization for image annotation.
Liu, Weifeng; Tao, Dacheng
2013-07-01
The rapid development of computer hardware and Internet technology makes large scale data dependent models computationally tractable, and opens a bright avenue for annotating images through innovative machine learning algorithms. Semisupervised learning (SSL) therefore received intensive attention in recent years and was successfully deployed in image annotation. One representative work in SSL is Laplacian regularization (LR), which smoothes the conditional distribution for classification along the manifold encoded in the graph Laplacian, however, it is observed that LR biases the classification function toward a constant function that possibly results in poor generalization. In addition, LR is developed to handle uniformly distributed data (or single-view data), although instances or objects, such as images and videos, are usually represented by multiview features, such as color, shape, and texture. In this paper, we present multiview Hessian regularization (mHR) to address the above two problems in LR-based image annotation. In particular, mHR optimally combines multiple HR, each of which is obtained from a particular view of instances, and steers the classification function that varies linearly along the data manifold. We apply mHR to kernel least squares and support vector machines as two examples for image annotation. Extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC'07 dataset validate the effectiveness of mHR by comparing it with baseline algorithms, including LR and HR.
EIT image reconstruction with four dimensional regularization.
Dai, Tao; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Adler, Andy
2008-09-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructs internal impedance images of the body from electrical measurements on body surface. The temporal resolution of EIT data can be very high, although the spatial resolution of the images is relatively low. Most EIT reconstruction algorithms calculate images from data frames independently, although data are actually highly correlated especially in high speed EIT systems. This paper proposes a 4-D EIT image reconstruction for functional EIT. The new approach is developed to directly use prior models of the temporal correlations among images and 3-D spatial correlations among image elements. A fast algorithm is also developed to reconstruct the regularized images. Image reconstruction is posed in terms of an augmented image and measurement vector which are concatenated from a specific number of previous and future frames. The reconstruction is then based on an augmented regularization matrix which reflects the a priori constraints on temporal and 3-D spatial correlations of image elements. A temporal factor reflecting the relative strength of the image correlation is objectively calculated from measurement data. Results show that image reconstruction models which account for inter-element correlations, in both space and time, show improved resolution and noise performance, in comparison to simpler image models.
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.
2016-01-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2016-03-15
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair
2016-03-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.
The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mavrić Fahrudin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.
Laplacian embedded regression for scalable manifold regularization.
Chen, Lin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong
2012-06-01
Semi-supervised learning (SSL), as a powerful tool to learn from a limited number of labeled data and a large number of unlabeled data, has been attracting increasing attention in the machine learning community. In particular, the manifold regularization framework has laid solid theoretical foundations for a large family of SSL algorithms, such as Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS). However, most of these algorithms are limited to small scale problems due to the high computational cost of the matrix inversion operation involved in the optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Laplacian embedded regression by introducing an intermediate decision variable into the manifold regularization framework. By using ∈-insensitive loss, we obtain the Laplacian embedded support vector regression (LapESVR) algorithm, which inherits the sparse solution from SVR. Also, we derive Laplacian embedded RLS (LapERLS) corresponding to RLS under the proposed framework. Both LapESVR and LapERLS possess a simpler form of a transformed kernel, which is the summation of the original kernel and a graph kernel that captures the manifold structure. The benefits of the transformed kernel are two-fold: (1) we can deal with the original kernel matrix and the graph Laplacian matrix in the graph kernel separately and (2) if the graph Laplacian matrix is sparse, we only need to perform the inverse operation for a sparse matrix, which is much more efficient when compared with that for a dense one. Inspired by kernel principal component analysis, we further propose to project the introduced decision variable into a subspace spanned by a few eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix in order to better reflect the data manifold, as well as accelerate the calculation of the graph kernel, allowing our methods to efficiently and effectively cope with large scale SSL problems. Extensive experiments on both toy and real
Constrained least squares regularization in PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, K.R.; O'Sullivan, F.O.
1996-01-01
Standard reconstruction methods used in tomography produce images with undesirable negative artifacts in background and in areas of high local contrast. While sophisticated statistical reconstruction methods can be devised to correct for these artifacts, their computational implementation is excessive for routine operational use. This work describes a technique for rapid computation of approximate constrained least squares regularization estimates. The unique feature of the approach is that it involves no iterative projection or backprojection steps. This contrasts with the familiar computationally intensive algorithms based on algebraic reconstruction (ART) or expectation-maximization (EM) methods. Experimentation with the new approach for deconvolution and mixture analysis shows that the root mean square error quality of estimators based on the proposed algorithm matches and usually dominates that of more elaborate maximum likelihood, at a fraction of the computational effort
Regularities of radiorace formation in yeasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korogodin, V.I.; Bliznik, K.M.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.; Petin, V.G.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel'skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)
1977-01-01
Two strains of diploid yeast, namely, Saccharomyces ellipsoides, Megri 139-B, isolated under natural conditions, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5a x 3Bα, heterozygous by genes ade 1 and ade 2, were exposed to γ-quanta of Co 60 . The content of cells-saltants forming colonies with changed morphology, that of the nonviable cells, cells that are respiration mutants, and cells-recombinants by gene ade 1 and ade 2, has been determined. A certain regularity has been revealed in the distribution among the colonies of cells of the four types mentioned above: the higher the content of cells of some one of the types, the higher that of the cells having other hereditary changes
Regularization destriping of remote sensing imagery
Basnayake, Ranil; Bollt, Erik; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Sun, Jie; Gierach, Michelle
2017-07-01
We illustrate the utility of variational destriping for ocean color images from both multispectral and hyperspectral sensors. In particular, we examine data from a filter spectrometer, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) orbiter, and an airborne grating spectrometer, the Jet Population Laboratory's (JPL) hyperspectral Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) sensor. We solve the destriping problem using a variational regularization method by giving weights spatially to preserve the other features of the image during the destriping process. The target functional penalizes the neighborhood of stripes (strictly, directionally uniform features) while promoting data fidelity, and the functional is minimized by solving the Euler-Lagrange equations with an explicit finite-difference scheme. We show the accuracy of our method from a benchmark data set which represents the sea surface temperature off the coast of Oregon, USA. Technical details, such as how to impose continuity across data gaps using inpainting, are also described.
The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns
Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo
2010-02-01
A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.
Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately
Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse
2013-01-01
We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k ... and not requiring it to be stored at all. Previous RE parsing algorithms do not scale linearly with input size, or require substantially more log storage and employ 3 passes where the first consists of reversing the input, or do not or are not known to produce a greedy parse. The performance of our unoptimized C...
Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.
Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen
2017-03-01
In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.
Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations
Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.
2014-12-01
We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.
24 CFR 982.518 - Regular tenancy: How to calculate housing assistance payment.
2010-04-01
... housing assistance payment. 982.518 Section 982.518 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.518 Regular tenancy: How to calculate housing assistance...
24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.
2010-04-01
... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... assistance payment. (For a voucher tenancy, the housing assistance payment shall be calculated in accordance... the housing assistance payment resulting from an interim redetermination. (2) At the effective date of...
24 CFR 982.519 - Regular tenancy: Annual adjustment of rent to owner.
2010-04-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.519 Regular tenancy: Annual adjustment of rent to owner. (a... rent to owner will only be increased for housing assistance payments covering months commencing on the...
Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport
Burger, M.; Franek, M.; Schonlieb, C.-B.
2012-01-01
for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations
Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souopgui, Innocent, E-mail: innocent.souopgui@usm.edu [The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science (United States); Ngodock, Hans E., E-mail: hans.ngodock@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Vidard, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.vidard@imag.fr; Le Dimet, François-Xavier, E-mail: ledimet@imag.fr [Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann (France)
2016-10-15
This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.
Dimensional regularization and analytical continuation at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiangjun; Liu Lianshou
1998-01-01
The relationship between dimensional regularization and analytical continuation of infrared divergent integrals at finite temperature is discussed and a method of regularization of infrared divergent integrals and infrared divergent sums is given
Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation
Ballal, Tarig; Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded
Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces
K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.
Exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities from regular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...
39 CFR 6.1 - Regular meetings, annual meeting.
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular meetings, annual meeting. 6.1 Section 6.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.1 Regular meetings, annual meeting. The Board shall meet regularly on a schedule...
Recognition Memory for Novel Stimuli: The Structural Regularity Hypothesis
Cleary, Anne M.; Morris, Alison L.; Langley, Moses M.
2007-01-01
Early studies of human memory suggest that adherence to a known structural regularity (e.g., orthographic regularity) benefits memory for an otherwise novel stimulus (e.g., G. A. Miller, 1958). However, a more recent study suggests that structural regularity can lead to an increase in false-positive responses on recognition memory tests (B. W. A.…
5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...
20 CFR 226.35 - Deductions from regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions from regular annuity rate. 226.35... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.35 Deductions from regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of the spouse and divorced...
20 CFR 226.34 - Divorced spouse regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. 226.34... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.34 Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of a divorced spouse is equal to...
20 CFR 226.14 - Employee regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee regular annuity rate. 226.14 Section... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.14 Employee regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate payable to the employee is the total of the employee tier I...
Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-08-15
We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)
On the regularized fermionic projector of the vacuum
Finster, Felix
2008-03-01
We construct families of fermionic projectors with spherically symmetric regularization, which satisfy the condition of a distributional MP-product. The method is to analyze regularization tails with a power law or logarithmic scaling in composite expressions in the fermionic projector. The resulting regularizations break the Lorentz symmetry and give rise to a multilayer structure of the fermionic projector near the light cone. Furthermore, we construct regularizations which go beyond the distributional MP-product in that they yield additional distributional contributions supported at the origin. The remaining freedom for the regularization parameters and the consequences for the normalization of the fermionic states are discussed.
On the regularized fermionic projector of the vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix
2008-01-01
We construct families of fermionic projectors with spherically symmetric regularization, which satisfy the condition of a distributional MP-product. The method is to analyze regularization tails with a power law or logarithmic scaling in composite expressions in the fermionic projector. The resulting regularizations break the Lorentz symmetry and give rise to a multilayer structure of the fermionic projector near the light cone. Furthermore, we construct regularizations which go beyond the distributional MP-product in that they yield additional distributional contributions supported at the origin. The remaining freedom for the regularization parameters and the consequences for the normalization of the fermionic states are discussed
MRI reconstruction with joint global regularization and transform learning.
Tanc, A Korhan; Eksioglu, Ender M
2016-10-01
Sparsity based regularization has been a popular approach to remedy the measurement scarcity in image reconstruction. Recently, sparsifying transforms learned from image patches have been utilized as an effective regularizer for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction. Here, we infuse additional global regularization terms to the patch-based transform learning. We develop an algorithm to solve the resulting novel cost function, which includes both patchwise and global regularization terms. Extensive simulation results indicate that the introduced mixed approach has improved MRI reconstruction performance, when compared to the algorithms which use either of the patchwise transform learning or global regularization terms alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
2016-12-02
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
Regularization of the Coulomb scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshevskii, V.G.; Feranchuk, I.D.; Kats, P.B.
2004-01-01
The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb potential is used within the scope of both stationary and time-dependent scattering theories in order to find the parameters which determine the regularization of the Rutherford cross section when the scattering angle tends to zero but the distance r from the center remains finite. The angular distribution of the particles scattered in the Coulomb field is studied on rather a large but finite distance r from the center. It is shown that the standard asymptotic representation of the wave functions is inapplicable in the case when small scattering angles are considered. The unitary property of the scattering matrix is analyzed and the 'optical' theorem for this case is discussed. The total and transport cross sections for scattering the particle by the Coulomb center proved to be finite values and are calculated in the analytical form. It is shown that the effects under consideration can be important for the observed characteristics of the transport processes in semiconductors which are determined by the electron and hole scattering by the field of charged impurity centers
Color correction optimization with hue regularization
Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue
2011-01-01
Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.
Wave dynamics of regular and chaotic rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, S.W.
1983-09-01
In order to investigate general relationships between waves and rays in chaotic systems, I study the eigenfunctions and spectrum of a simple model, the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a stadium boundary, for which the rays are ergodic. Statistical measurements are performed so that the apparent randomness of the stadium modes can be quantitatively contrasted with the familiar regularities observed for the modes in a circular boundary (with integrable rays). The local spatial autocorrelation of the eigenfunctions is constructed in order to indirectly test theoretical predictions for the nature of the Wigner distribution corresponding to chaotic waves. A portion of the large-eigenvalue spectrum is computed and reported in an appendix; the probability distribution of successive level spacings is analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The two principal conclusions are: 1) waves associated with chaotic rays may exhibit randomly situated localized regions of high intensity; 2) the Wigner function for these waves may depart significantly from being uniformly distributed over the surface of constant frequency in the ray phase space
Regularities and irregularities in order flow data
Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas
2017-11-01
We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.
Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.
1989-01-01
Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)
Regularities of praseodymium oxide dissolution in acids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savin, V.D.; Elyutin, A.V.; Mikhajlova, N.P.; Eremenko, Z.V.; Opolchenova, N.L.
1989-01-01
The regularities of Pr 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 5 and Pr(OH) 3 interaction with inorganic acids are studied. pH of the solution and oxidation-reduction potential registrated at 20±1 deg C are the working parameters of studies. It is found that the amount of all oxides dissolved increase in the series of acids - nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric, in this case for hydrochloric and sulfuric acid it increases in the series of oxides Pr 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 5 and Pr(OH) 3 . It is noted that Pr 2 O 5 has a high value of oxidation-reduction potential with a positive sign in the whole disslolving range. A low positive value of a redox potential during dissolving belongs to Pr(OH) 3 and in the case of Pr 2 O 3 dissloving redox potential is negative. The schemes of dissolving processes which do not agree with classical assumptions are presented
Sparsity-regularized HMAX for visual recognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolin Hu
Full Text Available About ten years ago, HMAX was proposed as a simple and biologically feasible model for object recognition, based on how the visual cortex processes information. However, the model does not encompass sparse firing, which is a hallmark of neurons at all stages of the visual pathway. The current paper presents an improved model, called sparse HMAX, which integrates sparse firing. This model is able to learn higher-level features of objects on unlabeled training images. Unlike most other deep learning models that explicitly address global structure of images in every layer, sparse HMAX addresses local to global structure gradually along the hierarchy by applying patch-based learning to the output of the previous layer. As a consequence, the learning method can be standard sparse coding (SSC or independent component analysis (ICA, two techniques deeply rooted in neuroscience. What makes SSC and ICA applicable at higher levels is the introduction of linear higher-order statistical regularities by max pooling. After training, high-level units display sparse, invariant selectivity for particular individuals or for image categories like those observed in human inferior temporal cortex (ITC and medial temporal lobe (MTL. Finally, on an image classification benchmark, sparse HMAX outperforms the original HMAX by a large margin, suggesting its great potential for computer vision.
Quantum implications of a scale invariant regularization
Ghilencea, D. M.
2018-04-01
We study scale invariance at the quantum level in a perturbative approach. For a scale-invariant classical theory, the scalar potential is computed at a three-loop level while keeping manifest this symmetry. Spontaneous scale symmetry breaking is transmitted at a quantum level to the visible sector (of ϕ ) by the associated Goldstone mode (dilaton σ ), which enables a scale-invariant regularization and whose vacuum expectation value ⟨σ ⟩ generates the subtraction scale (μ ). While the hidden (σ ) and visible sector (ϕ ) are classically decoupled in d =4 due to an enhanced Poincaré symmetry, they interact through (a series of) evanescent couplings ∝ɛ , dictated by the scale invariance of the action in d =4 -2 ɛ . At the quantum level, these couplings generate new corrections to the potential, as scale-invariant nonpolynomial effective operators ϕ2 n +4/σ2 n. These are comparable in size to "standard" loop corrections and are important for values of ϕ close to ⟨σ ⟩. For n =1 , 2, the beta functions of their coefficient are computed at three loops. In the IR limit, dilaton fluctuations decouple, the effective operators are suppressed by large ⟨σ ⟩, and the effective potential becomes that of a renormalizable theory with explicit scale symmetry breaking by the DR scheme (of μ =constant).
Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.
[Fall risk assessment in regular exercising elderly women].
Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Kawashima, Yumiko; Iwata, Akiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Igata, Akihiro; Toba, Kenji
2008-09-01
Fall prevention is important for elderly people to maintain their functional independence. We made a longitudinal fall-risk assessment using our "Fall-predicting score" of women who are 60 years or older and who exercised regularly. We sent "fall-predicting questionnaires" to 632 elderly women aged 60 years or older (mean 65.0+/-4.3), members of "Miishima gymnastics program", and asked about their fall history of falling in the past year in 2004 and 2005. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the future risk factor of falling in 2005. The number of people who fell was 134 (21.2%) in 2004 and 121 (19.1%) in 2005. The number of people who fell decreased in the seventh decade, but increased in the eighth decade, and members for 6-10 years showed most decreased fall rates. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, falls in 2004, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", and "walk steep slope around the house" were significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005". Logistic regression analysis of non-fallers in 2004 showed that age and "tripping" were the significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005", and the analysis of people who fell in 2004 showed that age, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", "walk steep slope around the house", and "taking more than 5 medicines" were significant independent risk factors for falls in 2005. In regular exercising elderly women, exercise appears to prevent falls in people in the seventh decade and in the members of 6-10 years. Age, past history of falls, and fall-predicting questionnaire were important risk predictors of future falls.
TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crotts, Arlin P. S.
2009-01-01
Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.
Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trell, Erik
2008-01-01
The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each
Teachers' Views about the Education of Gifted Students in Regular Classrooms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neşe Kutlu Abu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate classroom teachers’ views about the education of gifted students in regular classrooms. The sample of the study is composed of ten primary school teachers working in the city of Amasya and had gifted students in their classes. In the present study, phenomenological research design was used. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed descriptively in the QSR N-Vivo package program. The findings showed that teachers did not believe a need for differentiating curriculum for gifted students; rather they expressed that regular curriculum was enough for gifted students. Based on the findings, it is clear that teachers need training both on the need of differentiated education for gifted students and strategies and approaches about how to educate gifted students. Teachers’ attitudes towards gifted students in regular classrooms should be investigated so that teachers’ unsupportive beliefs about differentiation for gifted students also influence their attitudes towards gifted students.
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James
2010-01-01
Using Danish register and survey data, we examine the effect of a national graded return-to-work program on the probability of sick-listed workers returning to regular working hours. During program participation, the sick-listed worker works fewer hours and receives the normal hourly wage for the hours worked and sickness benefit for the hours off work. When the worker's health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Taking account of unobserved differences between program participants and non-participants, we find that participation in the program significantly increases the probability of returning to regular working hours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.
2009-01-01
We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…
Regularization of plurisubharmonic functions with a net of good points
Li, Long
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article is to present a new regularization technique of quasi-plurisubharmoinc functions on a compact Kaehler manifold. The idea is to regularize the function on local coordinate balls first, and then glue each piece together. Therefore, all the higher order terms in the complex Hessian of this regularization vanish at the center of each coordinate ball, and all the centers build a delta-net of the manifold eventually.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Kai Johannes
2010-04-01
The present work contains a consistent formulation of the methods of dimensional regularization (DimReg) and minimal subtraction (MS) in Minkowski position space. The methods are implemented into the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT). The developed methods are used to solve the Epstein-Glaser recursion for the construction of time-ordered products in all orders of causal perturbation theory. A solution is given in terms of a forest formula in the sense of Zimmermann. A relation to the alternative approach to renormalization theory using Hopf algebras is established. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keller, Kai Johannes
2010-04-15
The present work contains a consistent formulation of the methods of dimensional regularization (DimReg) and minimal subtraction (MS) in Minkowski position space. The methods are implemented into the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT). The developed methods are used to solve the Epstein-Glaser recursion for the construction of time-ordered products in all orders of causal perturbation theory. A solution is given in terms of a forest formula in the sense of Zimmermann. A relation to the alternative approach to renormalization theory using Hopf algebras is established. (orig.)
Higher order total variation regularization for EIT reconstruction.
Gong, Bo; Schullcke, Benjamin; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Zhang, Fan; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut
2018-01-08
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) attempts to reveal the conductivity distribution of a domain based on the electrical boundary condition. This is an ill-posed inverse problem; its solution is very unstable. Total variation (TV) regularization is one of the techniques commonly employed to stabilize reconstructions. However, it is well known that TV regularization induces staircase effects, which are not realistic in clinical applications. To reduce such artifacts, modified TV regularization terms considering a higher order differential operator were developed in several previous studies. One of them is called total generalized variation (TGV) regularization. TGV regularization has been successively applied in image processing in a regular grid context. In this study, we adapted TGV regularization to the finite element model (FEM) framework for EIT reconstruction. Reconstructions using simulation and clinical data were performed. First results indicate that, in comparison to TV regularization, TGV regularization promotes more realistic images. Graphical abstract Reconstructed conductivity changes located on selected vertical lines. For each of the reconstructed images as well as the ground truth image, conductivity changes located along the selected left and right vertical lines are plotted. In these plots, the notation GT in the legend stands for ground truth, TV stands for total variation method, and TGV stands for total generalized variation method. Reconstructed conductivity distributions from the GREIT algorithm are also demonstrated.
Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Needleman Herbert
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.
Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA.
Seligmann, Hervé
2016-01-01
Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200 × rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000). Among 186 peptides with > 8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.
Tur\\'an type inequalities for regular Coulomb wave functions
Baricz, Árpád
2015-01-01
Tur\\'an, Mitrinovi\\'c-Adamovi\\'c and Wilker type inequalities are deduced for regular Coulomb wave functions. The proofs are based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion for the regular Coulomb wave function, which may be of independent interest. Moreover, some complete monotonicity results concerning the Coulomb zeta functions and some interlacing properties of the zeros of Coulomb wave functions are given.
Regularization and Complexity Control in Feed-forward Networks
Bishop, C. M.
1995-01-01
In this paper we consider four alternative approaches to complexity control in feed-forward networks based respectively on architecture selection, regularization, early stopping, and training with noise. We show that there are close similarities between these approaches and we argue that, for most practical applications, the technique of regularization should be the method of choice.
Optimal Embeddings of Distance Regular Graphs into Euclidean Spaces
F. Vallentin (Frank)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper we give a lower bound for the least distortion embedding of a distance regular graph into Euclidean space. We use the lower bound for finding the least distortion for Hamming graphs, Johnson graphs, and all strongly regular graphs. Our technique involves semidefinite
Degree-regular triangulations of torus and Klein bottle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. ... In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices.
Adaptive Regularization of Neural Networks Using Conjugate Gradient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
1998-01-01
Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique........ Numerical experiments with feedforward neural networks successfully demonstrate improved generalization ability and lower computational cost...
Strictly-regular number system and data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...
Inclusion Professional Development Model and Regular Middle School Educators
Royster, Otelia; Reglin, Gary L.; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a professional development model on regular education middle school teachers' knowledge of best practices for teaching inclusive classes and attitudes toward teaching these classes. There were 19 regular education teachers who taught the core subjects. Findings for Research Question 1…
The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars
Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.
It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular
The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels
Kirandi, Ozlem
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…
Regular perturbations in a vector space with indefinite metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiang, C.C.
1975-08-01
The Klein space is discussed in connection with practical applications. Some lemmas are presented which are to be used for the discussion of regular self-adjoint operators. The criteria for the regularity of perturbed operators are given. (U.S.)
Pairing renormalization and regularization within the local density approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borycki, P.J.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.V.
2006-01-01
We discuss methods used in mean-field theories to treat pairing correlations within the local density approximation. Pairing renormalization and regularization procedures are compared in spherical and deformed nuclei. Both prescriptions give fairly similar results, although the theoretical motivation, simplicity, and stability of the regularization procedure make it a method of choice for future applications
Cognitive Aspects of Regularity Exhibit When Neighborhood Disappears
Chen, Sau-Chin; Hu, Jon-Fan
2015-01-01
Although regularity refers to the compatibility between pronunciation of character and sound of phonetic component, it has been suggested as being part of consistency, which is defined by neighborhood characteristics. Two experiments demonstrate how regularity effect is amplified or reduced by neighborhood characteristics and reveals the…
Regularity conditions of the field on a toroidal magnetic surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouligand, M.
1985-06-01
We show that a field B vector which is derived from an analytic canonical potential on an ordinary toroidal surface is regular on this surface when the potential satisfies an elliptic equation (owing to the conservative field) subject to certain conditions of regularity of its coefficients [fr
Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations, 2
Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.
1989-01-01
A practically important regularization of the Navier-Stokes equations was analyzed. As a continuation of the previous work, the structure of the attractors characterizing the solutins was studied. Local as well as global invariant manifolds were found. Regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.
20 CFR 226.33 - Spouse regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse regular annuity rate. 226.33 Section... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.33 Spouse regular annuity rate. The final tier I and tier II rates, from §§ 226.30 and 226.32, are...
On regular coderivatives in parametric equilibria with non-unique multipliers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Henrion, R.; Outrata, Jiří; Surowiec, T.
2012-01-01
Roč. 136, č. 1 (2012), s. 111-131 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Parameterized generalized equation * Regular and limiting coderivative * Constant rank CQ * Mathematical program with equilibrium constraint Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.090, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/outrata-0384691.pdf
Learning SAS’s Perl Regular Expression Matching the Easy Way: By Doing
2015-01-12
Doing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Paul Genovesi 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...regex_learning_tool allows both beginner and expert to efficiently practice PRX matching by selecting and processing only the match records that the user is interested...perl regular expression and/or source string. The regex_learning_tool allows both beginner and expert to efficiently practice PRX matching by
Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization.
Jung, Sunho; Park, JaeHong
2018-01-01
Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc), designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.
Optimal behaviour can violate the principle of regularity.
Trimmer, Pete C
2013-07-22
Understanding decisions is a fundamental aim of behavioural ecology, psychology and economics. The regularity axiom of utility theory holds that a preference between options should be maintained when other options are made available. Empirical studies have shown that animals violate regularity but this has not been understood from a theoretical perspective, such decisions have therefore been labelled as irrational. Here, I use models of state-dependent behaviour to demonstrate that choices can violate regularity even when behavioural strategies are optimal. I also show that the range of conditions over which regularity should be violated can be larger when options do not always persist into the future. Consequently, utility theory--based on axioms, including transitivity, regularity and the independence of irrelevant alternatives--is undermined, because even alternatives that are never chosen by an animal (in its current state) can be relevant to a decision.
Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport
Burger, M.
2012-03-11
The aim of this paper is to investigate a novel nonparametric approach for estimating and smoothing density functions as well as probability densities from discrete samples based on a variational regularization method with the Wasserstein metric as a data fidelity. The approach allows a unified treatment of discrete and continuous probability measures and is hence attractive for various tasks. In particular, the variational model for special regularization functionals yields a natural method for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations and provide a detailed analysis. Moreover, we compute special self-similar solutions for standard regularization functionals and we discuss several computational approaches and results. © 2012 The Author(s).
Laplacian manifold regularization method for fluorescence molecular tomography
He, Xuelei; Wang, Xiaodong; Yi, Huangjian; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Jingjing; He, Xiaowei
2017-04-01
Sparse regularization methods have been widely used in fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) for stable three-dimensional reconstruction. Generally, ℓ1-regularization-based methods allow for utilizing the sparsity nature of the target distribution. However, in addition to sparsity, the spatial structure information should be exploited as well. A joint ℓ1 and Laplacian manifold regularization model is proposed to improve the reconstruction performance, and two algorithms (with and without Barzilai-Borwein strategy) are presented to solve the regularization model. Numerical studies and in vivo experiment demonstrate that the proposed Gradient projection-resolved Laplacian manifold regularization method for the joint model performed better than the comparative algorithm for ℓ1 minimization method in both spatial aggregation and location accuracy.
Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.
Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko
2017-08-22
While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and
Cai, Ailong; Li, Lei; Zheng, Zhizhong; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan; Hu, Guoen; Yan, Bin
2018-02-01
In medical imaging many conventional regularization methods, such as total variation or total generalized variation, impose strong prior assumptions which can only account for very limited classes of images. A more reasonable sparse representation frame for images is still badly needed. Visually understandable images contain meaningful patterns, and combinations or collections of these patterns can be utilized to form some sparse and redundant representations which promise to facilitate image reconstructions. In this work, we propose and study block matching sparsity regularization (BMSR) and devise an optimization program using BMSR for computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction for an incomplete projection set. The program is built as a constrained optimization, minimizing the L1-norm of the coefficients of the image in the transformed domain subject to data observation and positivity of the image itself. To solve the program efficiently, a practical method based on the proximal point algorithm is developed and analyzed. In order to accelerate the convergence rate, a practical strategy for tuning the BMSR parameter is proposed and applied. The experimental results for various settings, including real CT scanning, have verified the proposed reconstruction method showing promising capabilities over conventional regularization.
Three regularities of recognition memory: the role of bias.
Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence T; Glanzer, Murray; Kim, Kisok
2015-12-01
A basic assumption of Signal Detection Theory is that decisions are made on the basis of likelihood ratios. In a preceding paper, Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 431-455, 2009) showed that the likelihood ratio assumption implies that three regularities will occur in recognition memory: (1) the Mirror Effect, (2) the Variance Effect, (3) the normalized Receiver Operating Characteristic (z-ROC) Length Effect. The paper offered formal proofs and computational demonstrations that decisions based on likelihood ratios produce the three regularities. A survey of data based on group ROCs from 36 studies validated the likelihood ratio assumption by showing that its three implied regularities are ubiquitous. The study noted, however, that bias, another basic factor in Signal Detection Theory, can obscure the Mirror Effect. In this paper we examine how bias affects the regularities at the theoretical level. The theoretical analysis shows: (1) how bias obscures the Mirror Effect, not the other two regularities, and (2) four ways to counter that obscuring. We then report the results of five experiments that support the theoretical analysis. The analyses and the experimental results also demonstrate: (1) that the three regularities govern individual, as well as group, performance, (2) alternative explanations of the regularities are ruled out, and (3) that Signal Detection Theory, correctly applied, gives a simple and unified explanation of recognition memory data.
Learning regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Julianne; Español, Malena I
2017-01-01
Computing regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov regularization can be an expensive and difficult task, especially if multiple parameters or many solutions need to be computed in real time. In this work, we assume training data is available and describe an efficient learning approach for computing regularization parameters that can be used for a large set of problems. We consider an empirical Bayes risk minimization framework for finding regularization parameters that minimize average errors for the training data. We first extend methods from Chung et al (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 3132–52) to the general-form Tikhonov problem. Then we develop a learning approach for multi-parameter Tikhonov problems, for the case where all involved matrices are simultaneously diagonalizable. For problems where this is not the case, we describe an approach to compute near-optimal regularization parameters by using operator approximations for the original problem. Finally, we propose a new class of regularizing filters, where solutions correspond to multi-parameter Tikhonov solutions, that requires less data than previously proposed optimal error filters, avoids the generalized SVD, and allows flexibility and novelty in the choice of regularization matrices. Numerical results for 1D and 2D examples using different norms on the errors show the effectiveness of our methods. (paper)
Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.
Attitude of Regular and Itinerant Teachers Towards the Inclusion of Hearing Impairment Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamal Parhoon
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Inclusive education is a process of enabling all children to learn and participate effectively within mainstream school systems. It does not segregate children who have different abilities or needs. This article explores the attitudes of regular and itinerant teachers about inclusion of hearing impairment children in their schools in general education. Methods: In a descriptive Survey research design, the sample included 100 teachers (50 regular and 50 itinerant who were selected randomly, according to a multistage sampling method. Data was collected by using questionnaire with 32 questions regarding their attitudes. One-way Analysis of Variance and t-test were performed to obtain between- group comparisons. Results: The results indicated that the teacher's positive attitudes towards inclusive educational system of students with hearing impairment. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teaching experience, gender, level of teaching. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in their classrooms. Discussion: successful inclusion for hearing impairment children in regular classrooms entails the positive attitudes of Regular and itinerant teachers through a systematic programming within the classroom.
Using the laws and the regularities of public administration in the state strategic planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. L. Yevmieshkina
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The article researches the use of laws of public administration in the state strategic planning; defined a methodological basis of state strategic planning. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws and regularities. Author established the use of public administration laws as: unity socio-economic system, required diversity, system integrity, unity techniques and basic functions of social management at all levels of public administration: central, sectorial, regional. At the public administration level this laws as a rule us in working and realization of state strategy, state, region and sectorial program, which directed to improve of political, economic and social process. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws. The law in our research is considered as objective, substantive, necessary, sustainable relationship between events. The most essential feature of law is reflecting the objective state of affairs, objective relations between things, items and phenomenon’s. The other difficult sign of law is necessity as relation, which inevitably revealed in the development process of different things. Law category with regularity category is relation. Regularity is wider category then the law. The state strategic planning is an integrated, systematic process due to the action and use laws and regularities of public administration. That improves the efficiency of public administration.
Closedness type regularity conditions in convex optimization and beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin-Mihai Grad
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The closedness type regularity conditions have proven during the last decade to be viable alternatives to their more restrictive interiority type counterparts, in both convex optimization and different areas where it was successfully applied. In this review article we de- and reconstruct some closedness type regularity conditions formulated by means of epigraphs and subdifferentials, respectively, for general optimization problems in order to stress that they arise naturally when dealing with such problems. The results are then specialized for constrained and unconstrained convex optimization problems. We also hint towards other classes of optimization problems where closedness type regularity conditions were successfully employed and discuss other possible applications of them.
Capped Lp approximations for the composite L0 regularization problem
Li, Qia; Zhang, Na
2017-01-01
The composite L0 function serves as a sparse regularizer in many applications. The algorithmic difficulty caused by the composite L0 regularization (the L0 norm composed with a linear mapping) is usually bypassed through approximating the L0 norm. We consider in this paper capped Lp approximations with $p>0$ for the composite L0 regularization problem. For each $p>0$, the capped Lp function converges to the L0 norm pointwisely as the approximation parameter tends to infinity. We point out tha...
Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels.
Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin
2016-05-01
The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks.
Likelihood ratio decisions in memory: three implied regularities.
Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence T
2009-06-01
We analyze four general signal detection models for recognition memory that differ in their distributional assumptions. Our analyses show that a basic assumption of signal detection theory, the likelihood ratio decision axis, implies three regularities in recognition memory: (1) the mirror effect, (2) the variance effect, and (3) the z-ROC length effect. For each model, we present the equations that produce the three regularities and show, in computed examples, how they do so. We then show that the regularities appear in data from a range of recognition studies. The analyses and data in our study support the following generalization: Individuals make efficient recognition decisions on the basis of likelihood ratios.
Fluctuations of quantum fields via zeta function regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio; Elizalde, Emilio
2002-01-01
Explicit expressions for the expectation values and the variances of some observables, which are bilinear quantities in the quantum fields on a D-dimensional manifold, are derived making use of zeta function regularization. It is found that the variance, related to the second functional variation of the effective action, requires a further regularization and that the relative regularized variance turns out to be 2/N, where N is the number of the fields, thus being independent of the dimension D. Some illustrating examples are worked through. The issue of the stress tensor is also briefly addressed
Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.
Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.
Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics
Lu, Shuai
2013-01-01
Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs
On the theory of drainage area for regular and non-regular points
Bonetti, S.; Bragg, A. D.; Porporato, A.
2018-03-01
The drainage area is an important, non-local property of a landscape, which controls surface and subsurface hydrological fluxes. Its role in numerous ecohydrological and geomorphological applications has given rise to several numerical methods for its computation. However, its theoretical analysis has lagged behind. Only recently, an analytical definition for the specific catchment area was proposed (Gallant & Hutchinson. 2011 Water Resour. Res. 47, W05535. (doi:10.1029/2009WR008540)), with the derivation of a differential equation whose validity is limited to regular points of the watershed. Here, we show that such a differential equation can be derived from a continuity equation (Chen et al. 2014 Geomorphology 219, 68-86. (doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.04.037)) and extend the theory to critical and singular points both by applying Gauss's theorem and by means of a dynamical systems approach to define basins of attraction of local surface minima. Simple analytical examples as well as applications to more complex topographic surfaces are examined. The theoretical description of topographic features and properties, such as the drainage area, channel lines and watershed divides, can be broadly adopted to develop and test the numerical algorithms currently used in digital terrain analysis for the computation of the drainage area, as well as for the theoretical analysis of landscape evolution and stability.
Regularized multivariate regression models with skew-t error distributions
Chen, Lianfu; Pourahmadi, Mohsen; Maadooliat, Mehdi
2014-01-01
We consider regularization of the parameters in multivariate linear regression models with the errors having a multivariate skew-t distribution. An iterative penalized likelihood procedure is proposed for constructing sparse estimators of both
A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhangsong Yao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.
Anaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus attending regular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Anaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus attending regular Diabetic ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... some patients may omit important food items in their daily diet for fear of increasing their blood sugar level.
Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.
A new approach to nonlinear constrained Tikhonov regularization
Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti
2011-01-01
operator. The approach is exploited to derive convergence rate results for a priori as well as a posteriori choice rules, e.g., discrepancy principle and balancing principle, for selecting the regularization parameter. The idea is further illustrated on a
Supporting primary school teachers in differentiating in the regular classroom
Eysink, Tessa H.S.; Hulsbeek, Manon; Gijlers, Hannie
Many primary school teachers experience difficulties in effectively differentiating in the regular classroom. This study investigated the effect of the STIP-approach on teachers' differentiation activities and self-efficacy, and children's learning outcomes and instructional value. Teachers using
Lavrentiev regularization method for nonlinear ill-posed problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinh, Nguyen Van
2002-10-01
In this paper we shall be concerned with Lavientiev regularization method to reconstruct solutions x 0 of non ill-posed problems F(x)=y o , where instead of y 0 noisy data y δ is an element of X with absolut(y δ -y 0 ) ≤ δ are given and F:X→X is an accretive nonlinear operator from a real reflexive Banach space X into itself. In this regularization method solutions x α δ are obtained by solving the singularly perturbed nonlinear operator equation F(x)+α(x-x*)=y δ with some initial guess x*. Assuming certain conditions concerning the operator F and the smoothness of the element x*-x 0 we derive stability estimates which show that the accuracy of the regularized solutions is order optimal provided that the regularization parameter α has been chosen properly. (author)
Regularized plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration
Wang, Xin; Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.
2013-01-01
A Kirchhoff least-squares migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images. A regularization term is included that accounts for mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity
Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization
Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dongming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter
2015-01-01
plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing
Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table
Viscous Regularization of the Euler Equations and Entropy Principles
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2014-03-11
This paper investigates a general class of viscous regularizations of the compressible Euler equations. A unique regularization is identified that is compatible with all the generalized entropies, à la [Harten et al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 35 (1998), pp. 2117-2127], and satisfies the minimum entropy principle. A connection with a recently proposed phenomenological model by [H. Brenner, Phys. A, 370 (2006), pp. 190-224] is made. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Dimensional versus lattice regularization within Luescher's Yang Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diekmann, B.; Langer, M.; Schuette, D.
1993-01-01
It is pointed out that the coefficients of Luescher's effective model space Hamiltonian, which is based upon dimensional regularization techniques, can be reproduced by applying folded diagram perturbation theory to the Kogut Susskind Hamiltonian and by performing a lattice continuum limit (keeping the volume fixed). Alternative cutoff regularizations of the Hamiltonian are in general inconsistent, the critical point beeing the correct prediction for Luescher's tadpole coefficient which is formally quadratically divergent and which has to become a well defined (negative) number. (orig.)
Left regular bands of groups of left quotients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Qallali, A.
1988-10-01
A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs
Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.
Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki
2010-06-01
For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential
Estimation of the global regularity of a multifractional Brownian motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebovits, Joachim; Podolskij, Mark
This paper presents a new estimator of the global regularity index of a multifractional Brownian motion. Our estimation method is based upon a ratio statistic, which compares the realized global quadratic variation of a multifractional Brownian motion at two different frequencies. We show that a ...... that a logarithmic transformation of this statistic converges in probability to the minimum of the Hurst functional parameter, which is, under weak assumptions, identical to the global regularity index of the path....
Regularization of the quantum field theory of charges and monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotakopoulos, C.
1981-09-01
A gauge invariant regularization procedure for quantum field theories of electric and magnetic charges based on Zwanziger's local formulation is proposed. The bare regularized full Green's functions of gauge invariant operators are shown to be Lorentz invariant. This would have as a consequence the Lorentz invariance of the finite Green's functions that might result after any reasonable subtraction if such a subtraction can be found. (author)
Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.
Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S
2017-07-01
Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol
The Impact of Computerization on Regular Employment (Japanese)
SUNADA Mitsuru; HIGUCHI Yoshio; ABE Masahiro
2004-01-01
This paper uses micro data from the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activity to analyze the effects of companies' introduction of information and telecommunications technology on employment structures, especially regular versus non-regular employment. Firstly, examination of trends in the ratio of part-time workers recorded in the Basic Survey shows that part-time worker ratios in manufacturing firms are rising slightly, but that companies with a high proportion of part-timers...
Analytic regularization of the Yukawa model at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.
1996-07-01
It is analysed the one-loop fermionic contribution for the scalar effective potential in the temperature dependent Yukawa model. Ir order to regularize the model a mix between dimensional and analytic regularization procedures is used. It is found a general expression for the fermionic contribution in arbitrary spacetime dimension. It is also found that in D = 3 this contribution is finite. (author). 19 refs
The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality
Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.
2003-01-01
In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.
Regularity criteria for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics equations in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Hongxia; Du, Lili
2013-01-01
In this paper, we give some new global regularity criteria for three-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. More precisely, we provide some sufficient conditions in terms of the derivatives of the velocity or pressure, for the global regularity of strong solutions to 3D incompressible MHD equations in the whole space, as well as for periodic boundary conditions. Moreover, the regularity criterion involving three of the nine components of the velocity gradient tensor is also obtained. The main results generalize the recent work by Cao and Wu (2010 Two regularity criteria for the 3D MHD equations J. Diff. Eqns 248 2263–74) and the analysis in part is based on the works by Cao C and Titi E (2008 Regularity criteria for the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations Indiana Univ. Math. J. 57 2643–61; 2011 Gobal regularity criterion for the 3D Navier–Stokes equations involving one entry of the velocity gradient tensor Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 202 919–32) for 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. (paper)
Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes
Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA
2018-05-01
Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.
Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation
Ballal, Tarig
2017-10-18
This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded norm is allowed into the linear transformation matrix to improve the singular-value structure. Following this, the problem is formulated as a min-max optimization problem. Next, the min-max problem is converted to an equivalent minimization problem to estimate the unknown vector quantity. The solution of the minimization problem is shown to converge to that of the ℓ2 -regularized least squares problem, with the unknown regularizer related to the norm bound of the introduced perturbation through a nonlinear constraint. A procedure is proposed that combines the constraint equation with the mean squared error (MSE) criterion to develop an approximately optimal regularization parameter selection algorithm. Both direct and indirect applications of the proposed method are considered. Comparisons with different Tikhonov regularization parameter selection methods, as well as with other relevant methods, are carried out. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method provides significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods.
Osilla, Karen Chan; Lonczak, Heather S; Mail, Patricia D; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, G Alan
2007-01-01
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents use tobacco at earlier ages and in larger quantities compared to non-AIAN peers. Regular tobacco use was examined against five protective factors (peer networks supportive of not using drugs, college aspirations, team sports, playing music, and volunteerism). Participants consisted of 112 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a life-skills program aimed at reducing substance-related consequences. Findings indicated that, with the exception of prosocial peer networks and volunteerism, each of the above factors was significantly associated with a reduced probability of being a regular tobacco user. Gender differences were notable. These results hold important treatment implications regarding the reduction and prevention of tobacco use among AIAN youth.
Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Brenna, J Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises
2016-07-29
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted.
An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2011-11-15
Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used
ILICH-STOSHOVIКЈ Danijela; NIKOLIКЈ Snezhana
2015-01-01
Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP).The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or i...
The neural substrates of impaired finger tapping regularity after stroke.
Calautti, Cinzia; Jones, P Simon; Guincestre, Jean-Yves; Naccarato, Marcello; Sharma, Nikhil; Day, Diana J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude
2010-03-01
Not only finger tapping speed, but also tapping regularity can be impaired after stroke, contributing to reduced dexterity. The neural substrates of impaired tapping regularity after stroke are unknown. Previous work suggests damage to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and prefrontal cortex (PFCx) affects externally-cued hand movement. We tested the hypothesis that these two areas are involved in impaired post-stroke tapping regularity. In 19 right-handed patients (15 men/4 women; age 45-80 years; purely subcortical in 16) partially to fully recovered from hemiparetic stroke, tri-axial accelerometric quantitative assessment of tapping regularity and BOLD fMRI were obtained during fixed-rate auditory-cued index-thumb tapping, in a single session 10-230 days after stroke. A strong random-effect correlation between tapping regularity index and fMRI signal was found in contralesional PMd such that the worse the regularity the stronger the activation. A significant correlation in the opposite direction was also present within contralesional PFCx. Both correlations were maintained if maximal index tapping speed, degree of paresis and time since stroke were added as potential confounds. Thus, the contralesional PMd and PFCx appear to be involved in the impaired ability of stroke patients to fingertap in pace with external cues. The findings for PMd are consistent with repetitive TMS investigations in stroke suggesting a role for this area in affected-hand movement timing. The inverse relationship with tapping regularity observed for the PFCx and the PMd suggests these two anatomically-connected areas negatively co-operate. These findings have implications for understanding the disruption and reorganization of the motor systems after stroke. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization
Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.
2012-09-01
The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4
Rotating Hayward’s regular black hole as particle accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-01-01
Recently, Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) demonstrated that the extremal Kerr black hole can act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy (E CM ) when the collision takes place near the horizon. The rotating Hayward’s regular black hole, apart from Mass (M) and angular momentum (a), has a new parameter g (g>0 is a constant) that provides a deviation from the Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that for each g, with M=1, there exist critical a E and r H E , which corresponds to a regular extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, and a E decreases whereas r H E increases with increase in g. While aregular non-extremal black hole with outer and inner horizons. We apply the BSW process to the rotating Hayward’s regular black hole, for different g, and demonstrate numerically that the E CM diverges in the vicinity of the horizon for the extremal cases thereby suggesting that a rotating regular black hole can also act as a particle accelerator and thus in turn provide a suitable framework for Plank-scale physics. For a non-extremal case, there always exist a finite upper bound for the E CM , which increases with the deviation parameter g.
Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunho Jung
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc, designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.
Method of transferring regular shaped vessel into cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murai, Tsunehiko.
1997-01-01
The present invention concerns a method of transferring regular shaped vessels from a non-contaminated area to a contaminated cell. A passage hole for allowing the regular shaped vessels to pass in the longitudinal direction is formed to a partitioning wall at the bottom of the contaminated cell. A plurality of regular shaped vessel are stacked in multiple stages in a vertical direction from the non-contaminated area present below the passage hole, allowed to pass while being urged and transferred successively into the contaminated cell. As a result, since they are transferred while substantially closing the passage hole by the regular shaped vessels, radiation rays or contaminated materials are prevented from discharging from the contaminated cell to the non-contaminated area. Since there is no requirement to open/close an isolation door frequently, the workability upon transfer can be improved remarkably. In addition, the sealing member for sealing the gap between the regular shaped vessel passing through the passage hole and the partitioning wall of the bottom is disposed to the passage hole, the contaminated materials in the contaminated cells can be prevented from discharging from the gap to the non-contaminated area. (N.H.)
X-ray computed tomography using curvelet sparse regularization.
Wieczorek, Matthias; Frikel, Jürgen; Vogel, Jakob; Eggl, Elena; Kopp, Felix; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz; Demaret, Laurent; Lasser, Tobias
2015-04-01
Reconstruction of x-ray computed tomography (CT) data remains a mathematically challenging problem in medical imaging. Complementing the standard analytical reconstruction methods, sparse regularization is growing in importance, as it allows inclusion of prior knowledge. The paper presents a method for sparse regularization based on the curvelet frame for the application to iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography. In this work, the authors present an iterative reconstruction approach based on the alternating direction method of multipliers using curvelet sparse regularization. Evaluation of the method is performed on a specifically crafted numerical phantom dataset to highlight the method's strengths. Additional evaluation is performed on two real datasets from commercial scanners with different noise characteristics, a clinical bone sample acquired in a micro-CT and a human abdomen scanned in a diagnostic CT. The results clearly illustrate that curvelet sparse regularization has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves the restoration and resolution of highly directional, high contrast features with smooth contrast variations. The authors also compare this approach to the popular technique of total variation and to traditional filtered backprojection. The authors conclude that curvelet sparse regularization is able to improve reconstruction quality by reducing noise while preserving highly directional features.
On the MSE Performance and Optimization of Regularized Problems
Alrashdi, Ayed
2016-11-01
The amount of data that has been measured, transmitted/received, and stored in the recent years has dramatically increased. So, today, we are in the world of big data. Fortunately, in many applications, we can take advantages of possible structures and patterns in the data to overcome the curse of dimensionality. The most well known structures include sparsity, low-rankness, block sparsity. This includes a wide range of applications such as machine learning, medical imaging, signal processing, social networks and computer vision. This also led to a specific interest in recovering signals from noisy compressed measurements (Compressed Sensing (CS) problem). Such problems are generally ill-posed unless the signal is structured. The structure can be captured by a regularizer function. This gives rise to a potential interest in regularized inverse problems, where the process of reconstructing the structured signal can be modeled as a regularized problem. This thesis particularly focuses on finding the optimal regularization parameter for such problems, such as ridge regression, LASSO, square-root LASSO and low-rank Generalized LASSO. Our goal is to optimally tune the regularizer to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the solution when the noise variance or structure parameters are unknown. The analysis is based on the framework of the Convex Gaussian Min-max Theorem (CGMT) that has been used recently to precisely predict performance errors.
Programs and Research Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Support risk management of regional programming and partnerships by: ... analysing, on a regular basis, key program development and performance indicators; ... Represent the IDRC and Regional Director at key events in order to gather ...
The relationship between synchronization and percolation for regular networks
Li, Zhe; Ren, Tao; Xu, Yanjie; Jin, Jianyu
2018-02-01
Synchronization and percolation are two essential phenomena in complex dynamical networks. They have been studied widely, but previously treated as unrelated. In this paper, the relationship between synchronization and percolation are revealed for regular networks. Firstly, we discovered a bridge between synchronization and percolation by using the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix to describe the synchronizability and using the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix to describe the percolation threshold. Then, we proposed a method to find the relationship for regular networks based on the topology of networks. Particularly, if the degree distribution of the network is subject to delta function, we show that only the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix need to be calculated. Finally, several examples are provided to demonstrate how to apply our proposed method to discover the relationship between synchronization and percolation for regular networks.
Variational analysis of regular mappings theory and applications
Ioffe, Alexander D
2017-01-01
This monograph offers the first systematic account of (metric) regularity theory in variational analysis. It presents new developments alongside classical results and demonstrates the power of the theory through applications to various problems in analysis and optimization theory. The origins of metric regularity theory can be traced back to a series of fundamental ideas and results of nonlinear functional analysis and global analysis centered around problems of existence and stability of solutions of nonlinear equations. In variational analysis, regularity theory goes far beyond the classical setting and is also concerned with non-differentiable and multi-valued operators. The present volume explores all basic aspects of the theory, from the most general problems for mappings between metric spaces to those connected with fairly concrete and important classes of operators acting in Banach and finite dimensional spaces. Written by a leading expert in the field, the book covers new and powerful techniques, whic...
Variational regularization of 3D data experiments with Matlab
Montegranario, Hebert
2014-01-01
Variational Regularization of 3D Data provides an introduction to variational methods for data modelling and its application in computer vision. In this book, the authors identify interpolation as an inverse problem that can be solved by Tikhonov regularization. The proposed solutions are generalizations of one-dimensional splines, applicable to n-dimensional data and the central idea is that these splines can be obtained by regularization theory using a trade-off between the fidelity of the data and smoothness properties.As a foundation, the authors present a comprehensive guide to the necessary fundamentals of functional analysis and variational calculus, as well as splines. The implementation and numerical experiments are illustrated using MATLAB®. The book also includes the necessary theoretical background for approximation methods and some details of the computer implementation of the algorithms. A working knowledge of multivariable calculus and basic vector and matrix methods should serve as an adequat...
Wavelet domain image restoration with adaptive edge-preserving regularization.
Belge, M; Kilmer, M E; Miller, E L
2000-01-01
In this paper, we consider a wavelet based edge-preserving regularization scheme for use in linear image restoration problems. Our efforts build on a collection of mathematical results indicating that wavelets are especially useful for representing functions that contain discontinuities (i.e., edges in two dimensions or jumps in one dimension). We interpret the resulting theory in a statistical signal processing framework and obtain a highly flexible framework for adapting the degree of regularization to the local structure of the underlying image. In particular, we are able to adapt quite easily to scale-varying and orientation-varying features in the image while simultaneously retaining the edge preservation properties of the regularizer. We demonstrate a half-quadratic algorithm for obtaining the restorations from observed data.
Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT
2009-01-01
Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.
Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets
Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.
2006-01-01
An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.
Gamma regularization based reconstruction for low dose CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yining; Luo, Limin; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Bicao; Liu, Jin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2015-01-01
Reducing the radiation in computerized tomography is today a major concern in radiology. Low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) offers a sound way to deal with this problem. However, more severe noise in the reconstructed CT images is observed under low dose scan protocols (e.g. lowered tube current or voltage values). In this paper we propose a Gamma regularization based algorithm for LDCT image reconstruction. This solution is flexible and provides a good balance between the regularizations based on l 0 -norm and l 1 -norm. We evaluate the proposed approach using the projection data from simulated phantoms and scanned Catphan phantoms. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the Gamma regularization based reconstruction can perform better in both edge-preserving and noise suppression when compared with other norms. (paper)
Further investigation on "A multiplicative regularization for force reconstruction"
Aucejo, M.; De Smet, O.
2018-05-01
We have recently proposed a multiplicative regularization to reconstruct mechanical forces acting on a structure from vibration measurements. This method does not require any selection procedure for choosing the regularization parameter, since the amount of regularization is automatically adjusted throughout an iterative resolution process. The proposed iterative algorithm has been developed with performance and efficiency in mind, but it is actually a simplified version of a full iterative procedure not described in the original paper. The present paper aims at introducing the full resolution algorithm and comparing it with its simplified version in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. In particular, it is shown that both algorithms lead to very similar identified solutions.
Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons.
Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing
2015-12-01
By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons.
Manifestly scale-invariant regularization and quantum effective operators
Ghilencea, D.M.
2016-01-01
Scale invariant theories are often used to address the hierarchy problem, however the regularization of their quantum corrections introduces a dimensionful coupling (dimensional regularization) or scale (Pauli-Villars, etc) which break this symmetry explicitly. We show how to avoid this problem and study the implications of a manifestly scale invariant regularization in (classical) scale invariant theories. We use a dilaton-dependent subtraction function $\\mu(\\sigma)$ which after spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry generates the usual DR subtraction scale $\\mu(\\langle\\sigma\\rangle)$. One consequence is that "evanescent" interactions generated by scale invariance of the action in $d=4-2\\epsilon$ (but vanishing in $d=4$), give rise to new, finite quantum corrections. We find a (finite) correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$ to the one-loop scalar potential for $\\phi$ and $\\sigma$, beyond the Coleman-Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ is due to an evanescent correction ($\\propto\\epsilon$) to the field-dependent masses (of...
Low-rank matrix approximation with manifold regularization.
Zhang, Zhenyue; Zhao, Keke
2013-07-01
This paper proposes a new model of low-rank matrix factorization that incorporates manifold regularization to the matrix factorization. Superior to the graph-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization, this new regularization model has globally optimal and closed-form solutions. A direct algorithm (for data with small number of points) and an alternate iterative algorithm with inexact inner iteration (for large scale data) are proposed to solve the new model. A convergence analysis establishes the global convergence of the iterative algorithm. The efficiency and precision of the algorithm are demonstrated numerically through applications to six real-world datasets on clustering and classification. Performance comparison with existing algorithms shows the effectiveness of the proposed method for low-rank factorization in general.
Selecting protein families for environmental features based on manifold regularization.
Jiang, Xingpeng; Xu, Weiwei; Park, E K; Li, Guangrong
2014-06-01
Recently, statistics and machine learning have been developed to identify functional or taxonomic features of environmental features or physiological status. Important proteins (or other functional and taxonomic entities) to environmental features can be potentially used as biosensors. A major challenge is how the distribution of protein and gene functions embodies the adaption of microbial communities across environments and host habitats. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization method for linear regression to adapt the challenge. The approach is inspired by local linear embedding (LLE) and we call it a manifold-constrained regularization for linear regression (McRe). The novel regularization procedure also has potential to be used in solving other linear systems. We demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the approach in both simulation and real data.
Processing SPARQL queries with regular expressions in RDF databases
2011-01-01
Background As the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model is widely used for modeling and sharing a lot of online bioinformatics resources such as Uniprot (dev.isb-sib.ch/projects/uniprot-rdf) or Bio2RDF (bio2rdf.org), SPARQL - a W3C recommendation query for RDF databases - has become an important query language for querying the bioinformatics knowledge bases. Moreover, due to the diversity of users’ requests for extracting information from the RDF data as well as the lack of users’ knowledge about the exact value of each fact in the RDF databases, it is desirable to use the SPARQL query with regular expression patterns for querying the RDF data. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that efficiently supports regular expression processing in SPARQL over RDF databases. Most of the existing techniques for processing regular expressions are designed for querying a text corpus, or only for supporting the matching over the paths in an RDF graph. Results In this paper, we propose a novel framework for supporting regular expression processing in SPARQL query. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. 1) We propose an efficient framework for processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns in RDF databases. 2) We propose a cost model in order to adapt the proposed framework in the existing query optimizers. 3) We build a prototype for the proposed framework in C++ and conduct extensive experiments demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of our technique. Conclusions Experiments with a full-blown RDF engine show that our framework outperforms the existing ones by up to two orders of magnitude in processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns. PMID:21489225
Processing SPARQL queries with regular expressions in RDF databases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cho Hune
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the Resource Description Framework (RDF data model is widely used for modeling and sharing a lot of online bioinformatics resources such as Uniprot (dev.isb-sib.ch/projects/uniprot-rdf or Bio2RDF (bio2rdf.org, SPARQL - a W3C recommendation query for RDF databases - has become an important query language for querying the bioinformatics knowledge bases. Moreover, due to the diversity of users’ requests for extracting information from the RDF data as well as the lack of users’ knowledge about the exact value of each fact in the RDF databases, it is desirable to use the SPARQL query with regular expression patterns for querying the RDF data. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that efficiently supports regular expression processing in SPARQL over RDF databases. Most of the existing techniques for processing regular expressions are designed for querying a text corpus, or only for supporting the matching over the paths in an RDF graph. Results In this paper, we propose a novel framework for supporting regular expression processing in SPARQL query. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. 1 We propose an efficient framework for processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns in RDF databases. 2 We propose a cost model in order to adapt the proposed framework in the existing query optimizers. 3 We build a prototype for the proposed framework in C++ and conduct extensive experiments demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of our technique. Conclusions Experiments with a full-blown RDF engine show that our framework outperforms the existing ones by up to two orders of magnitude in processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns.
Processing SPARQL queries with regular expressions in RDF databases.
Lee, Jinsoo; Pham, Minh-Duc; Lee, Jihwan; Han, Wook-Shin; Cho, Hune; Yu, Hwanjo; Lee, Jeong-Hoon
2011-03-29
As the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model is widely used for modeling and sharing a lot of online bioinformatics resources such as Uniprot (dev.isb-sib.ch/projects/uniprot-rdf) or Bio2RDF (bio2rdf.org), SPARQL - a W3C recommendation query for RDF databases - has become an important query language for querying the bioinformatics knowledge bases. Moreover, due to the diversity of users' requests for extracting information from the RDF data as well as the lack of users' knowledge about the exact value of each fact in the RDF databases, it is desirable to use the SPARQL query with regular expression patterns for querying the RDF data. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that efficiently supports regular expression processing in SPARQL over RDF databases. Most of the existing techniques for processing regular expressions are designed for querying a text corpus, or only for supporting the matching over the paths in an RDF graph. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for supporting regular expression processing in SPARQL query. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. 1) We propose an efficient framework for processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns in RDF databases. 2) We propose a cost model in order to adapt the proposed framework in the existing query optimizers. 3) We build a prototype for the proposed framework in C++ and conduct extensive experiments demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of our technique. Experiments with a full-blown RDF engine show that our framework outperforms the existing ones by up to two orders of magnitude in processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns.
REGULARIZED D-BAR METHOD FOR THE INVERSE CONDUCTIVITY PROBLEM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Kim; Lassas, Matti; Mueller, Jennifer
2009-01-01
A strategy for regularizing the inversion procedure for the two-dimensional D-bar reconstruction algorithm based on the global uniqueness proof of Nachman [Ann. Math. 143 (1996)] for the ill-posed inverse conductivity problem is presented. The strategy utilizes truncation of the boundary integral...... the convergence of the reconstructed conductivity to the true conductivity as the noise level tends to zero. The results provide a link between two traditions of inverse problems research: theory of regularization and inversion methods based on complex geometrical optics. Also, the procedure is a novel...
Arithmetic properties of $\\ell$-regular overpartition pairs
NAIKA, MEGADAHALLI SIDDA MAHADEVA; SHIVASHANKAR, CHANDRAPPA
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the arithmetic properties of $\\ell$-regular overpartition pairs. Let $\\overline{B}_{\\ell}(n)$ denote the number of $\\ell$-regular overpartition pairs of $n$. We will prove the number of Ramanujan-like congruences and infinite families of congruences modulo 3, 8, 16, 36, 48, 96 for $\\overline{B}_3(n)$ and modulo 3, 16, 64, 96 for $\\overline{B}_4(n)$. For example, we find that for all nonnegative integers $\\alpha$ and $n$, $\\overline{B}_{3}(3^{\\alpha}(3n+2))\\equiv ...
Sparse reconstruction by means of the standard Tikhonov regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Shuai; Pereverzev, Sergei V
2008-01-01
It is a common belief that Tikhonov scheme with || · ||L 2 -penalty fails in sparse reconstruction. We are going to show, however, that this standard regularization can help if the stability measured in L 1 -norm will be properly taken into account in the choice of the regularization parameter. The crucial point is that now a stability bound may depend on the bases with respect to which the solution of the problem is assumed to be sparse. We discuss how such a stability can be estimated numerically and present the results of computational experiments giving the evidence of the reliability of our approach.
Regularization Techniques for Linear Least-Squares Problems
Suliman, Mohamed
2016-04-01
Linear estimation is a fundamental branch of signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters from a corrupted measured data. Throughout the years, several optimization criteria have been used to achieve this task. The most astonishing attempt among theses is the linear least-squares. Although this criterion enjoyed a wide popularity in many areas due to its attractive properties, it appeared to suffer from some shortcomings. Alternative optimization criteria, as a result, have been proposed. These new criteria allowed, in one way or another, the incorporation of further prior information to the desired problem. Among theses alternative criteria is the regularized least-squares (RLS). In this thesis, we propose two new algorithms to find the regularization parameter for linear least-squares problems. In the constrained perturbation regularization algorithm (COPRA) for random matrices and COPRA for linear discrete ill-posed problems, an artificial perturbation matrix with a bounded norm is forced into the model matrix. This perturbation is introduced to enhance the singular value structure of the matrix. As a result, the new modified model is expected to provide a better stabilize substantial solution when used to estimate the original signal through minimizing the worst-case residual error function. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that go in search of minimizing the estimated data error, the two new proposed algorithms are developed mainly to select the artifcial perturbation bound and the regularization parameter in a way that approximately minimizes the mean-squared error (MSE) between the original signal and its estimate under various conditions. The first proposed COPRA method is developed mainly to estimate the regularization parameter when the measurement matrix is complex Gaussian, with centered unit variance (standard), and independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) entries. Furthermore, the second proposed COPRA
Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alinea, Allan L., E-mail: alinea@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ''bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (''bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.
Lifshitz anomalies, Ward identities and split dimensional regularization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arav, Igal; Oz, Yaron; Raviv-Moshe, Avia [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,55 Haim Levanon street, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2017-03-16
We analyze the structure of the stress-energy tensor correlation functions in Lifshitz field theories and construct the corresponding anomalous Ward identities. We develop a framework for calculating the anomaly coefficients that employs a split dimensional regularization and the pole residues. We demonstrate the procedure by calculating the free scalar Lifshitz scale anomalies in 2+1 spacetime dimensions. We find that the analysis of the regularization dependent trivial terms requires a curved spacetime description without a foliation structure. We discuss potential ambiguities in Lifshitz scale anomaly definitions.
Stability of negative ionization fronts: Regularization by electric screening?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrayas, Manuel; Ebert, Ute
2004-01-01
We recently have proposed that a reduced interfacial model for streamer propagation is able to explain spontaneous branching. Such models require regularization. In the present paper we investigate how transversal Fourier modes of a planar ionization front are regularized by the electric screening length. For a fixed value of the electric field ahead of the front we calculate the dispersion relation numerically. These results guide the derivation of analytical asymptotes for arbitrary fields: for small wave-vector k, the growth rate s(k) grows linearly with k, for large k, it saturates at some positive plateau value. We give a physical interpretation of these results
Spanning k-ended trees of 3-regular connected graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamed Ghasemian Zoeram
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A vertex of degree one is called an end-vertex and the set of end-vertices of G is denoted by End(G. For a positive integer k, a tree T be called k-ended tree if $|End(T| \\leq k$. In this paper, we obtain sufficient conditions for spanning k-trees of 3-regular connected graphs. We give a construction sequence of graphs satisfying the condition. At the end, we present a conjecture about spanning k-ended trees of 3-regular connected graphs.
Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies
Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration
Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.
Parameter optimization in the regularized kernel minimum noise fraction transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack
2012-01-01
Based on the original, linear minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and kernel principal component analysis, a kernel version of the MNF transformation was recently introduced. Inspired by we here give a simple method for finding optimal parameters in a regularized version of kernel MNF...... analysis. We consider the model signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of the kernel parameters and the regularization parameter. In 2-4 steps of increasingly refined grid searches we find the parameters that maximize the model SNR. An example based on data from the DLR 3K camera system is given....
Lifshitz anomalies, Ward identities and split dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arav, Igal; Oz, Yaron; Raviv-Moshe, Avia
2017-01-01
We analyze the structure of the stress-energy tensor correlation functions in Lifshitz field theories and construct the corresponding anomalous Ward identities. We develop a framework for calculating the anomaly coefficients that employs a split dimensional regularization and the pole residues. We demonstrate the procedure by calculating the free scalar Lifshitz scale anomalies in 2+1 spacetime dimensions. We find that the analysis of the regularization dependent trivial terms requires a curved spacetime description without a foliation structure. We discuss potential ambiguities in Lifshitz scale anomaly definitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nisha Bhatnagar
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Since the passage of The Persons with Disabilities (PWD Act in 1995 and subsequent implementation of various policies and programs by the Indian government to enhance the participation of students with disabilities in regular schools, there has been a steady growth of inclusive education. Such initiatives, however, have placed new demands on schools, especially on teachers who have the major responsibility for implementing inclusion at the classroom level. Literature from other countries indicates that for inclusion to be successful, it is essential that classroom teachers’ concerns about implementing such programs be identified and systematically addressed. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research about teacher concerns regarding inclusive education in India. This study was undertaken to identify the concerns and perceived barriers of regular school teachers in Delhi, India about the inclusion of students with disabilities. Respondents were secondary school teachers working in schools in Delhi that were involved in teaching special needs children. Two focus group interviews and 20 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from the participants. The flexible qualitative analysis program QRS NVivo was utilized for data analysis. Three concerns and eleven barrier themes emerged
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danilo Bojanić
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine the level of quantitative changes of motor abilities of pupils with special needs under the influence of kinetic activity regular physical education teaching. The survey was conducted on students of the Centre for children and youth with special needs in Mostar, the city of Los Rosales in Mostar and day care facilities for children with special needs in Niksic. The sample was composed of boys of 46 subjects, who were involved in regular physical education for a period of one school year. The level of quantitative and qualitative changes in motor skills, written under the influence of kinesiology operators within regular school physical education classes, was estimated by applying appropriate tests of motor skills, selected in accordance with the degree of mental ability and biological age. Manifest variables applied in this experiment were processed using standard descriptive methods in order to determine their distribution function and basic function parameters. Comparisons of results of measures of central dispersion parameters initial and final measurement, it is evident that the applied program of physical education and sport contribute to changing the distribution of central and dispersion parameters, and that the same distribution of the final measurement closer to the normal distribution of results.
A Regularized Linear Dynamical System Framework for Multivariate Time Series Analysis.
Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos
2015-01-01
Linear Dynamical System (LDS) is an elegant mathematical framework for modeling and learning Multivariate Time Series (MTS). However, in general, it is difficult to set the dimension of an LDS's hidden state space. A small number of hidden states may not be able to model the complexities of a MTS, while a large number of hidden states can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we study learning methods that impose various regularization penalties on the transition matrix of the LDS model and propose a regularized LDS learning framework (rLDS) which aims to (1) automatically shut down LDSs' spurious and unnecessary dimensions, and consequently, address the problem of choosing the optimal number of hidden states; (2) prevent the overfitting problem given a small amount of MTS data; and (3) support accurate MTS forecasting. To learn the regularized LDS from data we incorporate a second order cone program and a generalized gradient descent method into the Maximum a Posteriori framework and use Expectation Maximization to obtain a low-rank transition matrix of the LDS model. We propose two priors for modeling the matrix which lead to two instances of our rLDS. We show that our rLDS is able to recover well the intrinsic dimensionality of the time series dynamics and it improves the predictive performance when compared to baselines on both synthetic and real-world MTS datasets.
A practicable γ5-scheme in dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koerner, J.G.; Kreimer, D.; Schilcher, K.
1991-08-01
We present a new simple Υ 5 regularization scheme. We discuss its use in the standard radiative correction calculations including the anomaly contributions. The new scheme features an anticommuting Υ 5 which leads to great simplifications in practical calculations. We carefully discuss the underlying mathematics of our Υ 5 -scheme which is formulated in terms of simple projection operations. (orig.)
The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos
2018-01-01
inclusions, where the conductivity distribution has both more and less conductive parts relative to the background conductivity; one such method is the monotonicity method of Harrach, Seo, and Ullrich. We formulate the method for irregular indefinite inclusions, meaning that we make no regularity assumptions...
Fast regularizing sequential subspace optimization in Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schöpfer, F; Schuster, T
2009-01-01
We are concerned with fast computations of regularized solutions of linear operator equations in Banach spaces in case only noisy data are available. To this end we modify recently developed sequential subspace optimization methods in such a way that the therein employed Bregman projections onto hyperplanes are replaced by Bregman projections onto stripes whose width is in the order of the noise level
Statistical regularities in art: Relations with visual coding and perception.
Graham, Daniel J; Redies, Christoph
2010-07-21
Since at least 1935, vision researchers have used art stimuli to test human response to complex scenes. This is sensible given the "inherent interestingness" of art and its relation to the natural visual world. The use of art stimuli has remained popular, especially in eye tracking studies. Moreover, stimuli in common use by vision scientists are inspired by the work of famous artists (e.g., Mondrians). Artworks are also popular in vision science as illustrations of a host of visual phenomena, such as depth cues and surface properties. However, until recently, there has been scant consideration of the spatial, luminance, and color statistics of artwork, and even less study of ways that regularities in such statistics could affect visual processing. Furthermore, the relationship between regularities in art images and those in natural scenes has received little or no attention. In the past few years, there has been a concerted effort to study statistical regularities in art as they relate to neural coding and visual perception, and art stimuli have begun to be studied in rigorous ways, as natural scenes have been. In this minireview, we summarize quantitative studies of links between regular statistics in artwork and processing in the visual stream. The results of these studies suggest that art is especially germane to understanding human visual coding and perception, and it therefore warrants wider study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.
Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.
The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…
Directional Total Generalized Variation Regularization for Impulse Noise Removal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas; Dong, Yiqiu
2017-01-01
this regularizer for directional images is highly advantageous. In order to estimate directions in impulse noise corrupted images, which is much more challenging compared to Gaussian noise corrupted images, we introduce a new Fourier transform-based method. Numerical experiments show that this method is more...
A dynamical system approach to texel identification in regular textures
Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.; Loncaric, S; Neri, A; Babic, H
2003-01-01
We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The experimental
Regularized semiclassical limits: Linear flows with infinite Lyapunov exponents
Athanassoulis, Agissilaos; Katsaounis, Theodoros; Kyza, Irene
2016-01-01
Semiclassical asymptotics for Schrödinger equations with non-smooth potentials give rise to ill-posed formal semiclassical limits. These problems have attracted a lot of attention in the last few years, as a proxy for the treatment of eigenvalue crossings, i.e. general systems. It has recently been shown that the semiclassical limit for conical singularities is in fact well-posed, as long as the Wigner measure (WM) stays away from singular saddle points. In this work we develop a family of refined semiclassical estimates, and use them to derive regularized transport equations for saddle points with infinite Lyapunov exponents, extending the aforementioned recent results. In the process we answer a related question posed by P.L. Lions and T. Paul in 1993. If we consider more singular potentials, our rigorous estimates break down. To investigate whether conical saddle points, such as -|x|, admit a regularized transport asymptotic approximation, we employ a numerical solver based on posteriori error control. Thus rigorous upper bounds for the asymptotic error in concrete problems are generated. In particular, specific phenomena which render invalid any regularized transport for -|x| are identified and quantified. In that sense our rigorous results are sharp. Finally, we use our findings to formulate a precise conjecture for the condition under which conical saddle points admit a regularized transport solution for the WM. © 2016 International Press.
Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.
2011-01-01
) and to examine the appearance of patterns and regularities in the way EMAC members choose collaboration partners. The work is based on a Social Network Analysis of the co-authored publications presented at the 2000-2010 EMAC conferences. Results show that the main selection criteria for choosing collaboration...
Analytic stochastic regularization in QCD and its supersymmetric extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Vianna, R.L.
1987-08-01
We outline some features of stochastic quantization and regularization of fermionic fields with applications to spinor QCD, showing the appearence of a non-gauge invariant counterterm. We also show that non-invariant terms cancel in supersymmetric multiplets. (Author) [pt
On the number of spanning trees in random regular graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greenhill, Catherine; Kwan, Matthew; Wind, David Kofoed
2014-01-01
Let d >= 3 be a fixed integer. We give an asympotic formula for the expected number of spanning trees in a uniformly random d-regular graph with n vertices. (The asymptotics are as n -> infinity, restricted to even n if d is odd.) We also obtain the asymptotic distribution of the number of spanning...
Poisson image reconstruction with Hessian Schatten-norm regularization.
Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Unser, Michael
2013-11-01
Poisson inverse problems arise in many modern imaging applications, including biomedical and astronomical ones. The main challenge is to obtain an estimate of the underlying image from a set of measurements degraded by a linear operator and further corrupted by Poisson noise. In this paper, we propose an efficient framework for Poisson image reconstruction, under a regularization approach, which depends on matrix-valued regularization operators. In particular, the employed regularizers involve the Hessian as the regularization operator and Schatten matrix norms as the potential functions. For the solution of the problem, we propose two optimization algorithms that are specifically tailored to the Poisson nature of the noise. These algorithms are based on an augmented-Lagrangian formulation of the problem and correspond to two variants of the alternating direction method of multipliers. Further, we derive a link that relates the proximal map of an l(p) norm with the proximal map of a Schatten matrix norm of order p. This link plays a key role in the development of one of the proposed algorithms. Finally, we provide experimental results on natural and biological images for the task of Poisson image deblurring and demonstrate the practical relevance and effectiveness of the proposed framework.
BER analysis of regularized least squares for BPSK recovery
Ben Atitallah, Ismail; Thrampoulidis, Christos; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hassibi, Babak; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal x
The Student with Albinism in the Regular Classroom.
Ashley, Julia Robertson
This booklet, intended for regular education teachers who have children with albinism in their classes, begins with an explanation of albinism, then discusses the special needs of the student with albinism in the classroom, and presents information about adaptations and other methods for responding to these needs. Special social and emotional…
Noise Representation in Residuals of LSQR, LSMR, and CRAIG Regularization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hnětynková, I.; Kubínová, Marie; Plešinger, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 533, č. 15 (2017), s. 357-379 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GC17-04150J Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Ill-posed problems * regularization * Golub–Kahan iterative bidiagonalization * LSQR * LSMR * CRAIG Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016
Surface-based prostate registration with biomechanical regularization
van de Ven, Wendy J. M.; Hu, Yipeng; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barratt, Dean; Huisman, Henkjan J.
2013-03-01
Adding MR-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound by using MRUS registration. A common approach is to use surface-based registration. We hypothesize that biomechanical modeling will better control deformation inside the prostate than a regular surface-based registration method. We developed a novel method by extending a surface-based registration with finite element (FE) simulation to better predict internal deformation of the prostate. For each of six patients, a tetrahedral mesh was constructed from the manual prostate segmentation. Next, the internal prostate deformation was simulated using the derived radial surface displacement as boundary condition. The deformation field within the gland was calculated using the predicted FE node displacements and thin-plate spline interpolation. We tested our method on MR guided MR biopsy imaging data, as landmarks can easily be identified on MR images. For evaluation of the registration accuracy we used 45 anatomical landmarks located in all regions of the prostate. Our results show that the median target registration error of a surface-based registration with biomechanical regularization is 1.88 mm, which is significantly different from 2.61 mm without biomechanical regularization. We can conclude that biomechanical FE modeling has the potential to improve the accuracy of multimodal prostate registration when comparing it to regular surface-based registration.
Optimal Tikhonov Regularization in Finite-Frequency Tomography
Fang, Y.; Yao, Z.; Zhou, Y.
2017-12-01
The last decade has witnessed a progressive transition in seismic tomography from ray theory to finite-frequency theory which overcomes the resolution limit of the high-frequency approximation in ray theory. In addition to approximations in wave propagation physics, a main difference between ray-theoretical tomography and finite-frequency tomography is the sparseness of the associated sensitivity matrix. It is well known that seismic tomographic problems are ill-posed and regularizations such as damping and smoothing are often applied to analyze the tradeoff between data misfit and model uncertainty. The regularizations depend on the structure of the matrix as well as noise level of the data. Cross-validation has been used to constrain data uncertainties in body-wave finite-frequency inversions when measurements at multiple frequencies are available to invert for a common structure. In this study, we explore an optimal Tikhonov regularization in surface-wave phase-velocity tomography based on minimization of an empirical Bayes risk function using theoretical training datasets. We exploit the structure of the sensitivity matrix in the framework of singular value decomposition (SVD) which also allows for the calculation of complete resolution matrix. We compare the optimal Tikhonov regularization in finite-frequency tomography with traditional tradeo-off analysis using surface wave dispersion measurements from global as well as regional studies.
Regularizing Unpredictable Variation: Evidence from a Natural Language Setting
Hendricks, Alison Eisel; Miller, Karen; Jackson, Carrie N.
2018-01-01
While previous sociolinguistic research has demonstrated that children faithfully acquire probabilistic input constrained by sociolinguistic and linguistic factors (e.g., gender and socioeconomic status), research suggests children regularize inconsistent input-probabilistic input that is not sociolinguistically constrained (e.g., Hudson Kam &…
Regular graph construction for semi-supervised learning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega-Oliveros, Didier A; Berton, Lilian; Eberle, Andre Mantini; Lopes, Alneu de Andrade; Zhao, Liang
2014-01-01
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) stands out for using a small amount of labeled points for data clustering and classification. In this scenario graph-based methods allow the analysis of local and global characteristics of the available data by identifying classes or groups regardless data distribution and representing submanifold in Euclidean space. Most of methods used in literature for SSL classification do not worry about graph construction. However, regular graphs can obtain better classification accuracy compared to traditional methods such as k-nearest neighbor (kNN), since kNN benefits the generation of hubs and it is not appropriate for high-dimensionality data. Nevertheless, methods commonly used for generating regular graphs have high computational cost. We tackle this problem introducing an alternative method for generation of regular graphs with better runtime performance compared to methods usually find in the area. Our technique is based on the preferential selection of vertices according some topological measures, like closeness, generating at the end of the process a regular graph. Experiments using the global and local consistency method for label propagation show that our method provides better or equal classification rate in comparison with kNN
Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.
Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich
2010-03-04
Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.
2017-01-01
-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels...
BER analysis of regularized least squares for BPSK recovery
Ben Atitallah, Ismail
2017-06-20
This paper investigates the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal x
Regularized semiclassical limits: Linear flows with infinite Lyapunov exponents
Athanassoulis, Agissilaos
2016-08-30
Semiclassical asymptotics for Schrödinger equations with non-smooth potentials give rise to ill-posed formal semiclassical limits. These problems have attracted a lot of attention in the last few years, as a proxy for the treatment of eigenvalue crossings, i.e. general systems. It has recently been shown that the semiclassical limit for conical singularities is in fact well-posed, as long as the Wigner measure (WM) stays away from singular saddle points. In this work we develop a family of refined semiclassical estimates, and use them to derive regularized transport equations for saddle points with infinite Lyapunov exponents, extending the aforementioned recent results. In the process we answer a related question posed by P.L. Lions and T. Paul in 1993. If we consider more singular potentials, our rigorous estimates break down. To investigate whether conical saddle points, such as -|x|, admit a regularized transport asymptotic approximation, we employ a numerical solver based on posteriori error control. Thus rigorous upper bounds for the asymptotic error in concrete problems are generated. In particular, specific phenomena which render invalid any regularized transport for -|x| are identified and quantified. In that sense our rigorous results are sharp. Finally, we use our findings to formulate a precise conjecture for the condition under which conical saddle points admit a regularized transport solution for the WM. © 2016 International Press.
Regular and stochastic particle motion in plasma dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, A.N.
1979-08-01
A Hamiltonian formalism is presented for the study of charged-particle trajectories in the self-consistent field of the particles. The intention is to develop a general approach to plasma dynamics. Transformations of phase-space variables are used to separate out the regular, adiabatic motion from the irregular, stochastic trajectories. Several new techniques are included in this presentation
Cospectral Graphs and Regular Orthogonal Matrices of Level 2
Abiad Monge, A.; Haemers, W.H.
2012-01-01
Abstract: For a graph Γ with adjacency matrix A, we consider a switching operation that takes Γ into a graph Γ' with adjacency matrix A', defined by A' = QtAQ, where Q is a regular orthogonal matrix of level 2 (that is, QtQ = I, Q1 = 1, 2Q is integral, and Q is not a permutation matrix). If such an
Robust regularized singular value decomposition with application to mortality data
Zhang, Lingsong; Shen, Haipeng; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2013-01-01
We develop a robust regularized singular value decomposition (RobRSVD) method for analyzing two-way functional data. The research is motivated by the application of modeling human mortality as a smooth two-way function of age group and year. The Rob
Regularized Adaptive Notch Filters for Acoustic Howling Suppression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc
2009-01-01
In this paper, a method for the suppression of acoustic howling is developed, based on adaptive notch filters (ANF) with regularization (RANF). The method features three RANFs working in parallel to achieve frequency tracking, howling detection and suppression. The ANF-based approach to howling...
dental services and attitudes towards its regular utilization among
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DENTAL SERVICES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS ITS REGULAR UTILIZATION. AMONG CIVIL SERVANTS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA. M.E. Osuh1, G.A. Oke1 and M.C. Asuzu2. 1Department of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Ibadan. 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Primary ...
Infants Learn Phonotactic Regularities from Brief Auditory Experience.
Chambers, Kyle E.; Onishi, Kristine H.; Fisher, Cynthia
2003-01-01
Two experiments investigated whether novel phonotactic regularities, not present in English, could be acquired by 16.5-month-olds from brief auditory experience. Subjects listened to consonant-vowel-consonant syllables in which particular consonants were artificially restricted to either initial or final position. Findings in a subsequent…
Regularizing properties of Complex Monge-Amp\\`ere flows
Tô, Tat Dat
2016-01-01
We study the regularizing properties of complex Monge-Amp\\`ere flows on a K\\"ahler manifold $(X,\\omega)$ when the initial data are $\\omega$-psh functions with zero Lelong number at all points. We prove that the general Monge-Amp\\`ere flow has a solution which is immediately smooth. We also prove the uniqueness and stability of solution.
Periodontal Disease, Regular Dental Care Use, and Incident Ischemic Stroke.
Sen, Souvik; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Moss, Kevin; Morelli, Thiago; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven
2018-02-01
Periodontal disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Identification of periodontal disease as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke raises the possibility that regular dental care utilization may reduce the stroke risk. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, pattern of dental visits were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. In the ancillary dental ARIC study, selected subjects from ARIC underwent fullmouth periodontal measurements collected at 6 sites per tooth and classified into 7 periodontal profile classes (PPCs). In the ARIC study 10 362 stroke-free participants, 584 participants had incident ischemic strokes over a 15-year period. In the dental ARIC study, 6736 dentate subjects were assessed for periodontal disease status using PPC with a total of 299 incident ischemic strokes over the 15-year period. The 7 levels of PPC showed a trend toward an increased stroke risk (χ 2 trend P periodontal disease). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with cardioembolic (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.6) and thrombotic (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) stroke subtypes. Regular dental care utilization was associated with lower adjusted stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). We confirm an independent association between periodontal disease and incident stroke risk, particularly cardioembolic and thrombotic stroke subtype. Further, we report that regular dental care utilization may lower this risk for stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Dental Services and Attitudes towards its regular Utilization ... - Ibadan
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Regular utilization of dental services is key to the attainment of optimal oral health state, an integral component of general health and well being needed for effective productivity by working personnel. Objective: This study assessed the rate and pattern of dental service utilization among civil servants and their ...
Comparative study of casual and regular workers' job satisfaction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the comparative study of regular and casual workers' job satisfaction and commitment in two selected banks in Lagos State, A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 145 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate stratified sampling technique.
Regularity theorem for functions that are extremal to Paley inequality ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Regularity theorem for functions that are extremal to Paley inequality. Seid Mohammed. Abstract. In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of functions that are extremal to the inequality introduced by Paley (1932) via a normal family of subharmonic functions. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Volume 24, No.
Shakeout: A New Approach to Regularized Deep Neural Network Training.
Kang, Guoliang; Li, Jun; Tao, Dacheng
2018-05-01
Recent years have witnessed the success of deep neural networks in dealing with a plenty of practical problems. Dropout has played an essential role in many successful deep neural networks, by inducing regularization in the model training. In this paper, we present a new regularized training approach: Shakeout. Instead of randomly discarding units as Dropout does at the training stage, Shakeout randomly chooses to enhance or reverse each unit's contribution to the next layer. This minor modification of Dropout has the statistical trait: the regularizer induced by Shakeout adaptively combines , and regularization terms. Our classification experiments with representative deep architectures on image datasets MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet show that Shakeout deals with over-fitting effectively and outperforms Dropout. We empirically demonstrate that Shakeout leads to sparser weights under both unsupervised and supervised settings. Shakeout also leads to the grouping effect of the input units in a layer. Considering the weights in reflecting the importance of connections, Shakeout is superior to Dropout, which is valuable for the deep model compression. Moreover, we demonstrate that Shakeout can effectively reduce the instability of the training process of the deep architecture.
Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems
Curtain, RF
2001-01-01
We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov
Effects of Irregular Bridge Columns and Feasibility of Seismic Regularity
Thomas, Abey E.
2018-05-01
Bridges with unequal column height is one of the main irregularities in bridge design particularly while negotiating steep valleys, making the bridges vulnerable to seismic action. The desirable behaviour of bridge columns towards seismic loading is that, they should perform in a regular fashion, i.e. the capacity of each column should be utilized evenly. But, this type of behaviour is often missing when the column heights are unequal along the length of the bridge, allowing short columns to bear the maximum lateral load. In the present study, the effects of unequal column height on the global seismic performance of bridges are studied using pushover analysis. Codes such as CalTrans (Engineering service center, earthquake engineering branch, 2013) and EC-8 (EN 1998-2: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 2: bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, 2005) suggests seismic regularity criterion for achieving regular seismic performance level at all the bridge columns. The feasibility of adopting these seismic regularity criterions along with those mentioned in literatures will be assessed for bridges designed as per the Indian Standards in the present study.
Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults
Cekin, Resul
2015-01-01
Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…
On certain inequalities for some regular functions in |z|<1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milutin Obradovic
1985-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give some inequalities for regular functions f(z=z+a2z2+… in |z|<1 especially for starlike and convex functions of order α, 0≤α<1, To some extent those inequalities are the generalisations and improvements of the previous results given by Bernardi [1]. Some interesting consequences are given, too.
Regular classroom assessment as a means of enhancing Teacher ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was an action research which employed regular classroom tests to help students learn and understand some concepts in electricity and magnetism. The participants of the study were 35 Level 200 B.Ed. (Basic Education, JSS Option) pre-service science teachers of the University of Education, Winneba in the ...
Boosting Maintenance in Working Memory with Temporal Regularities
Plancher, Gaën; Lévêque, Yohana; Fanuel, Lison; Piquandet, Gaëlle; Tillmann, Barbara
2018-01-01
Music cognition research has provided evidence for the benefit of temporally regular structures guiding attention over time. The present study investigated whether maintenance in working memory can benefit from an isochronous rhythm. Participants were asked to remember series of 6 letters for serial recall. In the rhythm condition of Experiment…
Rhythmic regularity revisited : Is beat induction indeed pre-attentive?
Bouwer, F.; Honing, H.; Cambouropoulos, E.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.
2012-01-01
When listening to musical rhythm, regularity in time is often perceived in the form of a beat or pulse. External rhythmic events can give rise to the perception of a beat, through a process known as beat induction. In addition, internal processes, like long-term memory, working memory and automatic
Manifold regularization for sparse unmixing of hyperspectral images.
Liu, Junmin; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhang, Jiangshe; Li, Huirong; Gao, Yuelin
2016-01-01
Recently, sparse unmixing has been successfully applied to spectral mixture analysis of remotely sensed hyperspectral images. Based on the assumption that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance, unmixing of each mixed pixel in the scene is to find an optimal subset of signatures in a very large spectral library, which is cast into the framework of sparse regression. However, traditional sparse regression models, such as collaborative sparse regression , ignore the intrinsic geometric structure in the hyperspectral data. In this paper, we propose a novel model, called manifold regularized collaborative sparse regression , by introducing a manifold regularization to the collaborative sparse regression model. The manifold regularization utilizes a graph Laplacian to incorporate the locally geometrical structure of the hyperspectral data. An algorithm based on alternating direction method of multipliers has been developed for the manifold regularized collaborative sparse regression model. Experimental results on both the simulated and real hyperspectral data sets have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed model.
Regularization of the Boundary-Saddle-Node Bifurcation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we treat a particular class of planar Filippov systems which consist of two smooth systems that are separated by a discontinuity boundary. In such systems one vector field undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation while the other vector field is transversal to the boundary. The boundary-saddle-node (BSN bifurcation occurs at a critical value when the saddle-node point is located on the discontinuity boundary. We derive a local topological normal form for the BSN bifurcation and study its local dynamics by applying the classical Filippov’s convex method and a novel regularization approach. In fact, by the regularization approach a given Filippov system is approximated by a piecewise-smooth continuous system. Moreover, the regularization process produces a singular perturbation problem where the original discontinuous set becomes a center manifold. Thus, the regularization enables us to make use of the established theories for continuous systems and slow-fast systems to study the local behavior around the BSN bifurcation.
Continuous Flattening of a Regular Tetrahedron with Explicit Mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-ichi Itoh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We proved in [10] that each Platonic polyhedron P can be folded into a flat multilayered face of P by a continuous folding process of polyhedra. In this paper, we give explicit formulas of continuous functions for such a continuous flattening process in R³ for a regular tetrahedron.The article is published in the author’s wording.
Regular algebraic monoids | Oduwale | Journal of the Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... in terms of their unit groups, and related toroidal data. That is what we accomplish here. Keywords: Unipotent radical, . toroidal data, normal, irreducible, regular, zero element, maximal torus, Zariski closure, Lie algebra. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 (November, 2011), pp 37 – 40 ...
Low-Complexity Regularization Algorithms for Image Deblurring
Alanazi, Abdulrahman
2016-11-01
Image restoration problems deal with images in which information has been degraded by blur or noise. In practice, the blur is usually caused by atmospheric turbulence, motion, camera shake, and several other mechanical or physical processes. In this study, we present two regularization algorithms for the image deblurring problem. We first present a new method based on solving a regularized least-squares (RLS) problem. This method is proposed to find a near-optimal value of the regularization parameter in the RLS problems. Experimental results on the non-blind image deblurring problem are presented. In all experiments, comparisons are made with three benchmark methods. The results demonstrate that the proposed method clearly outperforms the other methods in terms of both the output PSNR and structural similarity, as well as the visual quality of the deblurred images. To reduce the complexity of the proposed algorithm, we propose a technique based on the bootstrap method to estimate the regularization parameter in low and high-resolution images. Numerical results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the proposed algorithms. In addition, for some cases where the point spread function (PSF) is separable, we propose using a Kronecker product so as to reduce the computations. Furthermore, in the case where the image is smooth, it is always desirable to replace the regularization term in the RLS problems by a total variation term. Therefore, we propose a novel method for adaptively selecting the regularization parameter in a so-called square root regularized total variation (SRTV). Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the other benchmark methods when applied to smooth images in terms of PSNR, SSIM and the restored image quality. In this thesis, we focus on the non-blind image deblurring problem, where the blur kernel is assumed to be known. However, we developed algorithms that also work
Imbalance of positive and negative links induces regularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Sudeshna
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We consider the behaviour of a random weighted network with chaotic neuronal dynamics at the nodes. → We investigate the effect of the balance of positive and negative links on dynamical regularity. → We find that when the connections are predominantly excitatory or inhibitory, one obtains a spatiotemporal fixed point. → However, when the links are balanced, the chaotic nature of the nodal dynamics of the uncoupled case is preserved. → Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. - Abstract: We investigate the effect of the interplay of positive and negative links, on the dynamical regularity of a random weighted network, with neuronal dynamics at the nodes. We investigate how the mean J-bar and the variance of the weights of links, influence the spatiotemporal regularity of this dynamical network. We find that when the connections are predominantly positive (i.e. the links are mostly excitatory, with J-bar>0) the spatiotemporal fixed point is stable. A similar trend is observed when the connections are predominantly negative (i.e. the links are mostly inhibitory, with J-bar<0). However, when the positive and negative feedback is quite balanced (namely, when the mean of the connection weights is close to zero) one observes spatiotemporal chaos. That is, the balance of excitatory and inhibitory connections preserves the chaotic nature of the uncoupled case. To be brought to an inactive state one needs one type of connection (either excitatory or inhibitory) to dominate. Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. We rationalize our observations through mean field analysis of the network dynamics.
Do the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers?
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Gabriel Louw
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background The statutory recognition of traditional healers as healthcare practitioners in South Africa in terms of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 is based on various assumptions, opinions and generalizations. One of the prominent views is that the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. It even has been alleged that this number can be as high as 80 per cent of the South African population. For medical doctors and other health practitioners registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA, this new statutory status of traditional health practitioners, means the required presence of not only a healthcare competitor that can overstock the healthcare market with service lending, medical claims and healthcare costs, but also a competitor prone to malpractice. Aims The study aimed to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study following the modern historical approach of investigation and literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers, as primary sources to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It is clear that there is no trustworthy statistics on the percentages of South Africans using traditional healers. A scientific survey is needed to determine the extent to which traditional healers are consulted. This will only be possible after the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 has been fully enacted and traditional health practitioners have become fully active in the healthcare sector. Conclusion In poorer, rural areas no more than 11.2 per cent of the South African population regularly consult traditional healers, while the figure for the total population seems to be no more than 1.4 per cent. The argument that the majority of South
Foster, Sarah E; Jones, Deborah J; Olson, Ardis L; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Zens, Michael S; Bau, J J
2007-05-01
To examine the main and interactive effects of parental history of regular cigarette smoking and parenting style on adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Predictors of adolescent self-reported cigarette use, including parents' history of regular cigarette smoking and two dimensions of parenting behavior, were analyzed in a sample of 934 predominately Caucasian (96.3%) parent-adolescent dyads. Families were drawn from the control group of a randomized control trial aimed at preventing adolescent substance use. In addition to the main effects of parents' history of regular smoking and parental warmth, logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction of these two variables was associated with adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Parental warmth was associated with a decreased likelihood of the adolescent ever having smoked a cigarette; however, this was true only if neither parent had a history of regular cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that adolescent smoking prevention programs may be more efficacious if they address both parental history of regular smoking and parenting behavior.
Teaching English to a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Classroom in Indonesia
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Ni Nyoman Padmadewi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The recognition of students with special needs has been increasing significantly in Indonesia recently and the better understanding as well as supportive school programs is urgently needed. It was found out that schools and teachers in Indonesia had very limited preparedness either in teaching skills or material development to meet the actual needs of the students. This study then aimed at investigating appropriate strategies of teaching English to a student with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD included in a regular classroom. This research was in the form of a case study conducted in North Bali Bilingual School. The data were collected through observations and interviews. The findings show that the Individual Education Plan (IEP provided with visual media through co-teaching, differentiated instruction and also through a “buddy program” are found appropriate to help the student learn English as a foreign language. These strategies are effective to be implemented in an inclusive classroom program.
Scaling Non-Regular Shared-Memory Codes by Reusing Custom Loop Schedules
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Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we explore the idea of customizing and reusing loop schedules to improve the scalability of non-regular numerical codes in shared-memory architectures with non-uniform memory access latency. The main objective is to implicitly setup affinity links between threads and data, by devising loop schedules that achieve balanced work distribution within irregular data spaces and reusing them as much as possible along the execution of the program for better memory access locality. This transformation provides a great deal of flexibility in optimizing locality, without compromising the simplicity of the shared-memory programming paradigm. In particular, the programmer does not need to explicitly distribute data between processors. The paper presents practical examples from real applications and experiments showing the efficiency of the approach.