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Sample records for regular cocoa extract

  1. Cocoa

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Develop applications for Mac OS X with this Developer Reference guide. Make a clean transition to programming in Apple environments using the elegant and dynamic programming API Cocoa and this practical guide. Written by aseasoned Mac expert, this book shows you how to write programs in Cocoa for the rapidly expanding world of Macintosh users. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book prepares you for a productive programming experience on today's fastest-growing platform.: Cocoa is a programming framework for developing in Apple environments, including Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard; This

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from cocoa peel

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    Sarah, M.; Hanum, F.; Rizky, M.; Hisham, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    Pectin is a polymer of d-galacturonate acids linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bond. This study isolates pectin from cocoa peel (Theobroma cacao) using citric acid as solvent by microwave-assisted extraction method. Cocoa peels (moisture content of 10%) with citric acid solution (pH of 1.5) irradiated by microwave energy at various microwave power (180, 300, 450 and 600 W) for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Pectin obtained from this study was collected and filtrated by adding 96% ethanol to precipitate the pectin. The best results obtained from extraction process using microwave power of 180 Watt for 30 minutes. This combination of power and time yielded 42.3% pectin with moisture content, ash content, weight equivalent, methoxyl content and galacturonate levels were 8.08%, 5%, 833.33 mg, 6.51% and 58,08%, respectively. The result finding suggested that microwave-assisted extraction method has a great potency on the commercial pectin production.

  3. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

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    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  4. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity.

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    Kobori, Kinji; Maruta, Yuto; Mineo, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao

    2013-10-14

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO₂ extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO₂ extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO₂ extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  5. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

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    Kinji Kobori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1% and polyphenols (84.7%. The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  6. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.

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    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%.

  7. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential for polyphenol-rich cocoa extract obtained by agroindustrial residue.

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    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Pinheiro Arruda, Mara Silvia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Converti, Attilio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-11-10

    Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract. The extract has a total polyphenol content of 229.64 mg/g and high antioxidant activity according to ABTS 225.0 μM/g. HTPLC analysis confirmed the presence in the extract, residue of terpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. These results, as a whole, suggest that the extract from the cocoa residue has interesting characteristics to alternative crops with potential industrial uses.

  8. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

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    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  9. Evaluation of extraction methods for ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans employing HPLC.

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    Mishra, Rupesh K; Catanante, Gaëlle; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa is an important ingredient for the chocolate industry and for many food products. However, it is prone to contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA), which is highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. In this work, four different extraction methods were tested and compared based on their recoveries. The best protocol was established which involves an organic solvent-free extraction method for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans using 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) in water within 30 min. The extraction method is rapid (as compared with existing methods), simple, reliable and practical to perform without complex experimental set-ups. The cocoa samples were freshly extracted and cleaned-up using immunoaffinity column (IAC) for HPLC analysis using a fluorescence detector. Under the optimised condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for OTA were 0.62 and 1.25 ng ml(-1) respectively in standard solutions. The method could successfully quantify OTA in naturally contaminated samples. Moreover, good recoveries of OTA were obtained up to 86.5% in artificially spiked cocoa samples, with a maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.7%. The proposed extraction method could determine OTA at the level 1.5 µg kg(-)(1), which surpassed the standards set by the European Union for cocoa (2 µg kg(-1)). In addition, an efficiency comparison of IAC and molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) column was also performed and evaluated.

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic extract in Wistar-Unilever rats.

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    Messaoudi, Michaël; Bisson, Jean-François; Nejdi, Amine; Rozan, Pascale; Javelot, Hervé

    2008-12-01

    Depression is a major public health problem affecting about 12% of the world population. Drugs exist but they have many side effects. In the last few years, natural substances (e.g. flavonoids) have been tested to cure such disorders. Cocoa polyphenolic extract is a complex compound prepared from non-roasted cocoa beans containing high levels of flavonoids. The antidepressant-like effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract was evaluated using the forced swimming test in rats. Cocoa polyphenolic extract significantly reduced the duration of immobility at both doses of 24 mg/kg/14 days and 48 mg/kg/14 days, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the two doses tested in the open field. The results of the forced swimming test after a subchronic treatment and after an additional locomotor activity test confirm the assumption that the antidepressant-like effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract in the forced swimming test model is specific. Further, it can be speculated that this effect might be related to its content of active polyphenols.

  11. Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.

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    Calatayud, Marta; López-de-Dicastillo, Carolina; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vélez, Dinoraz; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2013-08-15

    Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A comparison of tissue preparation methods for protein extraction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod

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    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of the main tropical industrial crops. Cocoa has a very high level of interfering substances, such as polysaccharides and phenolic compounds that could prevent the isolation of suitable protein. Efficient methods of protein extraction are a priority to successfully apply proteomic analyses. We compared and evaluated two methods (A and B of tissue preparation for total protein extract by phenol/SDS extraction protocol. The difference in the application of the two methods was that extensively washed dry powder of pod tissue were made in Method A, whereas that crude extract were prepared Method B. Extracted proteins were examined using one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-D. Results show that each extraction method isolated a unique subset of cocoa pod proteome. Principal component analysis showed little variation in the data obtained using Method A, while that in Methods B showed no low reproducibility, thus demonstrating that Method A is a reliable for preparing cocoa pod proteins. The protocol is expected to be applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues and to be of interest to laboratories involved in plant proteomics analyses. A combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based isolation techniques.

  13. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

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    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-10-07

    Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength). LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent. Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

  14. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

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    Laura Dugo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  15. Stability of phenolic compounds in dry fermented sausages added with cocoa and grape seed extracts

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    Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sárraga, Carmen; Guàrdia, M. Dolors; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The level of eleven target phenolic compounds was evaluated in dry fermented sausages added with vegetable extracts. Grape seed (GSE1 and GSE2) and cocoa extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, were added in the formulation of dry fermented sausages (“salchichón” and “fuet”). Evolution of the major monomeric and oligomeric phenolic compounds of these extracts was evaluated during sausage shelf life by UHPLC-MS/MS. Kind of sausage did not affect significantly overall stability of the target comp...

  16. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

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    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P Consumption of cocoa power with milk modulates the lipid profile in high-risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

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    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  18. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

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    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  19. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.

  20. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

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    Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  1. Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.

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    Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

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    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts.

  3. The effectiveness of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn extract gel and cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L extract gel application against the hardness of enamel surface in vitro.

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    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Nowadays several ways  have been evolved  to increase the hardness of the enamel surface as an effort to prevent caries. One of the alternatives that can be used is application of gel with herbal basic material. Material and Methods : The use of herbal basic material is preferred by people because the side effects are relatively small compared to synthetic drugs. Piper betle and cocoa beans are medicinal plants that is often used by people to inhibit caries. This is because piper betle and cocoa beans contain hardness that may influence the enamel surface. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of piper betle extract gel and cocoa bean extract gel against the hardness of enamel surface. The samples, maxillary first premolar teeth, which has been extracted and does not have caries, were divided into 3 treatment groups: piper betle extract gel, cocoa bean extract gel, and distilled water as a negative control. Each treatment group consisted of 8 samples. The samples are decoronated in cemento-enamel junction (CEJ areas and planted on orthoplast blocks with labial surface facing up. Samples were applied in labial enamel surface to 5, 15 and 35 minutes period times. Samples before and after the application in each treatment group were measured using Universal Hardness Tester. Data were collected and analyzed using ANNOVA Repeated test. Results : Showed there were significant differences (p 0.05 of enamel surface hardness before and after the application of piper betel extract gel and distilled water. Conclusion : Therefore it can be concluded that cocoa been extract gel is more effective to increase the hardness of email surface.

  4. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases...... and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate...... of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  5. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    OpenAIRE

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar; Manuel Suárez; Anna Arola-Arnal; M. Angeles Zulet; J. Alfredo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations.Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated.Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention st...

  6. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriá Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

  7. Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Nejdi, Amine; Rozan, Pascale; Hidalgo, Sophie; Lalonde, Robert; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2008-07-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg/kg per d between 15 and 27 months of age, affects the onset of age-related cognitive deficits, urinary free dopamine levels and lifespan in old Wistar-Unilever rats. Acticoa powder improved cognitive performances in light extinction and water maze paradigms, increased lifespan and preserved high urinary free dopamine levels. These results suggest that Acticoa powder may be beneficial in retarding age-related brain impairments, including cognitive deficits in normal ageing and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of cocoa polyphenols in neuroprotection and to explore their effects in man.

  8. COCOA (Theobroma cacao) Polyphenol-Rich Extract Increases the Chronological Lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiges, I; Arola, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction. MEASUREMENTS: Using a high-throughput method, wild-type S. cerevisiae and its mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase null mutant (sod2Δ) were cultured in synthetic complete dextrose medium. After 2 days, 0, 5 and 20 mg/ml of CPE were added, and viability was measured throughout the stationary phase. The effects of the major components of CPE were also evaluated. To determine yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions, cultures were washed with water 24 h after the addition of 0 and 20 mg/ml of CPE, and viability was followed over time. RESULTS : CPE increased the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae during the stationary phase in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase was also observed in (sod2Δ). None of the major CPE components (theobromine, caffeine, maltodextrin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and procyanidin B2) was able to increase the yeast lifespan. CPE further increased the yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction. CONCLUSION: CPE increases the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae through a SOD2-independent mechanism. The extract also extends yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions. The high-throughput assay used makes it possible to simply and rapidly test the efficacy of a large number of compounds on yeast aging, requiring only small amounts, and is thus a convenient screening assay to accelerate

  9. Oxidized LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia); Abete, I. (Itziar); Navas-Carretero, S. (Santiago); Massis-Zaid, A. (A.); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles)

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and results Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m2] were recruited to participate in a 4 week rando...

  10. Assessment of DNA damage using comet assay in middle-aged overweight/obese subjects after following a hypocaloric diet supplemented with cocoa extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Azqueta, Amaya; Lopez de Cerain, Adela; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a

  11. Fast and comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in cocoa products using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography directly after pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Irina; Enger, Eileen; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Schieber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2016-08-01

    Fast methods for the extraction and analysis of various secondary metabolites from cocoa products were developed and optimized regarding speed and separation efficiency. Extraction by pressurized liquid extraction is automated and the extracts are analyzed by rapid reversed-phase ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. After extraction, no further sample treatment is required before chromatographic analysis. The analytes comprise monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, flavonols, methylxanthins, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids, and phenolic acids. Polyphenols and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids are separated in a single run of 33 min, procyanidins are analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography within 16 min, and methylxanthins require only 6 min total run time. A fourth method is suitable for phenolic acids, but only protocatechuic acid was found in relevant quantities. The optimized methods were validated and applied to 27 dark chocolates, one milk chocolate, two cocoa powders and two food supplements based on cocoa extract. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Temporal Dynamics of Regularity Extraction in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, Laure; Fagot, Joël; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the regularities of our environment is one of our core cognitive abilities. To study the fine-grained dynamics of the extraction of embedded regularities, a method combining the advantages of the artificial language paradigm (Saffran, Aslin, & Newport, [Saffran, J. R., 1996]) and the serial response time task (Nissen & Bullemer,…

  13. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  14. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day.

  16. Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, F K

    2010-05-01

    The Maya of Central America are credited with the first consumption of cocoa and maintaining its ancient Olmec name kakawa translated in English as "God Food", in recognition of its multiple health benefits. The legend of cocoa is receiving renewed attention in recent years, on account of epidemiological and scientific studies that support its cardiovascular health benefits. Increasing numbers of scientific reports corroborating cocoa's antiquated reputation as health food persuaded this author to promote regular consumption of cocoa in Ghana since 2004. Cocoa is readily available in Ghana; the country is the second largest producer accounting for 14% of the world's output. Numerous anecdotal reports of reduced episodic malaria in people who daily drink natural unsweetened cocoa beverage prompted a search for scientific mechanisms that possibly account for cocoa's antimalarial effects. This paper presents the outcome as a hypothesis. Internet search for literature on effects of cocoa's ingredients on malaria parasites and illness using a variety of search tools. Evidential literature suggests five mechanisms that possibly underpin cocoa's anecdotal antimalarial effects. (i) Increased availability of antioxidants in plasma, (ii) membrane effects in general and erythrocyte membrane in particular, (iii) increased plasma levels of nitric oxide, (iv) antimalarial activity of cocoa flavanoids and their derivatives, and (v) boosted immune system mediated by components of cocoa including cocoa butter, polyphenols, magnesium, and zinc. A hypothesis is formulated that cocoa offers a diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis; and an additional novel tool in the fight against the legendary scourge.

  17. Regularized generalized eigen-decomposition with applications to sparse supervised feature extraction and sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general technique for obtaining sparse solutions to generalized eigenvalue problems, and call it Regularized Generalized Eigen-Decomposition (RGED). For decades, Fisher's discriminant criterion has been applied in supervised feature extraction and discriminant analysis, and it is for...

  18. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae......, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible...

  19. Context-Specific Metabolic Model Extraction Based on Regularized Least Squares Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semidán Robaina Estévez

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models have proven highly valuable in investigating cell physiology. Recent advances include the development of methods to extract context-specific models capable of describing metabolism under more specific scenarios (e.g., cell types. Yet, none of the existing computational approaches allows for a fully automated model extraction and determination of a flux distribution independent of user-defined parameters. Here we present RegrEx, a fully automated approach that relies solely on context-specific data and ℓ1-norm regularization to extract a context-specific model and to provide a flux distribution that maximizes its correlation to data. Moreover, the publically available implementation of RegrEx was used to extract 11 context-specific human models using publicly available RNAseq expression profiles, Recon1 and also Recon2, the most recent human metabolic model. The comparison of the performance of RegrEx and its contending alternatives demonstrates that the proposed method extracts models for which both the structure, i.e., reactions included, and the flux distributions are in concordance with the employed data. These findings are supported by validation and comparison of method performance on additional data not used in context-specific model extraction. Therefore, our study sets the ground for applications of other regularization techniques in large-scale metabolic modeling.

  20. Regularities of the extraction of rare earth elements with triisoamyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, N.A.; Korpusov, G.V.; Utkina, O.V.; Pogorel'skaya, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made on practically important regularities of rare earth element (REE) extraction by triisoamyl phosphate (TiAP): isotherms of REE extraction, effect of REE and salting-out agents concentrations in aqueous phase on REE distribution and separation coefficients, effect of HNO 3 concentration and others. The data obtained show, that TiAP is the typical representative of neutral organophosphoric compounds, and its extraction properties are close to those of TBP. The third phase doesn't form during REE nitrate extraction by TiAP solutions in saturated hydrocarbons of any concentration. High selectivity is not observed during separation of cerium subgroup REE by TiAP. TiAP losses are lower than those of TBP due to lower TiAP solubility in water

  1. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  2. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fadzillah Basri; Fauziah Abdul Aziz; Mohd Omar, A.K.; Nik Norulaini, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  3. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...... higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.......Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  4. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  5. Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz-Reyes, Cinthya Nathaly; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Roasting and fermentation are key steps in cocoa processing that can be modulated to optimize the presence of health-promoting compounds in the final product. Roasting promote melanoidins formation and polyphenols depolymerization. Results of Forastero and Criollo cocoa beans were processed in

  6. Comparison of clinical parameters and environmental noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for extraction of impacted third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lee, Ming-Shu; Hsu, You-Chyun; Tsai, Shang-Jye; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Impacted third molars can be extracted by regular surgery or piezosurgery. The aim of this study was to compare clinical parameters and device-produced noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for the extraction of impacted third molars. Methods: Twenty patients (18 women and 2 men, 17–29 years of age) with bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular or maxillary third molars of the same level were included in this randomized crossover clinical trial. The 40 impacted third molar...

  7. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Elias Nascimento da; Ramos,Danilo da Cruz; Menezes,Lígia Miranda; Souza,Alexilda Oliveira de; Lannes,Suzana Caetano da Silva; Silva,Marcondes viana da

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary...

  8. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the varimax rotation revealed that the major constraints to adoption of cocoa technologies were socio-cultural, literacy and financial problems. It was therefore recommended that existing farmers' organizations should be strengthened through regular meetings and training by Olam organization to enhance rapid ...

  9. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  10. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, hydroxyl (OH, and nitric oxide (NO] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL, α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart] activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL, NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL, OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL, and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  11. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  12. Procyanidin-rich extract of natural cocoa powder causes ROS-mediated caspase-3 dependent apoptosis and reduction of pro-MMP-2 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Shruti Sanjay; Khanna, Aparna

    2016-10-01

    Over the last four centuries, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value. As of today, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) and its products are consumed worldwide. They are of great research interest because of the concentration dependent antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties of some of their polyphenolic constituents, specially procyanidins and flavan-3-ols such as catechin. This study was aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular changes associated with cytotoxicity, caused due pro-oxidant activity of cocoa catechins and procyanidins, in ovarian cancer cell lines. Extract of non-alkalized cocoa powder enriched with catechins and procyanidins was used to treat human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines OAW42 and OVCAR3 at various concentrations ≤1000μg/mL. The effect of treatment on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was determined. Apoptotic cell death, post treatment, was evaluated microscopically and using flow cytometry by means of annexin-propidium iodide (PI) dual staining. Levels of active caspase-3 as a pro-apoptotic marker and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) as an invasive potential marker were detected using Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Treatment with extract caused an increase in intracellular ROS levels in OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Bright field and fluorescence microscopy of treated cells revealed apoptotic morphology and DNA damage. Increase in annexin positive cell population and dose dependent upregulation of caspase-3 confirmed apoptotic cell death. pro-MMP2 was found to be downregulated in a dose dependent manner in cells treated with the extract. Treated cells also showed a reduction in MMP2 activity. Our data suggests that cocoa catechins and procyanidins are cytotoxic to epithelial ovarian cancer, inducing apoptotic morphological changes, DNA damage and caspase-3 mediated cell death. Downregulation of pro-MMP2 and reduction in active MMP2 levels imply a decrease

  13. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  14. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  15. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  16. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  17. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs.

  18. Comparison of clinical parameters and environmental noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for extraction of impacted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lee, Ming-Shu; Hsu, You-Chyun; Tsai, Shang-Jye; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2015-10-01

    Impacted third molars can be extracted by regular surgery or piezosurgery. The aim of this study was to compare clinical parameters and device-produced noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for the extraction of impacted third molars. Twenty patients (18 women and 2 men, 17-29 years of age) with bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular or maxillary third molars of the same level were included in this randomized crossover clinical trial. The 40 impacted third molars were divided into a control group (n = 20), in which the third molar was extracted by regular surgery using a high-speed handpiece and an elevator, and an experimental group (n = 20), in which the third molar was extracted by piezosurgery using a high-speed handpiece and a piezotome. The clinical parameters were evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. The noise levels produced by the high-speed handpiece and piezotome were measured and compared between the experimental and control groups. Patients in the experimental group had a better feeling about tooth extraction and force delivery during extraction and less facial swelling than patients in the control group. However, there were no significant differences in noise-related disturbance, extraction period, degree of facial swelling, pain score, pain duration, any noise levels produced by the devices under different circumstances during tooth extraction between the control and experimental groups. The piezosurgery device produced noise levels similar to or lower than those of the high-speed drilling device. However, piezosurgery provides advantages of increased patient comfort during extraction of impacted third molars. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  20. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa

  1. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  2. Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, John W; Carson, LeaAnn; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Evans, Ellen M; Allen, Robin R

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as blood pressure. These studies provide direct evidence for the potential cardiovascular benefits of flavanol-containing foods and help to substantiate the epidemiological data. In this review, results from selective published trials with cocoa and chocolate focused on risk for CVD will be discussed along with a study we recently completed evaluating the effects of the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate (CocoaVia?) with and without plant sterol esters on CVD markers in a normotensive population with mild hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate was associated with a significant mean reduction of 5.8 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Together the results of these human dietary intervention trials provide scientific evidence of the vascular effects of cocoa flavanols and suggest that the regular consumption of cocoa products containing flavanols may reduce risk of CVD.

  3. (--Catechin in Cocoa and Chocolate: Occurence and Analysis of an Atypical Flavan-3-ol Enantiomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Galensa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol·L−1 borate buffer (pH 8.5 with 12 mmol·L-1 (2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 μm I.D., +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20°C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (--epicatechin and (+-catechin inunfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (--catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (--epicatechin to its epimer (--catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products.

  4. Some regularities of extraction of rare earth elements by organophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpusov, G.V.; Keimirov, M.A.; Danilov, N.A.; Djumauradov, B.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of extraction of rare earth macroquantities from nitrate solutions by D-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric and 2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric acids. It is shown that extractant selectivity decreases with increase of aqueous phase acidity. The selectivity is usually higher against the background of macroquantities of weakly extracted component, but some times another dependence is observed. It is noted that substitution of the diluent for more polar one which monomerizes extractants, leads to the loss of selectivity. But in small guantities polar diluents provide the stability of the extraction system for formation of sediments. Both sampls of organophosphoric acids provide for extraction process at low HNO 3 concentrations without rick of sediment formati on of extracted compounds in organic phase

  5. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  6. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  7. Determination of the levels of heavy metals in cocoa products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankyi Enock

    2009-06-01

    Fermented and dried cocoa beans from all the major cocoa-producing regions in Ghana were analyzed for levels of the following heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The shells of the beans which usually do not form a part of the edible portion of the beans were removed and analyzed separately from the cocoa nibs (de-shelled beans) for all the elements above. To determine the distribution of metals during processing of the beans soxhlet extractions of fat from pulverised cocoa nibs was performed and cocoa powders obtained analyzed for their levels of heavy metals. Three commercial brands of 'natural' cocoa powders on the local market were also analyzed to determine the levels of these metals. The analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) following a microwave-assisted digestion process. The levels of toxic metals lead, cadmium and arsenic were found to be low (≤ 0.020 μg/g, ≤ 0.087 μg/g, < 0.001 μg/g, respectively) and well within the acceptable limits set by the WHO (0.100 μg/g, 0.100 μg/g, and 0.010 μg/g respectively). However, the levels of zinc copper, iron and manganese were however quite high. With a high fat content of the cocoa beans (approximately 50%) and greater portioning of metals into the non-fat portions of the beans, metals levels were considerably higher (almost double) in processed cocoa than in the cocoa itself. (au)

  8. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  9. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  10. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  11. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Ismail; Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol conte...

  12. Improved high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine theobromine and caffeine in cocoa and cocoa products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura Naik, J

    2001-08-01

    At present, the commonly used HPLC method for the analysis of caffeine and theobromine contents in aqueous cocoa extracts employs direct application of the extracts on the column. This practice gradually reduces the efficiency of the column and shortens its life. Also, this method gives inflated values due to interfering substances and difficulty in achieving baseline resolution. In the improved method, the interfering cocoa pigments are effectively removed by passing the aqueous extract through a Sep-pak C(18) cartridge. Subsequent injection on a C(18) reverse-phase column employing acetonitrile and water (20:80) as the mobile phase reduces the analysis time without affecting either resolution of the peak or the accuracy of caffeine and theobromine determination or achieving baseline resolution. Therefore, this method is ideally suited for rapid routine analysis of cocoa and its products.

  13. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ismail

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components.

  14. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod

  15. The Nigerian Cocoa Farmers and the Fluctuations in World Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of the international economy, such as the 1930s fluctuations in the prices of primary commodities on the world market, affected Nigerian economy and society a great deal. Of all the commodity producers in Nigeria, cocoa farmers were the worst hit. This is because cocoa farmers depended on the world market ...

  16. [Dark or white chocolate? Cocoa and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Perdrix, Jean; Flammer, Andreas J; Noll, Georg

    2010-03-10

    Epidemiological data show that a regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent research indeed demonstrates interesting data about cocoa consumption, with high concentrations of polyphenols, and beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert their benefits on cardiovascular health have been suggested: activation of nitric oxide, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet effects, which might in turn improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance. This article reviews available data about the effects of the consumption of cocoa and different types of chocolate on cardiovascular health, and outlines potential mechanisms involved on the basis of recent studies.

  17. Dry eye evaluation and correlation analysis between tear film stability and corneal surface regularity after small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yan

    2017-09-22

    To investigate the dry eye after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and explore the correlations between changes in the tear film stability, the tear secretion and the corneal surface regularity. Sixty-two eyes of 22 men and 13 women who underwent SMILE were included in this study. Corneal topography was measured to assess the index of surface variance (ISV) and the index of vertical asymmetry (IVA). Dry eye tests including subjective symptom questionnaire, tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining and Schirmer's test (ST) were evaluated before and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. TBUT was found to be significantly decreased from 9.8 ± 3.4 s preoperatively to 7.4 ± 3.8 s at 1 month and 6.5 ± 3.6 s at 6 months (both P short-TBUT type of dry eye. Corneal surface regularity indices might be helpful in the assessment of tear film stability following SMILE procedure.

  18. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  19. s larvae to stored cocoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olufunke oyedokun

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... theobromine levels decrease, which in turn affects the colour, flavor (aroma) of the beans (Lagunes et al., 2007;. Rodriguez-Campos et al., 2011) and the organoleptic properties of the dried cocoa beans in store (Camu et al.,. 2008). Freshly harvested cocoa beans require fermentation for 5 - 7 days before ...

  20. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  1. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nascimento da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH, produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary fiber, flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity using an EC50. It was observed that cocoa honey can be considered a source of bioactive compounds, can be consumed in natura or processed, and used as an ingredient in the chocolate industry and in other food products. However, it is necessary to use complementary methods, such as HPLC, to quantify the phenolic compounds of this by-product.

  2. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB,( Conopomorpha cramerella)has been the single most important limiting factor for cacao production in Southeast Asia.So far, there has been no single cost effective and environmentally safe way to control this pest.This thesis describes the first steps in a biotechnologica...

  3. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp ( Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2018-03-14

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  4. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  5. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  6. Impact of Cocoa Consumption on Inflammation Processes—A Critical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Sabine; Stehle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cocoa flavanols have strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. If these also occur in vivo, cocoa consumption may contribute to the prevention or treatment of diseases mediated by chronic inflammation. This critical review judged the evidence for such effects occurring after cocoa consumption. Methods: A literature search in Medline was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of cocoa consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Thirty-three RCTs were included, along with 9 bolus and 24 regular consumption studies. Acute cocoa consumption decreased adhesion molecules and 4-series leukotrienes in serum, nuclear factor κB activation in leukocytes, and the expression of CD62P and CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils. In healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, most regular consumption trials did not find any changes except for a decreased number of endothelial microparticles, but several cellular and humoral inflammation markers decreased in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions: Little evidence exists that consumption of cocoa-rich food may reduce inflammation, probably by lowering the activation of monocytes and neutrophils. The efficacy seems to depend on the extent of the basal inflammatory burden. Further well-designed RCTs with inflammation as the primary outcome are needed, focusing on specific markers of leukocyte activation and considering endothelial microparticles as marker of vascular inflammation. PMID:27240397

  7. Impact of Cocoa Consumption on Inflammation Processes—A Critical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ellinger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cocoa flavanols have strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. If these also occur in vivo, cocoa consumption may contribute to the prevention or treatment of diseases mediated by chronic inflammation. This critical review judged the evidence for such effects occurring after cocoa consumption. Methods: A literature search in Medline was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that investigated the effects of cocoa consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Thirty-three RCTs were included, along with 9 bolus and 24 regular consumption studies. Acute cocoa consumption decreased adhesion molecules and 4-series leukotrienes in serum, nuclear factor κB activation in leukocytes, and the expression of CD62P and CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils. In healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, most regular consumption trials did not find any changes except for a decreased number of endothelial microparticles, but several cellular and humoral inflammation markers decreased in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions: Little evidence exists that consumption of cocoa-rich food may reduce inflammation, probably by lowering the activation of monocytes and neutrophils. The efficacy seems to depend on the extent of the basal inflammatory burden. Further well-designed RCTs with inflammation as the primary outcome are needed, focusing on specific markers of leukocyte activation and considering endothelial microparticles as marker of vascular inflammation.

  8. Impact of Cocoa Consumption on Inflammation Processes-A Critical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Sabine; Stehle, Peter

    2016-05-26

    Cocoa flavanols have strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. If these also occur in vivo, cocoa consumption may contribute to the prevention or treatment of diseases mediated by chronic inflammation. This critical review judged the evidence for such effects occurring after cocoa consumption. A literature search in Medline was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of cocoa consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Thirty-three RCTs were included, along with 9 bolus and 24 regular consumption studies. Acute cocoa consumption decreased adhesion molecules and 4-series leukotrienes in serum, nuclear factor κB activation in leukocytes, and the expression of CD62P and CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils. In healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, most regular consumption trials did not find any changes except for a decreased number of endothelial microparticles, but several cellular and humoral inflammation markers decreased in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Little evidence exists that consumption of cocoa-rich food may reduce inflammation, probably by lowering the activation of monocytes and neutrophils. The efficacy seems to depend on the extent of the basal inflammatory burden. Further well-designed RCTs with inflammation as the primary outcome are needed, focusing on specific markers of leukocyte activation and considering endothelial microparticles as marker of vascular inflammation.

  9. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs FOOD...

  10. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and...

  11. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa. (a) Description. (1) Breakfast cocoa is the food prepared by pulverizing the material remaining after part of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and...

  12. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  13. Understanding sensory and analytical relationships in cocoa-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Festring, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The distinctive flavour of cocoa or chocolate made from fermented and roasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) is familiar to everybody in the cocoa consuming world. The industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk...

  14. Development of a composite soil degradation assessment index for cocoa agroecosystems in southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenrele Adeniyi, Sunday; de Clercq, Willem Petrus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa agroecosystems are a major land-use type in the tropical rainforest belt of West Africa, reportedly associated with several ecological changes, including soil degradation. This study aims to develop a composite soil degradation assessment index (CSDI) for determining the degradation level of cocoa soils under smallholder agroecosystems of southwestern Nigeria. Plots where natural forests have been converted to cocoa agroecosystems of ages 1-10, 11-40, and 41-80 years, respectively representing young cocoa plantations (YCPs), mature cocoa plantations (MCPs), and senescent cocoa plantations (SCPs), were identified to represent the biological cycle of the cocoa tree. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm in each plot and analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Factor analysis of soil data revealed four major interacting soil degradation processes: decline in soil nutrients, loss of soil organic matter, increase in soil acidity, and the breakdown of soil textural characteristics over time. These processes were represented by eight soil properties (extractable zinc, silt, soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus, total porosity, pH, and clay content). These soil properties were subjected to forward stepwise discriminant analysis (STEPDA), and the result showed that four soil properties (extractable zinc, cation exchange capacity, SOM, and clay content) are the most useful in separating the studied soils into YCP, MCP, and SCP. In this way, we have sufficiently eliminated redundancy in the final selection of soil degradation indicators. Based on these four soil parameters, a CSDI was developed and used to classify selected cocoa soils into three different classes of degradation. The results revealed that 65 % of the selected cocoa farms are moderately degraded, while 18 % have a high degradation status. The numerical value of the CSDI as an objective index of soil degradation

  15. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  17. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  18. Effect of extracts of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... Ridomil ® on growth on the black pod disease of cocoa. These extracts ... disease in cocoa beans production and causes up to ..... Trichoderma from the Amazon basin of South. America. Mycological Progress 3 (3): 199-210.

  19. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  20. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  2. Cocoa Polyphenols: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests potential preventive effects of chocolate/cocoa on the risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). However, cocoa products also contain high levels of sugar and fat, which increase CVD risk factors. Even, the identity of the substance in chocolate/cocoa that has a favorable effect on CVD and CVD risk factors remains unclear, growing evidence from experimental studies suggests that cocoa polyphenols might be a major contributor to cardiovascular-protective effects. However, epidemiological studies, which are necessary to evaluate an association between the risk of CVD and cocoa polyphenol, remain sparse. We will discuss recent evidence regarding the association between cocoa polyphenol consumption and the risks of CVD and its risk factors by reviewing recent epidemiological studies. We shall also provide some guidance for patient counseling and will discuss the public health implications for recommending cocoa polyphenol consumption to prevent CVD. Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between cocoa polyphenol itself and the risk of CVD are sparse. However, evidence from limited epidemiological studies suggests that cocoa polyphenol consumption may lower the risk of CVD. Given the potential adverse effects of the consumption of cocoa products with high fat and sugar and the fact that the most appropriate dose of cocoa polyphenol for cardio-protective effects has not yet been established, health care providers should remain cautious about recommending cocoa/cocoa polyphenol consumption to their patients to reduce the risk of CVD, taking the characteristics of individual patients into careful consideration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Comparison of clinical parameters and environmental noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for extraction of impacted third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hueng Chang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The piezosurgery device produced noise levels similar to or lower than those of the high-speed drilling device. However, piezosurgery provides advantages of increased patient comfort during extraction of impacted third molars.

  4. PENGARUH JUMLAH PELARUT ETANOL DAN SUHU FRAKSINASI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK LEMAK KAKAO HASIL EKSTRAKSI NON ALKALIZED COCOA POWDER [The effect of amount of ethanol solvent and temperature fractionation on the characteristic of cocoa fat from the extracti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Susanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and its derivative products are examples of very potential  export comdities that could contributed to an increase in foreign exchange.  The extraction of non-alkalized cocoa powder resulted in pure cocoa extract as  the main product and cocoa fat as by product.  Cocoa fat can be exploited further to produce some final products, either food or non food products.    This research was aimed to study the effects of ethanol addition for extraction and fractionation temperature on the characteristic of cocoa fat.  This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design with two factor treatments and three replications.  The first factor was quantity of ethanol 450 ml, 600 ml, and 750 ml, and the second factor was temperature for fractionation 15oC, 18oC, and 21oC.  The data obtained were analyzed using Bartlett test for homogenity.  Tuckey Test was used for analyzing their additivity, then the data were analyzed using ANOVA to see differences among treatments.  The data were further  tested using Least Significant Difference at of 5%  level of significancy to find the best characteristic.  The results  showed that the best characteristic of cocoa fat obtained from the treatment of the addition of 750 ml ethanol and fractionation temperature 15oC.  It resulted in fat yield of 35.0382%, fat content of 86.742%, its flavor was close to characteristic of cocoa flavor ,and the composition of unsaturated fatty acids was 49, 71% of the total fatty acids. Keywords: cocoa fat, ethanol solvent, fractionation temperature

  5. Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Charley W; Nriagu, Jerome O; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K; Arowolo, Toyin A; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A Russell

    2005-10-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548-1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344-2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475-1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234-2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

  6. Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-11-12

    Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting.

  7. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    OpenAIRE

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...

  8. Cocoa farming in Indonesia: Present Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses major constraints facing most recently cocoa farming in Indonesia. Critique of National cocoa revitalization program and dealing with these issues are discussed as well. Several recommendations are expressed. The global consumption of chocolate has risen twofold over the past two decades and chocolate demand is predicted to rise a quarter in the next decade. As the third largest cocoa producer in the world, Indonesia is keen to contribute more and more in the world ch...

  9. Some regularities in formation and solvent extraction of complexes in metal-salicylic acid or its derivative- organic base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Tikhomirova, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of concentrations of the reagents, pH and solvent on the conditions for the formation and extraction of Sc, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th complexes has been examined in salicylic acid (H 2 Sal)-heterocyclic amine systems. The extraction chemism and factors, which affect the reactions between the metal ions and the ligands, are discussed. It has been shown that Zr, Hf, Ti form species of ion associate type, Sc and Th form different-ligand complexes under conditions for interphase equilibrium in a Me-H 2 Sal-heterocyclic amine system

  10. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  11. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with mark...

  12. The establishment and early yield of cocoa intercropped with food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cocoa-food crop intercropping trial was set up in 1988 at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo. The effects of plantain, cassava, and maize as intercrops with cocoa only and in their various combinations on the establishment, growth of the cocoa, and the profitability of the food crops were studied in a randomized ...

  13. Economic efficiency of cocoa production in Ghana | Aneani | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production among cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm input on cocoa farms. A random sample of 300 farmers was selected in six cocoa growing districts in ...

  14. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  15. Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Alamilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During cocoa beans roasting, there are physicochemical changes that develop the chocolate quality attributes. Roasting systems have a particular influence on the development of these characteristics, and the effects of operation variables for each system must be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of roasting time and temperature in a rotatory system on cocoa beans physicochemical parameters of quality as moisture, water activity, pH, total acidity, color (L⁎,a⁎,b⁎, total phenolic content (TPC, and DPPH radical capacity. Cocoa beans were roasted as a function with a central rotatable design with 22 + 5 central points and 4 axial points (-1.414, -1, 0, +1, and +1,414 and a response surface methodology was applied. Temperature and time levels were 110–170°C and 5–65 minutes, respectively. The effect of the variables was nonlinear and modeled with a second-order response polynomial. Roasting time and temperature presented a significative effect (p<0.05 on the response variables except for both TPC and DPPH radical capacity in aqueous extract.

  16. Overview of the cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella is one of the most devastating pests of cocoa in Southeast Asia. This pest is currently responsible of a 40-60% loss of the cocoa production, which is worth about $500 million annually for the Indonesian cocoa industry alone. Because the cocoa industry in Indonesia is mainly ...

  17. Milk does not affect the bioavailability of cocoa powder flavonoid in healthy human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Elena; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Mata-Bilbao, M Lourdes; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2007-01-01

    The beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols depend on the amount consumed, their bioavailability and the biological activities of the formed conjugates. The food matrix is one the factors than can affect their bioavailability, but previous studies have concluded rather contradictory results about the effect of milk on the bioavailability of polyphenols. The objective was to evaluate the possible interaction of milk on the absorption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Ec) from cocoa powder in healthy humans. 21 volunteers received three interventions in a randomized crossover design with a 1-week interval (250 ml of whole milk (M-c) (control), 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml of whole milk (CC-M), and 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved with 250 ml of water (CC-W)). Quantification of (-)-Ec in plasma was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis prior to a solid-phase extraction procedure. 2 h after the intake of the two cocoa beverages, (-)-Ec-glucuronide was the only (-)-Ec metabolite detected, showing a mean (SD) plasma concentration of 330.44 nmol/l (156.1) and 273.7 nmol/l (138.42) for CC-W and CC-M, respectively (p = 0.076). Cocoa powder dissolved in milk as one of the most common ways of cocoa powder consumption seems to have a negative effect on the absorption of polyphenols; however, statistical analyses have shown that milk does not impair the bioavailability of polyphenols and thus their potential beneficial effect in chronic and degenerative disease prevention. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Study of some chemical and physical quality parameters of irradiated cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegeman, H.; Kooij, J.G. van

    1980-12-01

    Cocoa beans were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 kGy. To prevent decay of cocoa beans by moulds a radiation dose of at least 4 kGy appears necessary for long storage at 28 0 C and 80% relative humidity. Storage of cocoa beans, whether irradiated or not, at relative humidity of 95% was found to be unsuitable owing to a rapid deterioration in bean quality. The radiation dose for preventing mould growth could be reduced by using a combination of decontamination methods. Treatment with infrared light followed by irradiation with gamma rays permits the radiation dose required for mould control on cocoa beans to be reduced by a factor of 2. Radiation-induced chemical and organoleptical changes after roasting of the cocoa beans were investigated. The nibs were carefully separated from the irradiated and untreated beans and roasted at 130 0 C and at 140 0 C respectively. The roasted nibs were ground and then pulverized. The flakes were tested organoleptically as cocoa drinks. Untreated and irradiated cocoa bean samples were analyzed for fat, theobromine and crude fiber contents. Cocoa butter extracted from the beans of each sample was analyzed for fatty acid composition and various chemical and physical characteristics. The higher roasting temperature resulted certainly in an improved sensoric quality of the cocoa flakes of both untreated and irradiated beans. No organoleptic difference was found in cocoa drinks between prepared from irradiated and untreated beans roasted at 140 0 C. Results of chemical analyses of untreated and irradiated beans showed no detectable difference. The solidification point of cocoa butter was found to decrease with increasing radiation doses

  19. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Janek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors” (Janek et al., 2016 [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. Keywords: Aspartic protease, Cleavage sites, Cocoa, In-vitro proteolysis, Mass spectrometry, Peptides

  20. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  1. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  2. Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

    2013-10-01

    Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

  3. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Anderson D.B.; Mansur Neto, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  4. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Anderson D.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Varginha, MG (Brazil); Mansur Neto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Crescenti

    Full Text Available DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001. Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  6. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  7. Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

  8. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  9. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  10. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    , liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...... was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology......The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs...

  11. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  12. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  13. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  14. TOWARDS MORE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COCOA TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa is a classic Third World cash crop. It is produced mostly by small, poor farmers in Africa, while its products - chocolate and sun tan oil - are consumed by rich consumers in North America and Europe. A few West African economies are highly dependent on foreign exchange earned from cocoa sales. It has therefore been targeted by Oxfam's Fair Trade initiative, and IITA's Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP) is launching an effort of become more aligned with consumer's social preferences....

  15. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehí, Josep

    2004-10-06

    In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by performing replicate analyses of uncontaminated cocoa material spiked at three different levels of OTA (1, 2, and 5 microg/kg). The data obtained were related on the acceptable safe daily exposure for OTA. The highest levels of OTA were detected in roasted cocoa shell and cocoa cake (0.1-23.1 microg/kg) and only at minor levels in the other cocoa products. Twenty-six cocoa and chocolate samples were free from detectable OTA (cocoa powder 38.7% of the samples analyzed contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.1 to 2 microg/kg, and 54.8% was contaminated at >2 microg/kg (and 12 samples at >3 microg/kg). Ochratoxin A was detected in cocoa bean at levels from 0.1 to 3.5 microg/kg, the mean concentration being 0.45 microg/kg; only one sample exceeded 2 microg/kg (4.7%). In contrast, 51.2% of cocoa cake samples contained OTA at levels > or =2 microg/kg, among which 16 exceeded 5 microg/kg (range of 5-9 microg/kg). These results indicate that roasted cocoa powder is not a major source of OTA in the diet.

  17. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackar, Djurdjica; Valek Lendić, Kristina; Valek, Marina; Šubarić, Drago; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Nedić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  18. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  19. Spatial-temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll and its relationship with cocoa yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caique C. Medauar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial-temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll index and its relationship with cocoa yield. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of cocoa production located in Ilhéus, Bahia State, Brazil. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured in September, October, January, February, March and April in the 2014/2015 season, at each sampling point of a regular grid by using a portable chlorophyll meter. Under the same conditions, yield was evaluated and the data were submitted to descriptive statistics and a linear correlation study. Geostatistical analysis was used to determine and quantify the spatial and temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll index and yield. Leaf chlorophyll index varied over the period evaluated, but the months of February, March and April showed no spatial dependence in the study area, indicating absence of temporal stability. Cocoa monthly yield, except in January, presented high spatial variability. Under the conditions of this study, it was not possible to establish a relationship between leaf chlorophyll index and cocoa yield.

  20. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  1. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  2. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Registered Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; ... Key words: socio-economics, characteristics, registered cocoa farmers. ... international exchange market in two world currencies ...

  3. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan,

  4. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana. ... A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. 551 training needs assessment of cocoa farmers association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of. Nigeria. .... attention to soil management by cooca farmers as one of ..... in cocoa production in Ghana (Pilot survey). Retrieved ...

  6. How can the productivity of Indonesian cocoa farms be increased?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothmihaly, A.; Ingram, V.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the Indonesian cocoa production to reveal the possibilities for poverty alleviation while considering the threats to environmental sustainability. We estimate, based on a large household panel data set and stochastic frontier analysis, the technical efficiency of cocoa

  7. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M; Caimari, Antoni; Del Bas, Josep M; Anguera, Anna; Anglés, Neus; Arola, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d) for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, pcocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process. Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  8. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; pcocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were invited to...

  10. Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ( Theobroma Cacao ) Yields in Meme Division, South West Region of Cameroon. ... Farm selection was based on age, consistency of sizes and management practices in an attempt to keep the factors affecting cocoa yield constant. Data on cocoa yield, flowering, ...

  11. Awareness and effects of climate change on cocoa production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This, according to reports, resulted from climate failure, among other factors. In the light of this, this study examined awareness and effects of climate change on cocoa production in Ondo State, the Nigeria's leading cocoa producing state. Specifically, the study decribed socio-‐economic characteristics of cocoa farmers in ...

  12. Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated the technical efficiency of cocoa producers and the socioeconomic factors influencing technical efficiency and identified the constraints to cocoa production. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 180 cocoa farmers who were interviewed for the study. Data on the inputs used and ...

  13. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture...

  14. Analysis of economic efficiency in cocoa production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production of the cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm inputs on cocoa farms and policy recommendation. A random sample of 300 farmers in the Eastern, Ashanti ...

  15. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  16. Influence of the position of detached cocoa pod inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) to determine if there were any interactions between Phytophthora infection at the distal, proximal and mid-region positions of cocoa pods. The number and size of lesions in nine different cocoa clones were counted and measured at the three ...

  17. Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian cocoa production has declined compared to the existing situation before oil discovery in the early 1970s. This decline has been linked to the presence of old cocoa varieties on cocoa plantations and incidence of pests and diseases. Sustainable Tree Crop Programme (STCP)| -Nigeria established Community ...

  18. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  19. Farmers' compliance with the use of approved cocoa pesticides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey evaluates the awareness and level of compliance in the use of approved cocoa pesticides by local farmers in selected cocoa producing states of Nigeria. Thirty farmers were randomly selected in Kwara, Ogun and Osun States. More than 70 percent of the farmers were aware of banned cocoa pesticides.

  20. Cocoa Farmers Attitude towards Utilisation of Integrated Pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined cocoa farmers' attitude towards the utilization of integrated pest management (IPM) in Edo and Ogun States of Nigeria. In Edo State, 60 respondents were randomly selected out of 100 trained cocoa farmers. Random selection of 60 respondents from registered cocoa farmers that were not trained in IPM ...

  1. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to suboptimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun: Reply to Norgrove (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Asten, Piet Van; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Resilience of cocoa agroforestry vs. full sun under extreme climatic conditions. In the specific case of our study, the two shade tree species associated with cocoa resulted in strong competition for water and became a disadvantage to the cocoa plants contrary to expected positive effects. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  3. COCOA: Simulating Observations of Star Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.

  4. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  5. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  6. Intercropping cocoa with fruit trees : Innovative systems in cocoa cultivation. Setting up a new plot on fallows or savannah areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgoing, Raymond; Todem, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of the 80s, cocoa growers in Cameroon have experienced a low level of income due, among others, to the low productivity of cocoa trees. The average yield is estimated at about 300 kg of dried cocoa beans per hectare. The low level of adoption of the results and recommendations of cocoa research as well as the fact that the technologies developed do not respond to the real needs of the producers are among the causes of the low yields observed in cocoa farms. In addition, the insu...

  7. Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Rong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1 normal chow (N; (2 high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt (HF; (3 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG; (4 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG; (5 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC; and (6 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC. From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a body weight, (b fat pad mass, (c liver weight, (d total liver lipid, (e liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol. These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  8. Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

  9. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  10. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine  as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa

  13. The effects of cocoa on the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T-cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of Th2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  14. The effects of cocoa on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  15. Impact of shade and cocoa plant densities on soil organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    There were no soil organic carbon sequestration in the highest cocoa plant ... It is concluded that cocoa farming could be an effective means to mitigate carbon dioxide ... growth and yield of cocoa at the CRIG substation Bunso (060 13' N,.

  16. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield.

  17. Classifying Physical Morphology of Cocoa Beans Digital Images using Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawi, Armin; Adhitya, Yudhi

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the quality of cocoa beans through morphology of their digital images. Samples of cocoa beans were scattered on a bright white paper under a controlled lighting condition. A compact digital camera was used to capture the images. The images were then processed to extract their morphological parameters. Classification process begins with an analysis of cocoa beans image based on morphological feature extraction. Parameters for extraction of morphological or physical feature parameters, i.e., Area, Perimeter, Major Axis Length, Minor Axis Length, Aspect Ratio, Circularity, Roundness, Ferret Diameter. The cocoa beans are classified into 4 groups, i.e.: Normal Beans, Broken Beans, Fractured Beans, and Skin Damaged Beans. The model of classification used in this paper is the Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (MELS-SVM), a proposed improvement model of SVM using ensemble method in which the separate hyperplanes are obtained by least square approach and the multiclass procedure uses One-Against- All method. The result of our proposed model showed that the classification with morphological feature input parameters were accurately as 99.705% for the four classes, respectively.

  18. Determination of Selection Index of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Yield Traits Using Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Bayu; Taryono; Mitrowihardjo, Suyadi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing chocolate consumption has not been followed by growing production of dry cocoa beans. In order to support the increase in cocoa production, planting materials with high yield are needed. The objective of this research was to determine the components of cocoa traits affecting weight of dry cocoa beans, and set a selection index for superior cocoa trees. The experiment material were four cocoa hybrid populations of which their family ancestry were unknown, and were planted on Sam...

  19. Effect of cocoa bean irradiation on sensory quality of processed cocoa products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bah, F.A.; Appiah, V.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Akomea-Adjei, F.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa is the traditional export crop for Ghana. Its beans are susceptible to insect attack and microbial contamination, both of which reduce their quality. Irradiation has been reported as effective in insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination of the bean, without adversely affecting the chemical and organoleptic quality of its products. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effect that irradiation of the beans at the appropriate doses, had on the sensory quality of processed products stored up to their 'best before date', which is approximately one year. Cocoa beans irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 5 kGy, for insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination respectively, were used to prepare chocolate bars and cocoa powder. The products were stored for a year, at room temperature of 18±2 C , and their sensory quality evaluated after 4, 7, 10 and 11 months production. Multiple comparison test was used to determine the effect that the irradiation doses had on the taste, colour and flavour of the products during the storage period while preference test was used to determine consumer acceptability and preference. After 4 months storage, the I kGy cocoa powder differed significantly (p<0.05) from the non-irradiated and 5 kGy samples in terms of colour while after 7 months storage, there was significant difference in both taste and flavour, between the irradiated and non-irradiated cocoa powders. After 10 and I I months of storage, the colours of the irradiated cocoa powders significantly differed (p< O. 01) from the non-irradiated one and also from each other. The chocolate bars did not differ significantly from each other in terms of all the 3 measurable attributes. Differences that were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cocoa powders were slight and did not render the irradiated samples unacceptable to the consumer panel. (au)

  20. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  1. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  2. Determination of Flavanols and Procyanidins (DP 1-10) in Cocoa-Based Ingredients and Products by UHPLC: First Action 2013.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Dowell, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Single-laboratory validation data were reviewed by the Expert Review Panel (ERP) of the Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods at the AOAC Mid-Year Meeting, March 12-14, 2013, in Rockville, MD. The ERP determined that the data presented met established standard method performance requirements and adopted a method for determination of flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) in cocoa-based ingredients and products by ultra-HPLC as AOAC Official First Action Method 2013.03 on March 14, 2013. The flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) are eluted using a binary gradient (solvents A and B) consisting of 98 + 2 (v/v) acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (A) and 95 + 3 + 2 (v/v/v) methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (B). The mobile phase is applied to a diol stationary phase. Detection occurs using fluorescence detection. Recovery of flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) from both high- and low-fat matrixes was 98.4-99.8%. Precision was determined for seven different sample types (cocoa extract, cocoa nib, natural cocoa powder, cocoa liquor, alkalized cocoa powder, dark chocolate, and milk chocolate).

  3. Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Garcia-Diz, Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17 g, 43.8 mg and 168.6 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3.74 g, 45.3 mg and 109.8 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) on cardiovascular health were assessed in two controlled, cross-over studies in free-living normocholesterolemic and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Both products increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations, whereas only DFCP decreased glucose and IL-1β levels in all subjects. Flavanols appeared to be responsible for the increase in HDL-cholesterol, whereas insoluble-dietary-fibre and theobromine in DFCP were associated with the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Black pod: diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, David

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes significant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The global and highly damaging P. palmivora attacks all parts of the cocoa tree at all stages of the growing cycle. This pathogen causes 20 to 30% pod losses through black pod rot, and kills up to 10% of trees annually through stem cankers. P. palmivora has a complex disease cycle involving several sources of primary inoculum and several modes of dissemination of secondary inoculum. This results in explosive epidemics during favorable environmental conditions. The spread of regional pathogens must be prevented by effective quarantine barriers. Resistance to all these Phytophthora species is typically low in commercial cocoa genotypes. Disease losses can be reduced through integrated management practices that include pruning and shade management, leaf mulching, regular and complete harvesting, sanitation and pod case disposal, appropriate fertilizer application and targeted fungicide use. Packaging these options to improve uptake by smallholders presents a major challenge for the industry.

  5. Cocoa Flavanol Supplementation Influences Skin Conditions of Photo-Aged Women: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jong Rhan; Park, Gyeong Yul; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of dietary antioxidants is considered to be a good strategy against photo-aging. However, the results of previous clinical trials that investigated the effects of oral consumption of high-flavanol cocoa products on skin photo-aging have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-flavanol cocoa supplementation would improve the moderately photo-aged facial skin of female participants, by assessing skin wrinkles and elasticity. We performed a 24-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation of cocoa flavanols on cutaneous photo-aging. All participants were moderately photo-aged Korean women with visible facial wrinkles (age range: 43-86 y). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo beverage or cocoa beverage that contained 320 mg total cocoa flavanols/d. We measured wrinkles, skin elasticity, and hydration at baseline and at 12 and 24 wk. The primary endpoint was the mean percentage change in the average roughness value (Rz) at 24 wk. At 24 wk, the mean percentage change in Rz (primary endpoint) was significantly lower in the cocoa group than in the placebo group (-8.7 percentage points; 95% CI: -16.1, -1.3 percentage points; P = 0.023). The mean percentage changes in gross elasticity, as determined by a cutometer, also differed between the groups at 12 wk (9.1 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.5, 16.7 percentage points; P = 0.020) and 24 wk (8.6 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.2 percentage points; P = 0.027). However, there were no significant differences in skin hydration and barrier integrity between the 2 groups. In moderately photo-aged women, regular cocoa flavanol consumption had positive effects on facial wrinkles and elasticity. Cocoa flavanol supplementation may contribute to the prevention of the progression of photo-aging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060097. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The ENSO Impact on Predicting World Cocoa Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilava, David; Helmers, Claes Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa beans are produced in equatorial and sub-equatorial regions of West Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. These are also the regions most affected by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) -- a climatic anomaly affecting temperature and precipitation in many parts of the world. Thus, ENSO, has a potential of affecting cocoa production and, subsequently, prices on the world market. This study investigates the benefits of using a measure of ENSO variable in world cocoa price forecasting ...

  7. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Magrone; Matteo Antonio Russo; Emilio Jirillo; Emilio Jirillo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothe...

  8. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  9. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  10. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  11. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L. MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L. PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L. NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5, adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada, sendo que a análise de atividade enzimática foi realizada, utilizando-se de catecol como substrato. As características bioquímicas apresentadas foram pH de estabilidade de 6,0 a 6,5 e temperatura de estabilidade de 10 a 30°C. Os "nibs" foram autoclavados (121°C por 15 minutos e não autoclavados de amêndoas cruas insuficientemente fermentadas e secas, da mesma origem, sendo embebidas em 25 mL de uma solução da enzima contendo 200 unidades/min/mL, durante 30; 60; 90; 210 e 360 minutos, a 23°C e pH 6,0. Os "nibs" foram homogeneizados com a solução de enzima a cada 15 minutos, secos, moídos e desengordurados. Após o tratamento enzimático durante 210 minutos realizado nos "nibs" de cacau desengordurado não autoclavados foi possível observar diminuição de 15% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 15% de taninos, 10% de flavan-3-ois e 18% de antocianidinas. Os "nibs" de cacau desengordurado autoclavados apresentaram diminuição de 25% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 26% de taninos, 23% de flavan-3-ois e 51% de antocianidinas.The present work had as aim to study the obtaining and the uses of polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO extracted from ripe custard apple pulp on the reduction of polyphenolic compounds with decrease adstringency and bitterness of cocoa nuts processed at nibs form. The PPO was extracted with 0.025M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, adding ammonium sulfate to the enzyme precipitation. The powdered

  12. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  13. Cocoa and Objective-C Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Build solid applications for Mac OS X, iPhone, and iPod Touch, regardless of whether you have basic programming skills or years of programming experience. With this book, you'll learn how to use Apple's Cocoa framework and the Objective-C language through step-by-step tutorials, hands-on exercises, clear examples, and sound advice from a Cocoa expert. Cocoa and Objective-C: Up and Running offers just enough theory to ground you, then shows you how to use Apple's rapid development tools -- Xcode and Interface Builder -- to develop Cocoa applications, manage user interaction, create great UIs,

  14. Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L

    2013-09-26

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  15. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hern?n Cort?s?s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America?ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa?s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in ...

  17. Detection of regularities in variation in geomechanical behavior of rock mass during multi-roadway preparation and mining of an extraction panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, AB; Pavlova, LD; Fryanov, VN

    2018-03-01

    The results of numerical simulation of the stress–strain state in a rock block and surrounding mass mass under multi-roadway preparation to mining are presented. The numerical solutions obtained by the nonlinear modeling and using the constitutive relations of the theory of elasticity are compared. The regularities of the stress distribution in the vicinity of the pillars located in the zone of the abutment pressure of are found.

  18. Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik Jan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate.

  19. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes.

  1. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Van Asten, Piet; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall, and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 g cm -2  day -1 , whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 g cm -2  day -1 . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 g cm -2  day -1 ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm -2  day -1 ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under

  2. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  3. A Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME method for the chromatographic determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Gláucia F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME procedure for isolation and determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa liquor, using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID for the separation and detection of the analytes, is presented here. The HS-SPME operational conditions were optimized using extractions of samples spiked with known amounts of alkylpyrazines typically found on cocoa products. The maximum extraction efficiency was obtained using SPME fibers coated with 65 µm Carbowax/divinylbenzene. Additionally, the best results were achieved with extraction temperature of 60 ºC, 15 min of sample/headspace equilibration time and 45 min extraction time. It was also observed that suspending the samples in saturated aqueous NaCl solution during extractions resulted in a significant increment on the peak areas. This procedure was found to be effective to determine the so-called pyrazinic ratios (quotient between peak areas of alkylpyrazines, which are useful as quality parameters for cocoa liquor.

  4. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  5. Polyphenols from cocoa and vascular health-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E

    2009-11-20

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  6. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Using the random sampling technique, well-structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from 120 cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. The mean technical ...

  7. Recovery of carbonates and hydroxides from cocoa pod ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashes of cocoa pods contain alkali which is traditionally leached out and used to produce 'alata' soap. Ghana's Institute of Industrial Research has tested a pilot plant that produces liquid soap from cocoa pod ash, waste lime (Ca(OH)2), and palm kernel oil by initially converting the potassium carbonate in the leachate to ...

  8. Metabolomics as a research tool for coffee and cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean

  9. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...

  10. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2779–2811. PMID:21470061

  11. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  12. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...

  13. Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.; Sugiarit, H.; Santoso, D.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the cloning of a cDNA from TcAG, an AG (Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box C-type transcription factor gene AGAMOUS) homologue from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). TcAG was in the cocoa flower expressed primarily in stamens and ovaries, comparable to AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, we found that

  14. Cocoa introductions into Ghana | Abdul-Karimu | Ghana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This material collected in the Upper Amazon region has been particularly successful, suggesting that cacao would be greatly improved if more germplasm material were provided for use by breeders. Maintaining adequate genetic variability in cocoa germplasm collection, essential for sustainable cocoa production, can be ...

  15. Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products in the West African sub-region, namely cassava peel, plantain peel and cocoa pod husk have been analyzed to determine the content of protein, lipid, starch, soluble sugars and fibre. Cocoa pod husk contained the highest amount of ...

  16. variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa ... The 4 aforementioned hybrids could be used to produce cocoa aroma, ... hybrids using a multivariate approach. .... 3 clusters and variables was assessed through ... function, and (iv) analysis of the representation quality. Thus, the number of ...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  18. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-11-15

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks.

  19. Socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...

  20. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  1. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determinants of adoption of IPM among cocoa farmers were investigated in Cross Rivers State, 271 trained cocoa farmers were systematically selected out of 2704 while in Osun State 107 were selected out of 1070. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on respondents' socio-economic characteristics, ...

  2. Cocoa in Ikom: Origin and cultivation | Eba | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a look generally at the origin of cocoa in Nigeria, with particular reference to Ikom Local Government Area in Cross River State. The paper addresses Ikom from the generic perspective to include Etung and Boki Local Government Areas. Apart from the origin and spread of cocoa into Nigeria and Ikom, the ...

  3. A socio-economic survey among cocoa farmers on fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-economic survey was conducted in some districts of the six cocoa growing regions of Ghana to provide information for adjustment of government's fertilizer use policy on cocoa farms. The study's objectives were to determine the proportion of farmers applying fertilizer to their farms, investigate the fertilizer application ...

  4. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika E. Wagner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  5. Cocoa Farmers' Perception of the Effect of World Trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of cocoa farmers of the effect of the standards of the World Trade Organisation on cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select farmers in the area covered by the project and primary data were collected through the use of a structured ...

  6. Insect assemblage and the pollination system in cocoa ecosystems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Key words: Cocoa, pollinators, insect assemblage, Forcipomyia spp, pollination system. INTRODUCTION ... that the ecological prediction of plant reproductive successes and ..... non-interaction between some resident insects and the cocoa plant might be as a result of evolution of floral structure of the ...

  7. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  8. Variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated cocoa species (Theobroma cacao L.) is originated from tropical rainforests of South and Central America. Its fermented and dried seeds constitute the raw material for the chocolate manufacture. In order to analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa hybrids, the typological and ...

  9. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg

    2017-09-01

    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  10. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  11. The influence of process parameters on gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  12. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Djédjé Dano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg, fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg, drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg, and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg. No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed.

  13. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Some Selected Cocoa Beverages in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Ibigbami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17 OCP residues using gas chromatography coupled with an Electron Captured Detector (GC-ECD after extraction and silica-gel clean-up. The study reveals the presence of ten OCP residues in the cocoa beverages, with a concentration range from not detected ND—0.256 mg/kg, while α-BHC, β-BHC, methoxychlor, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulphate were not detected in any of the analysed samples. The contamination pattern of OCPs in the beverages was in the following order: Ovaltine > Milo > Cadbury-choco > Bournvita > Cowbell-coffee > Richoco > Oluji, with p,p′-DDT being the most frequently found pesticide. Heptachlor and endosulfan II showeda residual level above the European Union (EU Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs in only one sample.

  14. Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Velpen, van der V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Kamphuis, H.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library

  15. Optimization of Culture Medium for the Growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. as Starter Culture in Fermentation of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, N H; Zakuan, Z; Norhayati, H; MeorHussin, A S; Rukayadi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract. Maximum growth of Candida sp. (7.63 log CFU mL-1) and Blastobotrys sp. (8.30 log CFU mL-1) were obtained from the fermentation. Optimum culture media for the growth of Candida sp., consist of 10% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract, while for Blastobotrys sp., were 1.94% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract. This study shows that culture medium consists of molasses and yeast extract were able to produce maximum growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp., as a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

  16. Using Poisson-regularized inversion of Bremsstrahlung emission to extract full electron energy distribution functions from x-ray pulse-height detector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We measured Electron Energy Distribution Functions (EEDFs) from below 200 eV to over 8 keV and spanning five orders-of-magnitude in intensity, produced in a low-power, RF-heated, tandem mirror discharge in the PFRC-II apparatus. The EEDF was obtained from the x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) using a novel Poisson-regularized spectrum inversion algorithm applied to pulse-height spectra that included both Bremsstrahlung and line emissions. The XEDF was measured using a specially calibrated Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) pulse-height system with 125 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. The algorithm is found to out-perform current leading x-ray inversion algorithms when the error due to counting statistics is high.

  17. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  18. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  19. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  20. Dynamics of insect pollinators as influenced by cocoa production systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is strictly entomophilous but studies on the influence of the ecosystem on insect pollinators in cocoa production systems are limited. The abundance of cocoa pollinators and pod-set of cocoa as influenced by a gradient of farm distances from natural forest and proportion of plantain/banana clusters in or adjacent to cocoa farms were therefore investigated. Cocoa pollinators trapped were predominantly ceratopogonid midges hence, analyses were based on their population. Variation in farm distance to forest did neither influence ceratopogonid midge abundance nor cocoa pod-set. However, we found a positive relationship between pollinator abundance and fruit set and the proportion of plantain/banana intercropped with cocoa. The results suggest appropriate cocoa intercrop can enhance cocoa pollination, and the current farming system in Ghana can conveniently accommodate such interventions without significant changes in farm practices.

  1. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  2. Analysis of the Financial Cost of Diabetes Mellitus in Four Cocoa Clinics of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Ernest Attuquaye; Amporful, Edward O; Akweongo, Patricia; Aikins, Moses K

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the financial cost of managing diabetes mellitus in four Cocoa clinics of Ghana. A descriptive cross-sectional study of diabetes management was carried out in the four Cocoa clinics of Ghana from January to December 2009. The "cost-of-illness" approach from the institutional perspective was used. A pretested data extraction form was used to review the medical records of 304 randomly selected diabetic patients. The patients' mean age was 55.4 ± 9.4 years. The mean annual financial cost of managing one diabetic case at the clinics was estimated to be Ghana cedi (GHS) 540.35 (US $372.65). Service cost constituted 22% of the cost, whereas direct medical cost constituted 78% of the cost. Drug cost was 71% of the financial cost. The cost of hospitalization per patient-day at Cocoa clinics was estimated at GHS 32.78 (US $22.61). The total financial cost of diabetes management was estimated at GHS 420,087.67 (US $289,715.63). This accounted for 8% of the total expenditure for the clinics in the year 2009. The study showed that facility type, type of diabetes, and presence of complication are associated with the cost of diabetes management to Cocoa clinics. The mean age of detection suggests delay in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and accompanying complications, which has cost implications. Policy that enhances early detection of diabetes in clinical practice would therefore improve management and reduce costs. The financial cost of managing diabetes can be used to forecast the economic burden of the disease in the area. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of Cocoa Natural Resistancy to Cocoa Pod Borer by Silica Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Anom Wijaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  4. Analisis Nilai Tambah Cokelat Batangan (Chocolate Bar) Di Pipiltin Cocoa, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Asheri, Vitalia Putri; Rifin, Amzul

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest world cocoa producer. For years, cocoa bean from Indonesia has been exporter as raw beans. Domestic cocoa manufacturing industry is still dominated by International companies such as Nestle, Marz, JB Cocoa Malaysia, and others than domestic small and medium enterprise. This condition shows that value added of cocoa processing have not yet accepted by local entrepreneurs. Nowadays, most of the small and medium enterprise produce intermediate and compound chocolat...

  5. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA ACCESSIONS USING A NON-CODING REGION OF THE CHLOROPLAST DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Thi, Viet Ha; D.T., Khang; Everaert, Helena; T.N, Dung; P.H.D, Phuoc; H.T., Toan; Dewettinck, Koen; Messens, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected f...

  6. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    completely inactivated the wet conidia of A. flavus. When a combination of moist heat and radiation was applied to A. flavus, in different media, the inactivation dose was different in each medium. In vitro studies on A. flavus in suspension showed that the fungus could be inactivated by applying a combination of moist heat at 50 0 C for 10 min followed by 1.0 kGy radiation. A combination of moist heat at 80 0 C and radiation at 3.5 kGy produced the same effect with cocoa beans. Storage of beans for 28 days at 75% RH suppressed fungal growth while storage at 90% RH resulted in mouldiness of beans previously inoculated with A. flavus conidia and treated with heat and radiation. No aflatoxin was detected in cocoa beans after 4 weeks following inoculation with conidia of a toxigenic A. flavus strain and irradiation at 10 kGy. Without irradiation, inoculated beans became mouldy and produced aflatoxin B1. Irradiation at 10 kGy could not destroy the already formed aflatoxin. Radiation up to 6 kGy gave cocoa butter with free fatty acid, melting point, saponification value, and unsaponifiable matter levels comparable with factory standards. Exposure of beans to radiation did not have any effect on the rancidity of the extracted cocoa butter. Exposure of beans to radiation only or to radiation after heat treatment also did not affect the rate at which cocoa butter solidified. No significant differences in taste, colour and flavour were detected in cocoa drink prepared from cocoa powder produced from irradiated beans. (au)

  7. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  8. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  9. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  11. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  12. COCOA code for creating mock observations of star cluster models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the COCOA code and demonstrate its different applications by utilizing globular cluster (GC) models simulated with the MOCCA (MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor) code. COCOA is used to synthetically observe these different GC models with optical telescopes, perform point spread function photometry, and subsequently produce observed colour-magnitude diagrams. We also use COCOA to compare the results from synthetic observations of a cluster model that has the same age and metallicity as the Galactic GC NGC 2808 with observations of the same cluster carried out with a 2.2 m optical telescope. We find that COCOA can effectively simulate realistic observations and recover photometric data. COCOA has numerous scientific applications that maybe be helpful for both theoreticians and observers that work on star clusters. Plans for further improving and developing the code are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for the determination of catechin and epicatechin enantiomers in cocoa-based ingredients and products by high-performance liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Schaneberg, Brian T; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was performed for an HPLC method to identify and quantify the flavanol enantiomers (+)- and (-)-epicatechin and (+)- and (-)-catechin in cocoa-based ingredients and products. These compounds were eluted isocratically with an ammonium acetate-methanol mobile phase applied to a modified beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase and detected using fluorescence. Spike recovery experiments using appropriate matrix blanks, along with cocoa extract, cocoa powder, and dark chocolate, were used to evaluate accuracy, repeatability, specificity, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method as performed by a single analyst on multiple days. In all samples analyzed, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant flavanol and represented 68-91% of the total monomeric flavanols detected. For the cocoa-based products, within-day (intraday) precision for (-)-epicatechin was between 1.46-3.22%, for (+)-catechin between 3.66-6.90%, and for (-)-catechin between 1.69-6.89%; (+)-epicatechin was not detected in these samples. Recoveries for the three sample types investigated ranged from 82.2 to 102.1% at the 50% spiking level, 83.7 to 102.0% at the 100% spiking level, and 80.4 to 101.1% at the 200% spiking level. Based on performance results, this method may be suitable for routine laboratory use in analysis of cocoa-based ingredients and products.

  15. Needs Assesment of Cocoa Business Development Using the Value Chain Approach & National Movement of Cocoa Production and Quality Improvement (GERNAS KAKAO): Case Study on Majene Regency, West Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Boedi Rheza; Elizabeth Karlinda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study are as follows: 1) Describe the general situation of cocoa business in Majene Regency; 2) Analyze problems occurred in cocoa business value chain at Majene Regency; 3) Be a baseline or a base for follow up action plan to solve the problems of cocoa business value chain in Majene in the future and to develop cocoa business climate. It is expected that the result of the study can provide information regarding problems as well as stakeholder analysis at each ...

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  17. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  18. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America―ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

  19. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America—ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  20. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  3. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  4. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keywords: Integrated pest management, Cocoa farmers, Farmers Field School ... Total World production has increased in absolute terms from 3.98 million metric ..... and G.C. Rausser, eds Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 1B,.

  5. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COCOA PRODUCTIVITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The study examined the relative effect of climate change on the productivity of cocoa in Nigeria. Data employed were national ... balance and harm agricultural sectors. However, .... and animal life which will inexorably affect productivity of ...

  6. Pesticides use in cocoa sector in Cameroon: characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 5 (2014) > ... The chemical control is the widely control method applied in Cameroon for pests and diseases by all the cocoa producers without technical ...

  7. PHYSICALCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics and thermophysical properties of cocoa hoeny. The cocoa honey had the following physicalchemical characteristics: pH (2.76, titratable acidity (0.73 %, moisture (87,22 %, soluble solids (14,03 °Brix, reducing sugar (10,2 % in glucose, non-reducing sugar (4,06 % in saccharose and ash (0,23 %. With respect to the thermophysical properties were determined the specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity and the dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature. The empirical models for each property were obtained. It was found that the temperature directly affects the cocoa liquor properties. The data are important for the development, adaptation and optimization of equipment for more efficient processing of cocoa honey, since the information on this subject is unknown.

  8. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  9. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  10. COCOA Code for Creating Mock Observations of Star Cluster Models

    OpenAIRE

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or \\textit{N}-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the C...

  11. Seasonality in cocoa spot and forward markets: empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfo, S.; Geman, Hélyette

    2012-01-01

    This paper first describes the main features of supply and demand in cocoa spot markets. A state- variable model is proposed to describe the random evolution of cocoa forward curves over time, which essentially adapts to agricultural commodities, introduced by Borovkova and Geman (2006) for energy. In contrast to most of the literature on the subject, the first state variable is not the spot price, as it combines seasonal and stochastic features and may not be observable, instead, the average...

  12. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rigo-Adrover, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-10-01

    To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples. CC and TB diets induced lower counts of E. coli whereas TB diet led to lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium histolyticum-C. perfingens group compared to RF diet. Metagenomics analysis also revealed a different microbiota pattern among the studied groups. The SCFA content was higher after both CC and TB diets, which was mainly due to enhanced butyric acid production. Furthermore, both diets decreased the proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Cocoa's theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, theobromine modifies gut microbiota although other cocoa compounds could also act on intestinal bacteria, attenuating or enhancing the theobromine effects. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  16. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  17. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  18. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  19. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0–C18:1–C16......, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability...... and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future....

  20. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  1. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  2. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  3. The Relationship between On-Farm Shade Trees and Cocoa Yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a crop that is widely cultivated across West Africa with Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria contributing about 70% of the global production. In Ghana cocoa contributes significantly to the national economy as over 20% of the world’s cocoa production comes from...... the country, making it the world’s second largest producer with an annual production level of over 700,000 metric tons, and an estimated cultivation area of ca. 1.6 million ha. Cocoa is mostly cultivated by smallholder farmers either as a monocrop or in association with other food crops, tree crops and under...... the cover of shade trees – cocoa agroforestry. This thesis hypothesizes that canopy cover of shade trees in low input (low-to-no fertilizer application) cocoa growing systems can contribute to cocoa yield improvements. The main theme deals with shade trees diversity and its effects on cocoa production...

  4. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.

  5. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Zubaida; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Dutta, Suparna; Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2008-07-01

    Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder). In phase 2, subjects were randomly assigned to consume sugar-free cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), sugared cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), or a placebo (containing 0 g cocoa powder). Solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa ingestion improved endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilatation) compared with placebo (dark chocolate: 4.3 +/- 3.4% compared with -1.8 +/- 3.3%; P cocoa: 5.7 +/- 2.6% and 2.0 +/- 1.8% compared with -1.5 +/- 2.8%; P cocoa compared with placebo (dark chocolate: systolic, -3.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg; P cocoa: systolic, -2.1 +/- 7.0 mm Hg compared with 3.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P cocoa (5.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 2.0 +/- 1.8%; P cocoa improved endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults. Sugar content may attenuate these effects, and sugar-free preparations may augment them.

  6. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  7. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management

    OpenAIRE

    Gramlich, A.; Tandy, S.; Andres, C.; Chincheros Paniagua, J.; Armengot, L.; Schneider, M.; Schulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on C...

  8. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Pinilla, Eva; O?atibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  9. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic coordinates... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport need...

  10. 76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... surface to support new standard instrument approach procedures developed at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa...

  11. Market Concentration and Price Formation in the Global Cocoa Value Chain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; Tieben, B.; Laven, A.; Ammerlaan, T.; Appelman, R.; Biesenbeek, Cindy; Buunk, E.

    2016-01-01

    This report explores to what extent market concentration in the cocoa value chain is responsible for the widespread poverty of cocoa farmers. The report finds that market concentration among chocolate manufacturers and cocoa processors is not the key cause. Instead, there are two other key reasons

  12. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901...), amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  13. 53 Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    To prevent the re-occurrence of untold hardship experienced by cocoa farmers during World War I (1914-18), as well as the concomitant upheavals, the colonial government in British. West Africa introduced a scheme of cocoa control which enabled the government, through its agents, to purchase all cocoa offered for sale in ...

  14. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation of the product, cocoa or a mixture of cocoa and chocolate liquor is used in such quantity that the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products...

  15. THE POTENTIAL AND SUPPLY CHAIN OF COCOA IN THE CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslimin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a reliance commodity of the plantation that plays a strategic role in national economy, especially as a provider of employment, source of income, and foreign exchange income. This research aims to identify the cocoa potential and the supply chain of cocoa in Central Sulawesi – Indonesia. Type of the research is descriptive research using survey method in the cocoa supply chain in 13 Regencies/Cities in Central Sulawesi. The result of the study shows that: (1 The largest contributor of the cocoa producer in Indonesia is Central Sulawesi with 23.14 percent of national cocoa and 188,600 hectares area. (2 The cocoa supply chain consists of farmers → collecting traders → wholesalers → industry. (3 The risks in the supply chain of cocoa are (1 Price: No access to a certain information about the price of cocoa resulting in the price determined by the trader unilaterally, (2 Pest Risk: cocoa rot disease; Stem cancer, (3 Seasonal Risk: the rainy season can also cause fungal disease in the stems and damage the cocoa fruit, (4 Human Resources Risk: Low awareness of the community on how to maintain cocoa well and how to turn it into the main livelihood.

  16. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Investment in cocoa production in Nigeria: A cost and return analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined costs and returns in cocoa production in Cross River State by comparing three identified management systems of cocoa production in the area. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select a hundred and fifty cocoa farmers for the study. Data used in the study were collected using structured ...

  18. Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

  19. Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The cocoa trade in colonial West Africa, before World War II, had been operated through market forces. All attempts made by foreign trading firms to form 'cocoa buying pool' and eliminate market forces met with stiff opposition by African farmers and middlemen, the famous of which was the cocoa hold-up in Ghana ...

  20. Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) as a potential raw material for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa sweatings is a very interesting by-product of cocoa production and it forms the substrate for microbial growth during the fermentation process. Most of the sweatings go to waste during the processing of the cocoa beans and this has led to its utilization as a potential raw material for the development of soft drink to ...

  1. Effect of polybag size and foliar application of urea on cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different polybag sizes and foliar application of urea on the growth of cocoa seedlings in the nursery were studied at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana substation at Afosu in the Eastern Region of Ghana between June 2004 and May 2005. Hybrid cocoa seeds were sown in polybags measuring 17.5 cm ...

  2. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  3. The Impact of Cocoa Flavanols on Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachojannis, Julia; Erne, Paul; Zimmermann, Benno; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to review the effect of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular health, with emphasis on the doses ingested, and to analyze a range of cocoa products for content of these compounds. PubMed was searched from 2010 to locate systematic reviews (SR) on clinical effects of chocolate consumption. Thirteen SRs were identified and reviewed, and provided strong evidence that dark chocolate did not reduce blood pressure. The evidence was however strong for an association with increased flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and moderate for an improvement in blood glucose and lipid metabolism. Our analysis showed that cocoa products with around 100 mg epicatechin can reliably increase FMD, and that cocoa flavanol doses of around 900 mg or above may decrease blood pressure in specific individuals and/or if consumed over longer periods. Out of 32 cocoa product samples analyzed, the two food supplements delivered 900 mg of total flavanols and 100 mg epicatechin in doses of 7 g and 20 g and 3 and 8 g, respectively. To achieve these doses with chocolate, around 100 to 500 g (for 900 mg flavanols) and 50 to 200 g (for 100 mg epicatechin) would need to be consumed. Chocolate products marketed for their purported health benefits should therefore declare the amounts of total flavanols and epicatechin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  5. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  6. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  7. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  8. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Darwish, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  9. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  10. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  11. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  12. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. WILLINGNESS TO TAKE AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE BY COCOA FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines willingness to take agricultural insurance by cocoa farmers in Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 cocoa farm households and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and probit regression model. Results showed that 77.5% of the farmers were aware of Agricultural Insurance but only 50% were willing to take it. The average willingness-to-pay (WTP for Agricultural Insurance by the respondents was N11,087.5/ha ($69.85/ha. The significant variables influencing willingness to take agricultural insurance by the farmers were age of household head, educational level, access to extension service and farm income. The study therefore recommends encouraging young well educated people to engage in cocoa farming, overhauling agricultural extension services as well as provision of insurance services to farmers at affordable rate.

  14. Improving the detection of cocoa bean fermentation-related changes using image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Criollo, Ronald; Liao, Wenzhi; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2017-05-01

    Complex chemical processes occur in during cocoa bean fermentation. To select well-fermented beans, experts take a sample of beans, cut them in half and visually check its color. Often farmers mix high and low quality beans therefore, chocolate properties are difficult to control. In this paper, we explore how close-range hyper- spectral (HS) data can be used to characterize the fermentation process of two types of cocoa beans (CCN51 and National). Our aim is to find spectral differences to allow bean classification. The main issue is to extract reliable spectral data as openings resulting from the loss of water during fermentation, can cover up to 40% of the bean surface. We exploit HS pan-sharpening techniques to increase the spatial resolution of HS images and filter out uneven surface regions. In particular, the guided filter PCA approach which has proved suitable to use high-resolution RGB data as guide image. Our preliminary results show that this pre-processing step improves the separability of classes corresponding to each fermentation stage compared to using the average spectrum of the bean surface.

  15. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  16. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  17. An industry consensus study on an HPLC fluorescence method for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Laura; Bodor, Alison

    2011-07-05

    This manuscript describes the results of an HPLC study for the determination of the flavan-3-ol monomers, (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin, in cocoa and plain dark and milk chocolate products. The study was performed under the auspices of the National Confectioners Association (NCA) and involved the analysis of a series of samples by laboratories of five member companies using a common method. The method reported in this paper uses reversed phase HPLC with fluorescence detection to analyze (±)-epicatechin and (±)-catechin extracted with an acidic solvent from defatted cocoa and chocolate. In addition to a variety of cocoa and chocolate products, the sample set included a blind duplicate used to assess method reproducibility. All data were subjected to statistical analysis with outliers eliminated from the data set. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) of the sample set ranged from approximately 7 to 15%. Further experimental details are described in the body of the manuscript and the results indicate the method is suitable for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products and represents the first collaborative study of this HPLC method for these compounds in these matrices.

  18. Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

    2014-10-15

    Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch.

  19. Enzymatic activity of proteases and its isoenzymes in fermentation process in cultivars of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. produced in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Santos SOUSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The fermentation of cocoa seeds envolves microbial processes and the action of enzymes. To identify the possible differences in the cocoa fermentation process, with regards to proteolysis, this study has the objective of determining protease activity (under predetermined conditions and its isoenzymes in two cocoa cultivars (PH-16 and HRT-1188 in different cocoa fermentation times, in addition to establishing the microbial load (molds and yeasts and aerobic mesophilic. Protease and its isoenzymes were extracted and partially purified and the enzymatic activities determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the proteases activity was higher at 66h of fermentation for both cultivars. When the isoenzymes activity was evaluated, the results demonstrated similar activity behavior for both cultivars, with regards to the isoenzymes aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, although the behavior of the endoprotease isoenzyme activity proved to be a little different for TSH-1188 cultivar. Concerning microbiological analyses, the results indicate that the period after molds and yeast counting reduction is consistent with the period of protease activity increase.

  20. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  1. Cocoa polyphenols and fiber modify colonic gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa intake has been associated with health benefits, improving cardiovascular function and metabolism, as well as modulating intestinal immune function. The aim of this study was to take an in-depth look into the mechanisms affected by the cocoa intake by evaluating the colonic gene expression after nutritional intervention, and to ascertain the role of the fiber of cocoa in these effects. To achieve this, Wistar rats were fed for 3 weeks with either a reference diet, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10), a diet based on cocoa fiber (CF) or a diet containing inulin (I). At the end of the study, colon was excised to obtain the RNA to evaluate the differential gene expression by microarray. Results were validated by RT-PCR. The C10 group was the group with most changes in colonic gene expression, most of them down-regulated but a few in common with the CF diet. The C10 diet significantly up-regulated the expression of Scgb1a1 and Scnn1 g and down-regulated Tac4, Mcpt2, Fcer1a and Fabp1 by twofold, most of them related to lipid metabolism and immune function. The CF and I diets down-regulated the expression of Serpina10 and Apoa4 by twofold. Similar patterns of expression were found by PCR. Most of the effects attributed to cocoa consumption on genes related to the immune system (B cell and mast cell functionality) and lipid metabolism in the colon tissue were due not only to its fiber content, but also to the possible contribution of polyphenols and other compounds.

  2. Influences of shading and fertilization on on-farm yields of cocoa in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Asare; Asare, Rebecca Ashley; Asante, Winston Adams

    2017-01-01

    Most cocoa farms in Ghana are cultivated in complex agroforest systems, with plant growth and cocoa productivity being affected. The objective of this study was to investigate how shade trees affect cocoa yield, temperature and soil nutrients in low-input cocoa systems. Establishing plots on 24...... farms in four locations (districts) in Ghana, we assessed the influence of varying canopy cover and fertilization on cocoa yields. Results showed no relationship between canopy cover and cocoa yields in the light crop season (February to August). For the main crop season (September to January...... recorded in the cocoa canopies were above the recommended range for this species. Although shade trees had a slight modifying effect on peak temperatures, the magnitude appeared too small to have any practical effects....

  3. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  4. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  5. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  8. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andújar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

  9. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  10. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

  11. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  13. Effects of Cocoa Antioxidants in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D is the most common form of diabetes and one of the most common chronic diseases. Control of hyperglycaemia by hypoglycaemic drugs is insufficient in for patients and nutritional approaches are currently being explored. Natural dietary compounds such as flavonoids, abundant in fruits and vegetables, have received broad attention because of their potential capacity to act as anti-diabetic agents. Especially cocoa flavonoids have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of T2D. In this review, an update of the most relevant reports published during the last decade in cell culture, animal models and human studies is presented. Most results support an anti-diabetic effect of cocoa flavonoids by enhancing insulin secretion, improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, exerting a lipid-lowering effect and preventing the oxidative and inflammatory damages associated to the disease. While it could be suggested that daily consumption of flavanols from cocoa or dark chocolate would constitute a potential preventive tool useful for the nutritional management of T2D, this recommendation should be cautious since most of commercially available soluble cocoa products or chocolates contain low amount of flavanols and are rich in sugar and calories that may aggravate glycaemic control in T2D patients.

  14. Phytophthora megakarya : A potential threat to the cocoa industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A severe black pod disease of cocoa in Ghana caused by Phytophthora megakarya was first reported in 1985, even though there is evidence that the fungus might have existed earlier. Until then, only Phytophthora palmivora which causes a less severe black pod disease was known in Ghana. P. megakarya has changed ...

  15. Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014a,b). This pest thus poses a serious threat to both coffee and cocoa production in Uganda, and therefore, calls for prompt comprehensive mitigation actions (Kagezi et al., 2013a,b, 2014a,b,c,d). Damage is caused by the female beetle by boring a characteristic pin-sized entry hole into the attacked seedlings and/or.

  16. Cocoa swollen shoot virus in Ghana: A review of diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and more reliable diagnostic method has for a long time been identified as one input that will greatly enhance the control of the cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Many diagnostic procedures have been developed for detecting the virus that causes the disease; yet, the detection of latent infections is still ...

  17. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural livelihoods in south western Nigeria are at risk to climate variability on the short run and climate change on the long run. This subjects agro ecological niches to high sensitivity and exposure thus reducing the adaptive capacity. Vulnerability results and the cocoa farming households, the major contributors to the ...

  18. EFFECT OF REPLACING COCOA HUSK FOR WHEAT BRAN ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass yield, serum metabolites and economy of production of cockerels were studied for 12 weeks to determine the effect of replacing wheat bran with cocoa husk at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Results of eviscerated yield were statistically different (P<0.05). Highest eviscerated yield of 70.52% was obtained from 25% ...

  19. Evaluation of fertilizer application on some peasant cocoa farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theobroma cacao L.) on peasant farms in Ghana. The objective of the trial is to evaluate the effect of fertilizer application on yields of cocoa (T. cacao L.) under peasant farmers' management in Ghana with the aim of introducing fertilizers to ...

  20. Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on food production, food security and natural resources in the immediate and coming years. Climate change alters the development of cocoa pods, insect pests and pathogens which translate into lower crop yields and impact farm ...

  1. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation on cocoa pod husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a major agro-industrial residue in Ghana with a potential value as a low-cost unconventional feedstuff for livestock. However, its effective use is limited by poor nutrient composition, mainly due to its high lignocellulose or fibre and also low protein levels. White–rot fungi such as Pleurotus species ...

  2. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRO OKOJIE

    Rural livelihoods in south western Nigeria are at risk to climate variability on the short run and climate change on .... to reduce their vulnerability to climate variability as well as longer-term climate change. Nigeria has lost her leading role in exportation of cocoa. This has been attributed .... sizes and type of farm ownership.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of some forest trees for cocoa cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. campanulata would therefore be a suitable shade tree species for establishing young cocoa farms. Further evaluation of the growth pattern, shade provision and mineralization of the litter from the species continues. JOURNAL OF THE GHANA SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Volume 1 Number 1, July (1998) pp. 141-150 ...

  4. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  5. Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassogne, Laurence; Graefe, Sophie; Asare, Richard; Van Asten, Piet; Läderach, Peter; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Reduced climatic suitability due to climate change in cocoa growing regions of Ghana is expected in the coming decades. This threatens farmers’ livelihood and the cocoa sector. Climate change adaptation requires an improved understanding of existing cocoa production systems and farmers’ coping strategies. This study characterized current cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient within the cocoa belt of Ghana. The objectives were to 1) compare existing production and income diversification between dry, mid and wet climatic regions, and 2) identify shade trees in cocoa agroforestry systems and their distribution along the climatic gradient. Our results showed that current mean cocoa yield level of 288kg ha-1yr-1 in the dry region was significantly lower than in the mid and wet regions with mean yields of 712 and 849 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In the dry region, farmers diversified their income sources with non-cocoa crops and off-farm activities while farmers at the mid and wet regions mainly depended on cocoa (over 80% of annual income). Two shade systems classified as medium and low shade cocoa agroforestry systems were identified across the studied regions. The medium shade system was more abundant in the dry region and associated to adaptation to marginal climatic conditions. The low shade system showed significantly higher yield in the wet region but no difference was observed between the mid and dry regions. This study highlights the need for optimum shade level recommendation to be climatic region specific. PMID:29659629

  6. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas. Copyright © 2016

  7. Identification of a Disease on Cocoa Caused by Fusariumin Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Rosmana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD. Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.

  8. Land distribution and acquisition practices in Ghana’s cocoa frontier: The impact of a state-regulated marketing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Fold, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Substantial differences in the size of landholdings among cocoa farmers in the Western Region – the last cocoa “frontier” in Ghana – are primarily a result of inheritance practices and the purchase of vast tracts of land by migrants in the initial period of the cocoa boom. Individual accumulation...... surplus from their higher volume of cocoa production into investments in non-farm activities and construction of new residential houses—and not in land acquisition based on market transactions. State regulation of the cocoa sector has spurred increased efficiency among private cocoa purchasing companies...

  9. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  10. Policy Strategies of Cocoa for Lead up Agroindustrial Food and Drinks in Jember Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Eko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is one of the commodity plantation for foreign exchange, the source of income of farmers, agro-industries, and regional development. Indonesia is currently the third largest country in the world of cocoa production with a 15 percent share of production after Ghana (16% and Ivory Coast (40%. The research aims to analyze the potential for superior Cocoa products in order to accelerate economic growth and development of the region. This study was conducted in Rambipuji and Wuluhan District in Jember, East Java. The study population is bringing cocoa households (RTP and sampling using random sampling. Cocoa in the study site has a comparative advantage indicated by the magnitude of the greatly enhanced by DRCR <1 and the competitive advantage represented by the PCR value of 0.5803. The research location is also the location of the cocoa plant base that could potentially seed.

  11. Semiquantitative determination of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in cocoa products using the Soleris NF-TVC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montei, Carolyn; McDougal, Susan; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Soleris Non-fermenting Total Viable Count method was previously validated for a wide variety of food products, including cocoa powder. A matrix extension study was conducted to validate the method for use with cocoa butter and cocoa liquor. Test samples included naturally contaminated cocoa liquor and cocoa butter inoculated with natural microbial flora derived from cocoa liquor. A probability of detection statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using the AOAC Official Method 966.23 dilution plating method. Results of the two methods were not statistically different at any dilution level in any of the three trials conducted. The Soleris method offers the advantage of results within 24 h, compared to the 48 h required by standard dilution plating methods.

  12. Geometric regularizations and dual conifold transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Lazaroiu, Calin I.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a geometric regularization for the class of conifold transitions relating D-brane systems on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces to certain flux backgrounds. This regularization respects the SL(2,Z) invariance of the flux superpotential, and allows for computation of the relevant periods through the method of Picard-Fuchs equations. The regularized geometry is a noncompact Calabi-Yau which can be viewed as a monodromic fibration, with the nontrivial monodromy being induced by the regulator. It reduces to the original, non-monodromic background when the regulator is removed. Using this regularization, we discuss the simple case of the local conifold, and show how the relevant field-theoretic information can be extracted in this approach. (author)

  13. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.H. A.H. Farah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting process and it has generally been agreed that the main flavor components, pyrazines formation is associated within this reaction involving amino acids and reducing sugars. The effect of cocoa nib roasting conditions on sensory properties and colour of cocoa beans were investigated in this study. Roasting conditions in terms of temperature ranged from 110 to 160OC and time ranged from 15 to 40 min were optimized by using Response Surface Methodology based on the cocoa sensory characteristics including chocolate aroma, acidity, astringency, burnt taste and overall acceptability. The analyses used 9- point hedonic scale with twelve trained panelist. The changes in colour due to the roasting condition were also monitored using chromameter. Result of this study showed that sensory quality of cocoa liquor increased with the increase in roasting time and temperature up to 160OC and up to 40 min, respectively. Based on the Response Surface Methodology, the optimised operating condition for the roaster was at temperature of 127OC and time of 25 min. The proposed roasting conditions were able to produce superior quality cocoa beans that will be very useful for cocoa manufactures.Key words : Cocoa, cocoa liquor, flavour, aroma, colour, sensory characteristic, response surface methodology.

  14. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  15. Comparison of Canopy Openness in Different Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Production Systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Niether, Wiebke; Maldonado, Carla; Silva, Erika; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) grows naturally as an understory tree in tropical forests and produces well under shaded and non-shaded conditions. It is cultivated by small scale farmers in South America under various conditions, ranging from monocultures to different kinds of agroforestry systems. While in monocultures it is exposed to direct sunlight, one or various tree species shade the cocoa in agroforestry systems. Also organic cocoa cultivation is becoming more and more popular due to prem...

  16. TOTAL POLYPHENOLS ANALYSIS OF MATURE SEEDS AND TISSUE CULTURES OF SOME COLOMBIAN COCOA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS, LUISA F.; LONDOÑO, JULIÁN; GALLEGO, ADRIANA M.; HERRERA, ANDREA L.; AGUILERA, CAROLINA; ATEHORTÚA, LUCÍA

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cell suspensions culture to analyze the total polyphenols content for two Colombian cocoa varieties and to compare the results with the total polyphenols content from the same field varieties. The final results showed that it is possible to produce big amount of cocoa cell biomass able to synthesize the metabolites without loosing its organoleptic properties (smell, color, and flavor), and to produce an acceptable content of to...

  17. The STS-95 crew participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (in front), along with the other crew members behind him, waves to the crowd as he leads a parade of 1999 C-5 Corvette convertibles down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  18. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greets baseball legend Williams following a parade in Cocoa Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (left) greets baseball legend Ted Williams at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  19. STS-95 Payload Specialist Mukai participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is perched on the back of a red 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  20. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to a dense crowd of well-wishers from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  1. MOCCA Code for Star Cluster Simulation: Comparison with Optical Observations using COCOA

    OpenAIRE

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Olech, Arkadiusz; Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and present preliminary results from COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code for a star cluster after 12 Gyrs of evolution simulated using the MOCCA code. The COCOA code is being developed to quickly compare results of numerical simulations of star clusters with observational data. We use COCOA to obtain parameters of the projected cluster model. For comparison, a FITS file of the projected cluster was provided to observers so that they could use their observ...

  2. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  3. Development of a gas-liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of fatty acid tryptamides in cocoa products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Bernadette; Golay, Pierre-Alain; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2006-05-03

    The determination of the occurrence and level of cocoa shells in cocoa products and chocolate is an important analytical issue. The recent European Union directive on cocoa and chocolate products (2000/36/EC) has not retained the former limit of a maximum amount of 5% of cocoa shells in cocoa nibs (based on fat-free dry matter), previously authorized for the elaboration of cocoa products such as cocoa mass. In the present study, we report a reliable gas-liquid chromatography procedure suitable for the determination of the occurrence of cocoa shells in cocoa products by detection of fatty acid tryptamides (FATs). The precision of the method was evaluated by analyzing nine different samples (cocoa liquors with different ranges of shells) six times (replicate repeatability). The variations of the robust coefficient of variation of the repeatability demonstrated that FAT(C22), FAT(C24), and total FATs are good markers for the detection of shells in cocoa products. The trueness of the method was evaluated by determining the FAT content in two spiked matrices (cocoa liquors and cocoa shells) at different levels (from 1 to 50 mg/100 g). A good relation was found between the results obtained and the spiking (recovery varied between 90 and 130%), and the linearity range was established between 1 and 50 mg/100 g in cocoa products. For total FAT contents of cocoa liquor containing 5% shells, the measurement uncertainty allows us to conclude that FAT is equal to 4.01 +/- 0.8 mg/100 g. This validated method is perfectly suitable to determine shell contents in cocoa products using FAT(C22), FAT(C24), and total FATs as markers. The results also confirmed that cocoa shells contain FAT(C24) and FAT(C22) in a constant ratio of nearly 2:1.

  4. A new food frequency questionnaire to assess chocolate and cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Filipa; Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Rabanal, Manel; Rodríguez-Lagunas, María J; Pereira, Paula; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa has been highlighted as a food with potential benefits to human health because of its polyphenol content. However, few studies show the contribution of cocoa and chocolate products in polyphenol intake. The aim of this work was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating the intake of food products containing cocoa (C-FFQ). A sample of 50 university students was recruited to complete the 90-item questionnaire, a validated questionnaire (called here European Food Safety Authority [EFSA]-Q) as well as a 24-hour dietary recall (24 HDR). Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and quintile classification analysis were conducted together with the Wilcoxon test and descriptive statistics. Significant correlations between the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q for the most common cocoa/chocolate products were observed (P cocoa/chocolate products frequently consumed by the participants were detected by the C-FFQ and 24 HDR which were not included in the EFSA-Q. According to the C-FFQ, chocolate bars were the main source of cocoa in university students, but dairy products also provided an important amount of cocoa. The developed C-FFQ questionnaire can be considered as a valid option for assessing the consumption frequency of cocoa/chocolate-derived products, thereby allowing the evaluation of cocoa polyphenol intake in further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimation of Temperature and Duration of Cocoa Beans Roasting in a CylindricalRoaster

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Misnwai; Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Sewed, Awad; Sugiyono

    2005-01-01

    A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110–140 C for the former and 20–60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature prof...

  6. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the “witches’ broom” disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  7. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  8. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  9. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  10. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  11. Needs Assesment of Cocoa Business Development Using the Value Chain Approach & National Movement of Cocoa Production and Quality Improvement (GERNAS KAKAO): Case Study on Sikka Regency, East Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Ig. Sigit Murwito; Sri Mulyati

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) Describe the general picture of cocoa in Sikka Regency; 2) Analyze the problems that occur in any cocoa business value chain in Sikka Regency; 3) Analyze the action plan for each problem in each of the business climate value chain for the future improvement of cocoa business development value chain in Sikka. Results of this study are expected to provide information about problems and stakeholder analysis in each cocoa value chain...

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  14. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  15. Infection of Phytophthora palmivora from Soil in Cocoa Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Purwantara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora palmivora causes serious losses on cocoa in Indonesia and world-wide. The research aimed to assess the potential of soil as source of inocula for Phytophthora diseases in cocoa. Soil samples were baited using a healthy cocoa pod tissue, and the pathogen was isolated for morphological and molecular identification. Baiting technique was successfully used to detect the presence of P. palmivora in soil samples, and this was confirmed by morphological and molecular identification. P. palmivora can be detected in soil in all year around in wet areas indicating that soil is a massive and consistent source of inocula. Surveys conducted on the soil of Amazonian, Amelonado and Trinitario blocks of various ages showed that P. palmivora can be found in old and young cocoa blocks, even as young as 3 or 4 years. P. palmivora infection from soil to the pods appears to be mainly through contact or rain splash. Baiting with whole healthy pods exposed at different heights above undisturbed litter and above bare soil showed that the infection still occurred at 100 cm above the soil, even though it decreased gradually with the height. Infection from litter was not different to that from bare soil, indicating that the litter layer is not acting physically as a shield preventing rain from splashing the inocula up from wet soil to the pods. However, in tests for the possibility of P. palmivora carried through air convection, no pod was found to be infected, suggesting that the pathogen was not carried through convective accend of aerosol droplets from soil surface up to pods in the canopy.Key words : Theobroma cacao, pod rot, stem canker, baiting.

  16. Cocoa procyanidins and human cytokine transcription and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, T; Van De Water, J; Keen, C L; Schmitz, H H; Gershwin, M E

    2000-08-01

    We examined whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate cytokine production at the levels of transcription and protein secretion in both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In resting cells, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-4 gene expression from cocoa-treated cells varied markedly among the subjects tested. However, at the protein level, the larger fractions (pentamer through decamer) stimulated a dramatic increase in IL-1beta concentration (up to ninefold) with increasing degree of polymerization. Similarly, these larger fractions augmented IL-4 concentration by as much as 2 pg/ml, whereas the control displayed levels nearly undetectable. In the presence of PHA, gene expression also seemed to be most affected by the larger procyanidin fractions. The pentameric through decameric fractions increased IL-1 beta expression by 7-19% compared with PHA control, whereas the hexameric through decameric fractions significantly inhibited PHA-induced IL-4 transcription in the range of 71-86%. This observation at the transcription level for IL-1 beta was reflected at the protein level in PHA-stimulated PBMC. Significant reductions in mitogen-induced IL-4 production were also seen at the protein level with the hexamer, heptamer and octamer. Individual oligomeric cocoa fractions were unstimulatory for IL-2 in resting PBMC. However, when induced with PHA, the pentamer, hexamer and heptamer fractions caused a 61-73% inhibition in IL-2 gene expression. This study offers additional data for the consideration of the health benefits of dietary polyphenols from a wide variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with cocoa and chocolate consumption.

  17. Supply and Demand Model for the Malaysian Cocoa Market

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hameed, Amna Awad; Hasanov, Akram; Idris, Nurjihan; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Mohamed Arshad, Fatimah; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates a system of supply, demand, and price equations for Malaysian cocoa using annual data over the period 1975-2008. Theoretically, in supply and demand models, the price variable is treated as endogenous. However, Hausman specification test result indicates that there is no simultaneity problem in the model. Thus, we estimate the system of equations utilizing the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) estimation technique which might be considered a more effi...

  18. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  19. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  20. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  1. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  2. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  3. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  4. Advance and recommendations for the control of illnesses in cocoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Carvajal, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the diverse problems phyto sanitary that affect the production of cocoa in Colombia the moniliasis they stand out (Moniliophthora roreri) and witch's broom (pernicious Crinipellis). It is considered that for these illnesses the country loses but of 40 percent of the production, equivalent to some 16.000 tons of commercial grain per year. The ICA and their investigation program in cocoa have come developing in the CRI Tulenapa, Uraba, basic investigations and applied on the biology and dynamics of these pathogens, the physiology of the cultivation and the development of control programs, works that have allowed to define a handling system that consists on establishing defined times of removal of sick material for monilia and witch's broom through the year. With ends of technical and economic evaluation of this system, in 1981 they settled down in Tulenapa a demonstrative parcel of 1 there is of cocoa. The results of the rehearsal showed that the application of this system reduced the incidence of monilia of 65 percent in 1981 to 10 percent in 1985; equally, the brooms/tree/year index lowered of but of 100 at 19 in the same period. The yields that were of 280 kg/ha, increased to 422,942 and 657 kg/ha, respectively, between 1982 and 1985. Of the results of the study it comes off that this control system can be considered like model for the Uraba area some recommendations they are formulated to apply it in other regions, in accordance with its ecological conditions

  5. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G.

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  6. MASS TRANSFER KINETICS AND EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITIES DURING COCOA ROASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. BAGHDADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current studies investigated the effects of temperature and moisture addition on the mass transfer kinetics of cocoa nibs during roasting. Experiments were carried out by roasting 500 gm of cocoa nibs inside an air ventilated oven at three temperature levels (120°C, 140°C and 160°C under medium air flowrate for one hour. Two types of samples were prepared namely the raw and soaked nib samples. The soaked nib samples were prepared by soaking the raw nibs in 200 ml of water at room temperature for 5 and 10 hours. Mathematical modelling was carried out to model the mass transfer process using semi-empirical models. Modelling showed that both Page and two-term models were able to give close fitting between the experimental and predicted values. Effective diffusivity values were estimated in the order of magnitude of 10-5 m2/s for the mass transfer process. Results obtained from these studies fill the current knowledge gap on the mass transfer kinetics of cocoa roasting.

  7. Tea, cocoa, coffee, and affective disorders: vicious or virtuous cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Tatiana; Dávalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition. We here systematically review human studies conducted on tea, cocoa, and coffee as related to affective disorders such as depression and anxiety. We carried out a systematic literature search in April 2016, using MEDLINE, on data from the last 10 years. After screening 955 articles, we selected 17 articles that met the criteria of being human studies and that used whole foods or their components. The results of our systematic review indicate that consumption of tea, cocoa, or coffee might have protective effects against depression. Even though this is encouraging, it should be underscored that the near totality of the current evidence comes from observational studies. Ad-hoc human trials and mechanistic, basic science studies are needed before we can provide sound advice to the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira; Blanch, Consol

    2012-01-30

    Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences in acceptability among dark chocolates were mainly related to differences in flavour acceptability. The use of a long roasting time lowered chocolate acceptability in Ghanaian samples while it had no effect on acceptability of Ecuadorian chocolates. This response was observed for most consumers (two subgroups with different frequency consumption of dark chocolate). However, for a third group of consumers identified as distinguishers, the most acceptable dark chocolate samples were those produced with specific combinations of roasting time and conching time for each of the cocoa geographical origin considered. To produce dark chocolates from a single origin it is important to know the target market preferences and to select the appropriate roasting and conching conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  10. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  11. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  12. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  13. Population Development of Several Species of Ants on the Cocoa Trees in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatahuddin Fatahuddin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of ants with different behavior have been found in cocoa plantations and their behavior is important to be considered because it might be correlated with the degree of protection of cocoa plant from cocoa pests. The aim of this research is to manipulate and to develop ants population in environment, so they are able to establish permanently in cocoa trees. This research was conducted in Papakaju Regions Luwu Regency in Juli to November 2009. In this study, 10 cocoa trees with ants were sampled (each species of ant in 10 cocoa trees. A control of 10 tree samples without ant was also taken. In order to assess the abundance of ant population, it was grouped based on scoring, which score 1 for less than 20 ants, score 2 for 21–50 ants, score 3 for 51–200 ants, score 4 for 201–1000 ants, and score 5 for more than 1000 per tree. The results indicated that average of population score of the three ants species reached the highest population for the Oecophylla. smaragdina with average score 4.85 (>1000 ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus, with average score 3.90 (> 200 ants and Crematogaster. difformis with average score 3.10 (>200 ants. This research indicated that three species of ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (weaver ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus (cocoa black ant and Crematogaster difformis (cracking ant. in farmer cocoa plantations in South Sulawesi giving better performance against major pests of cocoa in particular cocoa pod borer (CPB. Key words: Ant Population, Oecophylla smaragdina, Dolichoderus thoracicus, Crematogaster difformis, artificial nest, cocoa.

  14. Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) and structure determination of taste-active polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Bareuther, Sabine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-29

    Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments and thiolytic degradation, revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, the flavan-3-ols epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin B-5, procyanidin C-1, [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](3)-epicatechin, and [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](4)-epicatechin were among the key compounds contributing to the bitter taste as well as the astringent mouthfeel imparted upon consumption of roasted cocoa. In addition, a series of quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin glycopyranosides as well as a family of not previously identified amino acid amides, namely, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-(E)-cinnamoyl-L-aspartic acid, have been identified as key astringent compounds of roasted cocoa. Furthermore, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, reported previously as antioxidants, have been found as contributors of cocoa's astringent taste. By means of the half-tongue test, the taste thresholds of flavan-3-ols and glycosides have been determined.

  15. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Kay, Colin; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Kroon, Paul A; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Rimm, Eric B; Cassidy, Aedín

    2012-03-01

    There is substantial interest in chocolate and flavan-3-ols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to systematically review the effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on major CVD risk factors. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of chocolate, cocoa, or flavan-3-ols. We contacted authors for additional data and conducted duplicate assessment of study inclusion, data extraction, validity, and random-effects meta-analyses. We included 42 acute or short-term chronic (≤18 wk) RCTs that comprised 1297 participants. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.98, -0.36) was improved by chocolate or cocoa due to significant reductions in serum insulin. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) improved after chronic (1.34%; 95% CI: 1.00%, 1.68%) and acute (3.19%; 95% CI: 2.04%, 4.33%) intakes. Effects on HOMA-IR and FMD remained stable to sensitivity analyses. We observed reductions in diastolic blood pressure (BP; -1.60 mm Hg; 95% CI: -2.77, -0.43 mm Hg) and mean arterial pressure (-1.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.27, -0.01 mm Hg) and marginally significant effects on LDL (-0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.00 mmol/L) and HDL (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.06 mmol/L) cholesterol. Chocolate or cocoa improved FMD regardless of the dose consumed, whereas doses >50 mg epicatechin/d resulted in greater effects on systolic and diastolic BP. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation, a tool to assess quality of evidence and strength of recommendations) suggested low- to moderate-quality evidence of beneficial effects, with no suggestion of negative effects. The strength of evidence was lowered due to unclear reporting for allocation concealment, dropouts, missing data on outcomes, and heterogeneity in biomarker results in some studies. We found consistent acute and chronic benefits of chocolate or cocoa on FMD and previously unreported promising effects on insulin and HOMA

  16. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second... Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...

  17. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... proposes to establish special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach... waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high- speed power boats are...

  18. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during... event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30...

  19. Could nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains be introduced in Ghana? Report of a brief study that identifies opportunities and bottlenecks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de K.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at whether introducing nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains in Ghana is feasible and recommends how this could be done. After establishing the cocoa farming and nutrition context in Ghana, the study zooms in on one cocoa producing sub-district to collect detailed data in order to

  20. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  1. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  2. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  3. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No...

  4. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Furse, Samuel; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  5. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  6. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  7. COCOA: A New Validated Instrument to Assess Medical Students' Attitudes towards Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA) survey compared with the Geriatric Assessment Survey (GAS). Participants were first year medical students (n = 160). A Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) measurement model for COCOA had a moderately strong fit that was significantly better…

  8. 53 Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Cocoa Export Permit and Qota System in Nigerian during World War II, 1939-45. 54 by the war-time ... The main thesis is to demonstrate that the licencing of cocoa ... hindered or blocked economic growth in Nigeria, in what. Acemoglu and ... literature on the impact of World War II on global produce trade. World War II and ...

  9. Cardioprotective effects of cocoa: clinical evidence from randomized clinical intervention trials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2013-06-01

    Cocoa is an important source of polyphenols, which comprise 12-18% of its total dry weight. The major phenolic compounds in cocoa and cocoa products are mainly flavonoids such as epicatechin, catechin, and proanthocyanidins. These products contain higher amounts of flavonoids than other polyphenol-rich foods. However, the bioavailability of these compounds depends on other food constituents and their interactions with the food matrix. Many epidemiological and clinical intervention trials have concluded that the ingestion of flavonoids reduces the risk factors of developing cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the new findings regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms involved in the cardioprotective effects of cocoa flavonoids include reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of low-density lipoproteins oxidation and platelet aggregation, vasodilatation of blood vessels, inhibition of the adherence of monocytes to vascular endothelium, promotion of fibrinolysis, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Scientific evidence supports a cause and effect relationship between consumption of cocoa flavonoids and the maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which contributes to normal blood flow. However, larger randomized trials are required to definitively establish the impact of cocoa and cocoa products consumption on hard cardiovascular outcomes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [METHOD OF INCREASING MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY OF POWDER FROM COCOA-VELLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, G O; Cheremushkina, L V; Plotnikova, I V

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is described in detail the characteristic of the product of processing cocoa beans--cocoa-vella, there is presented a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, quality indices, the dispersive pattern, microbiological indices of the powder from the cocoa-vella in comparison to cocoa powder, obtained by traditional technology from the core of the cocoa beans. To improve the microbiological purity of the powder from the cocoa-vella there was suggested to be the modern and environmentally safe manner for the preparation of the powder The use of cocoa-vella disinfecting power by means of the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (RF EMF) was established to allow to obtain a product that meets the requirements of Technical Regulations of the Customs Union (TRCU 021/2011) on Food Safety. This work is of practical interest, since it helps to improve the safety of the powder from the cocoa-vella, and thus the quality of confectionery and food products based on it, which is relevant in terms of the management of a healthy diet.

  11. Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets.

  12. Microbial ecology of the cocoa chain : quality aspects and insight into heat-resistant bacterial spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacaoL.) are the basis for chocolate and cocoa powder production. The first step in the production of these food products consists of a spontaneous fermentation of the beans in the tropical producing countries, in order to allow the formation of the essential

  13. Cocoa and Human Health: From Head to Foot--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Araujo, Quintino Reis; Gattward, James Nascimento; Almoosawi, Suzana; Silva, Maria das Graças Conceição Parada Costa; Dantas, Paulo Alfredo De Santana; De Araujo Júnior, Quintino Reis

    2016-01-01

    The cocoa, as part of the wonderful nature, provides the mankind a wide variety of valuable food products and health benefits. The most known and universally relished product derived from this fruit is chocolate, an amazing and unique food for the human nutrition with records of consumption of similar products dating to 1000 years BC. In fact, the cocoa is a complex food that includes over 300 different components. This review is designed to inform scientists, technicians, academicians, farmers, and interested communities of numerous studies that have been conducted worldwide to investigate the properties of various cocoa constituents, their relations to human health, and their potential role in the prevention and treatment of many medical conditions. The general population, for example in Brazil, despite being one of the major producers of cocoa, is poorly informed of the significant and beneficial properties of cocoa. The present review covers important topics linking cocoa to human health and show the state of the art of effect of cocoa in different systems that comprise the human body. The paper is organized based on the main human organ system and includes: cardiovascular/circulatory, neurological/nervous, oral health, endocrine, lymphatic and immunological, respiratory, reproductive, and dermatological systems. Scientific findings tend to confirm the historic designation of cocoa as "food of the Gods."

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among vietnamese cocoa accessions using a non-coding region of the chloroplast dna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, L.T.V.; Dung, T.N.; Phuoc, P.H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes, that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam, based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected from different regions in Southern Vietnam. Their phylogenetic relationships were identified using the universal primers c-B49317 and d-A49855 from the chloroplast DNA region. The sequences were situated in the trnL intron genes which are identify the closest terrestrial plant species of the chloroplast genome. DNA sequences were determined and subjected to an analysis of the phylogenetic relationship using the maximum evolution method. The genetic analysis showed clustering of 63 cocoa accessions in three groups: the domestically cultivated Trinitario group, the Indigenous cultivars, and the cultivations from Peru. The analyzed sequencing data also illustrated that the TD accessions and CT accessions were related genetically closed. Based on those results the genetic relation between PA and NA accessions was established as the hybrid origins of the TD and CT accessions. Some foreign accessions, including UIT, SCA and IMC accessions were confirmed of their genetic relationship. The present study is the first report of phylogenetic relationships of Vietnamese cocoa collections. The cocoa program in Vietnam has been in development for thirty years. (author)

  15. Microbiota of cocoa powder with particular reference to aerobic thermoresistant spore-formers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Kamphuis, H.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological criteria of commercial cocoa powder are defined in guidelines instituted by the cocoa industry. Twenty-five commercial samples were collected with the aim of assessing the compliance with the microbiological quality guidelines and investigating the occurrence and properties of

  16. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...

  17. The risks of inclusion: shifts in governance processes and upgrading opportunities for cocoa farmers in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laven, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study provides a detailed description and analysis of upgrading opportunities for small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana. It shows how and why producers do, or do not, benefit from being inserted in a global value chain that is increasingly driven by multinational cocoa processors and chocolate

  18. Structure and Stability of Cocoa Flowers and Their Response to Pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Frimpong-Anin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the position of staminodes around the style of cocoa flowers and the stability of cocoa flowers relative to pollination and seasonality. Cocoa flowers were categorized into converging, ≤1.20 mm; parallel, 1.21–2.40 mm, and splay ≥2.41 mm, depending on the distance between the staminode and style. Some flowers were hand pollinated while others were not and were excluded from insect visitors. Proportions of flowers of converging (56.0%, parallel (37.5%, and splay (6.5% remained similar along the vertical plane of cocoa trees. Although pollination rates of flowers with splay staminodes were the lowest, the overall pollination success of cocoa trees was not significantly affected because of the small proportion of splay flowers.The stability of the cocoa flowers depended on both the season and pollination. During the dry season, unpollinated flowers of cocoa trees showed a flower-stability ratio of 72% on the second day, while the flower-stability ratio was 94% in the wet season. Pollinated (senescent flowers had a stability ratio of 95% after 5 days during the wet season, but all pollinated flowers dropped after 5 days in the dry season, indicating that seasonal factors, such as water stress, can have dramatic effects on cocoa yields.

  19. Evaluation of the toxicity of Actara 25 WG for the control of the cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... production in West African cocoa growing countries. The other two scourges are the cocoa swollen shoot virus disease transmitted by mealybugs, and the black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora and the more virulent Phytophthora megakarya. The feeding activities of mirids are characterized ...

  20. Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was

  1. Fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in Ghana: the case of Sefwi Wiawso District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Nunoo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses factors that influence fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region, Ghana. Primary data were obtained from 200 cocoa farmers in the district. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least square regression analysis were used to analyse data collected. The results revealed that majority of the cocoa farmers were males and are getting old. Also farm size and price of fertilizer were significant factors affecting fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region. Moreover 74.5 percent farmers do not use fertilizer whereas 25.5 percent use fertilizer on their cocoa farms. The study recommends that Ghana government should further subsidise the price of fertilizer to make fertilizer more affordable to small holder cocoa farmers and also adopt strategies that hedge against price risk. In addition, illiterate farmers should be encouraged to undergo adult literacy programmes. Rural development policies should think about the importance of improving small-scale farmers? access to credit market. Furthermore, the extension unit of the Ghana Cocoa board and Ministry of Agriculture should be strengthened to educate cocoa farmers more on fertilizer usage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9939 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 22-31

  2. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  3. Evaluation of the toxicity of Actara 25 WG for the control of the cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) has the “National Mandate” to evaluate and recommend new insecticides for use on cocoa in Nigeria. ... at application rate of 0.015% was found adequate and recommended taking into consideration the impact of the product on the environment and for economic reasons.

  4. Comparative study of cocoa black ants temporal population distribution utilizing geospatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. A.; Bakar, S.; Mazlan, A. H.; Yusoff, Z. Mohd; Rasam, A. R. Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa plantation also subjected to diseases and pests infestation. Some pests not only reduced the yield but also inhibit the growth of trees. Therefore, the Malaysia Cocoa Board (MCB) has explored Cocoa Black Ants (CBA) as one of their biological control mechanism to reduce the pest infestation of the Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB). CPB is capable to cause damage to cocoa beans, and later on will reduce the quality of dried cocoa beans. This study tries to integrate the use of geospatial analysis in understanding population distribution pattern of CBA to enhance its capability in controlling CPB infestation. Two objectives of the study are i) to generate temporal CBA distribution of cocoa plantation for two different blocks, and ii) to compare visually the CBA population distribution pattern with the aid of geospatial technique. This study managed to find the CBA population pattern which indicated spatially modest amount of low pattern distribution in February of 2007 until reaching the highest levels of ant populations in September 2007 and decreasing by the end of the year in 2009 for two different blocks (i.e 10B and 18A). Therefore, the usage of GIS is important to explain the CBA pattern population in the mature cocoa field. This finding might to be used as an indicator to examine the optimum distribution of CBA, which needed as a biological control agent against the CPB in the future.

  5. Governing the Organic Cocoa Network from Ghana: Towards Hybrid Governance Arrangements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the processes of initiation, construction and transformation of the organic cocoa network from Ghana. We address in particular how the state responded to and engaged with civil-society actors in the organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped

  6. 21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.520 Cocoa with dioctyl... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...

  7. Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality : the Zutphen eldery study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, G.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Small, short-term, intervention studies indicate that cocoa-containing foods improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure. We studied whether habitual cocoa intake was cross-sectionally related to blood pressure and prospectively related with cardiovascular mortality. Methods:

  8. Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods

  9. Distribution of free and total aluminium in some cocoa-growing soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Region of Ghana is currently carrying the bulk of Ghana's cocoa, and so it is important to investigate the amounts and distribution of total and free Al oxides in some cocoa-growing soils from the region. Six soil series belonging to one major compound association of soils occurring in a toposequence, the ...

  10. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  11. Slipping into and out of welfare: the case of cocoa farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of falling into and out of welfare between cocoa seasons was examined using panel data sets collected in two waves from 366 cocoa farming households in Southwestern, Nigeria. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and the Markovian Model Analysis. The welfare status were decomposed into ...

  12. Partial Placement of Maize with Cocoa Husks Meals in Layers Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial replacement value of cocoa husk meals for maize in laying hen diets were assessed under an on-farm condition, Urea-treated and untreated cocoa husk meals were each incorporated into the farmer's layer mash (FLM) to replace 25% of the maize portion. FLM contained 40% maize. Six groups of 15 laying hens ...

  13. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.

  15. Effect of urea treatment of cocoa pod on rumen fermentation characteristics in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.; Sakti, A. A.; Sofyan, A.; Ekaningrum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a third largest country in the world for cocoa production. A cocoa pod could be utilized as alternative feeds due to their sufficient quantity and availability throughout the year. On the other hand, low nutritional quality such as highly fibrous materials and low protein content usually characterized in agricultural and plantation by-products as it appears on cocoa pod. Ammoniation treatment using urea improve the nutritional quality of feedstuff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniation treatments on a cocoa pod on in vitro feed fermentation and gas production on ruminal fluid. KA treatment gave highest gas production than other treatment. Total gas production during 48 hours of the cocoa pod was significantly affected by treatments (Pcocoa pod.

  16. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  17. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  19. Effects of cocoa-enriched diet on orofacial pain in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L N; Rohrs, E L; Omoto, K; Durham, P L; Holliday, L S; Morris, A D; Allen, K D; Caudle, R M; Neubert, J K

    2017-06-01

    To investigate and discuss the effects of cocoa on orofacial pain. The Department of Orthodontics at the University of Florida (UF). Male and female hairless rats (N=20/group) were tested. Rats were tested using the Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) before and after changing their food from the standard chow to a cocoa-enriched or control-equivalent diet. Male rats fed the cocoa diet had a significantly higher operant pain index when tested at 37°C as compared to control diet-fed animals. Female rats on the cocoa diet had a significantly higher pain index when tested at 18°C and 44°C, as compared to animals fed the control diet. Capsaicin-induced pain was inhibited, with cocoa-diet male rats having a significantly higher pain index than control-diet male rats and cocoa-diet female rats at both 37°C and 44°C. Cocoa-diet female rats had a significantly higher pain index at 44°C than control-diet females. Mechanical sensitivity was affected following capsaicin cream, with a significantly decreased tolerated bottle distance in both cocoa- and control-diet animals, but there was no difference between cocoa- and control-diet groups. Using the OPAD operant system, we demonstrated that a diet rich in cocoa was effective in inhibiting neurogenic inflammatory pain in rats. This has implications for the use of novel alternative therapies such as diet modification for pain control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

  1. Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from "witch broom disease" resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Paula Bacelar; Maciel,Leonardo Fonseca; Opretzka,Luiza Carolina França; Soares,Sergio Eduardo; Bispo,Eliete da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The "witch broom disease" caused by the fungus called Moniliophthora perniciosa is one of the most important cocoa diseases in Latin America, causing around 70% production reduction in the southern Bahia. In attempt to solve the problem, many cultivars resistant to the disease have been recommended to farmers. On the other hand, the chocolate flavour is composed by many compounds whose formation depends on the genetic background, environment where cocoa is grown and processing operations. The...

  2. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  3. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  4. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  5. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  8. COCOA CMS Object-oriented Code for Optical Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, P

    2007-01-01

    COCOA is a C++ software that is able to reconstruct the positions, angular orientations, and internal optical parameters of any optical system described by a seamless combination of many different types of optical objects. The program also handles the propagation of uncertainties, which makes it very useful to simulate the system in the design phase. The software is currently in use by the different optical alignment systems of CMS and is integrated in the CMS framework so that it can read the geometry description from simple text files or the CMS XML format, and the input and output data from text files, ROOT trees, or an Oracle or MySQL database.

  9. MacRuby Ruby and Cocoa on OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Aimonetti, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Want to build native Mac OS X applications with a sleek, developer-friendly alternative to Objective-C? MacRuby is an ideal choice. This in-depth guide shows you how Apple's implementation of Ruby gives you access to all the features available to Objective-C programmers. You'll get clear, detailed explanations of MacRuby, including quick programming techniques such as prototyping. Perfect for programmers at any level, this book is packed with code samples and complete project examples. If you use Ruby, you can tap your skills to take advantage of Interface Builder, Cocoa libraries, the Objec

  10. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  11. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  12. Chocolate and other cocoa products: effects on human reproduction and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillo, Eleonora; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2015-11-18

    Chocolate and other cocoa products are not all alike. They differ between themselves in term of nutrients, calories, and bioactive constituents. Therefore, some of them are unhealthy foods, whereas others do not affect health and still others are healthy foods. One wonders which chocolate and other cocoa derivatives can be considered as biofunctional food products. This review explores the constituents of cocoa and chocolate and summarizes evidence about the role of cocoa and chocolate components on human health and particularly on reproduction. On the basis of the literature review, it can be asserted that some kinds of cocoa products have favorable effects on human health at different stages of life. Women seem to be particularly favored by consuming of cocoa products, and chocolate with specific features can also be a good supplementary source of energy for pregnant woman. However, many aspects remain to be investigated and others are still to be clarified. Future studies and systematic reviews will shed light on some preventive effects and health benefits of cocoa products.

  13. The Heckscher‑Ohlin Model and the Performance of Cocoa Products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahanga Verter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heckscher‑Ohlin model based on Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage maintains that countries should specialize in the production and exportation of products that they have relative factor endowments. Therefore, Nigeria has taken advantage of its favourable climatic condition to become among the largest producers and exporters of cocoa products in the world. Given that cocoa is also the topmost non-oil export product and earnings in Nigeria, this paper assesses its performance and determines the effects of external factors on production in the country. Nigeria’s performance in the global cocoa market has been somewhat below expectations. Using OLS and Granger causality, the OLS regression results reveal that exports, trade openness, area harvested and domestic consumption have a positive influence on cocoa production in Nigeria. The Granger test shows that there exists bidirectional causality between the world price, trade openness and yield per hectare to cocoa production in the country. The results further confirmed a unidirectional causality running from cocoa output to exports. The government of Nigeria and trading partners should create a sound environment and some incentives to stimulate cocoa producers and exporters to increase production for export performance and revenue generation in the country.

  14. Characterization of leaf, flower, and pod morphology among Vietnamese cocoa varieties (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet, L.T.; Hang, P.T.; Everaert, H.; Rottiers, H.; Dung, T.N

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the morphological traits of 63 cocoa varieties that have been imported and cultivated in Vietnam. These cocoa varieties were collected from five regions in Southern Vietnam and were classified into three groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. Their morphological features were individually evaluated and analysed. This included leaf characteristics (leaf and stem anatomy) and flower features (ligule shape, anther number, pollen, stamen and ovule, fruit, seed). The results of this study showed a large variation across all morphological characteristics of the evaluated cocoa varieties. The Vietnamese cocoa flower showed a diversity of morphological characteristics including five shapes of ligule (oval, broad, deltoid, elliptic and sub-lanceolate) and each stamen also has a bilobed anther with the exception of trilobed anther for TD11. Furthermore, the shape of pollen grains was found homogeneous in all 63 varieties. The colour of the stamens and ovules was purple and white respectively for all examined samples. Three kinds of fruit shapes were identified, namely Angoleta, Amelonado and Cundeamor, and these were of various colours. Additionally, an anatomical analysis on the midrib structure of the leaves from the 63 varieties showed the highest similarity, likewise the stem structure. The colour of young leaves was observed as being green and red. This is the primary research that scrutinizes the morphological biodiversity of Vietnamese cocoa varieties during the three-decade development of the Vietnam cocoa project. The results have a practical applications for cocoa cross-breeding and botanical taxonomy. (author)

  15. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  16. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  17. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  18. Cocoa consumption reduces NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Agell, M; Urpi-Sarda, M; Sacanella, E; Camino-López, S; Chiva-Blanch, G; Llorente-Cortés, V; Tobias, E; Roura, E; Andres-Lacueva, C; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Badimon, L; Estruch, R

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between high-polyphenol intake and reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. The healthy effects of cocoa-polyphenols may be due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, although the exact mechanisms are unknown and depend on the matrix in which cocoa-polyphenols are delivered. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key molecule in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis involved in the regulation of adhesion molecules(AM) and cytokine expression and its activation is the first step in triggering the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute cocoa consumption in different matrices related to the bioavailability of cocoa-polyphenols in NF-κB activation and the expression of AM. Eighteen healthy volunteers randomly received 3 interventions: 40g of cocoa powder with milk (CM), with water (CW), and only milk (M). NF-κB activation in leukocytes and AM (sICAM, sVCAM, E-selectin) were measured before and 6h after each intervention. Consumption of CW significantly decreased NF-κB activation compared to baseline and to CM (P cocoa intake may depend on the bioavailability of bioactive compounds and may be mediated at least in part by the modulation of NF-κB activation and downstream molecules reinforcing the link between cocoa intake and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal immune system of young rats influenced by cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2008-08-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) maintains mucosal homeostasis by counteracting pathogens and inducing a state of nonresponsiveness when it receives signals from food antigens and commensal bacteria. We report for the first time the influence of continuous cocoa consumption on GALT function in rats postweaning. Weaned Wistar rats were fed cocoa-enriched diets (4% or 10% food intake) for 3 weeks. The function of the primary inductive sites of GALT, such as Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), was evaluated through an analysis of IgA-secretory ability and lymphocyte composition (T, B and natural killer cells), activation (IL-2 secretion and IL-2 receptor alpha expression) and proliferation. T-helper effector cell balance was also established based on cytokine profile (interferon gamma, IL-4 and IL-10) after mitogen activation. A 10% cocoa intake induced significant changes in PP and MLN lymphocyte composition and function, whereas a 4% cocoa diet did not cause significant modifications in either tissues. Cocoa diet strongly reduced secretory IgA (S-IgA) in the intestinal lumen, although IgA's secretory ability was only slightly decreased in PP. In addition, the 10% cocoa diet increased T-cell-antigen receptor gammadelta cell proportion in both lymphoid tissues. Thus, cocoa intake modulates intestinal immune responses in young rats, influencing gammadelta T-cells and S-IgA production.

  20. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa.

  1. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa.

  2. Effects of cocoa butter triacylglycerides and minor compounds on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Maleky, Farnaz

    2018-04-01

    In a multi-component chocolate product, oil migration, from high oil content filling into chocolate, is one of the major contributors to the product quality loss. Among various parameters influencing oil diffusivity, cocoa butter is studied intensively. Studies have shown that the rate of oil transportion in cocoa butter is affected by its composition, the way that it is crystallized, and also the storage conditions. To model and study effects of cocoa butter type and processing conditions on oil migration, five different cocoa butter samples were studied in this work. Samples' chemical compositions in addition to their structural properties were analyzed to understand and compare oil migrations in the networks. Crystallized cocoa butter samples were placed in contact with a cream as a source of liquid oil. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the movement of liquid oil into samples was investigated. The effects of minor differences in the cocoa butter chemical compositions on oil migrations rate are shown clearly. The highest effective diffusion coefficient was observed in the sample with the higher unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids content. Although shearing at 250s -1 delayed oil migration in all the samples and a significantly lower diffusion coefficient was observed in the dynamic samples, the effects of chemical composition were still dominant. This study successfully highlighted that even minor differences in cocoa butter composition affect the network mass transfer phenomenon dramatically and that it is not easy to diminish these possessions by just crystallization processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  4. Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a 10 % cocoa (C10) diet, containing polyphenols and fibre among others, modifies intestinal and systemic Ig production. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of C10 on IgA and IgM production in the intestinal and extra-intestinal mucosal compartments, establishing the involvement of cocoa fibre (CF) in such effects. Mechanisms by which C10 intake may affect IgA synthesis in the salivary glands were also studied. To this effect, rats were fed either a standard diet, a diet containing C10, CF or inulin. Intestinal (the gut wash (GW), Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) and extra-intestinal (salivary glands) mucosal tissues and blood samples were collected for IgA and IgM quantification. The gene expressions of IgA production- and homing-related molecules were studied in the salivary glands. The C10 diet decreased intestinal IgA and IgM production. Although the CF diet decreased the GW IgA concentration, it increased PP, MLN and serum IgA concentrations. Both the C10 and the CF diets produced a down-regulatory effect on IgA secretion in the extra-intestinal tissues. The C10 diet interacted with the mechanisms involved in IgA synthesis, whereas the CF showed particular effects on the homing and transcytosis of IgA across the salivary glands. Overall, CF was able to up-regulate IgA production in the intestinal-inductor compartments, whereas it down-regulated its production at the mucosal-effector ones. Further studies must be directed to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the effect of particular cocoa components on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

  5. Ecological changes induced by full-sun cocoa farming in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Ebagnerin Tondoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-sun cocoa farming is currently the most widespread cocoa cultivation system in humid and sub-humid Côte d’Ivoire. Higher short-term yields from increasing surfaces under cultivation in this farming system have contributed to the country being ranked as top cocoa producer in the world. However the negative consequences including biodiversity loss, soil fertility depletion and soil quality degradation associated with this system, have incredibly received so less attention that the type and magnitude of such agro-ecological consequences within the current context of climate change are worth investigating. The present study was undertaken in the former cocoa belt of Central-Western Côte d’Ivoire, precisely in the Oumé Department. The main objective was to assess the impact of forest conversion to full-sun cocoa plantations on above and below-ground biodiversity along with soil quality by measuring chemical, physical and biological parameters along a chronosequence of different ages (5, 10 and 20 years. The results are summarized as follows: (i the conversion of semi-deciduous forests to cocoa plantations resulted in plant diversity and species richness loss due to the disappearance of a huge number of native species while earthworm abundance and species richness increased due to the appearance of species adapted to degraded lands, (ii soil quality was severely impaired by cocoa farming with the worse scenario being found under the 10-year-old cocoa plantations, where SOC, total N, CEC contributed mostly to soil quality degradation. The contribution of these findings to devise options for sustainable tree-based cocoa farming is discussed.

  6. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  7. Theobromine Is Responsible for the Effects of Cocoa on the Antibody Immune Status of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2018-03-01

    A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition. Three-week-old female Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (AIN-93M; RF group), a 10% cocoa diet (CC group), or a 0.25% theobromine diet (the same amount provided by the cocoa diet; TB group) in 2 separate experiments that lasted 19 (experiment 1) or 8 (experiment 2) d. Serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations were determined. In addition, at the end of experiment 2, thymus, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and spleen lymphocyte populations were analyzed. Both CC and TB groups in experiments 1 and 2 showed similar serum IgG, IgM, and IgA and intestinal sIgA concentrations, which were lower than those in the RF group (46-98% lower in experiment 1 and 23-91% lower in experiment 2; P theobromine diets similarly changed the thymocyte composition by increasing CD4-CD8- (+133%) and CD4+CD8- (+53%) proportions (P theobromine in cocoa plays an immunoregulatory role that is responsible for cocoa's influence on both systemic and intestinal antibody concentrations and also for modifying lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition in young healthy Lewis rats. The majority of these changes are observed after a single week of being fed a diet containing 0.25% theobromine.

  8. Correlation analysis of cocoa consumption data with worldwide incidence rates of testicular cancer and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio

    2009-02-01

    The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965-80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  9. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  10. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  11. to Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  12. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on irradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangaonkar, S.R.; Natarajan, V.; Sastry, M.D.; Desai, S.R.P.; Kulkarni, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated (10kGy) and unirradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds have been compared. Unirradiated cocoa beans failed to give any ESR signal, whereas after irradiation (10kGy) an ESR signal at g = 2.0042 was observed. However, ESR signals are given by both irradiated and unirradiated niger seeds. The intensity of signal was found to be dose-dependent up to 10kGy for both seeds. The signals were stable up to 180 days in both cases. The results indicate the possibility of using ESR for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated cocoa beans but not for niger seeds

  13. Use of a proteolytic enzyme in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) processing

    OpenAIRE

    Brito,Edy Sousa de; Pezoa García,Nelson Horacio; Amancio,Allan César

    2004-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis using an exogenous protease on cocoa nibs was performed to verify the formation of precursors and the effect on cocoa flavour. An experimental design was used to check the influence of temperature (30 to 70 ºC) and enzyme : substrate ratio [E/S] (97.5 to 1267.5 U g-1 of protein). The % Degree of Hydrolysis (% DH) was affected mainly by [E/S] leading to a 4-fold increase (from 5 to 20 %) after 6 hours of treatment. During cocoa nibs roasting, there was a greater consumption ...

  14. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod ( through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. Laconi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control, CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea, CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses, CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum. Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates. Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05 of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01 with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05. It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  15. STS-95 Commander Brown participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. examines the heads up display in the 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible in which he will be riding during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach as Dan Adovasio, a parade coordinator, looks on. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  16. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  17. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  18. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  19. Effect of cocoa pod husk filler loading on tensile properties of cocoa pod husk/polylactic acid green biocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Haron, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the years, cocoa-pod husk (CPH) generation significantly increased due to the growing global demand of chocolate products, since cocoa bean is the main ingredient for chocolate production. Proper utilization of CPH as natural filler for reinforcement of polymer composites provides economic advantages as well as environmental solutions for CPH waste disposal problems. In this study, CPH filled PLA composite films were developed using solution casting method. The effect of CPH loading on the tensile properties of CPH/PLA composite films were investigated. The obtained results manifested that increasing CPH loading from 0% to 10 % significantly increased tensile strength of CPH/PLA composite. However, further addition of CPH loading up to 15 % decreased the tensile strength of film samples. As CPH loading increased from 0% to 15%, tensile modulus of CPH/PLA composite films also increased from 1.5MPa to 10.4MPa, whereas their elongation at break reduced from 190% to 90%. These findings points out CPH as a potential natural filler for reinforcing thermoplastic polymer composites.

  20. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  1. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) originating from East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, A.; Noor, A.; Yunus, M. R.; Misnawi; Djide, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    Concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, As and Hg) were assessed for cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L) originating from East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia after five-day fermentation. Consisting of PB 123, BR 25, and MCC 02 cocoa clones, the spectrophotometric analysis showed that concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in the cocoa beans over the three clones was below the detection limits of 0.100; 0.050, 0.010 and 0.005 mg/kg. For Cu, they were 19.343; 10.391, and 18.594 mg/kg respectively, but still below the maximum critical levels, established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Concentrations of those five heavy metals in the bean shells were found to be parallel to those in the cocoa beans, except for Pb.

  3. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panak Balentić, Jelena; Ačkar, Đurđica; Jokić, Stela; Jozinović, Antun; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Šubarić, Drago; Pavlović, Nika

    2018-06-09

    Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  4. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Panak Balentić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  5. Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles and near infrared spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Snitkjær, Pia; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2008-01-01

    demonstrating the microbial succession taking place during the fermentation. Subsequently the DGGE spectra were correlated to the NIR spectra using Partial Least Squares regression models (PLS2). Correlations of 0.87 (bacterial derived DGGE spectra) and 0.81 (yeast derived DGGE spectra) were obtained indicating......Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans...... of the beans and the chemical processes inside the beans have been carried out previously. Recently it has been shown that Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers an efficient tool for monitoring the microbiological changes taking place during the fermentation of cocoa. Near Infrared (NIR...

  6. Cocoa intake and arterial stiffness in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodríguez José

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males. Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.

  7. OPTIMASI ISOLASI LIPASE INDIGENOUS BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. The Optimizing of Isolation of Cocoa Bean Indogenous Lipase (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. G. Mayun Permana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to optimize the isolation method of cocoa bean lipase. The research is held by determining the position of lipase on cocoa bean, varying extraction medium and isolation process. The result shows that the lipase of cocoa bean is   cytosolic enzyme. The defatting process do not increase the lipase activity. Polyphenols inhibit the lipase activity, so that removal of the polyphenol will increase the activity. Blocking the polyphenol with polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP will also increase the activity.The optimum consentration of PVPP is 8 %. The lipase activity will reach the highest when homogenized for 10 menit at 10,000 rpm. The best medium extraction for lipase isolation is 0.15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing sucrose 0.6 M and CaCl  1.0 mM.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi isolasi lipase indigenous biji kakao. Optimasi diawali dengan menentukan keberadaan lipase kemudian optimasi medium ekstraksi dan proses ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lipase berada dalam sitosol. Penghilangan lemak tidak meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Senyawa polifenol menghambat aktivitas lipase dan penghilangan polifenol dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP dapat menghambat polifenol sehingga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Konsentrasi PVPP optimum adalah 8 % dari berat biji kakao. Proses homogenisasi optimum diperoleh dalam waktu 10 menit pada kecepatan 10.000 rpm. Medium ekstraksi untuk isolasi lipase biji kakao terbaik adalah bufer fosfat 0,15 M  dan pH 7,5 yang mengandung sukrosa 0,6 M dan 1,0 mM CaCl .

  8. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disarrangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to biosynthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  10. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  11. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small- Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affected the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the age increasing of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of so...

  12. Polyphenol and Microbial Profile of On-farm Cocoa Beans Fermented with Selected Microbial Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu Vincent Balogu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality and preference of cocoa as raw material for various mcocoa products primarily depend on fermentation techniques that modulate the resultant flavour and the phytochemical properties. This study investigated the combined effect of selected microbial consortia and bioreactors on phytochemical profiles of fermented cocoa beans.Material and Methods: Three microbial consortia labeled as Treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 were used as starter culture (≈105cells ml-1 for on-farm cocoa fermentation on three chambers (basket, woodbox, and plastic for 7 days. These novel consortia were T-1, Staphylococcus spp + Pseudomonas spp+ Bacillus spp, T-2, Staphylococcus spp + Pseudomonas spp +L. lactis, and T-3, Bacillus spp+ Lactobacillus spp + Saccharomyces spp+ Torulopsis spp.Results and Conclusion: The microbial profile were significantly (P≤0.05 altered by all treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and microbial frequency was enhanced by 5 -22.5%. T-3 and T-1 significantly altered phenolic content in basket chamber. Tannin was significantly (p≤0.05 varied by T-1(basket, plastic, wood box and T-2(plastic. Tannin: polyphenol conversion ratio adopted as fermented cocoa bean quality benchmark was significantly enhanced by T-1 (basket, woodbox and T-2 (plastic, but was significantly suppressed by T-3 (basket. This study evidently concluded that the appropriate synergy of microbial flora and fermenting chambers could achieve good cocoa quality with low polyphenol content (best for cocoa beverages or high polyphenol content (best for pharmaceutical, confectionery and nutraceutical industries. These findings would avail an economic alternative to the expensive polyphenol reconstitution of cocoa butter used for various industrial products, thereby maximizing economic benefits for both cocoa farmers and industrialists.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  13. Drivers and barriers to sustainable purchasing practices in the cocoa sector (NRET Working Paper July 2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, David; Tallontire, Anne

    2007-01-01

    [Summary]\\ud Sustainability is an area of growing concern for both the cocoa producing countries and the chocolate manufacturing industry.\\ud \\ud There is a growing consensus on principles underlying sustainable purchasing practices.\\ud \\ud Industry sustainability practices do not necessarily include sustainable purchasing practices.\\ud \\ud Better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, and motivations of key stakeholders in cocoa value chains is required to promote sustainable purchasi...

  14. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Boadi-Kusi Samuel; Rekha, Hansraj; Percy, Mashige Khathutshelo

    2016-03-01

    The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. To determine the prevalence of ocular injuries and health seeking behaviour following injury among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Five hundred and fifty six participants were recruited through simple random sampling using a multistage approach from four cocoa growing districts in Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information such as demography, ocular hazards and injuries experienced. An ocular examination was also conducted to assess the eye health of the participants. Descriptive and regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The rate of ocular injuries was calculated by using the number of injuries reported that resulted in lost work time/days divided by the number of worker years at risk of injury (sum of years worked in cocoa farms for all the participants). The rate of ocular injuries was 11.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 9.4 - 31) which led to lost work time of 37.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 34.1 - 40.8). The major causes of ocular injury were plants/branches (n=73, 51.1%), chemicals (n=27, 18.9%), cocoa pod/husk (n=14, 9.8%) and occurred mostly during weeding, harvesting and chemical spraying. Few (n=34, 6.1%) participants reported the use of ocular protection. Fifty-five (38.5%) participants visited the local chemical shops, while 37 (25.9%) visited hospitals/clinics for ocular treatment of their injuries. There is a high rate of ocular injuries among cocoa farmers who make insufficient use of appropriate eye care services. There is the need for eye health education among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

  15. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/lo...

  16. The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M

    2006-03-01

    Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection.

  17. Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect.

  18. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

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    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  19. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  20. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...