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Sample records for regular anisotropic layer

  1. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  2. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan; Morel, Jean-Michel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2013-01-01

    features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE

  3. Comparison of two anisotropic layer models applied to induction motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Boynov, K.O.; Waarma, J.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    A general description of the Anisotropic Layer Theory, derived in the polar coordinate system, and applied to the analysis of squirrel-cage induction motors (IMs), is presented. The theory considers non-conductive layers, layer with predefined current density and layers with induced current density.

  4. Comparison of two anisotropic layer models applied to induction motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Boynov, K.O.; Lomonova, E.A.; Waarma, J.

    2014-01-01

    A general description of the Anisotropic Layer Theory, derived in the polar coordinate system, and applied to the analysis of squirrel-cage induction motors (IMs), is presented. The theory considers non-conductive layers, layer with predefined current density and layers with induced current density.

  5. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....

  7. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH

    1995-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  8. Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2016-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...

  9. Anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in layered organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuzuka, S.; Uji, S.; Satsukawa, H.; Kimata, M.; Terashima, T.; Koga, H.; Yamamura, Y.; Saito, K.; Akutsu, H.; Yamada, J.

    2010-01-01

    To study the anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in the d-wave superconductors, the interplane resistance has been measured on layered organic superconductors κ-(ET) 2 Cu(NCS) 2 and β-(BDA-TTP) 2 SbF 6 under magnetic fields precisely parallel to the conducting planes. For κ-(ET) 2 Cu(NCS) 2 , in-plane angular dependence of the Josephson-vortex flow resistance is mainly described by the fourfold symmetry and dip structures appear when the magnetic field is applied parallel to the b- and c-axes. The obtained results have a relation to the d-wave superconducting gap symmetry. However, the absence of in-plane fourfold anisotropy was found for β-(BDA-TTP) 2 SbF 6 . The different anisotropic behavior is discussed in terms of the interlayer coupling strength.

  10. Anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in layered organic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuzuka, S., E-mail: yasuzuka@chem.tsukuba.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Uji, S.; Satsukawa, H.; Kimata, M.; Terashima, T. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003 (Japan); Koga, H.; Yamamura, Y.; Saito, K. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Akutsu, H.; Yamada, J. [Department of Material Science, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To study the anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in the d-wave superconductors, the interplane resistance has been measured on layered organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6} under magnetic fields precisely parallel to the conducting planes. For {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}, in-plane angular dependence of the Josephson-vortex flow resistance is mainly described by the fourfold symmetry and dip structures appear when the magnetic field is applied parallel to the b- and c-axes. The obtained results have a relation to the d-wave superconducting gap symmetry. However, the absence of in-plane fourfold anisotropy was found for {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6}. The different anisotropic behavior is discussed in terms of the interlayer coupling strength.

  11. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Métivier, L., E-mail: ludovic.metivier@ujf-grenoble.fr [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Brossier, R. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Labbé, S. [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Operto, S. [Géoazur, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, IRD, OCA, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France); Virieux, J. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  12. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-01-01

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped

  13. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  14. Van der Waals Attraction of Vortices in Anisotropic and Layered Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, G.; Geshkenbein, V.

    1996-01-01

    We show that in anisotropic and layered superconductors the fluctuations of vortex lines produce an attractive long-range vortex-vortex interaction of the van der Waals type. This attraction follows from the anisotropic screening properties of the material and has profound consequences for the low-field phase diagram of these materials. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  16. Plasma resonance in anisotropic layered high-Tc superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    The plasma resonance is described theoretically by the inductive coupling model for a large stacked Josephson-junction system such as the intrinsic Josephson-junction array in anisotropic high- T-c superconductors. Eigenmodes of the plasma oscillation are analytically described and a numerical...

  17. Diamagneto-Dielectric Anisotropic Wide Angle Impedance Matching Layers for Active Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  18. Diamagneto-dielectric anisotropic wide angle impedance matching layers for active phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  19. Coulomb drag in anisotropic systems: a theoretical study on a double-layer phosphorene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; Salavati-Fard, T.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the Coulomb drag resistivity in a double-layer electron system with highly anisotropic parabolic band structure using Boltzmann transport theory. As an example, we consider a double-layer phosphorene on which we apply our formalism. This approach, in principle, can be tuned

  20. Effects on RCS of a perfect electromagnetic conductor sphere in the presence of anisotropic plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, A.; Hussan, M. M.; Illahi, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Naz, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Effects on RCS of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) sphere by coating with anisotropic plasma layer are studied in this paper. The incident, scattered and transmitted electromagnetic fields are expanded in term of spherical vector wave functions using extended classical theory of scattering. Co and cross-polarized scattered field coefficients are obtained at the interface of free space-anisotropic plasma and at anisotropic plasma-PEMC sphere core by scattering matrices method. The presented analytical expressions are general for any perfect conducting sphere (PMC, PEC, or PEMC) with general anisotropic/isotropic material coatings that include plasma and metamaterials. The behavior of the forward and backscattered radar cross section of PEMC sphere with the variation of the magnetic field strength, incident frequency, plasma density, and effective collision frequency for the co-polarized and the cross polarized fields are investigated. It is also observed from the obtained results that anisotropic layer on PEMC sphere shows reciprocal behavior as compared to isotopic plasma layer on PEMC sphere. The comparisons of the numerical results of the presented analytical expressions with available results of some special cases show the correctness of the analysis.

  1. Layered Black Phosphorus: Strongly Anisotropic Magnetic, Electronic, and Electron-Transfer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Sedmidubský, David; Huber, Štěpán; Luxa, Jan; Bouša, Daniel; Boothroyd, Chris; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Layered elemental materials, such as black phosphorus, exhibit unique properties originating from their highly anisotropic layered structure. The results presented herein demonstrate an anomalous anisotropy for the electrical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties of black phosphorus. It is shown that heterogeneous electron transfer from black phosphorus to outer- and inner-sphere molecular probes is highly anisotropic. The electron-transfer rates differ at the basal and edge planes. These unusual properties were interpreted by means of calculations, manifesting the metallic character of the edge planes as compared to the semiconducting properties of the basal plane. This indicates that black phosphorus belongs to a group of materials known as topological insulators. Consequently, these effects render the magnetic properties highly anisotropic, as both diamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior can be observed depending on the orientation in the magnetic field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anisotropic spin motive force in multi-layered Dirac fermion system, α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, K; Morinari, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropic spin motive force in α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I 3 , which is a multi-layered massless Dirac fermion system under pressure. Assuming the interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction and the interlayer anisotropic ferromagnetic interaction, we numerically examine the spin ordered state of the ground state using the steepest descent method. The anisotropic interaction leads to the anisotropic spin ordered state. We calculate the spin motive force produced by the anisotropic spin texture. The result quantitatively agrees with the experiment. (paper)

  3. WKB solution 4×4 for electromagnetic waves in a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, Natalya Michailovna; Moiseev, Anton Vladimirovich

    2018-04-01

    In the paper, an oblique incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave on a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer is considered. We consider the case when all the components of the magnetic permeability tensor are non zero and vary with distance from the interface of media. The WKB method gives a matrix 4 × 4 solution for the projections of the electromagnetic wave fields during its propagation. The dependence of the cross-polarized components on the orientation of the anisotropic medium relative to the plane of incidence of the medium is analyzed.

  4. Anisotropic magnetoelectric characteristics in five-layer magnetization-graded multiferroic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the anisotropic magnetoelectric(ME characteristics for the five-layer magnetization-graded multiferroic composites(MGMC. The magnetic anisotropy and corresponding anisotropic magnetomechanical effect, demagnetization effect and magneto-mechanical damping’s dependence on magnetic field direction result in an obvious anisotropic ME coupling effect. The experimental results show that ME voltage coefficient in H33 mode is remarkably larger than the other ones (H11, H31 and H13 over the whole Hdc range. Correspondingly, ∂VME/∂Hdc arrives about 420mV/Oe at an optimum bias magnetic field of 46Oe, which is approximately 40 times larger than that of the previous reported composite. Furthermore, it also demonstrates an obvious angular dependence on dc magnetic field. Taking advantage of these specifications, the MGMC can be used to detect weak dc magnetic field and its spatial orientation.

  5. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Torsional surface waves in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shishir; Pramanik, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to deal with the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half space. The inhomogeneous layer exhibits the inhomogeneity of quadratic type. In order to show the effect of gravity the equation for the velocity of torsional wave has been obtained. It is also observed that for a layer over a homogeneous half space without gravity, the torsional surface wave does not propagate. An attempt is also made to assess the possible propagation of torsional surface waves in that medium in the absence of the upper layer. The effects of inhomogeneity factors and porosity on the phase velocity are depicted by means of graphs. (paper)

  7. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe; Maassen, Jesse; Deng, Yexin; Du, Yuchen; Garrelts, Richard P.; Lundstrom, Mark S; Ye, Peide D.; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been revisited recently as a new two-dimensional material showing potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report the anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended few-layer black phosphorus measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The armchair and zigzag thermal conductivities are ∼20 and ∼40 W m−1 K−1 for black phosphorus films thicker than 15 nm, respectively, and decrease to ∼10 and ∼20 W m−1 K−1 as the film thickness is reduced, exhibiting significant anisotropy. The thermal conductivity anisotropic ratio is found to be ∼2 for thick black phosphorus films and drops to ∼1.5 for the thinnest 9.5-nm-thick film. Theoretical modelling reveals that the observed anisotropy is primarily related to the anisotropic phonon dispersion, whereas the intrinsic phonon scattering rates are found to be similar along the armchair and zigzag directions. Surface scattering in the black phosphorus films is shown to strongly suppress the contribution of long mean-free-path acoustic phonons. PMID:26472191

  8. Layer-dependent anisotropic electronic structure of freestanding quasi-two-dimensional Mo S 2

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jinhua; Li, Kun; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Ze; Yuan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The anisotropy of the electronic transition is a well-known characteristic of low-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, but their layer-thickness dependence has not been properly investigated experimentally until now. Yet, it not only determines the optical properties of these low-dimensional materials, but also holds the key in revealing the underlying character of the electronic states involved. Here we used both angle-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spectral analysis of angle-integrated spectra to study the evolution of the anisotropic electronic transition involving the low-energy valence electrons in the freestanding MoS2 layers with different thicknesses. We are able to demonstrate that the well-known direct gap at 1.8 eV is only excited by the in-plane polarized field while the out-of-plane polarized optical gap is 2.4 ± 0.2 eV in monolayer MoS2. This contrasts with the much smaller anisotropic response found for the indirect gap in the few-layer MoS2 systems. In addition, we determined that the joint density of states associated with the indirect gap transition in the multilayer systems and the corresponding indirect transition in the monolayer case has a characteristic three-dimensional-like character. We attribute this to the soft-edge behavior of the confining potential and it is an important factor when considering the dynamical screening of the electric field at the relevant excitation energies. Our result provides a logical explanation for the large sensitivity of the indirect transition to thickness variation compared with that for the direct transition, in terms of quantum confinement effect.

  9. Layer-dependent anisotropic electronic structure of freestanding quasi-two-dimensional Mo S 2

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jinhua

    2016-02-29

    The anisotropy of the electronic transition is a well-known characteristic of low-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, but their layer-thickness dependence has not been properly investigated experimentally until now. Yet, it not only determines the optical properties of these low-dimensional materials, but also holds the key in revealing the underlying character of the electronic states involved. Here we used both angle-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spectral analysis of angle-integrated spectra to study the evolution of the anisotropic electronic transition involving the low-energy valence electrons in the freestanding MoS2 layers with different thicknesses. We are able to demonstrate that the well-known direct gap at 1.8 eV is only excited by the in-plane polarized field while the out-of-plane polarized optical gap is 2.4 ± 0.2 eV in monolayer MoS2. This contrasts with the much smaller anisotropic response found for the indirect gap in the few-layer MoS2 systems. In addition, we determined that the joint density of states associated with the indirect gap transition in the multilayer systems and the corresponding indirect transition in the monolayer case has a characteristic three-dimensional-like character. We attribute this to the soft-edge behavior of the confining potential and it is an important factor when considering the dynamical screening of the electric field at the relevant excitation energies. Our result provides a logical explanation for the large sensitivity of the indirect transition to thickness variation compared with that for the direct transition, in terms of quantum confinement effect.

  10. Nongray radiative heat transfer analysis in the anisotropic scattering fog layer subjected to solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao; Mori, Yusuke; Sakai, Seigo

    2004-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer in the fog layer is analyzed. Direct and diffuse solar irradiation, and infrared sky flux are considered as incident radiation. Anisotropic scattering of radiation by water droplets is taken into account. Absorption and emission of radiation by water droplets and radiative gases are also considered. Furthermore, spectral dependences of radiative properties of irradiation, reflectivity, gas absorption and scattering and absorption of mist are considered. The radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ) is used for the nongray radiation analysis. Net downward radiative heat flux at the sea surface and radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer are calculated for several conditions. Transmitted solar flux decreases as liquid water content (LWC) in the fog increases. However, the value does not become zero but has the value about 60 W/m 2 . The effect of humidity and mist on radiative cooling at night is investigated. Due to high temperature and humidity condition, the radiation cooling at night is not so large even in the clear sky. Furthermore, the radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer in the daytime is higher as LWC increases, and the inversion layer of temperature occurs

  11. Anisotropic visible photoluminescence from thermally annealed few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Jia, Shuang; Sun, Dong

    2018-06-01

    Black phosphorus, a two-dimensional material, with high carrier mobility, tunable direct bandgap and anisotropic electronic properties has attracted enormous research interest towards potential application in electronic, optoelectronic and optomechanical devices. The bandgap of BP is thickness dependent, ranging from 0.3 eV for bulk to 1.3 eV for monolayer, while lacking in the visible region, a widely used optical regime for practical optoelectronic applications. In this work, photoluminescence (PL) centered at 605 nm is observed from the thermally annealed BP with thickness ≤20 nm. This higher energy PL is most likely the consequence of the formation of higher bandgap phosphorene oxides and suboxides on the surface BP layers as a result of the enhanced rate of oxidation. Moreover, the polarization-resolved PL measurements show that the emitted light is anisotropic when the excitation polarization is along the armchair direction. However, if excited along zigzag direction, the PL is nearly isotropic. Our findings suggest that the thermal annealing of BP can be used as a convenient route to fill the visible gap of the BP-based optoelectronic and optomechanical devices.

  12. In-situ ellipsometric characterization of the growth of porous anisotropic nanocrystalline ZnO layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, P., E-mail: plaha@vub.ac.be; Terryn, H.; Ustarroz, J., E-mail: justarro@vub.ac.be [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Brussels (Belgium); Nazarkin, M. Y., E-mail: mikleo@mail.ru; Gavrilov, S. A. [Department of Materials of Functional Electronics (MFE), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation); Volkova, A. V.; Simunin, M. M. [Department of Quantum Physics and Nanoelectronics (QPN), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-09

    ZnO films have increasingly been in the spotlight due to their largely varied electro-physical and optical properties. For several applications, porous anisotropic nanocrystalline layers are especially interesting. To study the growth kinetics of such films during different fabrication processes, a powerful non-destructive in-situ technique is required. In this work, both ex-situ and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry are used along with advanced modelling techniques that are able to take both the anisotropy and the porosity of the films into account. Scanning electron microscopy, along with nitrogen absorption methods for measuring porosity, validated the ellipsometric data and proposed model. The film, grown by chemical bath deposition, was monitored from around 700 to 1800 nm in thickness. This same principle can now be used to monitor any other porous and/or anisotropic structure in an effective in-situ manner, e.g., growth of porous anodic aluminium oxides, nano-porous silica films, etc.

  13. Integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2015), s. 109-155 ISSN 2336-3827 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * S waves in weakly anisotropic media Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  14. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  15. Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. An integrated simulator of structure and anisotropic flow in gas diffusion layers with hydrophobic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burganos, Vasilis N.; Skouras, Eugene D.; Kalarakis, Alexandros N.

    2017-10-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is used in this work to reproduce the controlled addition of binder and hydrophobicity-promoting agents, like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), into gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and to predict flow permeabilities in the through- and in-plane directions. The present simulator manages to reproduce spreading of binder and hydrophobic additives, sequentially, into the neat fibrous layer using a two-phase flow model. Gas flow simulation is achieved by the same code, sidestepping the need for a post-processing flow code and avoiding the usual input/output and data interface problems that arise in other techniques. Compression effects on flow anisotropy of the impregnated GDL are also studied. The permeability predictions for different compression levels and for different binder or PTFE loadings are found to compare well with experimental data for commercial GDL products and with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. Alternatively, the PTFE-impregnated structure is reproduced from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images using an independent, purely geometrical approach. A comparison of the two approaches is made regarding their adequacy to reproduce correctly the main structural features of the GDL and to predict anisotropic flow permeabilities at different volume fractions of binder and hydrophobic additives.

  17. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jie; Xu, Chenhao; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)

  18. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of PEM fuel cell catalyst layers during regular cell operation

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the catalyst layers during regular cell operation, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses s...

  20. Regularized inversion of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric data in horizontally layered transversely isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianmei; Shang, Qinglong; Wang, Hongnian; Wang, Jianxun; Yin, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm for inverting controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data in horizontally layered transversely isotropic (TI) media. The popular inversion method parameterizes the media into a large number of layers which have fixed thickness and only reconstruct the conductivities (e.g. Occam's inversion), which does not enable the recovery of the sharp interfaces between layers. In this paper, we simultaneously reconstruct all the model parameters, including both the horizontal and vertical conductivities and layer depths. Applying the perturbation principle and the dyadic Green's function in TI media, we derive the analytic expression of Fréchet derivatives of CSAMT responses with respect to all the model parameters in the form of Sommerfeld integrals. A regularized iterative inversion method is established to simultaneously reconstruct all the model parameters. Numerical results show that the inverse algorithm, including the depths of the layer interfaces, can significantly improve the inverse results. It can not only reconstruct the sharp interfaces between layers, but also can obtain conductivities close to the true value. (paper)

  1. Resolution of anisotropic and shielded highly conductive layers using 2-D electromagnetic modelling in the Rhine Graben and Black Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezkan, Bülent; Červ, Václav; Pek, Josef

    1992-12-01

    Anisotropy in magnetotelluric (MT) data has been found very often and has been explained as the result of local structures of different conductivities. In this paper, an observed anisotropy in MT data is not interpreted qualitatively in terms of local structures but is modelled quantitatively by a quasi-anisotropic layer. Besides the MT transfer functions, measurements of the vertical magnetic component are required. The second goal of this paper is to describe a method which permits the resolution of mid-crustal conductive layers in the presence of an additional high-conductivity layer at the surface. This method is possible in a two-dimensional (2-D) situation that limits the spatial extension of the surface structure. Again, vertical magnetic field recordings are necessary, but the phase of the E-polarization with respect to the 2-D structure is the most sensitive parameter. Using two field sites in Southern Germany, it has been possible to give a quantitative explanation of anisotropy and an improved depth resolution, and to derive an integrated conductivity of the highly conductive mid-crustal layers using MT and geomagnetic depth sounding data. The anisotropic highly conductive layer is located 12 km beneath the poorly conductive Black Forest crystalline rocks, whereas it is at a depth of 6 km beneath the highly conductive Rhine Graben sediments.

  2. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  3. Characterization of anisotropic UF-membranes: top layer thickness and pore structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, F.P.; Cuperus, F.P.; Bargeman, D.; Bargeman, D.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Anisotropic poly(2,6-dimethyl-, 1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) ultrafiltration membranes are characterized by means of two techniques. A new method for the determination of skin thicknesses, the gold sol method, is introduced and applied to these membranes. The membranes appeared to have a well-defined

  4. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance: A spin-valve-like tunnel magnetoresistance using a single magnetic layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gould, C.; Rüster, C.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Girgis, E.; Schott, G. M.; Giraud, R.; Brunner, K.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 11 (2004), 117203/1-117203/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor spintronics * tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004

  5. Pulsed neutron determination of anisotropic diffusion constants in multi-layered slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Ram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Anisotropic neutron diffusion parameters for graphite and plexiglas slab assemblies were calculated using one-dimensional discrete ordinates code ANISN, and also Case's eigenfunction expansion technique as suggested by Leonard. These calculated values were checked with the pulsed neutron experimental results as well as simple diffusion theory calculations of Spinrad. Relatively little experimental work has been done with heterogeneous assemblies which do not contain voids. The present comparison shows that the experimental results agree well with transport theory calculations. It appears from the results and inter-comparison of this work in simple geometries, that the pulsed neutron method can yield accurate experimental anisotropic diffusion constants, and can therefore be applied to more complicated geometries which may be difficult to calculate. (author)

  6. Accuracy of the solution of the transfer equation for a plane layer of high optical thickness with strongly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, N.V.

    The accuracy of the calculation of the characteristics of a radiation field in a plane layer is investigated by solving the transfer equation in dependence on the error in the specification of the scattering indicatrix. It is shown that a small error in the specification of the indicatrix can lead to a large error in the solution at large optical depths. An estimate is given for the region of optical thicknesses for which the emission field can be determined with sufficient degree of accuracy from the transfer equation with a known error in the specification of the indicatrix. For an estimation of the error involved in various numerical methods, and also for a determination of the region of their applicability, the results of calculations of problems with strongly anisotropic indicatrix are given

  7. Observation of anisotropic interlayer Raman modes in few-layer ReS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, Philipp; Plechinger, Gerd; Schueller, Christian; Korn, Tobias [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    ReS{sub 2} has recently emerged as a new member in the rapidly growing family of two-dimensional materials. Unlike MoS{sub 2} or WSe{sub 2}, the optical and electrical properties of ReS{sub 2} are not isotropic due to the reduced symmetry of the crystal. Here, we present layer-dependent Raman measurements of ReS{sub 2} samples ranging from monolayers to ten layers in the ultralow frequency regime. We observe layer breathing and shear modes which allow for easy assignment of the number of layers. Polarization-dependent measurements give further insight into the crystal structure and reveal an energetic shift of the shear mode which stems from the in-plane anisotropy of the shear modulus in this material. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance of (Ga,Mn)As Layers on (113)A GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donhauser, Daniela; Dreher, Lukas; Daeubler, Joachim; Glunk, Michael; Rapp, Christoph; Schoch, Wladimir; Sauer, Rolf; Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We study the magnetic anisotropy and the anisotropic magnetoresistance of compressively strained (Ga,Mn)As films with various Mn concentrations, grown on (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal a monoclinic symmetry of the distorted (113)A layers in agreement with an explicit calculation of the strain tensor. Based on this result, general expressions for the resistivity tensor and the free energy of single-crystalline ferromagnets are derived from a series expansion with respect to the magnetization orientation, including terms up to the fourth order. With these expressions we are able to model the measured angular dependences of our magnetotransport data with the assumption of a single ferromagnetic domain model. In order to quantitatively derive the resistivity and anisotropy parameters the longitudinal and transverse resistivities are experimentally studied for magnetic fields rotated within the (113), (33 anti 2), and (anti 110) plane at various field strengths. It turned out that some of the resistivity parameters significantly depend on the strength of the external magnetic field. Furthermore we found that the layers exhibit a uniaxial anisotropy along the [001] crystallographic axis, which can be theoretically explained based on the explicit form of the strain tensor.

  9. Anisotropic Diffusion In Layered Argillaceous Rocks: A Case Study With Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Soler, J.; Mueller, W.; Bradbury, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusion was studied in Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock for the disposal of spent fuel, vitrified high-level waste and intermediate-level waste. Diffusion parallel to the bedding was measured using a radial through-diffusion technique, while diffusion perpendicular to the bedding was measured using the classical (planar) through-diffusion method. The materials used were samples from Mont Terri (MT) and Benken (BE), respectively. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO), parallel and perpendicular to the bedding, was studied under confining pressures of 7 MPa (MT) and 14 MPa (BE), respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient for diffusion parallel to the bedding, D e , was found to be 3.20(±0.26)x10 11 m 2 s -1 and for the Benken 5.39(±0.43)x10 -11 m 2 s-1 for the Mont Terri samples. The diffusion accessible porosity was ∼ 0.15(±0.02) in both cases. For diffusion perpendicular to the bedding, the effective diffusion coefficient was 5.44(±0.35)x10 -12 m 2 s-1 and 1.37(±0.08)x10 -11 m 2 s -1 for the Benken and Mont Terri samples, respectively. The diffusion accessible porosity was also ∼0.15(±0.02) in both cases. These first results indicate that diffusion parallel to bedding is larger than that perpendicular to the bedding by a factor of 4 to 6. This might be explained in terms of smaller path lengths (tortuosity) for species diffusing parallel to the fabric. (author)

  10. Anisotropic Diffusion In Layered Argillaceous Rocks: A Case Study With Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Soler, J.; Mueller, W.; Bradbury, M.H

    2003-03-01

    Anisotropic diffusion was studied in Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock for the disposal of spent fuel, vitrified high-level waste and intermediate-level waste. Diffusion parallel to the bedding was measured using a radial through-diffusion technique, while diffusion perpendicular to the bedding was measured using the classical (planar) through-diffusion method. The materials used were samples from Mont Terri (MT) and Benken (BE), respectively. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO), parallel and perpendicular to the bedding, was studied under confining pressures of 7 MPa (MT) and 14 MPa (BE), respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient for diffusion parallel to the bedding, D{sub e}, was found to be 3.20({+-}0.26)x10{sup 11} m{sup 2}s{sup -1} and for the Benken 5.39({+-}0.43)x10{sup -11} m{sup 2}s-1 for the Mont Terri samples. The diffusion accessible porosity was {approx} 0.15({+-}0.02) in both cases. For diffusion perpendicular to the bedding, the effective diffusion coefficient was 5.44({+-}0.35)x10{sup -12} m{sup 2}s-1 and 1.37({+-}0.08)x10{sup -11} m{sup 2}s{sup -1} for the Benken and Mont Terri samples, respectively. The diffusion accessible porosity was also {approx}0.15({+-}0.02) in both cases. These first results indicate that diffusion parallel to bedding is larger than that perpendicular to the bedding by a factor of 4 to 6. This might be explained in terms of smaller path lengths (tortuosity) for species diffusing parallel to the fabric. (author)

  11. An effective anisotropic poroelastic model for elastic wave propagation in finely layered media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities in porous media cause attenuation and dispersion at seismic frequencies. Effective models are often used to account for this. We have developed a new effective poroelastic model for finely layered media, and we evaluated its impact focusing on the angledependent

  12. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Donderici, B.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  13. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H., E-mail: haksu.moon@gmail.com [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Donderici, B., E-mail: burkay.donderici@halliburton.com [Sensor Physics & Technology, Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 (United States); Teixeira, F.L., E-mail: teixeira@ece.osu.edu [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  14. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated

  15. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S.; Mahne, N.; Doyle, B. P.; Pasquali, L.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  16. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S. [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Mahne, N. [Elettra, s.s. 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Doyle, B. P. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Pasquali, L., E-mail: luca.pasquali@unimore.it [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dipartimento di Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  17. Convergence in anisotropic conditions: gallery behaviour in the Callovo-Oxfordian clayey layer in North-Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Hadj-Hassen, F.; Philippe, J.C.; Boidy, E.; Colombet, G.; Armand, G.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Coyne et Bellier (Tractebel Engineering) has been supplying geotechnical services to Andra since 1994 regarding the feasibility for developing a repository for radioactive waste in a 490 m deep clayey formation at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site. Armines/Mines-ParisTech (French engineering school) has been an Andra scientific partner for several years due to its expertise in rock creep behaviour as well as in mining technologies. Throughout the different works carried out for Andra (especially the studies concerning the enlargement of the underground research laboratory), the behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian clayey were computed. These studies are used mainly for predicting the long-term behaviour of this layer. Lemaitre's rheological law (or modified Norton's law) has been used for such purposes. This time-dependent law is able to model the isotropic hardening of an elastic-viscoplastic solid by taking into account a non linear viscosity (γ) which Coyne et Bellier has decided to represent by means of a cone-shaped dash-pot element (stiffness increases during creep, cf. Eric Boidy's PhD). This hypothesis, together with that standing for 'long-term incompressibility' (viscoplastic deformation occurs at constant volume), allows the law be expressed by means of the second invariants of the stress (q) and strain (ε vp ) tensors. The rheological model when the long term behaviour takes place beyond a stress threshold (σ S ) is shown. Modelling works that use this law reproduce well convergence measurements as long as radial stresses around the galleries are isotropic. When the stress field around the gallery is anisotropic, the classic Lemaitre's law no longer fits the convergence measurements. This is the case for the GMR gallery at the main level of the laboratory: the horizontal stress is 1.3 times greater than the vertical stress whilst the average vertical convergence is more than five

  18. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... structure i.e. no additional filter layers were applied. For both experiments, high-speed video recordings were synchronised with the pressure measurements for a detailed investigation of the coupling between the run-up and run-down flow processes and the measured pressure variations. Outward directed...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order...

  19. Regularities in forming hardened layer during electric spark alloying on the mechanized plant EhFI-66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Zajtsev, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The regularities in erosion and formation of a hardened layer during electric spark alloying by a mechanized installation EFI-66-type have been studied. The heat resisting metals: Ti,Zr,V,Nb,Ta,Cr,Mo,W have been used as material for alloying electrodes. The effect of the thermophysical constants, as well as of the time of treatment and the material nature have been investigated. No direct dependence of erosion on the thermophysical constants was found. The erosion resistance of material, when treated by a mechanized installation, depends on its plasticity. Tantalum appeared to be more erosion-resistant, its cold-embrittlement temperature being the least. The dependence of the erosion on the alloying time is of a linear character. Depending on the nature of material are the most erosive vanadium and chromium, tantalum is the least erosive. The metallographic analysis has shown, that in the electric spark alloying by means of the mechanized installation the hardened layer could be subdivided into a ''white'' layer of high hardness and a layer of transformed structure. The ''white'' layer thickness is practically the same for each of the metals. The largest summary thickness of the layer is observed when alloying with the metals Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta

  20. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  1. Green function as an integral superposition of Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26 (2016), s. 131-153 ISSN 2336-3827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : elastodynamic Green function * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * integral superposition of Gaussian beams Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Anisotropic mobility and carrier dynamics in the β-type BEDT-TTF salts as studied by inter-layer transverse magnetoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Sugawara and Masafumi Tamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to estimate an in-plane conduction anisotropy in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D layered conductor by measuring the inter-layer transverse magnetoresistance is proposed. We applied this method to layered organic conductors β-(BEDT-TTF2X (BEDT-TTF = bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene, C10H8S8; X = IBr2, I2Br by applying magnetic field rotating within the basal plane at 4.2 K. We found the anisotropic behaviour of carrier mobility μ. From this, anomalous distribution of carrier lifetime τ on the Fermi surface is derived, by the use of Fermi surface data reported for the materials. Calculations of the non-uniform susceptibility χ0(q suggest that carrier scattering is enhanced at specific k-points related to partial nesting of the Fermi surface. The present method is thus demonstrated to be an efficient experimental tool to elucidate anisotropic carrier dynamics in q2D conductors.

  3. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  4. Strain, magnetic anisotropy, and anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As on high-index substrates: Application to (113)A -oriented layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2010-06-01

    Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.

  5. Refined Modeling of Flexural Deformation of Layered Plates with a Regular Structure Made from Nonlinear Hereditary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of constitutive equations of the Rabotnov nonlinear hereditary theory of creep, the problem on the rheonomic flexural behavior of layered plates with a regular structure is formu-lated. Equations allowing one to describe, with different degrees of accuracy, the stress-strain state of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shear were ob-tained. From them, the relations of the nonclassical Reissner- and Reddytype theories can be found. For axially loaded annular plates clamped at one edge and loaded quasistatically on the other edge, a simplified version of the refined theory, whose complexity is comparable to that of the Reissner and Reddy theories, is developed. The flexural strains of such metal-composite annular plates in shortterm and long-term loadings at different levels of heat action are calcu-lated. It is shown that, for plates with a relative thickness of order of 1/10, neither the classical theory, nor the traditional nonclassical Reissner and Reddy theories guarantee reliable results for deflections even with the rough 10% accuracy. The accuracy of these theories decreases at elevated temperatures and with time under long-term loadings of structures. On the basic of relations of the refined theory, it is revealed that, in bending of layered metal-composite heat-sensitive plates under elevated temperatures, marked edge effects arise in the neighborhood of the supported edge, which characterize the shear of these structures in the transverse direction

  6. Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA

    2018-05-01

    Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.

  7. Insight on the anisotropic nature of the D'' layer through the analysis of SKS-SKKS splitting obtained via 3D spectral element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoniero, A.; Leng, K.; Long, M. D.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the nature of the anisotropy in the core-mantle boundary region is a key factor for properly predicting the flow of the lowermost mantle. The lack of seismic waves sampling this region and their uneven azimuthal distribution hamper a correct representation of mantle dynamics. We present preliminary results for a series of SKS-SKKS splitting analysis based on numerical forward synthetic tests in a realistic 3-D Earth model using the software AXISEM3D, a newly developed efficient hybrid spectral element method solver for 3-D structures. The anisotropic property of the computational domain in the bottom 300km of the Earth's mantle is fully described with a fourth-order elastic tensor with 21 independent coefficients. We tested a single crystal mineralogy of postperovskite with different orientations that are consistent with realistic mantle flow models and accounted for a wide coverage of azimuthal seismic raypaths. We take advantage of the computational efficiency of the method to achieve resolutions for seismic periods as low as 8s. Our preliminary results, based on forward full waveform modeling, represent a step forward for validating hypotheses for the anisotropy in the D'' layer derived by direct splitting measurements and ray-theoretical mineral physics based modeling tests. Our study also highlights the capability of AXISEM3D to handle high degrees of model complexity in full anisotropy and its potentials for future endeavours.

  8. Scalewise invariant analysis of the anisotropic Reynolds stress tensor for atmospheric surface layer and canopy sublayer turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Peter; Katul, Gabriel G.; De Roo, Frederik; Kröniger, Konstantin; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatyn, Shani; Mauder, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropy in the turbulent stress tensor, which forms the basis of invariant analysis, is conducted using velocity time series measurements collected in the canopy sublayer (CSL) and the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). The goal is to assess how thermal stratification and surface roughness conditions simultaneously distort the scalewise relaxation towards isotropic state from large to small scales when referenced to homogeneous turbulence. To achieve this goal, conventional invariant analysis is extended to allow scalewise information about relaxation to isotropy in physical (instead of Fourier) space to be incorporated. The proposed analysis shows that the CSL is more isotropic than its ASL counterpart at large, intermediate, and small (or inertial) scales irrespective of the thermal stratification. Moreover, the small (or inertial) scale anisotropy is more prevalent in the ASL when compared to the CSL, a finding that cannot be fully explained by the intensity of the mean velocity gradient acting on all scales. Implications to the validity of scalewise Rotta and Lumley models for return to isotropy as well as advantages to using barycentric instead of anisotropy invariant maps for such scalewise analysis are discussed.

  9. Modelling the Flow Stress of Alloy 316L using a Multi-Layered Feed Forward Neural Network with Bayesian Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiriand Bhekisipho Twala, Olufunminiyi

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a multilayer feedforward neural network with Bayesian regularization constitutive model is developed for alloy 316L during high strain rate and high temperature plastic deformation. The input variables are strain rate, temperature and strain while the output value is the flow stress of the material. The results show that the use of Bayesian regularized technique reduces the potential of overfitting and overtraining. The prediction quality of the model is thereby improved. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements. The measurement data used for the network training and model comparison were taken from relevant literature. The developed model is robust as it can be generalized to deformation conditions slightly below or above the training dataset.

  10. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz'mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials

  11. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz' mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials.

  12. Anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar (112-0) plane In x Ga1-x N/GaN layers investigated by X-ray reciprocal space mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guijuan; Li, Huijie; Wang, Lianshan; Meng, Yulin; Ji, Zesheng; Li, Fangzheng; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-07-03

    In this study, the indium composition x as well as the anisotropically biaxial strain in non-polar a-plane In x Ga 1-x N on GaN is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In accordance with XRD reciprocal lattice space mapping, with increasing indium composition, the maximum of the In x Ga 1-x N reciprocal lattice points progressively shifts from a fully compressive strained to a fully relaxed position, then to reversed tensile strained. To fully understand the strain in the ternary alloy layers, it is helpful to grow high-quality device structures using a-plane nitrides. As the layer thickness increases, the strain of In x Ga 1-x N layer releases through surface roughening and the 3D growth-mode.

  13. Neutron transfer with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Haggag, M.H.; Saad, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The finite slab problem is reduced to a semi-infinite one by adding an infinitesimally thick layer such that both the added layer and the total layer are semi-infinite. The relation between the reflection and transmission functions for a finite slab and those for an infinite one are obtained in terms of an operator which satisfies a semigroup equation. The method is applied to anisotropic scattering with azimuthal dependence. Numerical calculations are made and the results compared with those of other workers. (author)

  14. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Tsai, C. L. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H. [Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C. [Department of Physics, National Chang Hua University of Education, Chang Hua 50000, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  15. Nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations in Lm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a result of regularity of weak solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations with lower-order term when the right-hand side is an Lm function, with m being ”small”. This work generalizes some results given in [2] and [3].

  16. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  17. Anisotropic thermal properties and ferroelectric phase transitions in layered CuInP2S6 and CuInP2Se6 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubachko, V.; Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A.; Pogodin, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been studied for the layered crystals CuInP2S6, CuInP2Se6 from 30 K to 350 K, showing a relevant thermal anisotropy. Heat is much more efficiently transferred within the layers than perpendicular to them. The ferrielectric transition in CuInP2S6 is proven to be clearly first order while the ferroelectric one in CuInP2Se6 has a weak first order character. The behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric phases shows that heat conduction is phonon driven. Disorder in the paraelectric phases due to hopping motions of Cu ions significantly reduces the thermal conductivity to extremely low values.

  18. Azimuthally invariant Mueller-matrix mapping of optically anisotropic layers of biological networks of blood plasma in the diagnosis of liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Ushenko, V. A.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Y.; Pavlyukovich, O.; Pavlyukovich, N.; Novakovskaya, O.; Gorsky, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy that typical for polycrystalline layers of the histological sections of biological tissues and fluids - optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism - is suggested. Within the statistical analysis distributions quantities of linear and circular birefringence and dichroism the objective criteria of differentiation of myocardium histological sections (determining the cause of death); films of blood plasma (liver pathology); peritoneal fluid (endometriosis of tissues of women reproductive sphere); urine (kidney disease) were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the method of Mueller-matrix reconstruction of optical anisotropy parameters were found.

  19. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  20. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-11-01

    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  1. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  2. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  3. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  4. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  5. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-07-15

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  6. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  7. Selective optical transmission in anisotropic multilayers structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchani, N.; Bria, D.; Nougaoui, A.; Merad, A.E.

    2007-08-01

    We developed a Green's function method to study theoretically a single-defect photonic crystal composed of anisotropic dielectric materials. This structure can trap light of a given frequency range and filter only a certain frequency light with a very high quality. It is shown that the defect modes appear as peaks in the transmission spectrum. Their intensities and frequency positions depend on the incidence angle and the orientation of the principal axes of layers consisting of the superlattice and the layer defect. Our structure offers a great variety of possibilities for creating and controlling the number and transmitted intensities of defect modes. It can be a good candidate for realizing a selective electromagnetic filter. In addition to this filtration process, the defective anisotropic photonic crystal can be used to switch the modes when appropriate geometry is selected. (author)

  8. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  9. Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2010), s. 798-812 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/0032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * theoretical seismology * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  10. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-01-01

    -23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating

  11. An iterative regularization method in estimating the transient heat-transfer rate on the surface of the insulation layer of a double circular pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-L.; Yang, Y.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a conjugate gradient method based inverse algorithm is applied to estimate the unknown space- and time-dependent heat-transfer rate on the surface of the insulation layer of a double circular pipe heat exchanger using temperature measurements. It is assumed that no prior information is available on the functional form of the unknown heat-transfer rate; hence the procedure is classified as the function estimation in inverse calculation. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using simulated exact and inexact temperature measurements. Results show that an excellent estimation on the space- and time-dependent heat-transfer rate can be obtained for the test case considered in this study.

  12. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with variable exponents and degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Ayadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence and the regularity of distributional solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with $p_i(x$ growth conditions, degenerate coercivity and $L^{m(\\cdot}$ data, with $m(\\cdot$ being small, in appropriate Lebesgue-Sobolev spaces with variable exponents. The obtained results extend some existing ones [8,10].

  14. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  15. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  16. Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.

  17. Anisotropic Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...

  18. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  19. Longitudinal disordering of vortex lattices in anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, D.R.; Brandt, E.H.; Fiory, A.T.; Inui, M.; Mitzi, D.B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    Vortex disordering in superconducting crystals is shown to be markedly sensitive to penetration-depth anisotropy. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the muon-spin-rotation spectra for the highly anisotropic Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ material are found to be anomalously narrow and symmetric about the applied field, in a manner consistent with a layered vortex sublattice structure with pinning-induced misalignment between layers. In contrast, spectra for the less-anisotropic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds taken at comparable fields are broader and asymmetric, showing that the vortex lattices are aligned parallel to the applied-field direction

  20. Band gaps in periodically magnetized homogeneous anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, A. M.; Levy, M.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Wu, Z.; Jalali, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    In [A. M. Merzlikin, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, M. Inoue, M. Levy, A. B. Granovsky, Physica B 394 (2007) 277] it is shown that in anisotropic magnetophotonic crystal made of anisotropic dielectric layers and isotropic magneto-optical layers the magnetization leads to formation of additional band gaps (BG) inside the Brillouin zones. Due to the weakness of the magneto-optical effects the width of these BG is much smaller than that of usual BG forming on the boundaries of Brillouin zones. In the present communication we show that though the anisotropy suppresses magneto-optical effects. An anisotropic magnetophotonic crystal made of anisotropic dielectric layers and anisotropic magneto-optical; the width of additional BG may be much greater than the width of the usual Brillouin BG. Anisotropy tends to suppress Brillouin zone boundary band gap formation because the anisotropy suppresses magneto-optical properties, while degenerate band gap formation occurs around points of effective isotropy and is not suppressed.

  1. Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example of metal slanted columnar thin films, which have been conformally coated with a thin passivating oxide layer by atomic layer deposition. Furthermore, the application of an effective medium approximation approach to in-situ growth monitoring of this anisotropic thin film functionalization process is presented. It was found that structural parameters determined with the presented optical model equivalents for slanted columnar thin films agree very well with scanning electron microscope image estimates. - Highlights: • Summary of optical model strategies for sculptured thin films with arbitrary geometries • Application of the rigorous anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium applications • In-situ growth monitoring of atomic layer deposition on biaxial metal slanted columnar thin film

  2. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  3. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  4. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  5. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seo

    Full Text Available Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5 that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information.

  6. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-01

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  7. Three anisotropic benchmark problems for adaptive finite element methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolín, Pavel; Čertík, O.; Korous, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7286-7295 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benchmark problem * anisotropic solution * boundary layer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013

  8. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  9. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  10. Plane-wave diffraction by periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazerooni, Azadeh Semsar; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics are studied. The artificial anisotropic dielectric material in this work is made of two alternating isotropic dielectric layers. By a proper choice of the dielectric constant of the layers, we can realize a uniaxial anisotropic medium with controllable anisotropy. The artificial anisotropic dielectric is then used in periodic structures. For these structures, the optical axis of the artificial dielectric is assumed to be parallel or perpendicular to the period of the structure. Diffraction of plane waves by these structures is analyzed by a fully vectorial rigorous matrix method based on a generalized transmission line (TL) formulation. The propagation constants and field distributions are computed and diffraction properties of such structures are studied to show that, by a proper choice of structural parameters, these periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics can be used as polarizers or polarizing mirrors

  11. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  12. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  13. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  14. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  15. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  16. Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.

  17. Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs

  18. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  19. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  20. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10 −13 s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO 2 via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10 −12 s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H 2 O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies

  1. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Kohei [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Misawa, Masaaki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  2. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  3. 1-D DC Resistivity Modeling and Interpretation in Anisotropic Media Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekşen, Ertan; Yas, Türker; Kıyak, Alper

    2014-09-01

    We examine the one-dimensional direct current method in anisotropic earth formation. We derive an analytic expression of a simple, two-layered anisotropic earth model. Further, we also consider a horizontally layered anisotropic earth response with respect to the digital filter method, which yields a quasi-analytic solution over anisotropic media. These analytic and quasi-analytic solutions are useful tests for numerical codes. A two-dimensional finite difference earth model in anisotropic media is presented in order to generate a synthetic data set for a simple one-dimensional earth. Further, we propose a particle swarm optimization method for estimating the model parameters of a layered anisotropic earth model such as horizontal and vertical resistivities, and thickness. The particle swarm optimization is a naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithm. The proposed method finds model parameters quite successfully based on synthetic and field data. However, adding 5 % Gaussian noise to the synthetic data increases the ambiguity of the value of the model parameters. For this reason, the results should be controlled by a number of statistical tests. In this study, we use probability density function within 95 % confidence interval, parameter variation of each iteration and frequency distribution of the model parameters to reduce the ambiguity. The result is promising and the proposed method can be used for evaluating one-dimensional direct current data in anisotropic media.

  4. Anisotropic generalization of Stinchcombe's solution for the conductivity of random resistor networks on a Bethe lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeriyanov, F.; Saphiannikova, M.; Heinrich, G.

    2009-11-01

    Our study is based on the work of Stinchcombe (1974 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 7 179) and is devoted to the calculations of average conductivity of random resistor networks placed on an anisotropic Bethe lattice. The structure of the Bethe lattice is assumed to represent the normal directions of the regular lattice. We calculate the anisotropic conductivity as an expansion in powers of the inverse coordination number of the Bethe lattice. The expansion terms retained deliver an accurate approximation of the conductivity at resistor concentrations above the percolation threshold. We make a comparison of our analytical results with those of Bernasconi (1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 4575) for the regular lattice.

  5. Anisotropic generalization of Stinchcombe's solution for the conductivity of random resistor networks on a Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeriyanov, F; Saphiannikova, M; Heinrich, G

    2009-01-01

    Our study is based on the work of Stinchcombe (1974 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 7 179) and is devoted to the calculations of average conductivity of random resistor networks placed on an anisotropic Bethe lattice. The structure of the Bethe lattice is assumed to represent the normal directions of the regular lattice. We calculate the anisotropic conductivity as an expansion in powers of the inverse coordination number of the Bethe lattice. The expansion terms retained deliver an accurate approximation of the conductivity at resistor concentrations above the percolation threshold. We make a comparison of our analytical results with those of Bernasconi (1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 4575) for the regular lattice.

  6. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  7. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  8. Thermal conductivity of layered borides: The effect of building defects on the thermal conductivity of TmAlB4 and the anisotropic thermal conductivity of AlB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth metal borides have attracted great interest due to their unusual properties, such as superconductivity and f-electron magnetism. A recent discovery attributes the tunability of magnetism in rare earth aluminoborides to the effect of so-called “building defects.” In this paper, we report data for the effect of building defects on the thermal conductivities of α-TmAlB4 single crystals. Building defects reduce the thermal conductivity of α-TmAlB4 by ≈30%. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity of AlB2 is nearly a factor of 5 higher than that of α-TmAlB4. AlB2 single crystals are thermally anisotropic with the c-axis thermal conductivity nearly twice the thermal conductivity of the a-b plane. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity near and above room temperature reveals that both electrons and phonons contribute substantially to thermal transport in AlB2 with electrons being the dominant heat carriers.

  9. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  10. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  11. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  12. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  13. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  14. Dynamics of anisotropic tissue growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittig, Thomas; Juelicher, Frank [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wartlick, Ortrud; Kicheva, Anna; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos [Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Biology, Geneva University, Sciences II, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Marcos.Gonzalez@biochem.unige.ch, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-06-15

    We study the mechanics of tissue growth via cell division and cell death (apoptosis). The rearrangements of cells can on large scales and times be captured by a continuum theory which describes the tissue as an effective viscous material with active stresses generated by cell division. We study the effects of anisotropies of cell division on cell rearrangements and show that average cellular trajectories exhibit anisotropic scaling behaviors. If cell division and apoptosis balance, there is no net growth, but for anisotropic cell division the tissue undergoes spontaneous shear deformations. Our description is relevant for the study of developing tissues such as the imaginal disks of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which grow anisotropically.

  15. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  16. 3-D direct current resistivity anisotropic modelling by goal-oriented adaptive finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Qiu, Lewen; Tang, Jingtian; Wu, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Zilong

    2018-01-01

    Although accurate numerical solvers for 3-D direct current (DC) isotropic resistivity models are current available even for complicated models with topography, reliable numerical solvers for the anisotropic case are still an open question. This study aims to develop a novel and optimal numerical solver for accurately calculating the DC potentials for complicated models with arbitrary anisotropic conductivity structures in the Earth. First, a secondary potential boundary value problem is derived by considering the topography and the anisotropic conductivity. Then, two a posteriori error estimators with one using the gradient-recovery technique and one measuring the discontinuity of the normal component of current density are developed for the anisotropic cases. Combing the goal-oriented and non-goal-oriented mesh refinements and these two error estimators, four different solving strategies are developed for complicated DC anisotropic forward modelling problems. A synthetic anisotropic two-layer model with analytic solutions verified the accuracy of our algorithms. A half-space model with a buried anisotropic cube and a mountain-valley model are adopted to test the convergence rates of these four solving strategies. We found that the error estimator based on the discontinuity of current density shows better performance than the gradient-recovery based a posteriori error estimator for anisotropic models with conductivity contrasts. Both error estimators working together with goal-oriented concepts can offer optimal mesh density distributions and highly accurate solutions.

  17. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael

    2014-06-15

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  18. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.

  19. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)

  20. Friedel Transition in Layered Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierzawa, M.; Zamora, M.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bagnoud, X.

    1996-01-01

    Weakly coupled superconducting layers are described by the anisotropic 3D XY model. A low-temperature layer decoupling due to a proliferation of fluxons between planes, as proposed by Friedel, does not occur. The same is true for a periodic superlattice of high and low T c layers, although the interplane coherence can become extremely weak. On the other hand a true layer decoupling is found for a random stack. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. An auxiliary differential equation FDTD method for anisotropic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2004-01-01

    An auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methodology for anisotropic magnetized plasmas is derived. The method is based on a difference approximation of the auxiliary differential equation. A comparison with the JEC method is included. The CPU time saving by several times and accuracy of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer with the direction of propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field

  2. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B

    2016-10-20

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  3. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...

  4. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  5. The problem solution on wedge penetration in an initially anisotropic medium within the rigid-plastic scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyshev, AI; Abdulin, IM

    2018-03-01

    Two problems are solved in the paper: on ultimate loads in the initial stage of indentation of an absolutely rigid smooth wedge into a layer of an initially anisotropic plastic medium and in the final stage when the tool penetrates through the layer. The problems are solved with Chanyshev’s constitutive relations of plasticity of the initially anisotropic medium based on use of the eigen elasticity tensors.

  6. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  7. Optical transmission properties of an anisotropic defect cavity in one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchani, Noama; El Moussaouy, Abdelaziz; Aynaou, Hassan; El Hassouani, Youssef; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the possibility to control the optical transmission in the visible and infrared regions by a defective one dimensional photonic crystal formed by a combination of a finite isotropic superlattice and an anisotropic defect layer. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the reflection and the transmission coefficients, as well as the densities of states of the optical modes. We evaluate the delay times of the localized modes and we compare their behavior with the total densities of states. We show that the birefringence of an anisotropic defect layer has a significant impact on the behavior of the optical modes in the electromagnetic forbidden bands of the structure. The amplitudes of the defect modes in the transmission and the delay time spectrum, depend strongly on the position of the cavity layer within the photonic crystal. The anisotropic defect layer induces transmission zeros in one of the two components of the transmission as a consequence of a destructive interference of the two polarized waves within this layer, giving rise to negative delay times for some wavelengths in the visible and infrared light ranges. This property is a typical characteristic of the anisotropic photonic layer and is without analogue in their counterpart isotropic defect layers. This structure offers several possibilities for controlling the frequencies, transmitted intensities and the delay times of the optical modes in the visible and infrared regions. It can be a good candidate for realizing high-precision optical filters.

  8. Holographic models with anisotropic scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjolfsson, E. J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.

    2013-12-01

    We consider gravity duals to d+1 dimensional quantum critical points with anisotropic scaling. The primary motivation comes from strongly correlated electron systems in condensed matter theory but the main focus of the present paper is on the gravity models in their own right. Physics at finite temperature and fixed charge density is described in terms of charged black branes. Some exact solutions are known and can be used to obtain a maximally extended spacetime geometry, which has a null curvature singularity inside a single non-degenerate horizon, but generic black brane solutions in the model can only be obtained numerically. Charged matter gives rise to black branes with hair that are dual to the superconducting phase of a holographic superconductor. Our numerical results indicate that holographic superconductors with anisotropic scaling have vanishing zero temperature entropy when the back reaction of the hair on the brane geometry is taken into account.

  9. Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne

    2018-05-01

    We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.

  10. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  11. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  12. Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.

  13. The Control of Anisotropic Transport in Manganites by Stripy Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Changcheng; Lu, Xiaomei; Chu, Yinghao

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial thin film acts as a significant tool to investigate novel phenomena of complex oxide systems. Extrinsic constraint1 of uniform or certain designed buffer layer strain could be easily implanted to these materials. However, the strain distribution might be quite complicated by involving micro- or nano-lattice distortions which could partially relax the strain and determine the complex phase diagrams of thin film, meanwhile introducing structural and physical inhomogeneities. In this work , we report 71° striped ferroelectric domains created in BFO can also epitaxially lock the perovskite manganites leading to the emerge of ordered structural domain. LSMO/BFO hetero-epitaxial samples are deposited by PLD. The 71° periodic striped domains and coherent growth are demonstrated by PFM and X-ray analysis. Plan-view TEM and X-ray RSM have been used to confirm the epitaxial relationships of the functional layers and IP lattice constant. Both the simulation and structural analysis demonstrate we can create a periodic ordered stripe structural domain in LSMO. And this will leave an anisotropic distribution of structural domain walls which makes it possible to capture the anisotropic tunneling for strong electron-lattice coupling in manganites. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements reveal a substantial anisotropic resistivities and a remarkable shift of the MI transition between the perpendicular and parallel to the stripe domain directions.

  14. Anisotropic superfluidity of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1977-10-01

    From a model of strong interactions with important general features (f-g model) and from recent experiments of Rudnick and co-workers on thin films of helium II, hadronic matter is considered as a new manifestation of anisotropic superfluidity. In order to test the validity of the suggestion, some qualitative features of multiparticle production of hadrons are considered, and found to have a natural explanation. A prediction is made following a recent experiment on π + p collisions

  15. Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.

    2017-06-01

    For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and

  16. Cracking of anisotropic cylindrical polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the appearance of cracking in charged anisotropic cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation. We investigate the existence of cracking in two different kinds of polytropes existing in the literature through two different assumptions: (a) local density perturbation with conformally flat condition, and (b) perturbing polytropic index, charge and anisotropy parameters. We conclude that cracking appears in both kinds of polytropes for a specific range of density and model parameters. (orig.)

  17. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  18. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  19. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  20. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  1. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  2. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  3. Anisotropically Swelling Gels Attained through Axis-Dependent Crosslinking of MOF Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2017-03-01

    Anisotropically deforming objects have attracted considerable interest for use in molecular machines and artificial muscles. Herein, we focus on a new approach based on the crystal crosslinking of organic ligands in a pillared-layer metal-organic framework (PLMOF). The approach involves the transformation from crosslinked PLMOF to polymer gels through hydrolysis of the coordination bonds between the organic ligands and metal ions, giving a network polymer that exhibits anisotropic swelling. The anisotropic monomer arrangement in the PLMOF underwent axis-dependent crosslinking to yield anisotropically swelling gels. Therefore, the crystal crosslinking of MOFs should be a useful method for creating actuators with designable deformation properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  5. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  6. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S

    2016-02-10

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  7. SO-FDTD analysis of anisotropic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanjing; Yuan Hong; Chen Rushan; Yang Yang

    2007-01-01

    A novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, called shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method is developed for anisotropic magnetized dispersive media. The recursive relation between operators is used. In this paper, some expressions containing the dielectric constants of magnetized dispersive media are written as rational polynomial function. The SO-FDTD formulation for anisotropic magnetized plasma is derived. The high efficiency and effectiveness of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer, with the direction of the propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field. A comparison with frequency domain analytic results is included. The CPU time was several times shorter than that of the JEC method. (authors)

  8. Convex variational problems linear, nearly linear and anisotropic growth conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bildhauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The author emphasizes a non-uniform ellipticity condition as the main approach to regularity theory for solutions of convex variational problems with different types of non-standard growth conditions. This volume first focuses on elliptic variational problems with linear growth conditions. Here the notion of a "solution" is not obvious and the point of view has to be changed several times in order to get some deeper insight. Then the smoothness properties of solutions to convex anisotropic variational problems with superlinear growth are studied. In spite of the fundamental differences, a non-uniform ellipticity condition serves as the main tool towards a unified view of the regularity theory for both kinds of problems.

  9. Anisotropic generalization of Stinchcombe's solution for the conductivity of random resistor networks on a Bethe lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeriyanov, F; Saphiannikova, M; Heinrich, G [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: fsemeriyanov@yahoo.de

    2009-11-20

    Our study is based on the work of Stinchcombe (1974 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 7 179) and is devoted to the calculations of average conductivity of random resistor networks placed on an anisotropic Bethe lattice. The structure of the Bethe lattice is assumed to represent the normal directions of the regular lattice. We calculate the anisotropic conductivity as an expansion in powers of the inverse coordination number of the Bethe lattice. The expansion terms retained deliver an accurate approximation of the conductivity at resistor concentrations above the percolation threshold. We make a comparison of our analytical results with those of Bernasconi (1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 4575) for the regular lattice.

  10. New solutions to the Vortex Anisotropic Electron Hydrodynamic equations for a Weibel plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of the group analysis, new nonlinear solutions to the equations of Vortex Anisotropic Electron Hydrodynamics (VAEH) describing large-scale magnetic structures in a plasm with an anisotropic pressure are obtained. Unlike familiar particular nonlinear solutions to the VAEH equations, new solutions, which are found in the form of an infinite series, are invariant or partially invariant with respect to the permissible Lie and Lie-Baecklund symmetry groups. Examples of finite regular solutions and solutions in the form of magnetic explosion are presented to illustrate the new solutions obtained

  11. Complex Anisotropic Structure of the Mantle Wedge Beneath Kamchatka Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V.; Park, J.; Gordeev, E.; Droznin, D.

    2002-12-01

    A wedge of mantle material above the subducting lithospheric plate at a convergent margin is among the most dynamic environments of the Earth's interior. Deformation and transport of solid and volatile phases within this region control the fundamental process of elemental exchange between the surficial layers and the interior of the planet. A helpful property in the study of material deformation and transport within the upper mantle is seismic anisotropy, which may reflect both microscopic effects of preferentialy aligned crystals of olivine and orthopyroxene and macroscopic effects of systematic cracks, melt lenses, layering etc. Through the mapping of anisotropic properties within the mantle wedge we can establish patterns of deformation. Volatile content affects olivine alignment, so regions of anomalous volatile content may be evident. Indicators of seismic anisotropy commonly employed in upper mantle studies include shear wave birefringence and mode-conversion between compressional and shear body waves. When combined together, these techniques offer complementary constraints on the location and intensity of anisotropic properties. The eastern coast of southern Kamchatka overlies a vigorous convergent margin where the Pacific plate descends at a rate of almost 80 mm/yr towards the northwest. We extracted seismic anisotropy indicators from two data sets sensitive to the anisotropic properties of the uppermost mantle. Firstly, we evaluated teleseismic receiver functions for a number of sites, and found ample evidence for anisotropicaly-influenced P-to-S mode conversion. Secondly, we measured splitting in S waves of earthquakes with sources within the downgoing slab. The first set of observations provides constraints on the depth ranges where strong changes in anisotropic properties take place. The local splitting data provides constraints on the cumulative strength of anisotropic properties along specific pathways through the mantle wedge and possibly parts of

  12. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  13. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  14. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  15. Anisotropic densification of reference steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Bates, J.F.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1975-09-01

    A correlation is presented for the densification expected during neutron irradiation of 20 percent CW 316 stainless steel cladding of FTR specification. The densification is known to be a function of time, prior heat treatment, cold work level, irradiation temperature and minor element composition. For FTR fuel pin use, the temperature and carbon composition were chosen as the only relevant variables on which to base the correlation. The densification of FTR cladding is expected to be slightly anisotropic, leading to a diameter change somewhat less than that predicted by the isotropic relationship ΔD = -D 0 /3

  16. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  17. Iron particle and anisotropic effects on mechanical properties of magneto-sensitive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Lee, Dong-Joo

    2017-11-01

    Rubber specimens were prepared by mixing micron-sized iron particles dispersed in room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber by solution mixing. The possible correlations of the particle volume, size, and distribution with the mechanical properties of the specimens were examined. An isotropic mechanical test shows that at 60 phr, the elastic modulus was 3.29 MPa (electrolyte), 2.92 MPa (carbonyl), and 2.61 MPa (hybrid). The anisotropic effect was examined by curing the specimen under magnetic fields of 0.5-2.0 T at 90° relative to the applied strain. The measurements show anisotropic effects of 11% (carbonyl), 9% (electrolyte), and 6% (hybrid) at 40 phr and 1 T. At 80 phr, the polymer-filler compatibility factor (c-factor) was estimated using the Pythagorean theorem as 0.53 (regular) and 0.73 (anisotropic studies). The improved features could be useful in applications such as controlled damping, vibrational absorption, or automotive bushings.

  18. Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or

  19. Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical

  20. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  1. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  2. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  3. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A., E-mail: kravtsov@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117 997 (Russian Federation); Berczynski, P., E-mail: pawel.berczynski@ps.p [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland); Bieg, B., E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland)

    2009-08-10

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  4. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Berczynski, P.; Bieg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  5. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance via molecular π orbitals of Pb dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, Johannes; Ferriani, Paolo; Heinze, Stefan; Weismann, Alexander; Berndt, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Pb dimers on a ferromagnetic surface are shown to exhibit large tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to molecular π orbitals. Dimers oriented differently with respect to the magnetization directions of a ferromagnetic Fe double layer on W(110) were made with a scanning tunneling microscope. Depending on the dimer orientations, TAMR is absent or as large as 20% at the Fermi level. General arguments and first-principles calculations show that mixing of molecular orbitals due to spin-orbit coupling, which leads to TAMR, is maximal when the magnetization is oriented parallel to the dimer axis.

  6. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq; Ma, Xuxin; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  7. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  8. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  9. Catalytic micromotor generating self-propelled regular motion through random fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Mukai, Atsushi; Okita, Naoaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Shioi, Akihisa

    2013-07-01

    Most of the current studies on nano/microscale motors to generate regular motion have adapted the strategy to fabricate a composite with different materials. In this paper, we report that a simple object solely made of platinum generates regular motion driven by a catalytic chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Depending on the morphological symmetry of the catalytic particles, a rich variety of random and regular motions are observed. The experimental trend is well reproduced by a simple theoretical model by taking into account of the anisotropic viscous effect on the self-propelled active Brownian fluctuation.

  10. Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qun; Zhang Kuang; Meng Fanyi; Li Lewei

    2009-01-01

    Arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed based on the coordinate transformation theory. First, the general expressions of constitutive tensors of the N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks are derived, then there are some full-wave simulations of the cloaks that are composed of inhomogeneous and anisotropic metamaterials, which will bend incoming electromagnetic waves and guide them to propagate around the inner region; such electromagnetic waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the polygonal cloak. The results of full-wave simulations validate the general expressions of constitutive tensors of the N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks we derived.

  11. Simulation of the passive UHF devices on the basis of high-temperature superconductors for planar multilayer anisotropic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gashinova, M S; Kolmakov, Y A; Vendik, I B

    2002-01-01

    The electrodynamic analysis of the arbitrary multilayer medium, including the anisotropic layers and containing the arbitrary form conductors is carried out. Thin layers of the high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) are considered as conductors. Determination of the surface current density is a result of the numerical solution. Accounting for the losses in the HTSC is accomplished on the basis of determining the equivalent surface impedance and using the Leontovich boundary conditions. Anisotropy is accounted for in the determination of the Green spectral dyad for the structure with arbitrary number of the anisotropic or isotropic layers. Calculation of the surface current density distribution demonstrates the correctness of the proposed model

  12. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  13. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  14. Stability of anisotropic stellar filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The study of perturbation of self-gravitating celestial cylindrical object have been carried out in this paper. We have designed a framework to construct the collapse equation by formulating the modified field equations with the background of f(R , T) theory as well as dynamical equations from the contracted form of Bianchi identities with anisotropic matter configuration. We have encapsulated the radial perturbations on metric and material variables of the geometry with some known static profile at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We examined a strong dependence of unstable regions on stiffness parameter which measures the rigidity of the fluid. Also, the static profile and matter variables with f(R , T) dark source terms control the instability of compact cylindrical system.

  15. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  16. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  17. Quantum effects and elimination of the conformal anomaly in anisotropic space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    In homogeneous anisotropic space-time the connection between the problem of the elimination of infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied. It is shown that removal of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff leads to the absence of a conformal anomaly. A physical interpretation of the infrared cutoff as a shift in the particle-energy spectrum by an amount equal to the effective temperature of the gravitational field is proposed

  18. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-07-13

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  19. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  20. Magnetoplasmons of the tilted-anisotropic Dirac cone material $\\alpha-$(BEDT-TTF)$_2$I$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Sári, Judit; Toke, Csaba; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the collective modes of a low-energy continuum model of the quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid in a layer of the organic compound $\\alpha-$(BEDT-TTF)$_2$I$_3$ in a perpendicular magnetic field. As testified by zero magnetic field transport experiments and \\textit{ab initio} theory, this material hosts both massless and massive low-energy carriers, the former being described by tilted and anisotropic Dirac cones. The polarizability of these cones is anisotropic, and two sets of mag...

  1. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  2. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  3. Anisotropic structure of the mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu arc from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K. A.; Wirth, E. A.; Long, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of oceanic plates back into the mantle through subduction is an important process taking place within our planet. However, many fundamental aspects of subduction systems, such as the dynamics of mantle flow, have yet to be completely understood. Subducting slabs transport water down into the mantle, but how and where that water is released, as well as how it affects mantle flow, is still an open question. In this study, we focus on the Ryukyu subduction zone in southwestern Japan and use anisotropic receiver function analysis to characterize the structure of the mantle wedge. We compute radial and transverse P-to-S receiver functions for eight stations of the broadband F-net array using a multitaper receiver function estimator. We observe coherent P-to-SV converted energy in the radial receiver functions at ~6 sec for most of the stations analyzed consistent with conversions originating at the top of the slab. We also observe conversions on the transverse receiver functions that are consistent with the presence of multiple anisotropic and/or dipping layers. The character of the transverse receiver functions varies significantly along strike, with the northernmost three stations exhibiting markedly different behavior than stations located in the center of the Ryukyu arc. We compute synthetic receiver functions using a forward modeling scheme that can handle dipping interfaces and anisotropic layers to create models for the depths, thicknesses, and strengths of anisotropic layers in the mantle wedge beneath Ryukyu.

  4. Analysis of the Numerical Diffusion in Anisotropic Mediums: Benchmarks for Magnetic Field Aligned Meshes in Space Propulsion Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez-Grande

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript explores numerical errors in highly anisotropic diffusion problems. First, the paper addresses the use of regular structured meshes in numerical solutions versus meshes aligned with the preferential directions of the problem. Numerical diffusion in structured meshes is quantified by solving the classical anisotropic diffusion problem; the analysis is exemplified with the application to a numerical model of conducting fluids under magnetic confinement, where rates of transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are quite different. Numerical diffusion errors in this problem promote the use of magnetic field aligned meshes (MFAM. The generation of this type of meshes presents some challenges; several meshing strategies are implemented and analyzed in order to provide insight into achieving acceptable mesh regularity. Second, Gradient Reconstruction methods for magnetically aligned meshes are addressed and numerical errors are compared for the structured and magnetically aligned meshes. It is concluded that using the latter provides a more correct and straightforward approach to solving problems where anisotropicity is present, especially, if the anisotropicity level is high or difficult to quantify. The conclusions of the study may be extrapolated to the study of anisotropic flows different from conducting fluids.

  5. Emerging anisotropic compact stars in f(G,T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M.F.; Ahmad, Mushtaq [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-10-15

    The possible emergence of compact stars has been investigated in the recently introduced modified Gauss-Bonnet f(G,T) gravity, where G is the Gauss-Bonnet term and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor (Sharif and Ikram, Eur Phys J C 76:640, 2016). Specifically, for this modified f(G,T) theory, the analytic solutions of Krori and Barua have been applied to an anisotropic matter distribution. To determine the unknown constants appearing in the Krori and Barua metric, the well-known three models of the compact stars, namely 4U1820-30, Her X-I, and SAX J 1808.4-3658 have been used. The analysis of the physical behaviour of the compact stars has been presented and the physical features like energy density and pressure, energy conditions, static equilibrium, stability, measure of anisotropy, and regularity of the compact stars, have been discussed. (orig.)

  6. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle

  7. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in a Fermi glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.; Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84120)

    1986-01-01

    Insulating thin films of indium oxide exhibit negative, anisotropic magnetoresistance. The systematics of these results imply that the magnetoresistance mechanism may give different weight to the distribution of the localization lengths than that given by the hopping conductivity

  8. Anisotropic stars obeying Chaplygin equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Bhar

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... Anisotropic effects may also originate from slow rotation of the core ... to include the effects of pressure anisotropy, electric charge, scalar field, dark energy and the cosmological constant in .... Generating solutions. In order to ...

  9. 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramananjaona, Christophe; MacGregor, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    The marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) method is a low frequency (diffusive) electromagnetic subsurface imaging technique aimed at mapping the electric resistivity of the earth by measuring the response to a source dipole emitting an electromagnetic field in a marine environment. Although assuming isotropy for the inversion is the most straightforward approach, in many situations horizontal layering of the earth strata and grain alignment within earth materials creates electric anisotropy. Ignoring this during interpretation may create artifacts in the inversion results. Accounting for this effect therefore requires adequate forward modelling and inversion procedures. We present here an inversion algorithm for vertically anisotropic media based on finite element modelling, the use of Frechet derivatives, and different types of regularisation. Comparisons between isotropic and anisotropic inversion results are given for the characterisation of an anisotropic earth from data measured in line with the source dipole for both synthetic and real data examples.

  10. Dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with anisotropic ion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, D.-Y.; Lee, Nam C.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic ion pressure on the dust ion acoustic solitary wave (DIASW) and the double layer (DL) obliquely propagating to a magnetic field are investigated by using the Sagdeev potential. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined by applying the Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) theory, p-perpendicular=p-perpendicular 0 n and p-parallel=p-parallel 0 n 3 , where n is the normalized ion density. The solutions of DIASWs and DLs obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field are obtained in the small amplitude limit. It is found that the perpendicular component of anisotropic ion pressure works differently from that of the parallel component on the DIASWs in a magnetized dusty plasma, deviating from a straight extension of the isotropic pressure effect

  11. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2013-06-18

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  12. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alliez, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  13. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  14. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  15. An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-12

    Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.

  16. Modeling of anisotropic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Biological soft tissues exhibit non-linear complex properties, the quantification of which presents a challenge. Nevertheless, these properties, such as skin anisotropy, highly influence different processes that occur in soft tissues, for instance wound healing, and thus its correct identification and quantification is crucial to understand them. Experimental and computational works are required in order to find the most precise model to replicate the tissues' properties. In this work, we present a wound healing model focused on the proliferative stage that includes angiogenesis and wound contraction in three dimensions and which relies on the accurate representation of the mechanical behavior of the skin. Thus, an anisotropic hyperelastic model has been considered to analyze the effect of collagen fibers on the healing evolution of an ellipsoidal wound. The implemented model accounts for the contribution of the ground matrix and two mechanically equivalent families of fibers. Simulation results show the evolution of the cellular and chemical species in the wound and the wound volume evolution. Moreover, the local strain directions depend on the relative wound orientation with respect to the fibers.

  17. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense

  18. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  19. Anisotropic magnetotelluric inversion using a mutual information constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandolesi, E.; Jones, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several authors pointed that the electrical conductivity of many subsurface structures cannot be described properly by a scalar field. With the development of field devices and techniques, data quality improved to the point that the anisotropy in conductivity of rocks (microscopic anisotropy) and tectonic structures (macroscopic anisotropy) cannot be neglected. Therefore a correct use of high quality data has to include electrical anisotropy and a correct interpretation of anisotropic data characterizes directly a non-negligible part of the subsurface. In this work we test an inversion routine that takes advantage of the classic Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data generated from a bi-dimensional (2D) anisotropic domain. The LM method is routinely used in inverse problems due its performance and robustness. In non-linear inverse problems -such the MT problem- the LM method provides a spectacular compromise betwee quick and secure convergence at the price of the explicit computation and storage of the sensitivity matrix. Regularization in inverse MT problems has been used extensively, due to the necessity to constrain model space and to reduce the ill-posedness of the anisotropic MT problem, which makes MT inversions extremely challenging. In order to reduce non-uniqueness of the MT problem and to reach a model compatible with other different tomographic results from the same target region, we used a mutual information (MI) based constraint. MI is a basic quantity in information theory that can be used to define a metric between images, and it is routinely used in fields as computer vision, image registration and medical tomography, to cite some applications. We -thus- inverted for the model that best fits the anisotropic data and that is the closest -in a MI sense- to a tomographic model of the target area. The advantage of this technique is that the tomographic model of the studied region may be produced by any

  20. Magnetic interactions in anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, X. T.; Han, Z.; Kim, D.; Choi, C. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic properties and the possible interaction mechanisms of anisotropic soft- and hard-magnetic multilayers have been investigated by altering the thickness of different kinds of spacer layers. The metal Ta and the insulating oxides MgO, Cr2O3 have been chosen as spacer layers to investigate the characteristics of the interactions between soft- and hard-magnetic layers in the anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer system. The dipolar and exchange interaction between hard and soft phases are evaluated with the help of the first order reversal curve method. The onset of the nucleation field and the magnetization reversal by domain wall movement are also evident from the first-order-reversal-curve measurements. Reversible/irreversible distributions reveal the natures of the soft- and hard-magnetic components. Incoherent switching fields are observed and the calculations show the semiquantitative contributions of hard and soft components to the system. An antiferromagnetic spacer layer will weaken the interaction between ferromagnetic layers and the effective interaction length decreases. As a consequence, the dipolar magnetostatic interaction may play an important role in the long-range interaction in anisotropic multilayer magnets.

  1. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  2. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  3. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  4. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  5. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  6. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  7. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  8. Highly anisotropic black phosphorous-graphene hybrid architecture for ultrassensitive plasmonic biosensing: Theoretical insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Yu, Xiantong; Ouyang, Qingling; Shao, Yonghong; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2018-04-01

    This study proposed a novel highly anisotropic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor employing emerging 2D black phosphorus (BP) and graphene atomic layers. Light absorption and energy loss were well balanced by optimizing gold film thickness and number of BP layers to generate the strongest SPR excitation. The proposed SPR biosensor was designed by the phase-modulation approach and is more sensitive to biomolecule bindings, providing 3 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than the red-shift in SPR angle. Our results show the optimized configuration was 48 nm Au film coated with 4-layer BP crystal to produce the sharpest phase variation (up to 89.8975°), and lowest minimum reflectivity (1.9119  ×  10-7). Detection sensitivity up to 7.4914  ×  104 degree/refractive index unit is almost 4.5 times enhanced compared to monolayer graphene-based SPR sensors with 48 nm Au film. The anisotropic BP layers act as a polarizer, so the proposed SPR biosensor would exhibit optically tunable detection sensitivity, making it a promising candidate for exploring highly anisotropic platforms in biosensing.

  9. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  10. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  11. Regularity criteria for the Navier–Stokes equations based on one component of velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Z.; Caggio, M.; Skalák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2017), s. 379-396 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Grant - others:Západočeská univerzita(CZ) SGS-2016-003; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 11301394 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * regularity of solutions * regularity criteria * Anisotropic Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016

  12. Regularity criteria for the Navier–Stokes equations based on one component of velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Z.; Caggio, M.; Skalák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2017), s. 379-396 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Grant - others:Západočeská univerzita(CZ) SGS-2016-003; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 11301394 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * regularity of solutions * regularity criteria * Anisotropic Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016

  13. Numerical simulation of anisotropic polymeric foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Tita

    Full Text Available This paper shows in detail the modelling of anisotropic polymeric foam under compression and tension loadings, including discussions on isotropic material models and the entire procedure to calibrate the parameters involved. First, specimens of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC foam were investigated through experimental analyses in order to understand the mechanical behavior of this anisotropic material. Then, isotropic material models available in the commercial software AbaqusTM were investigated in order to verify their ability to model anisotropic foams and how the parameters involved can influence the results. Due to anisotropy, it is possible to obtain different values for the same parameter in the calibration process. The obtained set of parameters are used to calibrate the model according to the application of the structure. The models investigated showed minor and major limitations to simulate the mechanical behavior of anisotropic PVC foams under compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Results show that the calibration process and the choice of the material model applied to the polymeric foam can provide good quantitative results and save project time. Results also indicate what kind and order of error one will get if certain choices are made throughout the modelling process. Finally, even though the developed calibration procedure is applied to specific PVC foam, it still outlines a very broad drill to analyze other anisotropic cellular materials.

  14. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2015-01-20

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  15. In situ determination of anisotropic permeability of clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, H.; Soennke, J.; Morel, J.; Krug, S.

    2011-01-01

    Argillaceous formations are being considered as potential host rocks for repositories of radioactive waste in many countries. For this purpose, the thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical properties of the clay stone are being widely investigated in the laboratories and in situ. However, clay stone behaves, due to its tectonic evolution of the formation, hydraulically and mechanically transversal isotropic. Argillite bedding or layering structure has been observed in the underground laboratories Mont Terri in the Switzerland and Meuse/Haute-Marne at Bure site in France. Conventional packer systems used for the borehole hydraulic characterisation cannot distinguish the difference between the properties parallel and perpendicular to the bedding. For this purpose, a new 'slot packer' system has been developed by the BGR. This type of new packer system is intensively tested in the BGR laboratory and the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory to judge the feasibility. The anisotropic ratio of the Opalinus clay defined by permeability value parallel to the bedding/permeability value perpendicular to the bedding is evaluated up to eight times to one order of magnitude within the HG-B experiment in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Within the cooperation between BGR and ANDRA, the 'slot packer' will be used for the measurement of anisotropic permeability of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation at the Bure site. (authors)

  16. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  17. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  19. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  1. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  2. Anisotropic Intervalley Plasmon Excitations in Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Xu Huai-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the intervalley plasmon excitations (IPEs) in graphene monolayer within the random-phase approximation. We derive an analytical expression of the real part of the dielectric function. We find a low-energy plasmon mode with a linear anisotropic dispersion which depends on the Fermi energy and the dielectric constant of substrate. The IPEs show strongly anisotropic behavior, which becomes significant around the zigzag crystallographic direction. More interestingly, the group velocity of IPE varies from negative to positive, and vanishes at special energy. (paper)

  3. On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk, E-mail: syedalimardanazmi@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Management and Technology, C-II, Johar Town, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2017-01-01

    Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways ( i ) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter ( ii ) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.

  4. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  5. Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model

  6. An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.

    2014-05-02

    Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.

  7. An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.

  8. Scaling behavior of spin gap of the bond alternating anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Susobhan, E-mail: suso.phy.paul@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Scottish Church College, 1 & 3 Urquhart Square, Kolkata-700006 (India); Ghosh, Asim Kumar, E-mail: asimkumar96@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S C Mallik Road, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Scaling behavior of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain has been studied both in ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) cases. Spin gap has been estimated by using exact diagonalization technique. All those quantities have been obtained for a region of anisotropic parameter Δ defined by 0≤Δ≤1. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in the alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM regime which furthermore sustains in the FM regime as well. Scaling behavior of the spin gap has been studied by introducing scaling exponent. The variation of scaling exponents with Δ is fitted with a regular function.

  9. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  10. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  11. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially

  12. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  13. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  14. Bias correction for magnetic resonance images via joint entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Dong, Pei; Luo, Jianhua; Huang, Qiu; Feng, Dagan; Li, Yuanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the imperfections of the radio frequency (RF) coil or object-dependent electrodynamic interactions, magnetic resonance (MR) images often suffer from a smooth and biologically meaningless bias field, which causes severe troubles for subsequent processing and quantitative analysis. To effectively restore the original signal, this paper simultaneously exploits the spatial and gradient features of the corrupted MR images for bias correction via the joint entropy regularization. With both isotropic and anisotropic total variation (TV) considered, two nonparametric bias correction algorithms have been proposed, namely IsoTVBiasC and AniTVBiasC. These two methods have been applied to simulated images under various noise levels and bias field corruption and also tested on real MR data. The test results show that the proposed two methods can effectively remove the bias field and also present comparable performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  16. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  17. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  18. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  19. A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Salari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

  20. On the solution of a vectorial radiative transfer equation in an arbitrary three-dimensional turbid medium with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budak, Vladimir P.; Korkin, Sergey V.

    2008-01-01

    The authors developed a numerical method of the boundary-value problem solution in the vectorial radiative transfer theory applicable to the turbid media with an arbitrary three-dimensional geometry. The method is based on the solution representation as the sum of an anisotropic part that contains all the singularities of the exact solution and a smooth regular part. The regular part of the solution could be found numerically by the finite element method that enables to extend the approach to the arbitrary medium geometry. The anisotropic part of the solution is determined analytically by the special form of the small-angle approximation. The method development is performed by the examples of the boundary-value problems for the plane unidirectional and point isotropic sources in a turbid medium slab

  1. Anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's applications oriented SciDAC project, three model problems have been proposed by the Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling to test the potential of numerical algorithms for challenging magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems that are required for future fusion development. The first of these, anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry, is considered in this note

  2. Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...problem with the report +551633739806 Organization / Institution name Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos Grant/Contract Title The full title of the

  3. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/RO/vavra-0486116.pdf

  4. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kumar; Dejene, Fasil; van Wees, Bart; Vera Marun, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times

  5. Jets in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Southampton, STAG Research Centre Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morad, Razieh [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of the light quark jet moving through the static, strongly coupled N = 4, anisotropic plasma with and without charge. The light quark is presented by a 2-parameters point-like initial condition falling string in the context of the AdS/CFT. We calculate the stopping distance of the light quark in the anisotropic medium and compare it with its isotropic value. We study the dependency of the stopping distance to the both string initial conditions and background parameters such as anisotropy parameter or chemical potential. Although the typical behavior of the string in the anisotropic medium is similar to the one in the isotropic AdS-Sch background, the string falls faster to the horizon depending on the direction of moving. Particularly, the enhancement of quenching is larger in the beam direction. We find that the suppression of stopping distance is more prominent when the anisotropic plasma have the same temperature as the isotropic plasma. (orig.)

  6. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided

  7. Algebraic solution of an anisotropic nonquadratic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Filho, H.; Vaidya, A.N.

    1990-06-01

    We show that an anisotropic nonquadratic potential, for which a path integral treatment had been recently discussed in the literature, possesses the (SO(2,1)xSO(2,1))ΛSO(2,1) dynamical symmetry and constructs its Green function algebraically. A particular case which generates new eigenvalues and eigenfunctions is also discussed. (author). 11 refs

  8. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valliappan, V.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Barnhoorn, A.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two dimensional model for modelling the hydraulic fracture process in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks. The model is formulated using extended finite elements (XFEM) in combination with Newton-Raphson method for spatial and Euler's implicit scheme for time. The

  10. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  11. On characterization of anisotropic plant protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.A.; Göbel, J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Goot, van der A.J.; Stefanidis, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a set of complementary techniques was used to characterize surface and bulk structures of an anisotropic Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)–vital wheat gluten blend after it was subjected to heat and simple shear flow in a Couette Cell. The structured biopolymer blend can form a basis for a

  12. Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan [TNO Stieltjes weg 1, 2600 AD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-05-17

    Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

  13. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing

  14. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  15. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  16. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  17. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  18. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  19. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  20. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  1. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  2. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  3. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  4. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuerang; Sun Yuekui; Yuan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an expression has been developed to take into account the complex dependence of the fine structure in core-level electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in anisotropic materials on specimen orientation and spectral collection conditions [Y. Sun, J. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 125109]. One application of this expression is the development of a phenomenological theory of magic-angle electron energy-loss spectroscopy (MAEELS), which can be used to extract the isotropically averaged spectral information for materials with arbitrary anisotropy. Here we use this expression to extract not only the isotropically averaged spectral information, but also the anisotropic spectral components, without the restriction of MAEELS. The application is based on a multivariate statistical analysis of core-level EELS for anisotropic materials. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we have conducted a study on a set of carbon K-edge spectra of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) acquired with energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP) technique and successfully extracted both the averaged and dichroic spectral components of the wrapped graphite-like sheets. Our result shows that this can be a practical alternative to MAEELS for the study of electronic structure of anisotropic materials, in particular for those nanostructures made of layered materials

  6. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  7. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  8. Local electromagnetic waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikov, V.M.; Vega-Monroy, R.

    1999-01-01

    A dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves localized on a defect layer of a layered superconductor is obtained in the frame of a model which neglects electron hopping between layers but assumes an arbitrary current-current response function within the layers. The defect layer differs from the rest of the layers by density and mass of charge carriers. It is shown that near the critical temperature in the London limit the local mode lies within the superconducting gap and has a wave vector threshold depending on the layered crystal and defect layer parameters. In the case of highly anisotropic layered superconductors, like Bi- or Tl-based high-T c cuprates, the local mode exists within a narrow range of positive variations of the mass and charge carriers. (author)

  9. In-situ TEM imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Tian, Xuezeng; Yang, Shize; Wang, Lifen; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-11-21

    Few-layer graphene was successfully tailored with smooth edges along crystallographic directions by Joule heating-driven tungsten nanoparticles inside a transmission electron microscope. The dynamic process was monitored in real time at the atomic resolution level. These high-resolution in-situ observations show that the neighboring graphene layers joined together to form closed edges, which is in contrast to the supposed open edges formed with hydrogen passivation. The tungsten nanoparticles transformed to W₂C in the intermediate stage of etching and to WC after etching, suggesting that carbon dissolution helped the continuous action of the metal nanoparticles in the catalytic anisotropic etching reaction.

  10. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  11. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  12. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-15

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)

  13. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  14. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  15. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  16. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  17. Sparsity-regularized HMAX for visual recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Hu

    Full Text Available About ten years ago, HMAX was proposed as a simple and biologically feasible model for object recognition, based on how the visual cortex processes information. However, the model does not encompass sparse firing, which is a hallmark of neurons at all stages of the visual pathway. The current paper presents an improved model, called sparse HMAX, which integrates sparse firing. This model is able to learn higher-level features of objects on unlabeled training images. Unlike most other deep learning models that explicitly address global structure of images in every layer, sparse HMAX addresses local to global structure gradually along the hierarchy by applying patch-based learning to the output of the previous layer. As a consequence, the learning method can be standard sparse coding (SSC or independent component analysis (ICA, two techniques deeply rooted in neuroscience. What makes SSC and ICA applicable at higher levels is the introduction of linear higher-order statistical regularities by max pooling. After training, high-level units display sparse, invariant selectivity for particular individuals or for image categories like those observed in human inferior temporal cortex (ITC and medial temporal lobe (MTL. Finally, on an image classification benchmark, sparse HMAX outperforms the original HMAX by a large margin, suggesting its great potential for computer vision.

  18. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  19. Superluminal and negative delay times in isotropic-anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchani, N.; El Moussaouy, A.; Aynaou, H.; El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the possibility of superluminal and negative delay times for electromagnetic wave propagation in a linear and passive periodic structure consisting of alternating isotropic and anisotropic media. This phenomenon is due to the birefringence of the anisotropic layers of the structure. By adjusting the orientations of these layers, the delay times of transmitted waves can be controlled from subluminality to superluminality and vice versa. Numerical results indicate that the apparent superluminal propagation of light occurs inside the photonic band-gaps when the principal axes of the anisotropic layers are parallel or perpendicular to the fixed axes. For other orientations of these layers, tunneling and superluminal regimes appear inside the photonic bandgaps and in the allowed bands for frequencies close to the transmission minima. The effect of the number of unit cells of the photonic crystal structure on the propagation of light with superluminal and negative delay times is also investigated. We show that the structure exhibits the Hartman effect in which the tunneling delay time of the electromagnetic wave through the photonic band-gap of the structure converges asymptotically to a finite value with increasing the number of layers. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the transmission and reflection coefficients, the density of states, and the delay times of electromagnetic waves propagating through the structure. The control of the magnitude and the sign of the delay time of light propagation represent a key point in slow and fast light technologies. The proposed structure in this study represents a new system for controlling the delay times of wave propagation without a need of active or non-linear media as well as lossy or asymmetric periodic structures.

  20. Tunable plasmon resonances in anisotropic metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.

    2006-09-01

    Coherent oscillations of free electrons in a metal, localized in a small volume or at an interface between a metal and a dielectric medium, have attracted a lot of attention in the past decades. These so-called surface plasmons have special optical properties that can be used in many applications ranging from optoelectronics to sensing of small quantities of molecules. One of the key issues is that electromagnetic energy can be confined to a relatively small volume close to the metal surface. This field enhancement and the resonance frequency strongly depend on the shape and size of the metal structures. In this thesis, several fabrication methods to create these metal structures on the nanometer to micrometer scale are presented. The optical properties are studied with a special emphasis on the effect of shape anisotropy. Self-assembled 2D colloidal crystals are used as mask to fabricate arrays of metal triangles on a substrate. One of the limitations of this nanosphere lithography technique is that the size of the holes in the colloidal mask (through which the metal is evaporated) is determined by the size of the colloids in the mask. The masks, however, can be modified by use of MeV ion beams and/or wet-chemical growth of a thin layer of silica, resulting in a reduced hole size. Arbitrary symmetry and spacing can be obtained by use of optical tweezers and angle-resolved metal deposition. In contrast to pure metals, amorphous materials like silica are known to show anisotropic plastic deformation at constant volume when subject to MeV ion irradiation. Gold cores embedded in a silica matrix, however, show an elongation along the direction of the ion beam, whereas silver cores rather disintegrate. Silver nanocrystals in an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass redistribute themselves in arrays along the ion beam direction. The optical extinction becomes polarization-dependent, with red- and blue-shifts of the plasmon resonances for polarizations longitudinal and transverse

  1. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  2. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted

  3. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo

    2015-01-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature

  4. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  5. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type- n and type- p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire ( d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  6. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type-n and type-p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire (d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  7. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  8. Azimuthal Seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset and Azimuth Inversion in Weakly Anisotropic Media with Orthorhombic Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Guangzhi; Yin, Xingyao

    2018-01-01

    Seismic amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOaz) inversion is well known as a popular and pragmatic tool utilized to estimate fracture parameters. A single set of vertical fractures aligned along a preferred horizontal direction embedded in a horizontally layered medium can be considered as an effective long-wavelength orthorhombic medium. Estimation of Thomsen's weak-anisotropy (WA) parameters and fracture weaknesses plays an important role in characterizing the orthorhombic anisotropy in a weakly anisotropic medium. Our goal is to demonstrate an orthorhombic anisotropic AVOaz inversion approach to describe the orthorhombic anisotropy utilizing the observable wide-azimuth seismic reflection data in a fractured reservoir with the assumption of orthorhombic symmetry. Combining Thomsen's WA theory and linear-slip model, we first derive a perturbation in stiffness matrix of a weakly anisotropic medium with orthorhombic symmetry under the assumption of small WA parameters and fracture weaknesses. Using the perturbation matrix and scattering function, we then derive an expression for linearized PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of P- and S-wave moduli, density, Thomsen's WA parameters, and fracture weaknesses in such an orthorhombic medium, which avoids the complicated nonlinear relationship between the orthorhombic anisotropy and azimuthal seismic reflection data. Incorporating azimuthal seismic data and Bayesian inversion theory, the maximum a posteriori solutions of Thomsen's WA parameters and fracture weaknesses in a weakly anisotropic medium with orthorhombic symmetry are reasonably estimated with the constraints of Cauchy a priori probability distribution and smooth initial models of model parameters to enhance the inversion resolution and the nonlinear iteratively reweighted least squares strategy. The synthetic examples containing a moderate noise demonstrate the feasibility of the derived orthorhombic anisotropic AVOaz inversion method, and the

  9. Polarized optical scattering by inhomogeneities and surface roughness in an anisotropic thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Thomas A; Sharma, Katelynn A; Brown, Thomas G; Oliver, James B

    2017-11-01

    We extend the theory of Kassam et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 2009 (1995)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.12.002009] for scattering by oblique columnar structure thin films to include the induced form birefringence and the propagation of radiation in those films. We generalize the 4×4 matrix theory of Berreman [J. Opt. Soc. Am.62, 502 (1972)JOSAAH0030-394110.1364/JOSA.62.000502] to include arbitrary sources in the layer, which are necessary to determine the Green function for the inhomogeneous wave equation. We further extend first-order vector perturbation theory for scattering by roughness in the smooth surface limit, when the layer is anisotropic. Scattering by an inhomogeneous medium is approximated by a distorted Born approximation, where effective medium theory is used to determine the effective properties of the medium, and strong fluctuation theory is used to determine the inhomogeneous sources. In this manner, we develop a model for scattering by inhomogeneous films, with anisotropic correlation functions. The results are compared with Mueller matrix bidirectional scattering distribution function measurements for a glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) film. While the results are applied to the GLAD film example, the development of the theory is general enough that it can guide simulations for scattering in other anisotropic thin films.

  10. Conversion of optical wave polarizations in 1D finite anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchani, N.; Nougaoui, N.; Daoudi, A.; Bria, D.

    2006-07-01

    We show that by using one dimensional anisotropic photonic structures, it is possible to realize optical wave polarization conversion by transmission or by reflection. Thus a single incident S(P) polarized plane wave can produce a single reflected P(S) polarized wave and a single transmitted P(S) polarized wave. This polarization conversion property can be fulfilled with a simple finite superlattice constituted by anisotropic dielectric materials. We discuss the appropriate choices of the material and geometrical properties to realize such structures. The transmission and reflection coefficients are discussed in relation with the dispersion curves of the finite structure embedded between two isotropic substrates. Both transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in the framework of Green's function method. The amplitude and the polarization characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves are determined as function of frequency ω , and wave vector k parallel ( parallel to the interface) and the orientations of the principal axes of the layers constituting the SL. Moreover, this structure exhibits a coupling between S and P waves that does not exist in SL composed only of isotropic materials. Specific applications of these results are given for a superlattice consisting of alternating biaxial anisotropic layers NaNO 2 /SbSi sandwiched between two identical semi-infinite isotropic media. (author)

  11. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  12. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: Lavinia.heisenberg@googlemail.com, E-mail: r.kase@rs.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v {sup 2} || φ{sup 2} are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w {sub DE} in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w {sub DE}{sup (iso)} typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  13. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  14. Entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifa; Tong Peiqing

    2005-01-01

    By using the concept of concurrence, the entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains in a transverse field is studied numerically. It is found that the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) of nearest-neighbour concurrence diverge at quantum critical points. By proper scaling, we found that all the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) for periodic XY chains in the vicinity of quantum critical points have the same behaviours as that of a uniform chain

  15. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tensio...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....

  16. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  17. Electromagnetic effects on cracking of anisotropic polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Muhammad; Sadiq, Sobia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we study the electromagnetic effects on the stability of a spherically symmetric anisotropic fluid distribution satisfying two polytropic equations of state and construct the corresponding generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. We apply perturbations on matter variables via the polytropic constant as well as the polytropic index and formulate the force distribution function. It is found that the compact object is stable for a feasible choice of perturbed polytropic index in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  18. Anisotropic diffusion tensor applied to temporal mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon

    2010-01-01

    changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...

  19. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  20. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  1. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  2. Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.

    2018-03-01

    In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.

  3. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMABILITY OF ANISOTROPIC AGRILLITE CLAYSTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  5. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  6. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  7. Mobility controlled linear magnetoresistance with 3D anisotropy in a layered graphene pallet

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Peng; He, Xin; Li, Jun; Wen, Yan; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui Ming; Yang, Yang; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    A bulk sample of pressed graphene sheets was prepared under hydraulic pressure (similar to 150 MPa). The cross-section of the sample demonstrates a layered structure, which leads to 3D electrical transport properties with anisotropic mobility

  8. Anisotropic Exciton Rabi Oscillation in Single Telecommunication-Band Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiyuki Miyazawa,; Toshihiro Nakaoka,; Katsuyuki Watanabe,; Naoto Kumagai,; Naoki Yokoyama,; Yasuhiko Arakawa,

    2010-06-01

    Anisotropic Rabi oscillation in the exciton state in a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) was demonstrated in the telecommunication-band by selecting two orthogonal polarization angles of the excitation laser. Our InAs QDs were embedded in an intrinsic layer of an n-i-Schottky diode, which provides an electric field to extract photoexcited carriers from QDs. Owing to the potential anisotropy of QDs, the fine structure splitting (FSS) energy in the exciton state in single InAs QDs was ˜110 μeV, measured by polarization-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy. The ratio between two different Rabi frequencies, which reflect anisotropic dipole moments of two orthogonal exciton states, was estimated to be ˜1.2. This demonstrates that the selective control of two orthogonal polarized exciton states is a promising technique for exciton-based-quantum information devices compatible with fiber optics.

  9. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šindler, M., E-mail: sindler@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Tesař, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Koláček, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Skrbek, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Transmission through thin NbN film in parallel magnetic field exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour in the terahertz range. • Response for a polarisation parallel with the applied field is given as weighted sum of superconducting and normal state contributions. • Effective medium approach fails to describe response for linear polarisation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. - Abstract: Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  10. High-temperature electron-hole superfluidity with strong anisotropic gaps in double phosphorene monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Zarenia, M.; Perali, A.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Excitonic superfluidity in double phosphorene monolayers is investigated using the BCS mean-field equations. Highly anisotropic superfluidity is predicted where we found that the maximum superfluid gap is in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime along the armchair direction and in the BCS-BEC crossover regime along the zigzag direction. We estimate the highest Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature with maximum value up to ˜90 K with onset carrier densities as high as 4 ×1012cm-2 . This transition temperature is significantly larger than what is found in double electron-hole few-layers graphene. Our results can guide experimental research toward the realization of anisotropic condensate states in electron-hole phosphorene monolayers.

  11. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....

  12. Regularization methods in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S

    2012-01-01

    Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B

  13. Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )

  14. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  15. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  16. The Jump Set under Geometric Regularization. Part 1: Basic Technique and First-Order Denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Let u ∈ BV(Ω) solve the total variation (TV) denoising problem with L2-squared fidelity and data f. Caselles, Chambolle, and Novaga [Multiscale Model. Simul., 6 (2008), pp. 879-894] have shown the containment Hm-1 (Ju \\\\Jf) = 0 of the jump set Ju of u in that of f. Their proof unfortunately depends heavily on the co-area formula, as do many results in this area, and as such is not directly extensible to higher-order, curvature-based, and other advanced geometric regularizers, such as total generalized variation and Euler\\'s elastica. These have received increased attention in recent times due to their better practical regularization properties compared to conventional TV or wavelets. We prove analogous jump set containment properties for a general class of regularizers. We do this with novel Lipschitz transformation techniques and do not require the co-area formula. In the present Part 1 we demonstrate the general technique on first-order regularizers, while in Part 2 we will extend it to higher-order regularizers. In particular, we concentrate in this part on TV and, as a novelty, Huber-regularized TV. We also demonstrate that the technique would apply to nonconvex TV models as well as the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion, if these approaches were well-posed to begin with.

  17. Shakeout: A New Approach to Regularized Deep Neural Network Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guoliang; Li, Jun; Tao, Dacheng

    2018-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of deep neural networks in dealing with a plenty of practical problems. Dropout has played an essential role in many successful deep neural networks, by inducing regularization in the model training. In this paper, we present a new regularized training approach: Shakeout. Instead of randomly discarding units as Dropout does at the training stage, Shakeout randomly chooses to enhance or reverse each unit's contribution to the next layer. This minor modification of Dropout has the statistical trait: the regularizer induced by Shakeout adaptively combines , and regularization terms. Our classification experiments with representative deep architectures on image datasets MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet show that Shakeout deals with over-fitting effectively and outperforms Dropout. We empirically demonstrate that Shakeout leads to sparser weights under both unsupervised and supervised settings. Shakeout also leads to the grouping effect of the input units in a layer. Considering the weights in reflecting the importance of connections, Shakeout is superior to Dropout, which is valuable for the deep model compression. Moreover, we demonstrate that Shakeout can effectively reduce the instability of the training process of the deep architecture.

  18. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying

    2011-02-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles.

  19. Anisotropic Effective Mass, Optical Property, and Enhanced Band Gap in BN/Phosphorene/BN Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2015-10-28

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, the phosphorus has a trouble of degradation due to oxidation. Hereby, we propose that the electrical and optical anisotropic properties can be preserved by encapsulating into hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that the h-BN contributed to enhancing the band gap of the phosphorene layer. Comparing the band gap of the pristine phosphorene layer, the band gap of the phosphorene/BN(1ML) system was enhanced by 0.15 eV. It was further enhanced by 0.31 eV in the BN(1ML)/phosphorene/BN(1ML) trilayer structure. However, the band gap was not further enhanced when we increased the thickness of the h-BN layers even up to 4 MLs. Interestingly, the anisotropic effective mass and optical property were still preserved in BN/phosphorene/BN heterostructures. Overall, we predict that the capping of phosphorene by the h-BN layers can be an excellent solution to protect the intrinsic properties of the phosphorene.

  20. Magnetoelastic shear wave propagation in pre-stressed anisotropic media under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nirmala; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Singh, Abhishek K.; Sahu, Sanjeev A.

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigates the propagation of shear wave (horizontally polarized) in two initially stressed heterogeneous anisotropic (magnetoelastic transversely isotropic) layers in the crust overlying a transversely isotropic gravitating semi-infinite medium. Heterogeneities in both the anisotropic layers are caused due to exponential variation (case-I) and linear variation (case-II) in the elastic constants with respect to the space variable pointing positively downwards. The dispersion relations have been established in closed form using Whittaker's asymptotic expansion and were found to be in the well-agreement to the classical Love wave equations. The substantial effects of magnetoelastic coupling parameters, heterogeneity parameters, horizontal compressive initial stresses, Biot's gravity parameter, and wave number on the phase velocity of shear waves have been computed and depicted by means of a graph. As a special case, dispersion equations have been deduced when the two layers and half-space are isotropic and homogeneous. The comparative study for both cases of heterogeneity of the layers has been performed and also depicted by means of graphical illustrations.

  1. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  2. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  3. The relationship between anisotropic magnetoresistance and topology of Fermi surface in Td-MoTe2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Xiao; Pang, Bin; Cao, Lin; Lin, Dajun; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Song-Tao; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides have been recently attracted a lot of attention because of their unique physical properties, such as extremely large and anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) in WTe2. In this work, we observed the abnormally anisotropic MR on Td-MoTe2 crystal that is strongly dependent on the temperature, as well as the orientations of both magnetic field B and electric field E with respect to crystallographic axes of Td-MoTe2. When E//a-axis and B//c-axis, MR is parabolically dependent on B and is as high as 520% under 9 T and 2 K conditions; the MR is quasi-linearly dependent on B when E//a-axis and B//b-axis (E//b-axis and B//c-axis), and the corresponding MR is only 130% (220%); MR is initially parabolically dependent on B, then linearly on B, and finally shows a saturate trend under E//B//a-axis (or E//B//b-axis) conditions, and the MR is about 16% (30%). These anisotropic MR behaviors can be qualitatively explained by the features of the Fermi surface of Td-MoTe2. This work may demonstrate the rich anisotropic physical behavior in layered transition-metal dichalcognides.

  4. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space

  5. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  6. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  7. On the equivalence of different regularization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)

  8. The uniqueness of the regularization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1981-01-01

    On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)

  9. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinm@coe.neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  10. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik

    2014-01-01

    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin crysta...... analytical models involving crystalline plates, such as those often found in the field of micro electro mechanical systems. The effect of elastic boundary conditions is taken into account by using an effective radius of the plate....

  11. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the Universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with P/ρ=-2/3, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model

  12. An approach to anisotropic cosmologies. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the motivation for the study of anisotropic cosmological models is set out. Then the mathematical basis for the study of such models as well as the description of some of the exact solutions of this genre are given. Killing vectors that spell out spacetime symmetries, are defined and the Bianchi classification of spacetimes based on the structure of the Killing vectors described. After a consideration of the kinematics of matter flow some of the known solutions are presented and their properties described. (author)

  13. The quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.J.; Jensen, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys of the microwave background indicate that the universe is isotropic to more than one part in 10 5 . Due to the arbitrariness of the initial conditions of the universe at the big bang singularity one cannot predict this; it is usually put in by hand. We therefore construct the quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe according to the 'no-boundary' prescription of Hartle and Hawking. Such a model has a well-defined behavior at the classical singularity. We then show it also implies that a large universe, such as ours, is isotropic. (orig.)

  14. Quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.J.; Jensen, L.G.

    1989-01-23

    Surveys of the microwave background indicate that the universe is isotropic to more than one part in 10/sup 5/. Due to the arbitrariness of the initial conditions of the universe at the big bang singularity one cannot predict this; it is usually put in by hand. We therefore construct the quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe according to the 'no-boundary' prescription of Hartle and Hawking. Such a model has a well-defined behavior at the classical singularity. We then show it also implies that a large universe, such as ours, is isotropic.

  15. Critical state of anisotropic hard superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Salazar, C; Perez-RodrIguez, F [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo Post J-48, Puebla, Pue 72570 (Mexico)

    2003-11-01

    The magnetic response of anisotropic irreversible type-II superconductors is investigated theoretically. Using an elliptic vertical law for the electric field E as a function of the current density J, we have reproduced available experimental magnetization curves of YBCO samples with the c axis lying in the sample plane. Specifically, we could reproduce quantitatively and interpret correctly the appearance of additional extrema and segments with relatively small slopes of the virgin magnetization curves when the direction of the applied magnetic field differs from the principal axes. The notable deformation of magnetization curves in a tilted magnetic field is connected to the strong coupling between the components of the magnetic induction.

  16. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  17. Many-dimensional anisotropic anharmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiner, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Precision calculation of energies of several first states at d=2 and first 17 states at d=3 has been performed within the framework of a unique method based on ''nonlinearization'' method for d-dimension anisotropic an harmonic oscillator. Spectrum behaviour within the limit d → ∞ has been investigated and problems of the given approach accuracy have been studied. For the first time properties of nodal surfaces of the given task have been investigated. Routine perturbation theory in degrees of a perturbation parameter has been constructed for several first states

  18. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations...... fluctuation corrections in the mean-field results is also discussed....

  19. Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2017-11-12

    This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering

  20. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  1. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.

    1980-05-01

    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations

  2. Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt

  3. Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.

  4. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  5. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  6. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaksono, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure (AI-P) on properties of the neutron stars (NSs) with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of AI-P on NS matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state EOS, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of AI-P model h ≤ 0.8 [L. Herrera and W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 084022.] and Λ ≤ -1.15 [D. D. Doneva and S. S. Yazadjiev, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 124023.]. The radius of the corresponding NS at M = 1.4 M ⊙ is more than 13 km, while the effect of AI-P on the minimum mass of NS is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the AI-P in the NS, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 M ⊙ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the NS core. (author)

  7. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  8. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  9. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  10. Scaling Argument of Anisotropic Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bingzhen; Jin Guojun; Wang Feifeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analytically discuss the scaling properties of the average square end-to-end distance (R 2 ) for anisotropic random walk in D-dimensional space (D≥2), and the returning probability P n (r 0 ) for the walker into a certain neighborhood of the origin. We will not only give the calculating formula for (R 2 ) and P n (r 0 ), but also point out that if there is a symmetric axis for the distribution of the probability density of a single step displacement, we always obtain (R p erpendicular n 2 )∼n, where perpendicular refers to the projections of the displacement perpendicular to each symmetric axes of the walk; in D-dimensional space with D symmetric axes perpendicular to each other, we always have (R n 2 )∼n and the random walk will be like a purely random motion; if the number of inter-perpendicular symmetric axis is smaller than the dimensions of the space, we must have (R n 2 )∼n 2 for very large n and the walk will be like a ballistic motion. It is worth while to point out that unlike the isotropic random walk in one and two dimensions, which is certain to return into the neighborhood of the origin, generally there is only a nonzero probability for the anisotropic random walker in two dimensions to return to the neighborhood.

  11. Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.

  12. Transient electromagnetic scattering on anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation treats the problem of transient scattering of obliquely incident electromagnetic plane waves on a stratified anisotropic dielectric slab. Scattering operators are derived for the reflective response of the medium. The internal fields are calculated. Wave splitting and invariant imbedding techniques are used. These techniques are first presented for fields normally incident on a stratified, isotropic dielectric medium. The techniques of wave splitting and invariant imbedding are applied to normally incident plane waves on an anisotropic medium. An integro-differential equation is derived for the reflective response and the direct and inverse scattering problems are discussed. These techniques are applied to the case of obliquely incident plane waves. The reflective response is derived and the direct and inverse problems discussed and compared to those for the normal incidence case. The internal fields are investigated for the oblique incidence via a Green's function approach. A numerical scheme is presented to calculate the Green's function. Finally, symmetry relations of the reflective response are discussed

  13. Making of Magnet Barium Ferit Anisotropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idayati, Novrita; Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Barium Hexa ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) is ceramic and materials which usually used for making of permanent magnet. In this research Barium Hexa ferrite were made Anisotropic, and applied for loudspeaker, electro motors, dynamo, KWh metre, etc. this Magnet is commonly used due to its high Induction of Remanen (Br) and coercivity (high Hc). Besides it applies a more simple and easier process technology, cheaper raw material, and easy to find it, hence the magnetic component is much cheaper. Powder Metallurgy was used for the process technology, by reacting all materials in the powder (oxide), with a certain size distribution and a tight preparation step. The next step was mixing ferrite and Barium Carbonate (in the form of oxide), calcination, compaction, cantering and characterisation. The Anisotropic particle effects a high Induce Remanen (Br) and of koersifitas (high Hc). All the process steps will is determine physical and chemical characteristics of the magnet. The best Magnet characteristic of the magnet produced in this research is Induction of Remanen (Br) = 4,27 kg, Coercivity (Hc) = 1,745 kOe, Energy Product max (BHmaks) = 2,31 MGOe

  14. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  15. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  16. Tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance due to antiferromagnetic CoO tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Sanderink, J. G. M.; Bolhuis, T.; van der Wiel, W. G.; de Jong, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach in spintronics is based on spin-polarized charge transport phenomena governed by antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for AFM metals and semiconductors. We report tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to the rotation of antiferromagnetic moments of an insulating CoO layer, incorporated into a tunnel junction consisting of sapphire(substrate)/fcc-Co/CoO/AlOx/Al. The ferromagnetic Co layer is exchange coupled to the AFM CoO layer and drives rotation of the AFM moments in an external magnetic field. The results may help pave the way towards the development of spintronic devices based on AFM insulators. PMID:26486931

  17. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  18. Class of regular bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.

  19. Controllable helical deformations on printed anisotropic composite soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Ling; Serjouei, Ahmad; Dong, Longteng; Weeger, Oliver; Gu, Guoying; Ge, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Helical shapes are ubiquitous in both nature and engineering. However, the development of soft actuators and robots that mimic helical motions has been hindered primarily due to the lack of efficient modeling approaches that take into account the material anisotropy and the directional change of the external loading point. In this work, we present a theoretical framework for modeling controllable helical deformations of cable-driven, anisotropic, soft composite actuators. The framework is based on the minimum potential energy method, and its model predictions are validated by experiments, where the microarchitectures of the soft composite actuators can be precisely defined by 3D printing. We use the developed framework to investigate the effects of material and geometric parameters on helical deformations. The results show that material stiffness, volume fraction, layer thickness, and fiber orientation can be used to control the helical deformation of a soft actuator. In particular, we found that a critical fiber orientation angle exists at which the twist of the actuator changes the direction. Thus, this work can be of great importance for the design and fabrication of soft actuators with tailored deformation behavior.

  20. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Microtoroids

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Rehili, Safa’a

    2016-10-24

    Toroidal structures based on self-assembly of predesigned building blocks are well-established in the literature, but spontaneous self-organization to prepare such structures has not been reported to date. Here, organic–inorganic hybrid microtoroids synthesized by simultaneous coordination-driven assembly of amphiphilic molecules and hydrophilic polymers are reported. Mixing amphiphilic molecules with iron(III) chloride and hydrophilic polymers in water leads, within minutes, to the formation of starlike nanostructures. A spontaneous self-organization of these nanostructures is then triggered to form stable hybrid microtoroids. Interestingly, the toroids exhibit anisotropic hierarchical growth, giving rise to a layered toroidal framework. These microstructures are mechanically robust and can act as templates to host metallic nanoparticles such as gold and silver. Understanding the nature of spontaneous assembly driven by coordination multiple non-covalent interactions can help explain the well-ordered complexity of many biological organisms in addition to expanding the available tools to mimic such structures at a molecular level.

  1. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse...

  2. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  3. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  4. Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, M.

    1980-01-01

    Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)

  5. The anisotropic tunneling behavior of spin transport in graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mengchun; Li, Peisen; Qiu, Weicheng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Peng, Junping; Hu, Jiafei; Hu, Jinghua; Tian, Wugang; Hu, Yueguo; Chen, Dixiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Xu, Zhongjie; Yuan, Xuefeng

    2018-05-01

    Due to the theoretical prediction of large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) has become an important branch of high-performance spintronics device. In this paper, the non-collinear spin filtering and transport properties of MTJ with the Ni/tri-layer graphene/Ni structure were studied in detail by utilizing the non-equilibrium Green's formalism combined with spin polarized density functional theory. The band structure of Ni-C bonding interface shows that Ni-C atomic hybridization facilitates the electronic structure consistency of graphene and nickel, which results in a perfect spin filtering effect for tri-layer graphene-based MTJ. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that the value of tunneling resistance changes with the relative magnetization angle of two ferromagnetic layers, displaying the anisotropic tunneling behavior of graphene-based MTJ. This originates from the resonant conduction states which are strongly adjusted by the relative magnetization angles. In addition, the perfect spin filtering effect is demonstrated by fitting the anisotropic conductance with the Julliere's model. Our work may serve as guidance for researches and applications of graphene-based spintronics device.

  6. Methods for high-resolution anisotropic finite element modeling of the human head: automatic MR white matter anisotropy-adaptive mesh generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an advanced finite element (FE) head modeling technique through which high-resolution FE meshes adaptive to the degree of tissue anisotropy can be generated. Our adaptive meshing scheme (called wMesh) uses MRI structural information and fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensors in the FE mesh generation process, optimally reflecting electrical properties of the human brain. We examined the characteristics of the wMeshes through various qualitative and quantitative comparisons to the conventional FE regular-sized meshes that are non-adaptive to the degree of white matter anisotropy. We investigated numerical differences in the FE forward solutions that include the electrical potential and current density generated by current sources in the brain. The quantitative difference was calculated by two statistical measures of relative difference measure (RDM) and magnification factor (MAG). The results show that the wMeshes are adaptive to the anisotropic density of the WM anisotropy, and they better reflect the density and directionality of tissue conductivity anisotropy. Our comparison results between various anisotropic regular mesh and wMesh models show that there are substantial differences in the EEG forward solutions in the brain (up to RDM=0.48 and MAG=0.63 in the electrical potential, and RDM=0.65 and MAG=0.52 in the current density). Our analysis results indicate that the wMeshes produce different forward solutions that are different from the conventional regular meshes. We present some results that the wMesh head modeling approach enhances the sensitivity and accuracy of the FE solutions at the interfaces or in the regions where the anisotropic conductivities change sharply or their directional changes are complex. The fully automatic wMesh generation technique should be useful for modeling an individual-specific and high-resolution anisotropic FE head model incorporating realistic anisotropic conductivity distributions

  7. Theoretical study on the perpendicular anisotropic magnetoresistance using Rashba-type ferromagnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, Y.; Miura, D.; Sakuma, A.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effects in ferromagnetic-metal multi-layers stacked on non-magnetic insulators in the context of microscopic theory. We represented this situation with tight-binding models that included the exchange and Rashba fields, where the Rashba field was assumed to originate from spin-orbit interactions as junction effects with the insulator. To describe the AMR ratios, the DC conductivity was calculated based on the Kubo formula. As a result, we showed that the Rashba field induced both perpendicular and in-plane AMR effects and that the perpendicular AMR effect rapidly decayed with increasing film thickness.

  8. Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, Evren [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Eyueboglu, B Murat [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-21

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.

  9. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G ∞,max aniso =2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  10. Spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model for shale and other anisotropic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbao; Caner, Ferhun C.; Chau, Viet T.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive equations for inelastic behavior of anisotropic materials have been a challenge for decades. Presented is a new spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model that meets this challenge for the inelastic fracturing behavior of orthotropic materials, and particularly the shale, which is transversely isotropic and is important for hydraulic fracturing (aka fracking) as well as many geotechnical structures. The basic idea is to couple a cylindrical microplane system to the classical spherical microplane system. Each system is subjected to the same strain tensor while their stress tensors are superposed. The spherical phase is similar to the previous microplane models for concrete and isotropic rock. The integration of stresses over spherical microplanes of all spatial orientations relies on the previously developed optimal Gaussian integration over a spherical surface. The cylindrical phase, which is what creates the transverse isotropy, involves only microplanes that are normal to plane of isotropy, or the bedding layers, and enhance the stiffness and strength in that plane. Unlike all the microplane models except the spectral one, the present one can reproduce all the five independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic shales. Vice versa, from these constants, one can easily calculate all the microplane elastic moduli, which are all positive if the elastic in-to-out-of plane moduli ratio is not too big (usually less than 3.75, which applies to all shales). Oriented micro-crack openings, frictional micro-slips and bedding plane behavior can be modeled more intuitively than with the spectral approach. Data fitting shows that the microplane resistance depends on the angle with the bedding layers non-monotonically, and compressive resistance reaches a minimum at 60°. A robust algorithm for explicit step-by-step structural analysis is formulated. Like all microplane models, there are many material parameters, but they can be identified sequentially

  11. Anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe cores integrated into microinductors for high-frequency dc–dc power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Herrault, Florian; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Allen, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300–1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni 80 Fe 20 or Co 44 Ni 37 Fe 19 ) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50–100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500–1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc–dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors. (fast track communication)

  12. Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin conductivity of spin chain Heisenberg model. • The investigation of the effects of anisotropy and magnetic field on the temperature dependence of spin conductivity. • The study of the effect of temperature on the spin Drude weight.

  13. Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong

    With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the

  14. Influence of cross-anisotropy material behavior on back-calculation analysis of multi-layered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available to be cross-anisotropic and by assuming a variety of horizontal and vertical elastic moduli, surface deflections were computed. These deflections were used to backcalculate equivalent layer moduli assuming isotropic material property. Finally, by using...

  15. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  16. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg

    2014-05-26

    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  17. Magnetic properties of layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansky, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The organic superconductors (BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SNC) 2 and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , with T c = 10K and 1.2K, have layered and highly anisotropic crystal structures. This thesis describes AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on these materials which illustrate the consequences of the discrete layered structure for the magnetic properties of the superconducting state. A DC magnetic field applied parallel to the layers of either material causes the rapid suppression of the AC screening response, and this indicates that the pinning restoring force for vortex motion parallel to the layers is anomalously weak in this orientation. This is believed to be due to the small size of the interlayer coherence length relative to the layer spacing. A simple estimate based on the energy and length scales relevant to Josephson coupled layers gives the correct order of magnitude for the pinning force. Pinning for vortices oriented perpendicular to the layers is larger by a factor of 500 for BEDT and 25 for TMTSF. When the DC field is applied at an angle to the layers, the initial suppression of the susceptibility is identical to that for a field parallel to the layers; when the field component normal to the layers exceeds a threshold, a sharp recovery of screening occurs. These observations indicate that the field initially enters the sample only in the direction parallel to the layers. The recovery of screening signals field penetration in the perpendicular direction at higher field strength, and is due to the onset of pinning by in-plane vortex cores. This magnetic open-quotes lock-inclose quotes effect is a qualitatively new behavior and is a direct consequence of weak interlayer coupling. The London penetration depth associated with interlayer currents is found to be on the order of hundreds of microns, comparable to that of a Josephson junction, and two to three orders of magnitude larger than for conventional superconductors

  18. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on silver atoms and clusters in regularly interstratified clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Tamura, K.; Shimomura, S.; Sadlo, J.; Turek, J.; Michalik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formation and stabilization of reduced silver species in the regularly interstratified clay minerals, trioctahedral smectite/chlorite (tri-Sm/Ch) and dioctahedral smectite/mica (di-Sm/M), have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Both minerals loaded with Ag + cations after degassing and dehydration were γ-irradiated at 77 K and monitored by EPR as the temperature increased. Some samples were exposed to water or methanol vapor after dehydration. In both hydrated and dehydrated samples only the doublets to Ag 0 atoms were observed with no evidence of the formation of Ag clusters. However, the EPR parameter of silver atoms in both matrices are different. In tri-Sm/Ch the narrow anisotropic EPR lines overlap with the broader isotropic lines, whereas in di-Sm/M only broad lines are recorded. The hyperfine splitting - A iso (Ag 0 ) is larger in tri-Sm/Ch than in di-Sm/M. Also the stability of Ag 0 in both clay minerals is distinctly different. Ag 0 doublet in di-Sm/M disappears completely above 230 K, Whereas in tri-Sm/Ch it is still recorded at 310 K. It is proposed, basing on the EPR results that Ag 0 atoms appear at different sites in both matrices: - in tri-Sm/Ch in the middle of smectite interlayer and in hexagonal cavities in the silicate sheets of tetrahedron layer and in di-Sm.M in hexagonal cavities only. When samples had been exposed to methanol before irradiation, the silver clusters become stabilized in the interlayer sites. In tri-Sm/M matrix the silver dimer Ag 2 + formed by gamma-irradiation at 77 K is transformed to tetrameric cluster, Ag 4 + at 150 K. In di-Sm/M the radiation-induced silver agglomeration proceeds in a similar way, but with a slower rate and Ag tetramer is formed only above 190 K. In both clay minerals, Ag 4 + clusters decay above 250 K. (author)

  20. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)

  1. Anisotropic gradients in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmany, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pn amplitudes in some widely spaced sets of orthogonal marine refraction lines on young oceanic crust are greater in the fast direction than in the slow direction. This is inconsistent with the predicted amplitude behavior for simple head waves, but can be explained by an increase in anisotropy with depth. It appears that these gradients are due to increasing olivine crystal orientation, although changes in the relative abundance of two anisotropic minerals without variable tectonization could also account for the observations. Depth variation of tectonization most probably indicates very high temperature gradients at the Moho. This would imply a substantial amount of convective heat transport in the whole oceanic crust near mid-ocean rises

  2. Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.

    2010-08-01

    The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.

  3. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  4. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  5. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  6. Inverse anisotropic conductivity from internal current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Guo, Chenxi; Monard, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a fully anisotropic conductivity tensor γ from internal current densities of the form J = γ∇u, where u solves a second-order elliptic equation ∇ · (γ∇u) = 0 on a bounded domain X with prescribed boundary conditions. A minimum number of n + 2 such functionals known on Y⊂X, where n is the spatial dimension, is sufficient to guarantee a unique and explicit reconstruction of γ locally on Y. Moreover, we show that γ is reconstructed with a loss of one derivative compared to errors in the measurement of J in the general case and no loss of derivatives in the special case where γ is scalar. We also describe linear combinations of mixed partial derivatives of γ that exhibit better stability properties and hence can be reconstructed with better resolution in practice. (paper)

  7. Stability of anisotropic beams with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.

    1997-07-01

    We calculate coherent frequencies and stability properties of anisotropic or ''non-equipartitioned'' beams with different focusing constants and emittances in the two transverse directions. Based on the self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson equations the dispersion relations of transverse multipole oscillations with quadrupolar, sextupolar and octupolar symmetry are solved numerically. The eigenfrequencies give the coherent space charge tune shift for linear or nonlinear resonances in circular accelerators. We find that for sufficiently large energy anisotropy some of the eigenmodes become unstable in the space-charge-dominated regime. The properties of these anisotropy instabilities are used to show that ''non-equipartitioned'' beams can be tolerated in high-current linear accelerators. It is only in beams with strongly space-charge-depressed betatron tunes where harmful instabilities leading to emittance exchange should be expected. (orig.)

  8. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.

    2017-10-01

    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  9. Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee

  10. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-11-15

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  11. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.

    1985-07-01

    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  12. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  14. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test

  15. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)

  17. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.

  18. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  19. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  20. Measuring anisotropic muscle stiffness properties using elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M A; Geng, G; Qin, E; Sinkus, R; Gandevia, S C; Bilston, L E

    2013-11-01

    Physiological and pathological changes to the anisotropic mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are still largely unknown, with only a few studies quantifying changes in vivo. This study used the noninvasive MR elastography (MRE) technique, in combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to measure shear modulus anisotropy in the human skeletal muscle in the lower leg. Shear modulus measurements parallel and perpendicular to the fibre direction were made in 10 healthy subjects in the medial gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed significant differences in the medial gastrocnemius (μ‖ = 0.86 ± 0.15 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.19 kPa, P < 0.001), soleus (μ‖ = 0.83 ± 0.22 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.65 ± 0.13 kPa, P < 0.001) and the tibialis anterior (μ‖ = 0.78 ± 0.24 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.16 kPa, P = 0.03) muscles, where the shear modulus measured in the direction parallel is greater than that measured in the direction perpendicular to the muscle fibres. No significant differences were measured across muscle groups. This study provides the first direct estimates of the anisotropic shear modulus in the triceps surae muscle group, and shows that the technique may be useful for the probing of mechanical anisotropy changes caused by disease, aging and injury. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Radial stability of anisotropic strange quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbañil, José D.V.; Malheiro, M., E-mail: jose.arbanil@upn.pe, E-mail: malheiro@ita.br [ITA—Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica—Departamento de Física, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic σ = p {sub t} − p {sub r} are considered, where p {sub t} and p {sub r} are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by p {sub r} ( R ) = 0, and one that is nonnull at the surface, namely, σ {sub s} = 0 and σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}. In the case σ {sub s} = 0, the maximum mass value and the zero frequency of oscillation are found at the same central energy density, indicating that the maximum mass marks the onset of the instability. For the case σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}, we show that the maximum mass point and the zero frequency of oscillation coincide in the same central energy density value only in a sequence of equilibrium configurations with the same value of σ {sub s} . Thus, the stability star regions are determined always by the condition dM / d ρ {sub c} {sub >} {sub 0} only when the tangential pressure is maintained fixed at the star surface's p {sub t} ( R ). These results are also quite important to analyze the stability of other anisotropic compact objects such as neutron stars, boson stars and gravastars.

  2. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth's subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  3. Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2006-01-01

    In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T......: The expectation of the regularization function, i.e., takes the same value in the posterior and prior distribution. We present three examples: two simulations, and application in fMRI neuroimaging....

  4. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  5. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Blondelle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical

  6. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults.Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 1...

  7. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  8. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  9. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  10. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F

    2017-09-06

    The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.

  11. A signature of anisotropic cosmic-ray transport in the gamma-ray sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Grasso, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi' ' , Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Gaggero, Daniele [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vittino, Andrea [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James Franck-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Evoli, Carmelo, E-mail: silvio.cerri@df.unipi.it, E-mail: d.gaggero@uva.nl, E-mail: andrea.vittino@tum.de, E-mail: carmelo.evoli@gssi.it, E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute, Viale Francesco Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    A crucial process in Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) transport is the spatial diffusion due to the interaction with the interstellar turbulent magnetic field. Usually, CR diffusion is assumed to be uniform and isotropic all across the Galaxy. However, this picture is clearly inaccurate: several data-driven and theoretical arguments, as well as dedicated numerical simulations, show that diffusion exhibits highly anisotropic properties with respect to the direction of a background (ordered) magnetic field (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to it). In this paper we focus on a recently discovered anomaly in the hadronic CR spectrum inferred by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data at different positions in the Galaxy, i.e. the progressive hardening of the proton slope at low Galactocentric radii. We propose the idea that this feature can be interpreted as a signature of anisotropic diffusion in the complex Galactic magnetic field: in particular, the harder slope in the inner Galaxy is due, in our scenario, to the parallel diffusive escape along the poloidal component of the large-scale, regular, magnetic field. We implement this idea in a numerical framework, based on the DRAGON code, and perform detailed numerical tests on the accuracy of our setup. We discuss how the effect proposed depends on the relevant free parameters involved. Based on low-energy extrapolation of the few focused numerical simulations aimed at determining the scalings of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients, we finally present a set of plausible models that reproduce the behavior of the CR proton slopes inferred by gamma-ray data.

  12. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  13. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  14. On Pokrovskii's anisotropic gap equations in superconductivity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yisong

    2003-11-01

    An existence and uniqueness theorem for Pokrovskii's zero-temperature anisotropic gap equation is proved. Furthermore, it is shown that Pokrovskii's finite-temperature equation is inconsistent with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. A reformulation of the anisotropic gap equation is presented along the line of Pokrovskii and it is shown that the new equation is consistent with the BCS theory for the whole temperature range. As an application, the Markowitz-Kadanoff model for anisotropic superconductivity is considered and a rigorous proof of the half-integer-exponent isotope effect is obtained. Furthermore, a sharp estimate of the gap solution near the transition temperature is established.

  15. A theory for the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in dilute magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  16. Heat transfer due to electroconvulsive therapy: Influence of anisotropic thermal and electrical skull conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes de Oliveira, Marilia; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and head models to investigate temperature profiles arising when anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivities are considered in the skull layer. The aim was to numerically investigate the threshold for which this therapy operates safely to the brain, from the thermal point of view. A six-layer spherical head model consisting of scalp, fat, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid, grey matter and white matter was developed. Later on, a realistic human head model was also implemented. These models were built up using the packages from COMSOL Inc. and Simpleware Ltd. In these models, three of the most common electrode montages used in ECT were applied. Anisotropic conductivities were derived using volume constraint and included in both spherical and realistic head models. The bio-heat transferring problem governed by Laplace equation was solved numerically. The results show that both the tensor eigenvalues of electrical conductivity and the electrode montage affect the maximum temperature, but thermal anisotropy does not have a significant influence. Temperature increases occur mainly in the scalp and fat, and no harm is caused to the brain by the current applied during ECT. The work assures the thermal safety of ECT and also provides a numerical method to investigate other non-invasive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine-scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, we have proposed a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite-element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that was similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity in which the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  18. ONETRAN, 1-D Transport in Planar, Cylindrical, Spherical Geometry for Homogeneous, Inhomogeneous Problem, Anisotropic Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ONETRAN solves the one- dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (K-eff and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. 2 - Method of solution: The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero and correct algorithm. Standard inner (within-group) iteration cycles are accelerated by system re-balance, coarse mesh re-balance, or Chebyshev acceleration. Outer iteration cycles are accelerated by coarse-mesh re-balance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. On CDC machines MAXCOR can be about 25 000 words and peripheral storage is used for most group-dependent data

  19. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  20. A regularized stationary mean-field game

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xianjin

    2016-04-19

    In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.

  1. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  2. From recreational to regular drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...

  3. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  4. Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Holm, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach for large-eddy simulation (LES) is obtained by combining a "regularization principle" with an explicit filter and its inversion. This regularization approach allows a systematic derivation of the implied subgrid model, which resolves the closure problem. The central role of

  5. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines...

  6. Salt-body Inversion with Minimum Gradient Support and Sobolev Space Norm Regularizations

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2017-05-26

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique which solves the ill-posed seismic inversion problem of fitting our model data to the measured ones from the field. FWI is capable of providing high-resolution estimates of the model, and of handling wave propagation of arbitrary complexity (visco-elastic, anisotropic); yet, it often fails to retrieve high-contrast geological structures, such as salt. One of the reasons for the FWI failure is that the updates at earlier iterations are too smooth to capture the sharp edges of the salt boundary. We compare several regularization approaches, which promote sharpness of the edges. Minimum gradient support (MGS) regularization focuses the inversion on blocky models, even more than the total variation (TV) does. However, both approaches try to invert undesirable high wavenumbers in the model too early for a model of complex structure. Therefore, we apply the Sobolev space norm as a regularizing term in order to maintain a balance between sharp and smooth updates in FWI. We demonstrate the application of these regularizations on a Marmousi model, enriched by a chunk of salt. The model turns out to be too complex in some parts to retrieve its full velocity distribution, yet the salt shape and contrast are retrieved.

  7. Determination of anisotropic velocity model by reflection tomography of compression and shear modes; Determination de modele de vitesse anisotrope par tomographie de reflexion des modes de compression et de cisaillement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopin, A.

    2001-12-01

    As the jump from 2D to 3D, seismic exploration lives a new revolution with the use of converted PS waves. Indeed PS converted waves are proving their potential as a tool for imaging through gas; lithology discrimination; structural confirmation; and more. Nevertheless, processing converted shear data and in particular determining accurate P and S velocity models for depth imaging of these data is still a challenging problem, especially when the subsurface is anisotropic. To solve this velocity model determination problem we propose to use reflection travel time tomography. In a first step, we derive a new approximation of the exact phase velocity equation of the SV wave in anisotropic (TI) media. This new approximation is valid for non-weak anisotropy and is mathematically simpler to handle than the exact equation. Then, starting from an isotropic reflection tomography tool developed at Lt-'P, we extend the isotropic bending ray tracing method to the anisotropic case and we implement the quantities necessary for the determination of the anisotropy parameters from the travel time data. Using synthetic data we then study the influence of the different anisotropy parameters on the travel times. From this analysis we propose a methodology to determine a complete anisotropic subsurface model (P and S layer velocities, interface geometries, anisotropy parameters). Finally, on a real data set from the Gulf of Mexico we demonstrate that this new anisotropic reflection tomography tool allows us to obtain a reliable subsurface model yielding kinematically correct and mutually coherent PP and PS images in depth; such a result could not be obtained with an isotropic velocity model. Similar results are obtained on a North Sea data set. (author)

  8. Determination of anisotropic velocity model by reflection tomography of compression and shear modes; Determination de modele de vitesse anisotrope par tomographie de reflexion des modes de compression et de cisaillement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopin, A

    2001-12-01

    As the jump from 2D to 3D, seismic exploration lives a new revolution with the use of converted PS waves. Indeed PS converted waves are proving their potential as a tool for imaging through gas; lithology discrimination; structural confirmation; and more. Nevertheless, processing converted shear data and in particular determining accurate P and S velocity models for depth imaging of these data is still a challenging problem, especially when the subsurface is anisotropic. To solve this velocity model determination problem we propose to use reflection travel time tomography. In a first step, we derive a new approximation of the exact phase velocity equation of the SV wave in anisotropic (TI) media. This new approximation is valid for non-weak anisotropy and is mathematically simpler to handle than the exact equation. Then, starting from an isotropic reflection tomography tool developed at Lt-'P, we extend the isotropic bending ray tracing method to the anisotropic case and we implement the quantities necessary for the determination of the anisotropy parameters from the travel time data. Using synthetic data we then study the influence of the different anisotropy parameters on the travel times. From this analysis we propose a methodology to determine a complete anisotropic subsurface model (P and S layer velocities, interface geometries, anisotropy parameters). Finally, on a real data set from the Gulf of Mexico we demonstrate that this new anisotropic reflection tomography tool allows us to obtain a reliable subsurface model yielding kinematically correct and mutually coherent PP and PS images in depth; such a result could not be obtained with an isotropic velocity model. Similar results are obtained on a North Sea data set. (author)

  9. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  10. Dilatonic Brans-Dicke Anisotropic Collapsing Fluid Sphere And de Broglie Quantum Wave Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffarnejad, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) analogue of vacuum sector of the Brans Dicke (BD) gravity [1] is studied to obtain dynamics of anisotropic spherically symmetric perfect fluid. Our obtained static solutions behave as dark matter with state equation but in non-static regimes behave as regular perfect fluid with barotropic index ϒ > 0. Positivity property of total mass of the fluid causes that the BD parameter to be ω >2/3 and/or ω 0 the apparent horizon is covered by event horizon where the cosmic censorship hypothesis is still valid. According to the model [1], we obtain de Broglie pilot wave of our metric solution which describes particles ensemble which become distinguishable via different values of ω . Incident current density of particles ensemble on the horizons is evaluated which describe the ‘Hawking radiation’. The de Brogle-Bohm quantum potential effect is calculated also on the event (apparent) horizon which is independent (dependent) to values of ω . (paper)

  11. On T-solutions of degenerate anisotropic elliptic variational inequalities with L1-data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, Alexander A; Gorban, Yuliya S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notions of T-solutions and shift T-solutions of variational inequalities corresponding to a non-linear degenerate anisotropic elliptic operator, a constraint set in a sufficiently large class, and an L 1 -right-hand side. We prove theorems on the existence and uniqueness of such solutions and describe their properties. While the notion of T-solution is defined only when the constraint set contains at least one bounded function, the notion of shift T-solution does not require this condition. We describe the relation between these notions and prove that these types of solutions of a variational inequality coincide with ordinary solutions whenever the right-hand side is sufficiently regular.

  12. Spectral finite element method wave propagation, diagnostics and control in anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan; Roy Mahapatra, Debiprosad

    2008-01-01

    The use of composites and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) in structural applications has increased. FGMs allow the user to design materials for a specified functionality and have many uses in structural engineering. However, the behaviour of these structures under high-impact loading is not well understood. This book is the first to apply the Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) to inhomogeneous and anisotropic structures in a unified and systematic manner. It focuses on some of the problems with this media which were previously thought unmanageable. Types of SFEM for regular and damaged 1-D and 2-D waveguides, solution techniques, methods of detecting the presence of damages and their locations, and methods for controlling the wave propagation responses are discussed. Tables, figures and graphs support the theory and case studies are included. This book is of value to senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying in this field, and researchers and practicing engineers in structural integrity.

  13. Timescales of isotropic and anisotropic cluster collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmann, M.; Ehlers, J.; Schneider, P.

    1993-12-01

    From a simple estimate for the formation time of galaxy clusters, Richstone et al. have recently concluded that the evidence for non-virialized structures in a large fraction of observed clusters points towards a high value for the cosmological density parameter Omega0. This conclusion was based on a study of the spherical collapse of density perturbations, assumed to follow a Gaussian probability distribution. In this paper, we extend their treatment in several respects: first, we argue that the collapse does not start from a comoving motion of the perturbation, but that the continuity equation requires an initial velocity perturbation directly related to the density perturbation. This requirement modifies the initial condition for the evolution equation and has the effect that the collapse proceeds faster than in the case where the initial velocity perturbation is set to zero; the timescale is reduced by a factor of up to approximately equal 0.5. Our results thus strengthens the conclusion of Richstone et al. for a high Omega0. In addition, we study the collapse of density fluctuations in the frame of the Zel'dovich approximation, using as starting condition the analytically known probability distribution of the eigenvalues of the deformation tensor, which depends only on the (Gaussian) width of the perturbation spectrum. Finally, we consider the anisotropic collapse of density perturbations dynamically, again with initial conditions drawn from the probability distribution of the deformation tensor. We find that in both cases of anisotropic collapse, in the Zel'dovich approximation and in the dynamical calculations, the resulting distribution of collapse times agrees remarkably well with the results from spherical collapse. We discuss this agreement and conclude that it is mainly due to the properties of the probability distribution for the eigenvalues of the Zel'dovich deformation tensor. Hence, the conclusions of Richstone et al. on the value of Omega0 can be

  14. Chiral magnetic effect in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2015-01-01

    An anisotropic thermal plasma phase of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an anisotropic AdS black hole. The temperature and anisotropy parameter of the AdS black hole background of interest http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2011)054 is specified by the location of the horizon and the value of the Dilaton field at the horizon. Interestingly, for the first time, we obtain two functions for the values of the horizon and Dilaton field in terms of the temperature and anisotropy parameter. Then by introducing a number of spinning probe D7-branes in the anisotropic background, we compute the value of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We observe that in the isotropic and anisotropic plasma the value of the CME is equal for the massless quarks. However, at fixed temperature, raising the anisotropy in the system will increase the value of the CME for the massive quarks.

  15. Waves and discontinuities in relativistic and anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cissoko, Mahdy

    1975-01-01

    This work is devoted to the relativistic study of a non-dissipative anisotropic fluid diagram of infinite conductivity. Such a fluid diagram is constructed in part one. Starting from a macroscopic viewpoint a hydrothermodynamic study of the fluid diagram considered is carried out and the fundamental differential system of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is deduced. Part two concerns the study of characteristic varieties and propagation of waves for a polytropic anisotropic fluid diagram. Three types of characteristic varieties are revealed: entropy waves (or material waves), magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves. The propagation rates of Alfven and magnetosonic waves are situated with respect to each other. The study of wave cones showed up on the one hand certain special features of wave propagation in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics and on the other hand the hyperbolic nature of differential operators associated with the various waves [fr

  16. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology,. Chengdu ... studied the extraction scheme of ADCIGs by using. Kirchhoff ..... The effect of shale properties on anisotropic brittleness.

  17. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    astrophysical plasmas. These plasmas are usually self-gravitating, rotating and embedded in a .... gravitational potential, and P denotes the anisotropic pressure tensor defined as. ൌ ୄ ൅ ሺ צǦ ..... Nonlinear Processes Geophysics, 11 :731.

  18. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.

  19. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-02

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  20. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Ma, X.; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented

  1. On plasma stability under anisotropic random electric field influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabich, L.N.; Sosenko, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic random field on plasma stability is studied. The thresholds and instability increments are obtained. The stabilizing influence of frequency missmatch and external magnetic field is pointed out

  2. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate

  3. Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)

  4. Jet quenching in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    The jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma depends on the relative orientation between the anisotropic direction, the direction of motion of the parton, and the direction along which the momentum broadening is measured. We calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary orientations and arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic value can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. We compare our results to analogous calculations for the real-world quark-gluon plasma and find agreement in some cases and disagreement in others.

  5. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Zhao, Jiajun; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  6. Anisotropic plasma with flows in tokamak: Steady state and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgisonis, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    An adequate description of equilibrium and stability of anisotropic plasma with macroscopic flows in tokamaks is presented. The Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) approximation is consistently used to analyze anisotropic plasma dynamics. The admissible structure of a stationary flow is found to be the same as in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic pressure (MHD), which means an allowance for the same relabeling symmetry as in ideal MHD systems with toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. A generalization of the Grad-Shafranov equation for the case of anisotropic plasma with flows confined in the axisymmetric magnetic field is derived. A variational principle was obtained, which allows for a stability analysis of anisotropic pressure plasma with flows, and takes into account the conservation laws resulting from the relabeling symmetry. This principle covers the previous stability criteria for static CGL plasma and for ideal MHD flows in isotropic plasma as well. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Ekanem

    2018-04-05

    Apr 5, 2018 ... scattering characteristics in fractured media and thus, validate the practical utility of using anisotropic .... to fluid flow. ... account the porosity of the host rock and assumes .... The free surface boundary conditions generally.

  8. Method of moving frames to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations on anisotropic curved surfaces: Applications to invisible cloak and ELF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sehun

    2017-07-01

    Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.

  9. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P; Xie, J; Cheng, J; Wu, K K

    2014-01-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25–80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface. (paper)

  10. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Xie, J.; Cheng, J.; Wu, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25-80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface.

  11. Insertion of anisotropic particles in lamellar surfactant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Isabelle

    1998-01-01

    We search for the interactions governing the possibility to mix organic and inorganic colloids. We use laponite, a synthetic anionic clay, made of 30 nm diameter and 1 nm thickness anisotropic disks. Three surfactant Systems, an anionic one (AOT), a cationic one (DDAB) and a nonionic one (C_1_2E_5) investigate three different cases of interaction forces. We establish experimentally the equilibrium phase diagrams and characterise the structure of these ternary Systems by SANS and SAXS experiments. We quantify the adsorption. An AOT bilayer surround the particle edges; an almost complete bilayer of DDAB and C_1_2E_5 is formed on the basal faces. SANS contrast variation experiments under controlled conditions along the adsorption isotherm of C_1_2E_5 allow to determine the average thickness of the adsorbed surfactant layer. In the monophasic lamellar domain, the particles stay between the membranes, when the spacing is larger than the particle thickness. In the biphasic domain, dense clay aggregates are in equilibrium with a lamellar phase, containing few amount of particles. They enter in the AOT bilayers when the space between the bilayers are smaller than 8 A. From the phase diagram and interaction forces study, three conditions of stability emerge: - an osmotic one: the osmotic lamellar pressure is higher or equal to the colloidal one. - an energetic one: the interaction energy between a particle and the surfactant bilayer is close to the particle energy in aqueous suspension. - an entropic one: particles should not inhibit the stabilising fluctuations of the lamellar phase. (author) [fr

  12. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  13. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2016-09-06

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domai...

  15. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  16. Anisotropic modelling of the electrical conductivity of fractured bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flykt, M.J.; Sihvola, A.H.; Eloranta, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The electromagnetic characterization of fractured bedrock is of importance when studying the final disposal of nuclear waste. The different types of discontinuities at all scales in rocks can be viewed as an inhomogeneity. In some cases there are reasons to assume the influence of the discontinuities on electrical conductivity is anisotropic in character. The effort has been made to use electromagnetic mixing rules in the definition of an equivalent homogeneous anisotropic conductivity tensor for such fractured rock mass. (author) (16 refs., 6 figs.)

  17. Algebraic collapsing acceleration of the characteristics method with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.; Roy, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics solvers implemented in the lattice code Dragon are extended to allow a complete anisotropic treatment of the collision operator. An efficient synthetic acceleration method, called Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA), is presented. Tests show that this method can substantially speed up the convergence of scattering source iterations. The effect of boundary conditions, either specular or white reflections, on anisotropic scattering lattice-cell problems is also considered. (author)

  18. Hybrid localized waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Yermakov, O. Y.; Ovcharenko, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime.......We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime....

  19. Thermal fluctuations and critical behavior in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma are studied by applying standard methods, based on the Einstein rule, to the known thermodynamic potential of the system. It is found in particular that magnetic fluctuations become critical when the anisotropy p ∥ −p ⊥ changes sign. By examining the critical region, additional insight on the equations of state for near-critical anisotropic plasma is obtained

  20. Joint eigenvector estimation from mutually anisotropic tensors improves susceptibility tensor imaging of the brain, kidney, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a susceptibility-based MRI technique for probing microstructure and fiber architecture of magnetically anisotropic tissues-such as central nervous system white matter, renal tubules, and myocardial fibers-in three dimensions using susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools. STI can probe tissue microstructure, but is limited by reconstruction artifacts because of absent phase information outside the tissue and noise. STI accuracy may be improved by estimating a joint eigenvector from mutually anisotropic susceptibility and relaxation tensors. Gradient-recalled echo image data were simulated using a numerical phantom and acquired from the ex vivo mouse brain, kidney, and heart. Susceptibility tensor data were reconstructed using STI, regularized STI, and the proposed algorithm of mutually anisotropic and joint eigenvector STI (MAJESTI). Fiber map and tractography results from each technique were compared with diffusion tensor data. MAJESTI reduced the estimated susceptibility tensor orientation error by 30% in the phantom, 36% in brain white matter, 40% in the inner medulla of the kidney, and 45% in myocardium. This improved the continuity and consistency of susceptibility-based fiber tractography in each tissue. MAJESTI estimation of the susceptibility tensors yields lower orientation errors for susceptibility-based fiber mapping and tractography in the intact brain, kidney, and heart. Magn Reson Med 77:2331-2346, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Model of thermal conductivity of anisotropic nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, S.F.; Kalinichenko, A.I.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Dependence of thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond on grain size and shape is theoretically investigated. Nanodiamond is considered as two-phase material composed of diamond grains characterizing by three main dimensions and segregated by thin graphite layers with electron, phonon or hybrid thermal conductivity. Influence of type of thermal conductance and thickness of boundary layer on thermal conductivity of nanodiamond is analyzed. Derived dependences of thermal conductivity on grain dimensions are compared with experimental data

  2. An iterative method for Tikhonov regularization with a general linear regularization operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tikhonov regularization is one of the most popular approaches to solve discrete ill-posed problems with error-contaminated data. A regularization operator and a suitable value of a regularization parameter have to be chosen. This paper describes an iterative method, based on Golub-Kahan

  3. A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)

  4. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Hierarchical regular small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)

  7. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  8. Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2010-01-01

    The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.

  9. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  10. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  11. Polarization dynamics in nonlinear anisotropic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, Andrey; Komarov, Konstantin; Meshcheriakov, Dmitry; Amrani, Foued; Sanchez, Francois

    2010-01-01

    We give an extensive study of polarization dynamics in anisotropic fibers exhibiting a third-order index nonlinearity. The study is performed in the framework of the Stokes parameters with the help of the Poincare sphere. Stationary states are determined, and their stability is investigated. The number of fixed points and their stability depend on the respective magnitude of the linear and nonlinear birefringence. A conservation relation analogous to the energy conservation in mechanics allows evidencing a close analogy between the movement of the polarization in the Poincare sphere and the motion of a particle in a potential well. Two distinct potentials are found, leading to the existence of two families of solutions, according to the sign of the total energy of the equivalent mechanical system. The mechanical analogy allows us to fully characterize the solutions and also to determine analytically the associated beat lengths. General analytical solutions are given for the two families in terms of Jacobi's functions. The intensity-dependent transmission of a fiber placed between two crossed polarizers is calculated. Optimal conditions for efficient nonlinear switching compatible with mode-locking applications are determined. The general case of a nonlinear fiber ring with an intracavity polarizer placed between two polarization controllers is also considered.

  12. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ c , which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF

  13. Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation for compressible flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, W.A.; Lien, F.-S.

    2004-01-01

    Simulating transient compressible flows involving shock waves presents challenges to the CFD practitioner in terms of the mesh quality required to resolve discontinuities and prevent smearing. This paper discusses a novel two-dimensional Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation technique implemented for compressible flow. This technique, developed for laminar flow by Ham, Lien and Strong, is efficient because it refines and coarsens cells using criteria that consider the solution in each of the cardinal directions separately. In this paper the method will be applied to compressible flow. The procedure shows promise in its ability to deliver good quality solutions while achieving computational savings. The convection scheme used is the Advective Upstream Splitting Method (Plus), and the refinement/ coarsening criteria are based on work done by Ham et al. Transient shock wave diffraction over a backward step and shock reflection over a forward step are considered as test cases because they demonstrate that the quality of the solution can be maintained as the mesh is refined and coarsened in time. The data structure is explained in relation to the computational mesh, and the object-oriented design and implementation of the code is presented. Refinement and coarsening algorithms are outlined. Computational savings over uniform and isotropic mesh approaches are shown to be significant. (author)

  14. Gauge unification in highly anisotropic string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that heterotic string compactifications have, in spite of their conceptual simplicity and aesthetic appeal, a serious problem with precision gauge coupling unification in the perturbative regime of string theory. Using both a duality-based and a field-theoretic definition of the boundary of the perturbative regime, we reevaluate the situation in a quantitative manner. We conclude that the simplest and most promising situations are those where some of the compactification radii are exceptionally large, corresponding to highly anisotropic orbifold models. Thus, one is led to consider constructions which are known to the effective field-theorist as higher-dimensional or orbifold grand unified theories (orbifold GUTs). In particular, if the discrete symmetry used to break the GUT group acts freely, a non-local breaking in the larger compact dimensions can be realized, leading to a precise gauge coupling unification as expected on the basis of the MSSM particle spectrum. Furthermore, a somewhat more model dependent but nevertheless very promising scenario arises if the GUT breaking is restricted to certain singular points within the manifold spanned by the larger compactification radii

  15. Birkeland currents in an anisotropic, magnetostatic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expression for the parallel current density is derived for a plasma characterized by negligible bulk flow (magnetostatic) velocity and a two-component (anisotropic) pressure tensor by expanding the equilibrium Vlasov equation for each species in the adiabatic parameter until such point as a nonvanishing moment j parallel = ∫ d 3 vv parallel is identified. The result is a nonlocal one: it relates j parallel at one point s along a field line to j parallel at another (reference) point s 0 plus an integral function of the pressure and magnetic field between them. It is a generalization and elaboration of results obtained by Bostrom (1975), Heinemann (1990), and Heinemann and Pontius (1991). The expression could have been obtained by integrating the current continuity equation with -∇ x j perpendicular as a source term and j perpendicular given by perpendicular momentum balance. The authors explicitly show the equivalency. The widely used Vasyliunas (1970) equation follows when P perpendicular is set equal to P parallel and s and s 0 are taken to be at the ionosphere and the equator. An extended discussion of the relationship of results derived here to others in the literature is carried out in an effort to bring unity and perspective to this problem area

  16. Single-layer skull approximations perform well in transcranial direct current stimulation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampersad, S.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    In modeling the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation, the representation of the skull is an important factor. In a spherical model, we compared a realistic skull modeling approach, in which the skull consisted of three isotropic layers, to anisotropic and isotropic single-layer

  17. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar π-π* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA

  18. Investigate the effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsamuthirun, P.; Peamsuwan, R.; Kumvongsa, C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors in BCS weak-coupling limit is investigated. An analytical specific heat jump and the numerical specific heat are shown by using anisotropic order parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction. The two models of anisotropic order parameters are used for numerical calculation that we find little effect on the numerical results. The specific heat jump of MgB 2 , Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 and Nb 3 Sn superconductors can fit well with both of them. By comparing the experimental data with overall range of temperature, the best fit is Nb 3 Sn, MgB 2 , and Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 superconductors.

  19. Turbulent current layer equilibrium and current layer of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, E.E.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of distribution of plasma and magnetic field concentration in the unidimensional current layer under the condition of equality of the current inflowing into the layer and the counter diffusion current by various dependences of the regular velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the magnetic field. Corresponding two-dimensional solutions are obtained in the tail approximation. Comparison of the model turbulent current layer with characteristics of the plasma layer of the Earth magnetosphere tail is carried out. 16 refs., 3 figs

  20. Diagrammatic methods in phase-space regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Halpern, M.B.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1987-11-01

    Using the scalar prototype and gauge theory as the simplest possible examples, diagrammatic methods are developed for the recently proposed phase-space form of continuum regularization. A number of one-loop and all-order applications are given, including general diagrammatic discussions of the nogrowth theorem and the uniqueness of the phase-space stochastic calculus. The approach also generates an alternate derivation of the equivalence of the large-β phase-space regularization to the more conventional coordinate-space regularization. (orig.)