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Sample records for regrouping based sequential

  1. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....

  2. Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…

  3. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty...... after each regrouping (2 × 20 min/group/day). Injuries were scored by the end of the experimental period. The level of aggression shown by horses in Unstable groups immediately after regrouping was not affected by week (F5,35 = 0.42, P = 0.83), indicating that horses neither habituated, nor sensitized...... injuries were registered and there was no treatment effect (U = 184; P = 0.11). We conclude that the behaviour of young horses is affected by group management, and that horses appear not to adapt to weekly regroupings....

  4. Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnison, Judy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…

  5. Dynamics-based sequential memory: Winnerless competition of patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliger, Philip; Tsimring, Lev S.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a biologically motivated dynamical principle of sequential memory which is based on winnerless competition (WLC) of event images. This mechanism is implemented in a two-layer neural model of sequential spatial memory. We present the learning dynamics which leads to the formation of a WLC network. After learning, the system is capable of associative retrieval of prerecorded sequences of patterns

  6. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  7. A Trust-region-based Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints.......This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints....

  8. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  9. A sequential hypothesis test based on a generalized Azuma inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    We present a new power-one sequential hypothesis test based on a bound for the probability that a bounded zero-mean martingale ever crosses a curve of the form $a(n+k)^b$. The proof of the bound is of independent interest.

  10. Autonomisation de regroupements de producteurs marginalisés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un forum du commerce équitable est une façon, axée sur le marché, de favoriser l'autonomisation des producteurs et les pratiques durables. Les organismes et fédérations de commerce équitable de l'Inde sont regroupés en un tel forum, qui a pour nom Fair Trade Forum India (FTF I). Adhérant aux principes ...

  11. Waste management regroups units into Rust International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-01-01

    Three Waste Management (Oak Brook, IL) subsidiaries have proposed merging units from Chemical Waste Management (CWM) and Wheelabrator Technologies with the Brand Companies (Park Ridge, IL). Waste Management says the new company, to be called Rust International, will become one of the US's largest environmental consulting and infrastructure organizations and will include design and construction services. Waste Management expects the merged company's 1993 revenues to reach $1.8 billion. It will be based in Birmingham, AL and have 12,000 employees

  12. Visual Appearance-Based Unmanned Vehicle Sequential Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizationis of vital importance for an unmanned vehicle to drive on the road. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, inertial equipment, artificial landmarks, distributing sensors or global positioning system(GPS information. Currently, the problem of localization with vision information is most concerned. However, vision-based localization techniquesare still unavailable for practical applications. In this paper, we present a vision-based sequential probability localization method. This method uses the surface information of the roadside to locate the vehicle, especially in the situation where GPS information is unavailable. It is composed of two step, first, in a recording stage, we construct a ground truthmap with the appearance of the roadside environment. Then in an on-line stage, we use a sequential matching approach to localize the vehicle. In the experiment, we use two independent cameras to observe the environment, one is left-orientated and the other is right. SIFT features and Daisy features are used to represent for the visual appearance of the environment. The experiment results show that the proposed method could locate the vehicle in a complicated, large environment with high reliability.

  13. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  14. A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jooncheol; Herrault, Florian; Schafer, Richard; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition is presented. The process comprises three main steps: (1) automated sequential electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) structural and copper sacrificial layers to form multilayer structures of significant total thickness; (2) fabrication of polymeric anchor structures through the thickness of the multilayer structures and (3) selective removal of copper. The resulting structure is a set of air-insulated permalloy laminations, the separation of which is sustained by insulating polymeric anchor structures. Individual laminations have precisely controllable thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 5 µm, and each lamination layer is electrically isolated from adjacent layers by narrow air gaps of similar scale. In addition to air, interlamination insulators based on polymers are investigated. Interlamination air gaps with very high aspect ratio (>1:100) can be filled with polyvinylalcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The laminated structures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to directly examine properties such as the roughness and the thickness uniformity of the layers. In addition, the quality of the electrical insulation between the laminations is evaluated by quantifying the eddy current within the sample as a function of frequency. Fabricated laminations are comprised of uniform, smooth (surface roughness <100 nm) layers with effective electrical insulation for all layer thicknesses and insulator approaches studied. Such highly laminated structures have potential uses ranging from energy conversion to applications where composite materials with highly anisotropic mechanical or thermal properties are required. (paper)

  15. Mobility of radionuclides based on sequential extraction of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Lien, H.N.; Oestby, G.; Strand, P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, core samples of soil and vegetation from semi-natural pastures have been collected at selected sites in Norway during the growing season. The activity concentrations in soil and vegetation as well as transfer coefficients vary significantly between regions, within regions and even within sampling plot areas. In order to differentiate between mobil and inert fractions of radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr in soils, samples were extracted sequentially using agents with increasing dissolution power. The reproducibility of the sequential extraction technique is good and the data obtained seems most informative. As the distribution pattern for radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr are similar, a high degree of isotopic exchange is indicated. Based on easily leachable fractions, mobility factors are calculated. In general the mobility of 90 Sr is higher than for 137 Cs. Mobility factors are not significantly influenced by seasonal variations, but a decrease in the mobile fraction in soil with time is indicated. Mobility factors should be considered useful for modelling purposes. (au)

  16. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  17. Developing a Self-Report-Based Sequential Analysis Method for Educational Technology Systems: A Process-Based Usability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…

  18. Sequential Ground Motion Effects on the Behavior of a Base-Isolated RCC Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequential ground motion effects on the dynamic responses of reinforced concrete containment (RCC buildings with typical isolators are studied in this paper. Although the base isolation technique is developed to guarantee the security and integrity of RCC buildings under single earthquakes, seismic behavior of base-isolated RCC buildings under sequential ground motions is deficient. Hence, an ensemble of as-recorded sequential ground motions is employed to study the effect of including aftershocks on the seismic evaluation of base-isolated RCC buildings. The results indicate that base isolation can significantly attenuate the earthquake shaking of the RCC building under not only single earthquakes but also seismic sequences. It is also found that the adverse aftershock effect on the RCC can be reduced due to the base isolation applied to the RCC. More importantly, the study indicates that disregarding aftershocks can induce significant underestimation of the isolator displacement for base-isolated RCC buildings.

  19. Annual report of the industrial centre for regrouping, warehousing and storage - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    This report first presents the installations of the Cires (industrial centre for regrouping, warehousing and storage), its equipment and buildings, its activities (storage of very-low-activity wastes, regrouping and warehousing of non-electronuclear wastes). It reviews the arrangements regarding safety and radiation protection: radioactive waste storage safety, safety of non-electronuclear waste regrouping and warehousing, relationship with the regional directorate of environment, planning and housing (DREAL), quality audits, staff safety, and radiation protection. It addresses the actions undertaken for the control of the environment and of releases by the installations: radiological control in various locations (measurements in soils, waters, underground waters, and atmospheric releases), physical and chemical controls. The next part reports actions regarding transparency and information (visits, conferences, exhibitions, relationship with the local information and control commission)

  20. Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

    2014-03-18

    A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

  1. Sequential Classification of Palm Gestures Based on A* Algorithm and MLP Neural Network for Quadrocopter Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodziński Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach to the sequential data classification, based on traditional machine learning algorithms (neural networks, principal component analysis, multivariate Gaussian anomaly detector and finding the shortest path in a directed acyclic graph, using A* algorithm with a regression-based heuristic. Palm gestures were used as an example of the sequential data and a quadrocopter was the controlled object. The study includes creation of a conceptual model and practical construction of a system using the GPU to ensure the realtime operation. The results present the classification accuracy of chosen gestures and comparison of the computation time between the CPU- and GPU-based solutions.

  2. Relative resilience to noise of standard and sequential approaches to measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C. B.; Ferraro, A.

    2018-05-01

    A possible alternative to the standard model of measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is offered by the sequential model of MBQC—a particular class of quantum computation via ancillae. Although these two models are equivalent under ideal conditions, their relative resilience to noise in practical conditions is not yet known. We analyze this relationship for various noise models in the ancilla preparation and in the entangling-gate implementation. The comparison of the two models is performed utilizing both the gate infidelity and the diamond distance as figures of merit. Our results show that in the majority of instances the sequential model outperforms the standard one in regard to a universal set of operations for quantum computation. Further investigation is made into the performance of sequential MBQC in experimental scenarios, thus setting benchmarks for possible cavity-QED implementations.

  3. An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Utpala Niranjan; R.B.V. Subramanyam; V-Khana

    2010-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for d...

  4. Collaborative Filtering Based on Sequential Extraction of User-Item Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Katsuhiro; Notsu, Akira; Ichihashi, Hidetomo

    Collaborative filtering is a computational realization of “word-of-mouth” in network community, in which the items prefered by “neighbors” are recommended. This paper proposes a new item-selection model for extracting user-item clusters from rectangular relation matrices, in which mutual relations between users and items are denoted in an alternative process of “liking or not”. A technique for sequential co-cluster extraction from rectangular relational data is given by combining the structural balancing-based user-item clustering method with sequential fuzzy cluster extraction appraoch. Then, the tecunique is applied to the collaborative filtering problem, in which some items may be shared by several user clusters.

  5. An anomaly detection and isolation scheme with instance-based learning and sequential analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, T. S.; Garcia, H. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an online anomaly detection and isolation (FDI) technique using an instance-based learning method combined with a sequential change detection and isolation algorithm. The proposed method uses kernel density estimation techniques to build statistical models of the given empirical data (null hypothesis). The null hypothesis is associated with the set of alternative hypotheses modeling the abnormalities of the systems. A decision procedure involves a sequential change detection and isolation algorithm. Notably, the proposed method enjoys asymptotic optimality as the applied change detection and isolation algorithm is optimal in minimizing the worst mean detection/isolation delay for a given mean time before a false alarm or a false isolation. Applicability of this methodology is illustrated with redundant sensor data set and its performance. (authors)

  6. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  7. Sequential Probability Ratio Testing with Power Projective Base Method Improves Decision-Making for BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a fast and reliable decision is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this study, the EEG signals were firstly analyzed with a power projective base method. Then we were applied a decision-making model, the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT), for single-trial classification of motor imagery movement events. The unique strength of this proposed classification method lies in its accumulative process, which increases the discriminative power as more and more evidence is observed over time. The properties of the method were illustrated on thirteen subjects' recordings from three datasets. Results showed that our proposed power projective method outperformed two benchmark methods for every subject. Moreover, with sequential classifier, the accuracies across subjects were significantly higher than that with nonsequential ones. The average maximum accuracy of the SPRT method was 84.1%, as compared with 82.3% accuracy for the sequential Bayesian (SB) method. The proposed SPRT method provides an explicit relationship between stopping time, thresholds, and error, which is important for balancing the time-accuracy trade-off. These results suggest SPRT would be useful in speeding up decision-making while trading off errors in BCI. PMID:29348781

  8. Precise Sequential DNA Ligation on A Solid Substrate: Solid-Based Rapid Sequential Ligation of Multiple DNA Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Eiji; Kohda, Katsunori; Tomatsu, Hajime; Hanano, Shigeru; Moriya, Kanami; Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Ligation, the joining of DNA fragments, is a fundamental procedure in molecular cloning and is indispensable to the production of genetically modified organisms that can be used for basic research, the applied biosciences, or both. Given that many genes cooperate in various pathways, incorporating multiple gene cassettes in tandem in a transgenic DNA construct for the purpose of genetic modification is often necessary when generating organisms that produce multiple foreign gene products. Here, we describe a novel method, designated PRESSO (precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate), for the tandem ligation of multiple DNA fragments. We amplified donor DNA fragments with non-palindromic ends, and ligated the fragment to acceptor DNA fragments on solid beads. After the final donor DNA fragments, which included vector sequences, were joined to the construct that contained the array of fragments, the ligation product (the construct) was thereby released from the beads via digestion with a rare-cut meganuclease; the freed linear construct was circularized via an intra-molecular ligation. PRESSO allowed us to rapidly and efficiently join multiple genes in an optimized order and orientation. This method can overcome many technical challenges in functional genomics during the post-sequencing generation. PMID:23897972

  9. Micro-computer based control system and its software for carrying out the sequential acceleration on SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deming

    2001-01-01

    Micro-computer based control system and its software for carrying out the sequential acceleration on SMCAMS is described. Also, the establishment of the 14 C particle measuring device and the improvement of the original power supply system are described

  10. Context specificity of the ANS stress response during two regrouping experiments in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Patt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS differs between two regrouping procedures in goats, which would indicate stimulus specificity of these stressors. Applying two regrouping procedures, we evaluated heart rate and heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, RMSSD/SDNN. The two regrouping procedures were 1 introduction of individual goats into established groups (introduction experiment and 2 temporary separation and subsequent reintegration of individuals from/into their group with two levels of contact during separation (separation experiment. In the introduction experiment, the heart rate of introduced goats while lying decreased continuously from an average 78 beats/minute to 68 beats/minute from before the introduction to the last day of the introduction period. Inversely, RMSSD increased continuously from 41 ms to 62 ms, which, on its own, would indicate an adaptation to the situation. During the separation experiment, heart rate while lying was higher when goats were separated in the acoustic contact treatment (82 beats/minute on average compared with the restricted physical contact treatment (75 beats/minute on average. This difference reflected a higher level of arousal during the acoustic contact treatment. However, heart rate activity did not allow detecting effects of separation or reintegration. Even though it can be assumed that both the separation and introduction of goats are stressful for goats, the ANS reactions observed in the present study differed between the two management procedures indicating that the ANS activation was specific to each situation. In addition, we discuss the ANS results in context with earlier findings of variables of the HPA-axis (fecal cortisol metabolites and behavior (lying and feeding. As correspondence between ANS, HPA, and behavioral reactions was limited both within and across experiments, the results of the present study underline the

  11. Context Specificity of the ANS Stress Response during Two Regrouping Experiments in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Antonia; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Hillmann, Edna; Langbein, Jan; Keil, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs between two regrouping procedures in goats, which would indicate stimulus specificity of these stressors. Applying two regrouping procedures, we evaluated heart rate and heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, and RMSSD/SDNN). The two regrouping procedures were (1) introduction of individual goats into established groups (“introduction experiment”) and (2) temporary separation and subsequent reintegration of individuals from/into their group with two levels of contact during separation (“separation experiment”). In the “introduction experiment,” the heart rate of introduced goats while lying decreased continuously from an average 78 to 68 beats/min from before the introduction to the last day of the introduction period. Inversely, RMSSD increased continuously from 41 to 62 ms, which, on its own, would indicate an adaptation to the situation. During the “separation experiment,” heart rate while lying was higher when goats were separated in the “acoustic contact treatment” (82 beats/min on average) compared with the “restricted physical contact treatment” (75 beats/min on average). This difference reflected a higher level of arousal during the “acoustic contact treatment.” However, heart rate activity did not allow detecting effects of separation or reintegration. Even though it can be assumed that both the separation and introduction of goats are stressful for goats, the ANS reactions observed in this study differed between the two management procedures indicating that the ANS activation was specific to each situation. In addition, we discuss the ANS results in context with earlier findings of variables of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (fecal cortisol metabolites) and behavior (lying and feeding). As correspondence between ANS, HPA, and behavioral reactions was limited both within and across experiments, the results

  12. Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination based on item response theory in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose In a sequential objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE is administered to the remaining examinees. Previous investigations of sequential OSCE were based on classical test theory. We aimed to design and evaluate screening OSCEs based on item response theory (IRT. Methods We carried out a retrospective observational study. At each station of a 10-station OSCE, the students’ performance was graded on a Likert-type scale. Since the data were polytomous, the difficulty parameters, discrimination parameters, and students’ ability were calculated using a graded response model. To design several screening OSCEs, we identified the 5 most difficult stations and the 5 most discriminative ones. For each test, 5, 4, or 3 stations were selected. Normal and stringent cut-scores were defined for each test. We compared the results of each of the 12 screening OSCEs to the main OSCE and calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, as well as the exam cost. Results A total of 253 students (95.1% passed the main OSCE, while 72.6% to 94.4% of examinees passed the screening tests. The PPV values ranged from 0.98 to 1.00, and the NPV values ranged from 0.18 to 0.59. Two tests effectively predicted the results of the main exam, resulting in financial savings of 34% to 40%. Conclusion If stations with the highest IRT-based discrimination values and stringent cut-scores are utilized in the screening test, sequential OSCE can be an efficient and convenient way to conduct an OSCE.

  13. Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination based on item response theory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Jalili, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In a sequential objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE is administered to the remaining examinees. Previous investigations of sequential OSCE were based on classical test theory. We aimed to design and evaluate screening OSCEs based on item response theory (IRT). We carried out a retrospective observational study. At each station of a 10-station OSCE, the students' performance was graded on a Likert-type scale. Since the data were polytomous, the difficulty parameters, discrimination parameters, and students' ability were calculated using a graded response model. To design several screening OSCEs, we identified the 5 most difficult stations and the 5 most discriminative ones. For each test, 5, 4, or 3 stations were selected. Normal and stringent cut-scores were defined for each test. We compared the results of each of the 12 screening OSCEs to the main OSCE and calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), as well as the exam cost. A total of 253 students (95.1%) passed the main OSCE, while 72.6% to 94.4% of examinees passed the screening tests. The PPV values ranged from 0.98 to 1.00, and the NPV values ranged from 0.18 to 0.59. Two tests effectively predicted the results of the main exam, resulting in financial savings of 34% to 40%. If stations with the highest IRT-based discrimination values and stringent cut-scores are utilized in the screening test, sequential OSCE can be an efficient and convenient way to conduct an OSCE.

  14. Plane-Based Sampling for Ray Casting Algorithm in Sequential Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Chen, Shengyong; Shao, Yan; Gu, Zichun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a plane-based sampling method to improve the traditional Ray Casting Algorithm (RCA) for the fast reconstruction of a three-dimensional biomedical model from sequential images. In the novel method, the optical properties of all sampling points depend on the intersection points when a ray travels through an equidistant parallel plan cluster of the volume dataset. The results show that the method improves the rendering speed at over three times compared with the conventional algorithm and the image quality is well guaranteed. PMID:23424608

  15. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for finding edit distance based motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Soumitra; Xiao, Peng; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-08-18

    Motif search is an important step in extracting meaningful patterns from biological data. The general problem of motif search is intractable and there is a pressing need to develop efficient, exact and approximation algorithms to solve this problem. In this paper, we present several novel, exact, sequential and parallel algorithms for solving the (l,d) Edit-distance-based Motif Search (EMS) problem: given two integers l,d and n biological strings, find all strings of length l that appear in each input string with atmost d errors of types substitution, insertion and deletion. One popular technique to solve the problem is to explore for each input string the set of all possible l-mers that belong to the d-neighborhood of any substring of the input string and output those which are common for all input strings. We introduce a novel and provably efficient neighborhood exploration technique. We show that it is enough to consider the candidates in neighborhood which are at a distance exactly d. We compactly represent these candidate motifs using wildcard characters and efficiently explore them with very few repetitions. Our sequential algorithm uses a trie based data structure to efficiently store and sort the candidate motifs. Our parallel algorithm in a multi-core shared memory setting uses arrays for storing and a novel modification of radix-sort for sorting the candidate motifs. The algorithms for EMS are customarily evaluated on several challenging instances such as (8,1), (12,2), (16,3), (20,4), and so on. The best previously known algorithm, EMS1, is sequential and in estimated 3 days solves up to instance (16,3). Our sequential algorithms are more than 20 times faster on (16,3). On other hard instances such as (9,2), (11,3), (13,4), our algorithms are much faster. Our parallel algorithm has more than 600 % scaling performance while using 16 threads. Our algorithms have pushed up the state-of-the-art of EMS solvers and we believe that the techniques introduced in

  16. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Zong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

  18. Sequential Fuzzy Diagnosis Method for Motor Roller Bearing in Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD and the relative crossing information (RCI methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP, and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well.

  19. Improving multiple-point-based a priori models for inverse problems by combining Sequential Simulation with the Frequency Matching Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine

    In order to move beyond simplified covariance based a priori models, which are typically used for inverse problems, more complex multiple-point-based a priori models have to be considered. By means of marginal probability distributions ‘learned’ from a training image, sequential simulation has...... proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...

  20. Weighted-Bit-Flipping-Based Sequential Scheduling Decoding Algorithms for LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes can be applied in a lot of different scenarios such as video broadcasting and satellite communications. LDPC codes are commonly decoded by an iterative algorithm called belief propagation (BP over the corresponding Tanner graph. The original BP updates all the variable-nodes simultaneously, followed by all the check-nodes simultaneously as well. We propose a sequential scheduling algorithm based on weighted bit-flipping (WBF algorithm for the sake of improving the convergence speed. Notoriously, WBF is a low-complexity and simple algorithm. We combine it with BP to obtain advantages of these two algorithms. Flipping function used in WBF is borrowed to determine the priority of scheduling. Simulation results show that it can provide a good tradeoff between FER performance and computation complexity for short-length LDPC codes.

  1. Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus, E-mail: rali@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common {sup 13}C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR.

  2. Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common 13 C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR

  3. Corpus Callosum Analysis using MDL-based Sequential Models of Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    are proposed, but all remain applicable to other domain problems. The well-known multi-resolution AAM optimisation is extended to include sequential relaxations on texture resolution, model coverage and model parameter constraints. Fully unsupervised analysis is obtained by exploiting model parameter...... that show that the method produces accurate, robust and rapid segmentations in a cross sectional study of 17 subjects, establishing its feasibility as a fully automated clinical tool for analysis and segmentation.......This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance images of the brain based on the widely used Active Appearance Models (AAMs) by Cootes et al. Extensions of the original method, which are designed to improve this specific case...

  4. Is there sufficient evidence regarding signage-based stair use interventions? A sequential meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Milton, Karen; Kariuki, Maina; Fedel, Karla; Lewicka, Mary

    2017-11-28

    The proliferation of studies using motivational signs to promote stair use continues unabated, with their oft-cited potential for increasing population-level physical activity participation. This study examined all stair use promotional signage studies since 1980, calculating pre-estimates and post-estimates of stair use. The aim of this project was to conduct a sequential meta-analysis to pool intervention effects, in order to determine when the evidence base was sufficient for population-wide dissemination. Using comparable data from 50 stair-promoting studies (57 unique estimates) we pooled data to assess the effect sizes of such interventions. At baseline, median stair usage across interventions was 8.1%, with an absolute median increase of 2.2% in stair use following signage-based interventions. The overall pooled OR indicated that participants were 52% more likely to use stairs after exposure to promotional signs (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.70). Incremental (sequential) meta-analyses using z-score methods identified that sufficient evidence for stair use interventions has existed since 2006, with recent studies providing no further evidence on the effect sizes of such interventions. This analysis has important policy and practice implications. Researchers continue to publish stair use interventions without connection to policymakers' needs, and few stair use interventions are implemented at a population level. Researchers should move away from repeating short-term, small-scale, stair sign interventions, to investigating their scalability, adoption and fidelity. Only such research translation efforts will provide sufficient evidence of external validity to inform their scaling up to influence population physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Effective Sequential Classifier Training for SVM-Based Multitemporal Remote Sensing Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqing; Jia, Xiuping; Paull, David

    2018-06-01

    The explosive availability of remote sensing images has challenged supervised classification algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), as training samples tend to be highly limited due to the expensive and laborious task of ground truthing. The temporal correlation and spectral similarity between multitemporal images have opened up an opportunity to alleviate this problem. In this study, a SVM-based Sequential Classifier Training (SCT-SVM) approach is proposed for multitemporal remote sensing image classification. The approach leverages the classifiers of previous images to reduce the required number of training samples for the classifier training of an incoming image. For each incoming image, a rough classifier is firstly predicted based on the temporal trend of a set of previous classifiers. The predicted classifier is then fine-tuned into a more accurate position with current training samples. This approach can be applied progressively to sequential image data, with only a small number of training samples being required from each image. Experiments were conducted with Sentinel-2A multitemporal data over an agricultural area in Australia. Results showed that the proposed SCT-SVM achieved better classification accuracies compared with two state-of-the-art model transfer algorithms. When training data are insufficient, the overall classification accuracy of the incoming image was improved from 76.18% to 94.02% with the proposed SCT-SVM, compared with those obtained without the assistance from previous images. These results demonstrate that the leverage of a priori information from previous images can provide advantageous assistance for later images in multitemporal image classification.

  6. Sequential search leads to faster, more efficient fragment-based de novo protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Saulo H P; Law, Eleanor C; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

    2018-04-01

    Most current de novo structure prediction methods randomly sample protein conformations and thus require large amounts of computational resource. Here, we consider a sequential sampling strategy, building on ideas from recent experimental work which shows that many proteins fold cotranslationally. We have investigated whether a pseudo-greedy search approach, which begins sequentially from one of the termini, can improve the performance and accuracy of de novo protein structure prediction. We observed that our sequential approach converges when fewer than 20 000 decoys have been produced, fewer than commonly expected. Using our software, SAINT2, we also compared the run time and quality of models produced in a sequential fashion against a standard, non-sequential approach. Sequential prediction produces an individual decoy 1.5-2.5 times faster than non-sequential prediction. When considering the quality of the best model, sequential prediction led to a better model being produced for 31 out of 41 soluble protein validation cases and for 18 out of 24 transmembrane protein cases. Correct models (TM-Score > 0.5) were produced for 29 of these cases by the sequential mode and for only 22 by the non-sequential mode. Our comparison reveals that a sequential search strategy can be used to drastically reduce computational time of de novo protein structure prediction and improve accuracy. Data are available for download from: http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/resources. SAINT2 is available for download from: https://github.com/sauloho/SAINT2. saulo.deoliveira@dtc.ox.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring sustainability by Energy Efficiency Analysis for Korean Power Companies: A Sequential Slacks-Based Efficiency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency has been widely regarded as one of the most cost-effective ways to improve sustainability and mitigate climate change. This paper presents a sequential slack-based efficiency measure (SSBM application to model total-factor energy efficiency with undesirable outputs. This approach simultaneously takes into account the sequential environmental technology, total input slacks, and undesirable outputs for energy efficiency analysis. We conduct an empirical analysis of energy efficiency incorporating greenhouse gas emissions of Korean power companies during 2007–2011. The results indicate that most of the power companies are not performing at high energy efficiency. Sequential technology has a significant effect on the energy efficiency measurements. Some policy suggestions based on the empirical results are also presented.

  9. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  10. Prediction of Strength for Inhomogeneous : Defective Glass Elements Based on the Sequential Partitioning of the Data and Weibull Statistical Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabetia, Alexander; Rodichev, Yurii; Veer, F.A.; Soroka, Elena; Louter, Christian; Bos, Freek; Belis, Jan; Veer, Fred; Nijsse, Rob

    An analytical approach based on the on the sequential partitioning of the data and Weibull Statistical Distribution for inhomogeneous - defective materials is proposed. It allows assessing the guaranteed strength of glass structures for the low probability of fracture with a higher degree of

  11. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine a...

  12. Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...

  13. Note: Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    We show that well-known textbook formulae for determining the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time can easily be extended to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. The provided performance measures and conditions...

  14. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  15. Program completion of a web-based tailored lifestyle intervention for adults: differences between a sequential and a simultaneous approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; van Osch, Liesbeth A D M; van Nierop, Peter W M; Kremers, Stef P J

    2012-03-08

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors often co-occur and are related to chronic diseases. One effective method to change multiple lifestyle behaviors is web-based computer tailoring. Dropout from Internet interventions, however, is rather high, and it is challenging to retain participants in web-based tailored programs, especially programs targeting multiple behaviors. To date, it is unknown how much information people can handle in one session while taking part in a multiple behavior change intervention, which could be presented either sequentially (one behavior at a time) or simultaneously (all behaviors at once). The first objective was to compare dropout rates of 2 computer-tailored interventions: a sequential and a simultaneous strategy. The second objective was to assess which personal characteristics are associated with completion rates of the 2 interventions. Using an RCT design, demographics, health status, physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking were self-assessed through web-based questionnaires among 3473 adults, recruited through Regional Health Authorities in the Netherlands in the autumn of 2009. First, a health risk appraisal was offered, indicating whether respondents were meeting the 5 national health guidelines. Second, psychosocial determinants of the lifestyle behaviors were assessed and personal advice was provided, about one or more lifestyle behaviors. Our findings indicate a high non-completion rate for both types of intervention (71.0%; n = 2167), with more incompletes in the simultaneous intervention (77.1%; n = 1169) than in the sequential intervention (65.0%; n = 998). In both conditions, discontinuation was predicted by a lower age (sequential condition: OR = 1.04; P simultaneous condition: OR = 1.04; P sequential condition: OR = 0.86; P = .01; CI = 0.76-0.97; simultaneous condition: OR = 0.49; P sequential intervention, being male (OR = 1.27; P = .04; CI = 1.01-1.59) also predicted dropout

  16. Sequential projection pursuit for optimised vibration-based damage detection in an experimental wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    To advance the concept of smart structures in large systems, such as wind turbines (WTs), it is desirable to be able to detect structural damage early while using minimal instrumentation. Data-driven vibration-based damage detection methods can be competitive in that respect because global vibrational responses encompass the entire structure. Multivariate damage sensitive features (DSFs) extracted from acceleration responses enable to detect changes in a structure via statistical methods. However, even though such DSFs contain information about the structural state, they may not be optimised for the damage detection task. This paper addresses the shortcoming by exploring a DSF projection technique specialised for statistical structural damage detection. High dimensional initial DSFs are projected onto a low-dimensional space for improved damage detection performance and simultaneous computational burden reduction. The technique is based on sequential projection pursuit where the projection vectors are optimised one by one using an advanced evolutionary strategy. The approach is applied to laboratory experiments with a small-scale WT blade under wind-like excitations. Autocorrelation function coefficients calculated from acceleration signals are employed as DSFs. The optimal numbers of projection vectors are identified with the help of a fast forward selection procedure. To benchmark the proposed method, selections of original DSFs as well as principal component analysis scores from these features are additionally investigated. The optimised DSFs are tested for damage detection on previously unseen data from the healthy state and a wide range of damage scenarios. It is demonstrated that using selected subsets of the initial and transformed DSFs improves damage detectability compared to the full set of features. Furthermore, superior results can be achieved by projecting autocorrelation coefficients onto just a single optimised projection vector.

  17. Value-based decision making via sequential sampling with hierarchical competition and attentional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Jaron T

    2017-01-01

    In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems. Connectionist models are proposed herein at an intermediate level of analysis that bridges mental phenomena and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Several such models drawing elements from the established race, drift-diffusion, feedforward-inhibition, divisive-normalization, and competing-accumulator models were tested with respect to fitting empirical data from human participants making choices between foods on the basis of hedonic value rather than a traditional perceptual attribute. Even when considering performance at emulating behavior alone, more neurally plausible models were set apart from more normative race or drift-diffusion models both quantitatively and qualitatively despite remaining parsimonious. To best capture the paradigm, a novel six-parameter computational model was formulated with features including hierarchical levels of competition via mutual inhibition as well as a static approximation of attentional modulation, which promotes "winner-take-all" processing. Moreover, a meta-analysis encompassing several related experiments validated the robustness of model-predicted trends in humans' value-based choices and concomitant reaction times. These findings have yet further implications for analysis of neurophysiological data in accordance with computational modeling, which is also discussed in this new light.

  18. Value-based decision making via sequential sampling with hierarchical competition and attentional modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaron T Colas

    Full Text Available In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems. Connectionist models are proposed herein at an intermediate level of analysis that bridges mental phenomena and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Several such models drawing elements from the established race, drift-diffusion, feedforward-inhibition, divisive-normalization, and competing-accumulator models were tested with respect to fitting empirical data from human participants making choices between foods on the basis of hedonic value rather than a traditional perceptual attribute. Even when considering performance at emulating behavior alone, more neurally plausible models were set apart from more normative race or drift-diffusion models both quantitatively and qualitatively despite remaining parsimonious. To best capture the paradigm, a novel six-parameter computational model was formulated with features including hierarchical levels of competition via mutual inhibition as well as a static approximation of attentional modulation, which promotes "winner-take-all" processing. Moreover, a meta-analysis encompassing several related experiments validated the robustness of model-predicted trends in humans' value-based choices and concomitant reaction times. These findings have yet further implications for analysis of neurophysiological data in accordance with computational modeling, which is also discussed in this new light.

  19. Value-based decision making via sequential sampling with hierarchical competition and attentional modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems. Connectionist models are proposed herein at an intermediate level of analysis that bridges mental phenomena and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Several such models drawing elements from the established race, drift-diffusion, feedforward-inhibition, divisive-normalization, and competing-accumulator models were tested with respect to fitting empirical data from human participants making choices between foods on the basis of hedonic value rather than a traditional perceptual attribute. Even when considering performance at emulating behavior alone, more neurally plausible models were set apart from more normative race or drift-diffusion models both quantitatively and qualitatively despite remaining parsimonious. To best capture the paradigm, a novel six-parameter computational model was formulated with features including hierarchical levels of competition via mutual inhibition as well as a static approximation of attentional modulation, which promotes “winner-take-all” processing. Moreover, a meta-analysis encompassing several related experiments validated the robustness of model-predicted trends in humans’ value-based choices and concomitant reaction times. These findings have yet further implications for analysis of neurophysiological data in accordance with computational modeling, which is also discussed in this new light. PMID:29077746

  20. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  1. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaole, E-mail: zhangxiaole10@outlook.com [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  2. Teaching Improvisation through Melody and Blues-Based Harmony: A Comprehensive and Sequential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Leila

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a sequential approach to improvisation teaching that can be used with students at various age and ability levels by any educator, regardless of improvisation experience. The 2014 National Core Music Standards include improvisation as a central component in musical learning and promote instructional approaches that are…

  3. epSICAR: An Emerging Patterns based Approach to Sequential, Interleaved and Concurrent Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing human activity from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing. Human activity recognition is particularly challenging because activities are often performed in not only simple (i.e., sequential), but also complex (i.e., interleaved...

  4. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  5. Triblock and pentablock terpolymers by sequential base-assisted living cationic copolymerization of functionalized vinyl ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchekif, Hassen; Sulhami, A. I.; AlGhamdi, Rayed D.; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel, well-defined triblock (PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE) and pentablock (PSiDEGVE-b-PCEVE-b-PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE) terpolymers of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiEGVE) were synthesized by sequential base-assisted living cationic polymerization. The living character of the homopolymerization of the three VE monomers and the crossover reaction resulting in the formation of well-defined block copolymers were investigated in various solvents (toluene, dichloromethane and n-hexane) using either a monofunctional [nBVE-acetic acid adduct (nBEA), CEVE-acetic acid adduct (CEEA) and SiDEGVE-acetic acid adduct (SiDEGEA)] or a difunctional [1,4-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl bis(2-methoxyethyl acetate) (cHDMEA)] initiator. All initiators are structurally equivalent to the dormant species of the corresponding monomers in order to achieve fast initiation. The optimal conditions of polymerization were achieved in n-hexane at -20 °C, in the presence of 1 M AcOEt (base). Good control over the number average molecular weight (Mn) and the polydispersity index (PDI) was obtained only at [Et3Al2Cl3]0 = [Chain-end]0 ≤ 10 mM. 2,6-Di-tert-butylpyridine (DtBP) was used as a non-nucleophilic proton trap to suppress any protonic initiation from moisture (i.e., Et3Al2Cl3·H2O). Well-defined PnBVEn-b-PCEVEp-b-PSiDEGVEq and PSiDEGVEq-b-PCEVEp-b-PnBVEn-b-PCEVEp-b-PSiDEGVEq terpolymers with a high crossover efficiency, no PCEVE-induced physical gelation, and predictable Mn and PDI < 1.15 were synthesized successfully provided that the targeted DPCEVE/DPnBVE ratio (i.e., p/n) did not exceed 2 and 0.2, respectively. The quantitative desilylation of the PSiEGVE by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to triblock and pentablock terpolymers in which the PCEVE is the central block and the polyalcohol is the outer block. The thermal properties of the synthesized materials were examined by differential scanning

  6. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xu, Kuoxi, E-mail: xukx@henu.edu.cn [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L{sup −1}, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  7. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun; Xu, Kuoxi

    2017-01-01

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L −1 , pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  8. Simulation based sequential Monte Carlo methods for discretely observed Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Parameter estimation for discretely observed Markov processes is a challenging problem. However, simulation of Markov processes is straightforward using the Gillespie algorithm. We exploit this ease of simulation to develop an effective sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm for obtaining samples from the posterior distribution of the parameters. In particular, we introduce two key innovations, coupled simulations, which allow us to study multiple parameter values on the basis of a single sim...

  9. PC_Eyewitness and the sequential superiority effect: computer-based lineup administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLin, Otto H; Zimmerman, Laura A; Malpass, Roy S

    2005-06-01

    Computer technology has become an increasingly important tool for conducting eyewitness identifications. In the area of lineup identifications, computerized administration offers several advantages for researchers and law enforcement. PC_Eyewitness is designed specifically to administer lineups. To assess this new lineup technology, two studies were conducted in order to replicate the results of previous studies comparing simultaneous and sequential lineups. One hundred twenty university students participated in each experiment. Experiment 1 used traditional paper-and-pencil lineup administration methods to compare simultaneous to sequential lineups. Experiment 2 used PC_Eyewitness to administer simultaneous and sequential lineups. The results of these studies were compared to the meta-analytic results reported by N. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001). No differences were found between paper-and-pencil and PC_Eyewitness lineup administration methods. The core findings of the N. Steblay et al. (2001) meta-analysis were replicated by both administration procedures. These results show that computerized lineup administration using PC_Eyewitness is an effective means for gathering eyewitness identification data.

  10. Timed sequential chemotherapy of cytoxan-refractory multiple myeloma with cytoxan and adriamycin based on induced tumor proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J E; Humphrey, R L; Burke, P J

    1981-03-01

    Malignant plasma cell proliferation and induced humoral stimulatory activity (HSA) occur in vivo at a predictable time following drug administration. Sequential sera from 11 patients with poor-risk multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing treatment with Cytoxan (CY) 2400 mq/sq m were assayed for their in vitro effects on malignant bone marrow plasma cell tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) incorporation. Peak HSA was detected day 9 following CY. Sequential changes in marrow malignant plasma cell 3HTdR-labeling indices (LI) paralleled changes in serum activity, with peak LI occurring at the time of peak HS. An in vitro model of chemotherapy demonstrated that malignant plasma cell proliferation was enhanced by HSA, as determined by 3HTdR incorporation assay, 3HTdR LI, and tumor cells counts, and that stimulated plasma cells were more sensitive to cytotoxic effects of adriamycin (ADR) than were cells cultured in autologous pretreatment serum. Based on these studies, we designed a clinical trial to treat 12 CY-refractory poor-risk patients with MM in which ADR (60 mg/sq m) was administered at the time of peak HSA and residual tumor cell LI (day 9) following initial CY, 2400 mg/m (CY1ADR9). Eight of 12 (67%) responded to timed sequential chemotherapy with a greater than 50% decrement in monoclonal protein marker and a median survival projected to be greater than 8 mo duration (range 4-21+ mo). These clinical results using timed sequential CY1ADR9 compare favorably with results obtained using ADR in nonsequential chemotherapeutic regimens.

  11. A comparison of sequential and information-based methods for determining the co-integration rank in heteroskedastic VAR MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Angelis, Luca De; Rahbek, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the behaviour of a number of methods for estimating the co-integration rank in VAR systems characterized by heteroskedastic innovation processes. In particular, we compare the efficacy of the most widely used information criteria, such as Akaike Information Criterion....... The relative finite-sample properties of the different methods are investigated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. For the simulation DGPs considered in the analysis, we find that the BIC-based procedure and the bootstrap sequential test procedure deliver the best overall performance in terms......-based method to over-estimate the co-integration rank in relatively small sample sizes....

  12. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  13. Investigation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Sequential Microplate-Based Respiration Measurements from Intact and Permeabilized Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria. PMID:22496810

  14. A soft sensor for bioprocess control based on sequential filtering of metabolic heat signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Dan; Gustavsson, Robert; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2014-09-26

    Soft sensors are the combination of robust on-line sensor signals with mathematical models for deriving additional process information. Here, we apply this principle to a microbial recombinant protein production process in a bioreactor by exploiting bio-calorimetric methodology. Temperature sensor signals from the cooling system of the bioreactor were used for estimating the metabolic heat of the microbial culture and from that the specific growth rate and active biomass concentration were derived. By applying sequential digital signal filtering, the soft sensor was made more robust for industrial practice with cultures generating low metabolic heat in environments with high noise level. The estimated specific growth rate signal obtained from the three stage sequential filter allowed controlled feeding of substrate during the fed-batch phase of the production process. The biomass and growth rate estimates from the soft sensor were also compared with an alternative sensor probe and a capacitance on-line sensor, for the same variables. The comparison showed similar or better sensitivity and lower variability for the metabolic heat soft sensor suggesting that using permanent temperature sensors of a bioreactor is a realistic and inexpensive alternative for monitoring and control. However, both alternatives are easy to implement in a soft sensor, alone or in parallel.

  15. A Soft Sensor for Bioprocess Control Based on Sequential Filtering of Metabolic Heat Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Paulsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft sensors are the combination of robust on-line sensor signals with mathematical models for deriving additional process information. Here, we apply this principle to a microbial recombinant protein production process in a bioreactor by exploiting bio-calorimetric methodology. Temperature sensor signals from the cooling system of the bioreactor were used for estimating the metabolic heat of the microbial culture and from that the specific growth rate and active biomass concentration were derived. By applying sequential digital signal filtering, the soft sensor was made more robust for industrial practice with cultures generating low metabolic heat in environments with high noise level. The estimated specific growth rate signal obtained from the three stage sequential filter allowed controlled feeding of substrate during the fed-batch phase of the production process. The biomass and growth rate estimates from the soft sensor were also compared with an alternative sensor probe and a capacitance on-line sensor, for the same variables. The comparison showed similar or better sensitivity and lower variability for the metabolic heat soft sensor suggesting that using permanent temperature sensors of a bioreactor is a realistic and inexpensive alternative for monitoring and control. However, both alternatives are easy to implement in a soft sensor, alone or in parallel.

  16. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  17. Online sequential condition prediction method of natural circulation systems based on EOS-ELM and phase space reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanying; Gao, Puzhen; Tan, Sichao; Tang, Jiguo; Yuan, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An online condition prediction method for natural circulation systems in NPP was proposed based on EOS-ELM. •The proposed online prediction method was validated using experimental data. •The training speed of the proposed method is significantly fast. •The proposed method can achieve good accuracy in wide parameter range. -- Abstract: Natural circulation design is widely used in the passive safety systems of advanced nuclear power reactors. The irregular and chaotic flow oscillations are often observed in boiling natural circulation systems so it is difficult for operators to monitor and predict the condition of these systems. An online condition forecasting method for natural circulation system is proposed in this study as an assisting technique for plant operators. The proposed prediction approach was developed based on Ensemble of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (EOS-ELM) and phase space reconstruction. Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is an online sequential learning neural network algorithm and EOS-ELM is the ensemble method of it. The proposed condition prediction method can be initiated by a small chunk of monitoring data and it can be updated by newly arrived data at very fast speed during the online prediction. Simulation experiments were conducted on the data of two natural circulation loops to validate the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed predication model can successfully recognize different types of flow oscillations and accurately forecast the trend of monitored plant variables. The influence of the number of hidden nodes and neural network inputs on prediction performance was studied and the proposed model can achieve good accuracy in a wide parameter range. Moreover, the comparison results show that the proposed condition prediction method has much faster online learning speed and better prediction accuracy than conventional neural network model.

  18. Pure perceptual-based learning of second-, third-, and fourth-order sequential probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    There is evidence that sequence learning in the traditional serial reaction time task (SRTT), where target location is the response dimension, and sequence learning in the perceptual SRTT, where target location is not the response dimension, are handled by different mechanisms. The ability of the latter mechanism to learn sequential contingencies that can be learned by the former mechanism was examined. Prior research has established that people can learn second-, third-, and fourth-order probabilities in the traditional SRTT. The present study reveals that people can learn such probabilities in the perceptual SRTT. This suggests that the two mechanisms may have similar architectures. A possible neural basis of the two mechanisms is discussed.

  19. A quasi-sequential parameter estimation for nonlinear dynamic systems based on multiple data profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chao; Vu, Quoc Dong; Li, Pu

    2013-01-01

    A three-stage computation framework for solving parameter estimation problems for dynamic systems with multiple data profiles is developed. The dynamic parameter estimation problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem by using collocation on finite elements. The model parameters to be estimated are treated in the upper stage by solving an NLP problem. The middle stage consists of multiple NLP problems nested in the upper stage, representing the data reconciliation step for each data profile. We use the quasi-sequential dynamic optimization approach to solve these problems. In the lower stage, the state variables and their gradients are evaluated through ntegrating the model equations. Since the second-order derivatives are not required in the computation framework this proposed method will be efficient for solving nonlinear dynamic parameter estimation problems. The computational results obtained on a parameter estimation problem for two CSTR models demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach

  20. A quasi-sequential parameter estimation for nonlinear dynamic systems based on multiple data profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chao [FuZhou University, FuZhou (China); Vu, Quoc Dong; Li, Pu [Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    A three-stage computation framework for solving parameter estimation problems for dynamic systems with multiple data profiles is developed. The dynamic parameter estimation problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem by using collocation on finite elements. The model parameters to be estimated are treated in the upper stage by solving an NLP problem. The middle stage consists of multiple NLP problems nested in the upper stage, representing the data reconciliation step for each data profile. We use the quasi-sequential dynamic optimization approach to solve these problems. In the lower stage, the state variables and their gradients are evaluated through ntegrating the model equations. Since the second-order derivatives are not required in the computation framework this proposed method will be efficient for solving nonlinear dynamic parameter estimation problems. The computational results obtained on a parameter estimation problem for two CSTR models demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  2. Tibetan Microblog Emotional Analysis Based on Sequential Model in Online Social Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microblogs, selling and buying appear in online social platforms such as Sina Weibo and Wechat. Besides Mandarin, Tibetan language is also used to describe products and customers’ opinions. In this paper, we are interested in analyzing the emotions of Tibetan microblogs, which are helpful to understand opinions and product reviews for Tibetan customers. It is challenging since existing studies paid little attention to Tibetan language. Our key idea is to express Tibetan microblogs as vectors and then classify them. To express microblogs more fully, we select two kinds of features, which are sequential features and semantic features. In addition, our experimental results on the Sina Weibo dataset clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of feature selection and the efficiency of our classification method.

  3. Forecasting of flowrate under rolling motion flow instability condition based on on-line sequential extreme learning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanying; Gao Puzhen; Tan Sichao; Tang Jiguo; Hou Xiaofan; Xu Huiqiang; Wu Xiangcheng

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of multiple thermal-hydraulic parameters can result in complex flow instability in natural circulation system under rolling motion. A real-time thermal-hydraulic condition prediction is helpful to the operation of systems in such condition. A single hidden layer feedforward neural networks algorithm named extreme learning machine (ELM) is considered as suitable method for this application because of its extremely fast training time, good accuracy and simplicity. However, traditional ELM assumes that all the training data are ready before the training process, while the training data is received sequentially in practical forecasting of flowrate. Therefore, this paper proposes a forecasting method for flowrate under rolling motion based on on-line sequential ELM (OS-ELM), which can learn the data one by one or chunk-by-chunk. The experiment results show that the OS-ELM method can achieve a better forecasting performance than basic ELM method and still keep the advantage of fast training and simplicity. (author)

  4. Optimization strategies based on sequential quadratic programming applied for a fermentation process for butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Mariano, Adriano; Bastos Borba Costa, Caliane; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Pires Atala, Daniel Ibraim; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the mathematical optimization of a continuous flash fermentation process for the production of biobutanol was studied. The process consists of three interconnected units, as follows: fermentor, cell-retention system (tangential microfiltration), and vacuum flash vessel (responsible for the continuous recovery of butanol from the broth). The objective of the optimization was to maximize butanol productivity for a desired substrate conversion. Two strategies were compared for the optimization of the process. In one of them, the process was represented by a deterministic model with kinetic parameters determined experimentally and, in the other, by a statistical model obtained using the factorial design technique combined with simulation. For both strategies, the problem was written as a nonlinear programming problem and was solved with the sequential quadratic programming technique. The results showed that despite the very similar solutions obtained with both strategies, the problems found with the strategy using the deterministic model, such as lack of convergence and high computational time, make the use of the optimization strategy with the statistical model, which showed to be robust and fast, more suitable for the flash fermentation process, being recommended for real-time applications coupling optimization and control.

  5. A Sequential, Implicit, Wavelet-Based Solver for Multi-Scale Time-Dependent Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. McLaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and tests a wavelet-based implicit numerical method for solving partial differential equations. Intended for problems with localized small-scale interactions, the method exploits the form of the wavelet decomposition to divide the implicit system created by the time-discretization into multiple smaller systems that can be solved sequentially. Included is a test on a basic non-linear problem, with both the results of the test, and the time required to calculate them, compared with control results based on a single system with fine resolution. The method is then tested on a non-trivial problem, its computational time and accuracy checked against control results. In both tests, it was found that the method requires less computational expense than the control. Furthermore, the method showed convergence towards the fine resolution control results.

  6. Design of LabVIEW®-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729

  7. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  8. Thermal Care of Functional Dyspepsia Based on Bicarbonate-Sulphate-Calcium Water: A Sequential Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rocca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia is often unsatisfactory. We assessed the efficacy of a bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium thermal water cycle of 12 days, in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients with functional dyspepsia were sent by their general practitioners to 12 days of treatment with thermal water, 200–400 ml in the morning, at temperature of 33°C (91.4 F and were evaluated on a strict intention to treat basis. Four efficacy endpoints were analyzed as follows: (i reduction of the global symptoms score, (ii reduction of intensity to a level not interfering with everyday activities, (iii specific efficacy on ulcer-like or dysmotility-like dyspepsia and (iv esophageal or abdominal-associated symptoms. Statistical significance was reached for all three primary outcomes after the first 29 consecutive patients. Thermal water reduced the global symptom score, reduced intensity of symptoms to a level not interfering with everyday activity, but was unable to completely suppress all symptoms. A parallel effect emerged for ulcer-like and dyspepsia-like subgroups. The effect on heartburn and abdominal symptoms was not significant, suggesting a specific effect of the water on the gastric and duodenal wall. The Roma II criteria identify a natural kind of dyspepsia that improves with thermal water. Ulcer-like and dysmotility-like are not therapeutically distinguishable subgroups. Patients with dominant esophageal or abdominal symptoms should receive a different therapy. Sequential methods are very effective for the evaluation of traditional care practices and should be considered preliminary and integrative to randomized controlled trials in this context.

  9. Patients with schizophrenia do not preserve automatic grouping when mentally re-grouping figures: shedding light on an ignored difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eGiersch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Looking at a pair of objects is easy when automatic grouping mechanisms bind these objects together, but visual exploration can also be more flexible. It is possible to mentally ‘re-group’ two objects that are not only separate but belong to different pairs of objects. ‘Re-grouping’ is in conflict with automatic grouping, since it entails a separation of each item from the set it belongs to. This ability appears to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Here we check if this impairment is selective, which would suggest a dissociation between grouping and ‘re-grouping’, or if it impacts on usual, automatic grouping, which would call for a better understanding of the interactions between automatic grouping and ‘re-grouping’. Sixteen outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls had to identify two identical and contiguous target figures within a display of circles and squares alternating around a fixation point. Eye-tracking was used to check central fixation. The target pair could be located in the same or separate hemifields. Identical figures were grouped by a connector (grouped automatically or not (to be re-grouped. Attention modulation of automatic grouping was tested by manipulating the proportion of connected and unconnected targets, thus prompting subjects to focalize on either connected or unconnected pairs. Both groups were sensitive to automatic grouping in most conditions, but patients were unusually slowed down for connected targets while focalizing on unconnected pairs. In addition, this unusual effect occurred only when target were presented within the same hemifield. Patients and controls differed on this asymmetry between within- and across-hemifield presentation, suggesting that patients with schizophrenia do not re-group figures in the same way as controls do. We discuss possible implications on how ‘re-grouping’ ties in with ongoing, automatic perception in healthy volunteers.

  10. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  11. Framework for sequential approximate optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python

  12. Sequential and base rate analysis of emotional validation and invalidation in chronic pain couples: patient gender matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Laura E M; Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which communication patterns that foster or hinder intimacy and emotion regulation in couples were related to pain, marital satisfaction, and depression in 78 chronic pain couples attempting to problem-solve an area of disagreement in their marriage. Sequences and base rates of validation and invalidation communication patterns were almost uniformly unrelated to adjustment variables unless patient gender was taken into account. Male patient couples' reciprocal invalidation was related to worse pain, but this was not found in female patient couples. In addition, spouses' validation was related to poorer patient pain and marital satisfaction, but only in couples with a male patient. It was not only the presence or absence of invalidation and validation that mattered (base rates), but the context and timing of these events (sequences) that affected patients' adjustment. This research demonstrates that sequences of interaction behaviors that foster and hinder emotion regulation should be attended to when assessing and treating pain patients and their spouses. This article presents analyses of both sequences and base rates of chronic pain couples' communication patterns, focusing on validation and invalidation. These results may potentially improve psychosocial treatments for these couples, by addressing sequential interactions of intimacy and empathy. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  14. System identification via sparse multiple kernel-based regularization using sequential convex optimization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Ljung, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Model estimation and structure detection with short data records are two issues that receive increasing interests in System Identification. In this paper, a multiple kernel-based regularization method is proposed to handle those issues. Multiple kernels are conic combinations of fixed kernels...

  15. Adaptive list sequential sampling method for population-based observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2014-01-01

    In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired

  16. Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye-Tracking Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia; Chang, Shao-Chen; Liu, Nan-Cen

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking machine to record the process of peer assessment. Each web page was divided into several regions of interest (ROIs) based on the frame design and content. A total of 49 undergraduate students with a visual learning style participated in the experiment. This study investigated the peer assessment attitudes of the…

  17. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....

  18. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  20. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km 2 . In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  1. Sequential Monte Carlo filter for state estimation of LiFePO4 batteries based on an online updated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahao; Klee Barillas, Joaquin; Guenther, Clemens; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    Battery state monitoring is one of the key techniques in battery management systems e.g. in electric vehicles. An accurate estimation can help to improve the system performance and to prolong the battery remaining useful life. Main challenges for the state estimation for LiFePO4 batteries are the flat characteristic of open-circuit-voltage over battery state of charge (SOC) and the existence of hysteresis phenomena. Classical estimation approaches like Kalman filtering show limitations to handle nonlinear and non-Gaussian error distribution problems. In addition, uncertainties in the battery model parameters must be taken into account to describe the battery degradation. In this paper, a novel model-based method combining a Sequential Monte Carlo filter with adaptive control to determine the cell SOC and its electric impedance is presented. The applicability of this dual estimator is verified using measurement data acquired from a commercial LiFePO4 cell. Due to a better handling of the hysteresis problem, results show the benefits of the proposed method against the estimation with an Extended Kalman filter.

  2. Development and Application of a Stepwise Assessment Process for Rational Redesign of Sequential Skills-Based Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Casey E; Porter, Andrea L; Barnett, Susanne G

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To develop and apply a stepwise process to assess achievement of course learning objectives related to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) preparedness and inform redesign of sequential skills-based courses. Design. Four steps comprised the assessment and redesign process: (1) identify skills critical for APPE preparedness; (2) utilize focus groups and course evaluations to determine student competence in skill performance; (3) apply course mapping to identify course deficits contributing to suboptimal skill performance; and (4) initiate course redesign to target exposed deficits. Assessment. Focus group participants perceived students were least prepared for skills within the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's pre-APPE core domains of Identification and Assessment of Drug-related Problems and General Communication Abilities. Course mapping identified gaps in instruction, performance, and assessment of skills within aforementioned domains. Conclusions. A stepwise process that identified strengths and weaknesses of a course, was used to facilitate structured course redesign. Strengths of the process included input and corroboration from both preceptors and students. Limitations included feedback from a small number of pharmacy preceptors and increased workload on course coordinators.

  3. Topology optimization of induction heating model using sequential linear programming based on move limit with adaptive relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Kanda, Yutaro; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Hirono, Kazuki; Hoshino, Reona; Wakao, Shinji; Tsuburaya, Tomonori

    2017-12-01

    It is very important to design electrical machineries with high efficiency from the point of view of saving energy. Therefore, topology optimization (TO) is occasionally used as a design method for improving the performance of electrical machinery under the reasonable constraints. Because TO can achieve a design with much higher degree of freedom in terms of structure, there is a possibility for deriving the novel structure which would be quite different from the conventional structure. In this paper, topology optimization using sequential linear programming using move limit based on adaptive relaxation is applied to two models. The magnetic shielding, in which there are many local minima, is firstly employed as firstly benchmarking for the performance evaluation among several mathematical programming methods. Secondly, induction heating model is defined in 2-D axisymmetric field. In this model, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetic body is maximized under the constraint on the volume of magnetic body. Furthermore, the influence of the location of the design domain on the solutions is investigated.

  4. CHIRP-Like Signals: Estimation, Detection and Processing A Sequential Model-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Chirp signals have evolved primarily from radar/sonar signal processing applications specifically attempting to estimate the location of a target in surveillance/tracking volume. The chirp, which is essentially a sinusoidal signal whose phase changes instantaneously at each time sample, has an interesting property in that its correlation approximates an impulse function. It is well-known that a matched-filter detector in radar/sonar estimates the target range by cross-correlating a replicant of the transmitted chirp with the measurement data reflected from the target back to the radar/sonar receiver yielding a maximum peak corresponding to the echo time and therefore enabling the desired range estimate. In this application, we perform the same operation as a radar or sonar system, that is, we transmit a “chirp-like pulse” into the target medium and attempt to first detect its presence and second estimate its location or range. Our problem is complicated by the presence of disturbance signals from surrounding broadcast stations as well as extraneous sources of interference in our frequency bands and of course the ever present random noise from instrumentation. First, we discuss the chirp signal itself and illustrate its inherent properties and then develop a model-based processing scheme enabling both the detection and estimation of the signal from noisy measurement data.

  5. Sequential game-theoretical analysis of safeguards systems based on the principle of material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, V.; Avenhaus, R.

    1981-01-01

    The international control of fissile material used in nuclear technology is based on the principle of material accountability, i. e. on the difference between book inventory and physical inventory of a plant at the end of an inventory period. Since statistical measurement errors cannot be avoided, this comparison calls for methods of statistical hypotheses testing. Moreover, game-theoretical methods are needed as an analytical tool, since if the plant operator wilfully diverts material he will do so in an optimal manner. In this article, the optimal test strategy is determined for the case of two inventory periods. Two assumptions are made: The operation of the plant is stopped after the first inventory period if the test indicates wilful diversion, and the plant operator chooses the probability of wilfully diverting material for both inventory periods before the start of the first period. The assertions which depend on the payoff parameters and the substitutes which must be given in the case that the payoff parameters cannot be estimated are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682

  7. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...

  8. A study on computer-aided diagnosis based on temporal subtraction of sequential chest radiographs (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Akiko

    2001-01-01

    An automated digital image subtraction technique for use with pairs of temporally sequential chest radiographs has been developed to aid radiologists in the detection of interval changes. Automated image registration based on nonlinear geometric warping is performed prior to subtraction in order to deal with complicated radiographic misregistration. Processing includes global matching, to achieve rough registration between the entire lung fields in the two images, and local matching, based on a cross-correlation method, to determine local shift values for a number of small regions. A proper warping of x,y-coordinates is determined by fitting two-dimensional polynomials to the distributions of the shift values. One image is warped and then subtracted from the other. The resultant subtraction images were able to enhance the conspicuity of various types of interval changes. Improved global matching based on a weighted template matching method achieved robust registration even with photofluorographs taken in chest mass screening programs, which had previously presented us with a relatively large number of poor-registration images. The new method was applied to 129 pairs of chest mass screening images, and offered registration accuracy as good as manual global matching. An observer test using 114 cases including 57 lung cancer cases presented better sensitivity and specificity on average compared to conventional comparison readings. In addition, newly developed image processing that eliminates the rib edge artifacts in subtraction images was applied to 26 images having pathological interval changes; results showed the potential for application to automated schemes for the detection of interval change patterns. With its capacity to improve the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiographs, the chest temporal subtraction technique promises to become an important element of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems

  9. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-08-02

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)═O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine and epinephrine are the most efficient food components reducing ferrylmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O 2 , and metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), as revealed by multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares with second order rate constants of 33.6 ± 2.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 19 ± 5 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of -136 ± 18 J/mol K) and 228.9 ± 13.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 110 ± 7 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of 131 ± 25 J/mol K), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The other tyrosine based food components were found to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin with similar reduction rates at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. These reduction reactions were enhanced by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH ⧧ and ΔS ⧧ ), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found to be able to reduce ferrylmyoglobin with a second order rate constant of 66 ± 28 L/mol/s as determined by a competitive kinetic method.

  10. Mixing modes in a population-based interview survey: comparison of a sequential and a concurrent mixed-mode design for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Population-based surveys currently face the problem of decreasing response rates. Mixed-mode designs are now being implemented more often to account for this, to improve sample composition and to reduce overall costs. This study examines whether a concurrent or sequential mixed-mode design achieves better results on a number of indicators of survey quality. Data were obtained from a population-based health interview survey of adults in Germany that was conducted as a methodological pilot study as part of the German Health Update (GEDA). Participants were randomly allocated to one of two surveys; each of the surveys had a different design. In the concurrent mixed-mode design ( n  = 617) two types of self-administered questionnaires (SAQ-Web and SAQ-Paper) and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were offered simultaneously to the respondents along with the invitation to participate. In the sequential mixed-mode design ( n  = 561), SAQ-Web was initially provided, followed by SAQ-Paper, with an option for a telephone interview being sent out together with the reminders at a later date. Finally, this study compared the response rates, sample composition, health indicators, item non-response, the scope of fieldwork and the costs of both designs. No systematic differences were identified between the two mixed-mode designs in terms of response rates, the socio-demographic characteristics of the achieved samples, or the prevalence rates of the health indicators under study. The sequential design gained a higher rate of online respondents. Very few telephone interviews were conducted for either design. With regard to data quality, the sequential design (which had more online respondents) showed less item non-response. There were minor differences between the designs in terms of their costs. Postage and printing costs were lower in the concurrent design, but labour costs were lower in the sequential design. No differences in health indicators were found between

  11. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pappalardo

    Full Text Available The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R, a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and

  12. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Matteo; Shachaf, Nir; Basile, Livia; Milardi, Danilo; Zeidan, Mouhammed; Raiyn, Jamal; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE) and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and increase the

  13. Attention Is Required for Knowledge-Based Sequential Grouping: Insights from the Integration of Syllables into Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Pan, Xunyi; Luo, Cheng; Su, Naifei; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-01-31

    How the brain groups sequential sensory events into chunks is a fundamental question in cognitive neuroscience. This study investigates whether top-down attention or specific tasks are required for the brain to apply lexical knowledge to group syllables into words. Neural responses tracking the syllabic and word rhythms of a rhythmic speech sequence were concurrently monitored using electroencephalography (EEG). The participants performed different tasks, attending to either the rhythmic speech sequence or a distractor, which was another speech stream or a nonlinguistic auditory/visual stimulus. Attention to speech, but not a lexical-meaning-related task, was required for reliable neural tracking of words, even when the distractor was a nonlinguistic stimulus presented cross-modally. Neural tracking of syllables, however, was reliably observed in all tested conditions. These results strongly suggest that neural encoding of individual auditory events (i.e., syllables) is automatic, while knowledge-based construction of temporal chunks (i.e., words) crucially relies on top-down attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Why we cannot understand speech when not paying attention is an old question in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Speech processing is a complex process that involves multiple stages, e.g., hearing and analyzing the speech sound, recognizing words, and combining words into phrases and sentences. The current study investigates which speech-processing stage is blocked when we do not listen carefully. We show that the brain can reliably encode syllables, basic units of speech sounds, even when we do not pay attention. Nevertheless, when distracted, the brain cannot group syllables into multisyllabic words, which are basic units for speech meaning. Therefore, the process of converting speech sound into meaning crucially relies on attention. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/381178-11$15.00/0.

  14. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  15. Volume-based predictive biomarkers of sequential FDG-PET/CT for sunitinib in cancer of unknown primary: identification of the best benefited patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yifei [Second Military Medical University, Department of Orthorpedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Second Military Medical University, Department of Pathology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Xu, Wei; Xiao, Jianru [Second Military Medical University, Department of Orthorpedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Bai, Ruojing [Geriatrics Institute, Department of Geriatrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Laboratory of Neuro-Trauma and Neurodegenerative Disorder, Tianjin (China); Li, Yiming [Neurosurgery Institute, Department of Neuro-oncology, Beijing (China); Yu, Hongyu [Second Military Medical University, Department of Pathology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yang, Chunshan [Panorama Medical Imaging Center, Department of PET/CT Radiology, Shanghai (China); Department of PET/CT Radiology Center, Shanghai (China); Shi, Huazheng; Zhang, Jian [Department of PET/CT Radiology Center, Shanghai (China); Li, Jidong [The First People' s Hospital of Shangqiu, Department of Stomatology, Shangqiu, Henan Province (China); Wang, Chenguang [Second Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2017-02-15

    To test the performance of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in predicting survival after sunitinib therapies in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). CUP patients were enrolled for sequential PET/CT scanning for sunitinib and a control group. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to test the efficacy of sunitinib therapy in CUP patients. Next, sequential analyses involving PET/CT parameters were performed to identify and validate sensitive PET/CT biomarkers for sunitinib therapy. Finally, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (TDROC) analyses were performed to compare the predictive accuracy. Multivariate analysis proved that sunitinib group had significantly improved survival (p < 0.01) as compared to control group. After cycle 2 of therapy, multivariate analysis identified volume-based PET/CT parameters as sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib (p < 0.01). TDROC curves demonstrated whole-body total lesion glycolysis reduction (Δ WTLG) and follow-up WTLG to have good accuracy for efficacy prediction. This evidence was validated after cycle 4 of therapy with the same method. Sunitinib therapy proved effective in treatment of CUP. PET/CT volume-based parameters may help predict outcome of sunitinib therapy, in which Δ WTLG and follow-up WTLG seem to be sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib efficacy. Patients with greater reduction and lower WTLG at follow-up seem to have better survival outcome. (orig.)

  16. Volume-based predictive biomarkers of sequential FDG-PET/CT for sunitinib in cancer of unknown primary: identification of the best benefited patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yifei; Xu, Wei; Xiao, Jianru; Bai, Ruojing; Li, Yiming; Yu, Hongyu; Yang, Chunshan; Shi, Huazheng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jidong; Wang, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    To test the performance of sequential "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in predicting survival after sunitinib therapies in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). CUP patients were enrolled for sequential PET/CT scanning for sunitinib and a control group. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to test the efficacy of sunitinib therapy in CUP patients. Next, sequential analyses involving PET/CT parameters were performed to identify and validate sensitive PET/CT biomarkers for sunitinib therapy. Finally, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (TDROC) analyses were performed to compare the predictive accuracy. Multivariate analysis proved that sunitinib group had significantly improved survival (p < 0.01) as compared to control group. After cycle 2 of therapy, multivariate analysis identified volume-based PET/CT parameters as sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib (p < 0.01). TDROC curves demonstrated whole-body total lesion glycolysis reduction (Δ WTLG) and follow-up WTLG to have good accuracy for efficacy prediction. This evidence was validated after cycle 4 of therapy with the same method. Sunitinib therapy proved effective in treatment of CUP. PET/CT volume-based parameters may help predict outcome of sunitinib therapy, in which Δ WTLG and follow-up WTLG seem to be sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib efficacy. Patients with greater reduction and lower WTLG at follow-up seem to have better survival outcome. (orig.)

  17. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  18. Efficient constraint-based Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM algorithm to understand customers’ buying behaviour from time stamp-based sequence dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Ashish Kumar Desai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategies are formulated based on an understanding of customer needs. This requires development of a strategy to understand customer behaviour and buying patterns, both current and future. This involves understanding, first how an organization currently understands customer needs and second predicting future trends to drive growth. This article focuses on purchase trend of customer, where timing of purchase is more important than association of item to be purchased, and which can be found out with Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM methods. Conventional SPM algorithms worked purely on frequency identifying patterns that were more frequent but suffering from challenges like generation of huge number of uninteresting patterns, lack of user’s interested patterns, rare item problem, etc. Article attempts a solution through development of a SPM algorithm based on various constraints like Gap, Compactness, Item, Recency, Profitability and Length along with Frequency constraint. Incorporation of six additional constraints is as well to ensure that all patterns are recently active (Recency, active for certain time span (Compactness, profitable and indicative of next timeline for purchase (Length―Item―Gap. The article also attempts to throw light on how proposed Constraint-based Prefix Span algorithm is helpful to understand buying behaviour of customer which is in formative stage.

  19. Effects of a web-based tailored multiple-lifestyle intervention for adults: a two-year randomized controlled trial comparing sequential and simultaneous delivery modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; Vandelanotte, Corneel; van Adrichem, Mathieu J G; Schneider, Francine; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Hein

    2014-01-27

    Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can have a significant public health impact. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption. The objective of this paper was to test the effects of a sequential and simultaneous Web-based tailored intervention on multiple lifestyle behaviors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 3 tailoring conditions (ie, sequential, simultaneous, and control conditions) in the Netherlands in 2009-2012. Follow-up measurements took place after 12 and 24 months. The intervention content was based on the I-Change model. In a health risk appraisal, all respondents (N=5055) received feedback on their lifestyle behaviors that indicated whether they complied with the Dutch guidelines for physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking. Participants in the sequential (n=1736) and simultaneous (n=1638) conditions received tailored motivational feedback to change unhealthy behaviors one at a time (sequential) or all at the same time (simultaneous). Mixed model analyses were performed as primary analyses; regression analyses were done as sensitivity analyses. An overall risk score was used as outcome measure, then effects on the 5 individual lifestyle behaviors were assessed and a process evaluation was performed regarding exposure to and appreciation of the intervention. Both tailoring strategies were associated with small self-reported behavioral changes. The sequential condition had the most significant effects compared to the control condition after 12 months (T1, effect size=0.28). After 24 months (T2), the simultaneous condition was most effective (effect size=0.18). All 5 individual lifestyle behaviors changed over time, but few effects differed significantly between the conditions. At both follow-ups, the sequential condition had significant changes in smoking abstinence compared to the simultaneous condition (T1 effect size=0.31; T2 effect

  20. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of outcome- and process-based social preferences and beliefs in Dictator Games and sequential Prisoner's Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, using a within-subjects design, we estimate the utility weights that subjects attach to the outcome of their interaction partners in four decision situations: (1) binary Dictator Games (DG), second player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) after the first player (2) cooperated and (3) defected, and (4) first player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that the average weights in these four decision situations have the following order: (1)>(2)>(4)>(3). Moreover, the average weight is positive in (1) but negative in (2), (3), and (4). Our findings indicate the existence of strong negative and small positive reciprocity for the average subject, but there is also high interpersonal variation in the weights in these four nodes. We conclude that the PD frame makes subjects more competitive than the DG frame. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we simultaneously analyze beliefs of subjects about others' utility weights in the same four decision situations. We compare several alternative theoretical models on beliefs, e.g., rational beliefs (Bayesian-Nash equilibrium) and a consensus model. Our results on beliefs strongly support the consensus effect and refute rational beliefs: there is a strong relationship between own preferences and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable across the four decision situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Looking-at-nothing" during sequential sensorimotor actions: Long-term memory-based eye scanning of remembered target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets. Here, it is asked whether looking-at-nothing can be found in a single sensorimotor session and thus independent from sleep consolidation, and how it progresses when visual information is repeatedly unavailable. Eye movements were investigated in a computerized version of the trail making test. Participants clicked on numbered circles in ascending sequence. Fifty trials were performed with the same spatial arrangement of 9 visual targets to enable long-term memory consolidation. During 50 consecutive trials, participants had to click the remembered target sequence on an empty screen. Participants scanned the visual targets and also the empty target locations sequentially with their eyes, however, the latter less precise than the former. Over the course of the memory trials, manual and oculomotor sequential target scanning became more similar to the visual trials. Results argue for robust looking-at-nothing during procedural sensorimotor tasks provided that long-term memory information is sufficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-point method for measuring the geometric error components of linear and rotary axes based on sequential multilateration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenjiu; Hu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The linear and rotary axes are fundamental parts of multi-axis machine tools. The geometric error components of the axes must be measured for motion error compensation to improve the accuracy of the machine tools. In this paper, a simple method named the three point method is proposed to measure the geometric error of the linear and rotary axes of the machine tools using a laser tracker. A sequential multilateration method, where uncertainty is verified through simulation, is applied to measure the 3D coordinates. Three noncollinear points fixed on the stage of each axis are selected. The coordinates of these points are simultaneously measured using a laser tracker to obtain their volumetric errors by comparing these coordinates with ideal values. Numerous equations can be established using the geometric error models of each axis. The geometric error components can be obtained by solving these equations. The validity of the proposed method is verified through a series of experiments. The results indicate that the proposed method can measure the geometric error of the axes to compensate for the errors in multi-axis machine tools.

  4. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  5. Sediment quality assessment in a coastal lagoon (Ravenna, NE Italy) based on SEM-AVS and sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Guerra, Roberta; Covelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Elena; Dinelli, Enrico

    2018-09-01

    Sediments from the Pialassa Piomboni coastal lagoon (NE Italy) were studied to assess the degree of contamination and ecological risk related to trace metals by combining a geochemical characterization of bulk sediments with the assessment of the bioavailable forms of trace metals. With this purpose, sediment contamination (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was assessed by Enrichment Factors (EFs), and potential bioavailability by the Simultaneously Extracted Metals and Acid Volatile Sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and by Sequential Extraction Procedure (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). On average, Cr and Ni exhibited no contamination (EF ≤1.5), and a predominance in the residual fraction of the sediment, indicating natural origin for these metals. Cu, Pb and Zn displayed a local contamination, which resulted in a higher proportion of Cu bound to the reducible and oxidizable fractions (~30% and ~40% as median, respectively), and Pb mostly associated with the reducible phase (~60% as median). Hence, Cu and Pb could be mobilized when environmental conditions become reducing or oxidizing. Zn resulted mainly partitioned into the reducible and residual fractions (~50% as median, in both fractions). The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) indicated that approximately 30% of samples had >10% of total Zn weakly bound to the sediment, suggesting a medium risk of exposure for aquatic organisms. RAC results were consistent with the ∑SEM-AVS findings, pointing to possible adverse effects for aquatic biota in ~30% of samples, with Zn mostly accounting for the total metal bioavailability. Hg showed a moderate to very severe enrichment, indicating that a substantial amount of this metal derives from anthropogenic sources and may pose adverse effects on the aquatic biota of the Pialassa Piomboni lagoon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions Based on a Bank of Norm-Inequality-Constrained Epoch-State Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. R.; Markley, F. L.; Alfriend, K. T.; Wright, C.; Arcido, J.

    2011-01-01

    Sequential probability ratio tests explicitly allow decision makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models 1he null hypothesis 1ha1 the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming highly-elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  7. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  8. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  9. A non-symmetric pillar[5]arene based on triazole-linked 8-oxyquinolines as a sequential sensor for thorium(IV) followed by fluoride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuyu; Li, Caixia; Wu, Lei; Bai, Bing; Li, Xing; Jia, Yiming; Feng, Wen; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-09-07

    A novel non-symmetric pillar[5]arene bearing triazole-linked 8-oxyquinolines at one rim was synthesized and demonstrated as a sequential fluorescence sensor for thorium(iv) followed by fluoride ions with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  10. Prediction of Global Damage and Reliability Based Upon Sequential Identification and Updating of RC Structures Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.

    The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....

  11. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  12. Partial discharge localization in power transformers based on the sequential quadratic programming-genetic algorithm adopting acoustic emission techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And

  13. Sequential Power-Dependence Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike

  14. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  15. Antidepressant monotherapy vs sequential pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or placebo, for relapse prophylaxis in recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Zindel V; Bieling, Peter; Young, Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda; Cooke, Robert; Martin, Lawrence; Bloch, Richard; Levitan, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group-based psychosocial intervention designed to enhance self-management of prodromal symptoms associated with depressive relapse. To compare rates of relapse in depressed patients in remission receiving MBCT against maintenance antidepressant pharmacotherapy, the current standard of care. Patients who met remission criteria after 8 months of algorithm-informed antidepressant treatment were randomized to receive maintenance antidepressant medication, MBCT, or placebo and were followed up for 18 months. Outpatient clinics at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario. One hundred sixty patients aged 18 to 65 years meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with a minimum of 2 past episodes. Of these, 84 achieved remission (52.5%) and were assigned to 1 of the 3 study conditions. Patients in remission discontinued their antidepressants and attended 8 weekly group sessions of MBCT, continued taking their therapeutic dose of antidepressant medication, or discontinued active medication and were switched to placebo. Relapse was defined as a return, for at least 2 weeks, of symptoms sufficient to meet the criteria for major depression on module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant interaction between the quality of acute-phase remission and subsequent prevention of relapse in randomized patients (P = .03). Among unstable remitters (1 or more Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score >7 during remission), patients in both MBCT and maintenance treatment showed a 73% decrease in hazard compared with placebo (P = .03), whereas for stable remitters (all Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores ≤7 during remission) there were no group differences in survival. For depressed patients achieving stable or unstable clinical remission, MBCT offers protection against relapse

  16. Automated magnetic sorbent extraction based on octadecylsilane functionalized maghemite magnetic particles in a sequential injection system coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for metal determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2013-06-15

    A new automatic sequential injection (SI) system for on-line magnetic sorbent extraction coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been successfully developed for metal determination. In this work, we reported effective on-line immobilization of magnetic silica particles into a microcolumn by the external force of two strong neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets across it, avoiding the use of frits. Octadecylsilane functionalized maghemite magnetic particles were used as sorbent material. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace cadmium determination in water samples. The method was based on the on-line complex formation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), retention of Cd-DDTC on the surface of the MPs and elution with isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK). The formation mechanism of the magnetic solid phase packed column and all critical parameters (chemical, flow, graphite furnace) influencing the performance of the system were optimized and offered good analytical characteristics. For 5 mL sample volume, a detection limit of 3 ng L(-1), a relative standard deviation of 3.9% at 50 ng L(-1) level (n=11) and a linear range of 9-350 ng L(-1) were obtained. The column remained stable for more than 600 cycles keeping the cost down in routine analysis. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and natural waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of essential elements in beverages, herbal infusions and dietary supplements using a new straightforward sequential approach based on flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Mª Jesús; Sevilla, Mª Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2017-03-15

    A simple method based on FAAS was developed for the sequential multi-element determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg and Si in beverages and food supplements with successful results. The main absorption lines for Cu, Zn and Si and secondary lines for Mn and Mg were selected to carry out the measurements. The sample introduction was performed using a flow injection system. Using the choice of the absorption line wings, the upper limit of the linear range increased up to 110mgL -1 for Mg, 200mgL -1 for Si and 13mgL -1 for Zn. The determination of the five elements was carried out, in triplicate, without the need of additional sample dilutions and/or re-measurements, using less than 3.5mL of sample to perform the complete analysis. The LODs were 0.008mgL -1 for Cu, 0.017mgL -1 for Zn, 0.011mgL -1 for Mn, 0.16mgL -1 for Si and 0.11mgL -1 for Mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.

  19. Visual vs Fully Automatic Histogram-Based Assessment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) Progression Using Sequential Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Davide; Dinkel, Julien; Weinheimer, Oliver; Obermayer, Berenike; Buzan, Teodora; Nabers, Diana; Bauer, Claudia; Oltmanns, Ute; Palmowski, Karin; Herth, Felix; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes over time in extent of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) assessed by semi-quantitative visual scores (VSs) and fully automatic histogram-based quantitative evaluation and to test the relationship between these two methods of quantification. Methods Forty IPF patients (median age: 70 y, interquartile: 62-75 years; M:F, 33:7) that underwent 2 MDCT at different time points with a median interval of 13 months (interquartile: 10-17 months) were retrospectively evaluated. In-house software YACTA quantified automatically lung density histogram (10th-90th percentile in 5th percentile steps). Longitudinal changes in VSs and in the percentiles of attenuation histogram were obtained in 20 untreated patients and 20 patients treated with pirfenidone. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between VSs and selected percentiles. Results In follow-up MDCT, visual overall extent of parenchymal abnormalities (OE) increased in median by 5 %/year (interquartile: 0 %/y; +11 %/y). Substantial difference was found between treated and untreated patients in HU changes of the 40th and of the 80th percentiles of density histogram. Correlation analysis between VSs and selected percentiles showed higher correlation between the changes (Δ) in OE and Δ 40th percentile (r=0.69; phistogram analysis at one year follow-up of IPF patients, whether treated or untreated: Δ 40th percentile might reflect the change in overall extent of lung abnormalities, notably of ground-glass pattern; furthermore Δ 80th percentile might reveal the course of reticular opacities. PMID:26110421

  20. On-line liquid phase micro-extraction based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve platform for metal determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Constantina [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Drop-in-plug micro-extraction based on SI-LAV platform for metal preconcentration. ► Automatic liquid phase micro-extraction coupled with FAAS. ► Organic solvents with density higher than water are used. ► Lead determination in environmental water and urine samples. -- Abstract: A novel automatic on-line liquid phase micro-extraction method based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve (LAV) platform was proposed for metal preconcentration and determination. A flow-through micro-extraction chamber mounted at the selection valve was adopted without the need of sophisticated lab-on-valve components. Coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the potential of this lab-at-valve scheme is demonstrated for trace lead determination in environmental and biological water samples. A hydrophobic complex of lead with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was formed on-line and subsequently extracted into an 80 μL plug of chloroform. The extraction procedure was performed by forming micro-droplets of aqueous phase into the plug of the extractant. All critical parameters that affect the efficiency of the system were studied and optimized. The proposed method offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 10 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 125 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.8 μg L{sup −1} and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) at 50.0 μg L{sup −1} of lead was 2.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and applied for lead determination in natural waters and urine samples.

  1. Sequential application of Fenton and ozone-based oxidation process for the abatement of Ni-EDTA containing nickel plating effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zilong; Liu, Zekun; Wang, Hongjie; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Wei

    2018-07-01

    Treatment of Ni-EDTA in industrial nickel plating effluents was investigated by integrated application of Fenton and ozone-based oxidation processes. Determination of integrated sequence found that Fenton oxidation presented higher apparent kinetic rate constant of Ni-EDTA oxidation and capacity for contamination load than ozone-based oxidation process, the latter, however, was favorable to guarantee the further mineralization of organic substances, especially at a low concentration. Serial-connection mode of two oxidation processes was appraised, Fenton effluent after treated by hydroxide precipitation and filtration negatively affected the overall performance of the sequential system, as evidenced by the removal efficiencies of Ni 2+ and TOC dropping from 99.8% to 98.7%, and from 74.8% to 66.6%, respectively. As a comparison, O 3 /Fe 2+ oxidation process was proved to be more effective than other processes (e.g. O 3 -Fe 2+ , O 3 /H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ , O 3 /H 2 O 2 -Fe 2+ ), and the final effluent Ni 2+ concentration could satisfied the discharge standard (Fenton reaction, initial influent pH of 3.0, O 3 dosage of 252 mg L -1 , Fe 2+ of 150 mg L -1 , and reaction time of 30 min for O 3 /Fe 2+ oxidation). Furthermore, pilot-scale test was carried out to study the practical treatability towards the real nickel plating effluent, revealing the effective removal of some other co-existence contaminations. And Fenton reaction has contributed most, with the percentage ranging from 72.41% to 93.76%. The economic cost advantage made it a promising alternative to the continuous Fenton oxidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  3. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  4. HER2 and TOP2A in high-risk early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant epirubicin-based dose-dense sequential chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountzilas George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2 and TOP2A parameters (gene status, mRNA and protein expression have individually been associated with the outcome of patients treated with anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic/predictive significance of the above parameters in early, high-risk breast cancer patients treated with epirubicin-based, dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods In a series of 352 breast carcinoma tissues from patients that had been post-operatively treated with epirubicin-CMF with or without paclitaxel, we assessed HER2 and TOP2A gene status (chromogenic in situ hybridization, mRNA expression (quantitative reverse transcription PCR, as well as HER2 and TopoIIa protein expression (immunohistochemistry. Results HER2 and TOP2A amplification did not share the same effects on their downstream molecules, with consistent patterns observed in HER2 mRNA and protein expression according to HER2 amplification (all parameters strongly inter-related, p values Conclusions This study confirms the favorable prognostic value of HER2/TOP2A co-amplification and the adverse prognostic value of high TOP2A mRNA expression extending it to the adjuvant treatment setting in early high-risk breast cancer. The strong adverse prognostic impact of high HER2/TOP2A mRNA co-expression needs further validation in studies designed to evaluate markers predictive for anthracyclines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000506998.

  5. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Mohaidat, Qassem I.

    2009-01-01

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  6. The database for aggregate analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT and subsequent regrouping by clinical specialty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asba Tasneem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ClinicalTrials.gov registry provides information regarding characteristics of past, current, and planned clinical studies to patients, clinicians, and researchers; in addition, registry data are available for bulk download. However, issues related to data structure, nomenclature, and changes in data collection over time present challenges to the aggregate analysis and interpretation of these data in general and to the analysis of trials according to clinical specialty in particular. Improving usability of these data could enhance the utility of ClinicalTrials.gov as a research resource. METHODS/PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The purpose of our project was twofold. First, we sought to extend the usability of ClinicalTrials.gov for research purposes by developing a database for aggregate analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT that contains data from the 96,346 clinical trials registered as of September 27, 2010. Second, we developed and validated a methodology for annotating studies by clinical specialty, using a custom taxonomy employing Medical Subject Heading (MeSH terms applied by an NLM algorithm, as well as MeSH terms and other disease condition terms provided by study sponsors. Clinical specialists reviewed and annotated MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms, and an algorithm was created to classify studies into clinical specialties based on both MeSH and non-MeSH annotations. False positives and false negatives were evaluated by comparing algorithmic classification with manual classification for three specialties. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resulting AACT database features study design attributes parsed into discrete fields, integrated metadata, and an integrated MeSH thesaurus, and is available for download as Oracle extracts (.dmp file and text format. This publicly-accessible dataset will facilitate analysis of studies and permit detailed characterization and analysis of the U.S. clinical trials enterprise as a whole. In

  7. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  8. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  9. Hazy Outlook, Time to Regroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1980-01-01

    Legislative concerns for years to come will include: (1) limitations of uncontrolled spending which could affect educational programs; (2) a possible curtailment of cost-effective research and training programs; and (3) the possibility of replacing some of the large federally supported educational programs with tax credits or vouchers. (JN)

  10. The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is

  11. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential ocean colour monitor (OCM) data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Pradhan, Y.; Chauhan, O.S.; Nayak, S.R.

    velocities has been developed. The method is based on matching suspended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. The pattern matching is performed on atmospherically corrected and geo-referenced sequential pair of images by Maximum...

  12. Evolutionary history of the endangered fish Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898) (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) using a sequential approach to phylogeography based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00). However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049). Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively). We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya). The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of differentiation, between and within lineages, are described at different historical timescales. Conclusion Our mtDNA data indicates that the evolution of the different genetic groups is more related to ancient geological and climatic events (Middle Pliocene, ca. 3.3 Mya) than to the current

  13. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-02-01

    Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.

  15. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  16. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  17. Formes du regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours. Une typologie des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Anissa Afrite; Julien Mousques

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche global sur le lien entre le regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours dans les sites participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR) et la performance des médecins généralistes en matière d’activité, de productivité, d’efficacité et d’efficience de leurs pratiques, cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser la structure, l’organisation et le fonctionnement des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant...

  18. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  19. Study of the field-sequential modulation of Nd:YVO4/MgO:PPLN based intra-cavity frequency doubling green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Gan, Yi; Xu, Chang-Qing

    2018-06-01

    The field sequential modulation of a Nd:YVO4/MgO:PPLN intra-cavity, frequency doubling green laser was studied. The modulation frequency was set at 1 kHz and the duty cycle was changed from 20% to CW operation. It was shown that the quasi-phase matched (QPM) temperature decreases with an increase of the modulation duty cycle, and in turn causing the peak efficiency to rise. It was found that the temperature change in MgO:PPLN and the thermal lens effect in Nd:YVO4 crystal were the respective origins of these observed experimental phenomena.

  20. Evolutionary history of the endangered fish Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898 (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae using a sequential approach to phylogeography based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Garitagoitia José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafmisaGKbaebaaaa@2D06@d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00. However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049. Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively. We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya. The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of

  1. Sequential Foreign Investments, Regional Technology Platforms and the Evolution of Japanese Multinationals in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jaeyong

    2001-01-01

    IVABSTRACTIn this paper, we investigate the firm-level mechanisms that underlie the sequential foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of multinational corporations (MNCs). To understand inter-firm heterogeneity in the sequential FDI behaviors of MNCs, we develop a firm capability-based model of sequential FDI decisions. In the setting of Japanese electronics MNCs in East Asia, we empirically examine how prior investments in firm capabilities affect sequential investments into existingprodu...

  2. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  3. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  4. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  5. A Data-Driven Method for Selecting Optimal Models Based on Graphical Visualisation of Differences in Sequentially Fitted ROC Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Mwitondi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Differences in modelling techniques and model performance assessments typically impinge on the quality of knowledge extraction from data. We propose an algorithm for determining optimal patterns in data by separately training and testing three decision tree models in the Pima Indians Diabetes and the Bupa Liver Disorders datasets. Model performance is assessed using ROC curves and the Youden Index. Moving differences between sequential fitted parameters are then extracted, and their respective probability density estimations are used to track their variability using an iterative graphical data visualisation technique developed for this purpose. Our results show that the proposed strategy separates the groups more robustly than the plain ROC/Youden approach, eliminates obscurity, and minimizes over-fitting. Further, the algorithm can easily be understood by non-specialists and demonstrates multi-disciplinary compliance.

  6. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  7. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  8. Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenfeld, T.

    1982-01-01

    The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism

  9. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Kazuki; Tanioka, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Akihito; Inukai, Michio; Yamakawa, Toshiki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Taketoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-01-01

    Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were eligible. Patients were treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) for 3 months followed by capecitabine (2,500 mg/m 2 on days 1-14 every 3 weeks) for 3 months. Primary end points were frequency and the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity as evaluated using the physician-based Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE) grading and the patient-based scale, self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire. Ninety-one patients were enrolled and 86 patients assessed. Eighty-four percent of patients completed the planned oxaliplatin-based therapy for 3 months, and 63% of patients completed all treatments for the full 6 months. Overall incidences of grade 3 or 4 peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy according to the CTCAE were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Regarding the peripheral sensory neuropathy, the proportion of Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (grade C-E) and CTCAE (grade 2-4) at months 1.5/3/6 were 11.3/22.1/29.4% and 5.3/4.4/11.3%, respectively (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.47). A sequential approach to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine was tolerated by patients and associated with a low incidence of neuropathy.

  10. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  11. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  12. Age-specific incidence of A/H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England from sequential antibody prevalence data using likelihood-based estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Baguelin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. This paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. The method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the temporal distribution of cases from clinical surveillance. Among a family of candidate incidences, a likelihood function is derived by reconstructing the change in seroprevalence from seroconversion following infection and comparing it with the observed sequence of positivity among the samples. This method is applied to derive the cumulative and weekly incidence of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in England during the second wave using sera taken between September 2009 and February 2010 in four age groups (1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44 years. The highest cumulative incidence was in 5-14 year olds (59%, 95% credible interval (CI: 52%, 68% followed by 1-4 year olds (49%, 95% CI: 38%, 61%, rates 20 and 40 times higher respectively than estimated from clinical surveillance. The method provides a more accurate and continuous measure of incidence than achieved by comparing prevalence in samples grouped by time period.

  13. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  14. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  15. Exploring the Spatial-Temporal Disparities of Urban Land Use Economic Efficiency in China and Its Influencing Factors under Environmental Constraints Based on a Sequential Slacks-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very

  16. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  17. CpG island methylator phenotype is associated with the efficacy of sequential oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy and EGFR-related gene mutation in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Shimodaira, Hideki; Soeda, Hiroshi; Komine, Keigo; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Ouchi, Kota; Inoue, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shin; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2016-12-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with multiple promoter methylated loci has been observed in a subset of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. CIMP status, which is closely associated with specific clinicopathological and molecular characteristics, is considered a potential predictive biomarker for efficacy of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between the effect of standard chemotherapy, including cytotoxic drugs and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies, and CIMP status has not been elucidated. In 125 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, we investigated how clinical outcome of chemotherapy was related to CIMP status as detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and to genetic status in five EGFR-related genes (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, and AKT1) as detected by direct sequencing. CIMP-positive status was significantly associated with proximal tumor location and peritoneum metastasis (all P values CIMP-positive tumors receiving sequential therapy with FOLFOX as the first-line treatment followed by irinotecan-based therapy as the second-line treatment (median = 6.6 months) was inferior to that of such patients receiving the reverse sequence (median = 15.2 months; P = 0.043). Furthermore, CIMP-positive tumors showed higher mutation frequencies for the five EGFR-related genes (74.1 %) than the CIMP-negative tumors did (50.0 %). Among the KRAS wild-type tumors, CIMP-positive tumors were associated with a worse clinical outcome than CIMP-negative tumors following anti-EGFR antibody therapy. Sequential FOLFOX followed by an irinotecan-based regimen is unfavorable in patients with CIMP-positive tumors. High frequencies of mutation in EGFR-related genes in CIMP-positive tumors may cause the lower response to anti-EGFR antibody therapy seen in patients with wild-type KRAS and CIMP-positive tumors.

  18. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  19. Sequential Probability Ration Tests : Conservative and Robust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Shi, Wen

    2017-01-01

    In practice, most computers generate simulation outputs sequentially, so it is attractive to analyze these outputs through sequential statistical methods such as sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs). We investigate several SPRTs for choosing between two hypothesized values for the mean output

  20. Random sequential adsorption of cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  1. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  2. Estimation After a Group Sequential Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Kenward, Michael G; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-10-01

    simulations can give the false impression of bias in the sample average when considered conditional upon the sample size. The consequence is that no corrections need to be made to estimators following sequential trials. When small-sample bias is of concern, the conditional likelihood estimator provides a relatively straightforward modification to the sample average. Finally, it is shown that classical likelihood-based standard errors and confidence intervals can be applied, obviating the need for technical corrections.

  3. A Bayesian sequential processor approach to spectroscopic portal system decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, K; Candy, J; Breitfeller, E; Guidry, B; Manatt, D; Gosnell, T; Chambers, D

    2007-07-31

    The development of faster more reliable techniques to detect radioactive contraband in a portal type scenario is an extremely important problem especially in this era of constant terrorist threats. Towards this goal the development of a model-based, Bayesian sequential data processor for the detection problem is discussed. In the sequential processor each datum (detector energy deposit and pulse arrival time) is used to update the posterior probability distribution over the space of model parameters. The nature of the sequential processor approach is that a detection is produced as soon as it is statistically justified by the data rather than waiting for a fixed counting interval before any analysis is performed. In this paper the Bayesian model-based approach, physics and signal processing models and decision functions are discussed along with the first results of our research.

  4. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  5. Randomised controlled trial of two sequential artemisinin-based combination therapy regimens to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children: a protocol to investigate safety, efficacy and adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Tinto, Halidou; Sawa, Patrick; Kaur, Harparkash; Duparc, Stephan; Ishengoma, Deus S.; Magnussen, Pascal; Alifrangis, Michael; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2017-01-01

    Management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria relies on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These highly effective regimens have contributed to reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, artemisinin resistance in Asia and changing parasite susceptibility to ACT

  6. Extended follow-up of the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial comparing two sequential induction and maintenance treatment regimens for proliferative lupus nephritis based either on cyclophosphamide or on cyclosporine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, J; Sinikka Pesicková, S; Rysavá, R; Horák, P; Hrncír, Z; Lukác, J; Rovensky, J; Vítová, J; Havrda, M; Rychlík, I; Böhmova, J; Vlasáková, V; Slatinská, J; Zadrazil, J; Olejárová, M; Tegzova, D; Tesar, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extended follow-up of the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial, a randomized prospective trial comparing two sequential induction and maintenance treatment regimens for proliferative lupus nephritis based either on cyclophosphamide (CPH) or cyclosporine A (CyA). Patients and methods Data for kidney function and adverse events were collected by a cross-sectional survey for 38 of 40 patients initially randomized in the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial. Results The median follow-up time was 7.7 years (range 5.0-10.3). Rates of renal impairment and end-stage renal disease, adverse events (death, cardiovascular event, tumor, premature menopause) did not differ between the CPH and CyA group, nor did mean serum creatinine, 24 h proteinuria and SLICC damage score at last follow-up. Most patients in both groups were still treated with glucocorticoids, other immunosuppressant agents and blood pressure lowering drugs. Conclusion An immunosuppressive regimen based on CyA achieved similar clinical results to that based on CPH in the very long term.

  7. RFID Student Educational Experiences at the UNT College of Engineering: A Sequential Approach to Creating a Project-Based RFID Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…

  8. Highly Stable Double-Stranded DNA Containing Sequential Silver(I)-Mediated 7-Deazaadenine/Thymine Watson-Crick Base Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Díaz, Noelia; Méndez-Arriaga, José M; Salas, Juan M; Galindo, Miguel A

    2016-05-17

    The oligonucleotide d(TX)9 , which consists of an octadecamer sequence with alternating non-canonical 7-deazaadenine (X) and canonical thymine (T) as the nucleobases, was synthesized and shown to hybridize into double-stranded DNA through the formation of hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs. dsDNA with metal-mediated base pairs was then obtained by selectively replacing W-C hydrogen bonds by coordination bonds to central silver(I) ions. The oligonucleotide I adopts a duplex structure in the absence of Ag(+) ions, and its stability is significantly enhanced in the presence of Ag(+) ions while its double-helix structure is retained. Temperature-dependent UV spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ESI mass spectrometry were used to confirm the selective formation of the silver(I)-mediated base pairs. This strategy could become useful for preparing stable metallo-DNA-based nanostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  10. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  11. Enantioselective Synthesis of Aminodiols by Sequential Rhodium-Catalysed Oxyamination/Kinetic Resolution: Expanding the Substrate Scope of Amidine-Based Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Joan; Giménez-Nueno, Irene; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Bernús, Miguel; Matheu, M Isabel; Maseras, Feliu; Castillón, Sergio; Díaz, Yolanda

    2018-03-26

    Regio- and stereoselective oxyamination of dienes through a tandem rhodium-catalysed aziridination-nucleophilic opening affords racemic oxazolidinone derivatives, which undergo a kinetic resolution acylation process with amidine-based catalysts (ABCs) to achieve s values of up to 117. This protocol was applied to the enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I

    2009-01-01

    Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...

  13. Threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone in sequential temperature mapping in MR-guided radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjoerg; Hoffmann, Ruediger; Buck, Alexandra; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz; Clasen, Stephan [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department on Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Roland, Joerg; Kickhefel, Antje [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Clinic for radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Minimal Invasive Therapies, SLK-Clinics, Heilbronn (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    To evaluate different cut-off temperature levels for a threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone in magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours. Temperature-sensitive measurements were acquired during RF ablation of 24 patients with primary (6) and secondary liver lesions (18) using a wide-bore 1.5 T MR sytem and compared with the post-interventional coagulation zone. Temperature measurements using the proton resonance frequency shift method were performed directly subsequent to energy application. The temperature maps were registered on the contrast-enhanced follow-up MR images acquired 4 weeks after treatment. Areas with temperatures above 50 , 55 and 60 C were segmented and compared with the coagulation zones. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated. No major complications occurred and all tumours were completely treated. No tumour recurrence was observed at the follow-up examination after 4 weeks. Two patients with secondary liver lesions showed local tumour recurrence after 4 and 7 months. The 60 C threshold level achieved the highest positive predictive value (87.7 {+-} 9.9) and the best prediction of the coagulation zone. For a threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone, the 60 C cut-off level achieved the best prediction of the coagulation zone among the tested levels. (orig.)

  14. Development and Sequential Analysis of a New Multi-Agent, Anti-Acne Formulation Based on Plant-Derived Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Saviuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i.e., eugenol, β-pinene, eucalyptol, and limonene and anti-inflammatory agents for potential use in the topical treatment of acne and other skin infections. The optimal antimicrobial combinations selected in this study were eugenol/β-pinene/salicylic acid and eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate. The possible mechanisms of action revealed by flow cytometry were cellular permeabilization and inhibition of efflux pumps activity induced by concentrations corresponding to sub-minimal inhibitory (sub-MIC values. The most active antimicrobial combination represented by salycilic acid/eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate was included in a cream base, which demonstrated thermodynamic stability and optimum microbiological characteristics.

  15. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios in sequential plumage stages: an implication for the creation of isotope-base maps for tracking migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, J M; Holroyd, G L; Muehlenbachs, K

    2003-09-01

    Accurate reference maps are important in the use of stable-isotopes to track the movements of migratory birds. Reference maps created by the analysis of samples collected from young at the nest site are more accurate than simply referring to naturally occurring patterns of hydrogen isotope ratios created by precipitation cycles. Ratios of hydrogen isotopes in the nutrients incorporated early in the development of young birds can be derived from endogenous, maternal sources. Base-maps should be created with the analysis of tissue samples from hatchlings after local the isotopic signature of exogenous nutrients is dominant. Migratory species such as Peregrine Falcons are known to use endogenous sources in the creation of their eggs, therefore knowledge of what plumage stage best represents the local hydrogen ratios would assist in the planning of nest visits. We conducted diet manipulation experiments involving Japanese Quail and Peregrine Falcons to determine the plumage stage when hydrogen isotope ratios were indicative of a switch in their food source. The natal down of both the quail and falcons reflected the diet of breeding adult females. The hydrogen isotope ratios of a new food source were dominant in the juvenile down of the young falcons, although a further shift was detected in the final juvenile plumage. The juvenile plumage is grown during weeks 3-4 after hatch on Peregrine Falcons. Nest visits for the purpose of collecting feathers for isotope-base-map creation should be made around 4 weeks after the presumed hatch of the young falcons.

  16. Threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone in sequential temperature mapping in MR-guided radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempp, Hansjoerg; Hoffmann, Ruediger; Buck, Alexandra; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz; Clasen, Stephan; Roland, Joerg; Kickhefel, Antje; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate different cut-off temperature levels for a threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone in magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours. Temperature-sensitive measurements were acquired during RF ablation of 24 patients with primary (6) and secondary liver lesions (18) using a wide-bore 1.5 T MR sytem and compared with the post-interventional coagulation zone. Temperature measurements using the proton resonance frequency shift method were performed directly subsequent to energy application. The temperature maps were registered on the contrast-enhanced follow-up MR images acquired 4 weeks after treatment. Areas with temperatures above 50 , 55 and 60 C were segmented and compared with the coagulation zones. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated. No major complications occurred and all tumours were completely treated. No tumour recurrence was observed at the follow-up examination after 4 weeks. Two patients with secondary liver lesions showed local tumour recurrence after 4 and 7 months. The 60 C threshold level achieved the highest positive predictive value (87.7 ± 9.9) and the best prediction of the coagulation zone. For a threshold-based prediction of the coagulation zone, the 60 C cut-off level achieved the best prediction of the coagulation zone among the tested levels. (orig.)

  17. What determines the impact of context on sequential action?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Verwey, Willem B.; Abrahamse, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we build on earlier observations that memory-based sequential action is better in the original learning context than in other contexts. We examined whether changes in the perceptual context have differential impact across distinct processing phases (preparation versus execution

  18. Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…

  19. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  20. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.

    1993-10-01

    Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.

  1. Basal ganglia and cortical networks for sequential ordering and rhythm of complex movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery G. Bednark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary actions require the concurrent engagement and coordinated control of complex temporal (e.g. rhythm and ordinal motor processes. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA, we sought to determine the degree to which these complex motor processes are dissociable in basal ganglia and cortical networks. We employed three different finger-tapping tasks that differed in the demand on the sequential temporal rhythm or sequential ordering of submovements. Our results demonstrate that sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks were partially dissociable based on activation differences. The sequential rhythm task activated a widespread network centered around the SMA and basal-ganglia regions including the dorsomedial putamen and caudate nucleus, while the sequential order task preferentially activated a fronto-parietal network. There was also extensive overlap between sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, with both tasks commonly activating bilateral premotor, supplementary motor, and superior/inferior parietal cortical regions, as well as regions of the caudate/putamen of the basal ganglia and the ventro-lateral thalamus. Importantly, within the cortical regions that were active for both complex movements, MVPA could accurately classify different patterns of activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks. In the basal ganglia, however, overlapping activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, which was found in classic motor circuits of the putamen and ventro-lateral thalamus, could not be accurately differentiated by MVPA. Overall, our results highlight the convergent architecture of the motor system, where complex motor information that is spatially distributed in the cortex converges into a more compact representation in the basal ganglia.

  2. Sequential Vapor Infiltration Treatment Enhances the Ionic Current Rectification Performance of Composite Membranes Based on Mesoporous Silica Confined in Anodic Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-12-20

    Ionic current rectification of nanofluidic diode membranes has been studied widely in recent years because it is analogous to the functionality of biological ion channels in principle. We report a new method to fabricate ionic current rectification membranes based on mesoporous silica confined in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Two types of mesostructured silica nanocomposites, hexagonal structure and nanoparticle stacked structure, were used to asymmetrically fill nanochannels of AAO membranes by a vapor-phase synthesis (VPS) method with aspiration approach and were further modified via sequence vapor infiltration (SVI) treatment. The ionic current measurements indicated that SVI treatment can modulate the asymmetric ionic transport in prepared membranes, which exhibited clear ionic current rectification phenomenon under optimal conditions. The ionic current rectifying behavior is derived from the asymmetry of surface conformations, silica species components, and hydrophobic wettability, which are created by the asymmetrical filling type, silica depositions on the heterogeneous membranes, and the condensation of silanol groups. This article provides a considerable strategy to fabricate composite membranes with obvious ionic current rectification performance via the cooperation of the VPS method and SVI treatment and opens up the potential of mesoporous silica confined in AAO membranes to mimic fluid transport in biological processes.

  3. Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of

  4. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  5. IMPaCT Back study protocol. Implementation of subgrouping for targeted treatment systems for low back pain patients in primary care: a prospective population-based sequential comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment tools to identify subgroups of patients at risk of persistent low back pain who may benefit from targeted treatments have been developed and validated in primary care. The IMPaCT Back study is investigating the effects of introducing and supporting a subgrouping for targeted treatment system in primary care. Methods/Design A prospective, population-based, quality improvement study in one Primary Care Trust in England with a before and after design. Phases 1 and 3 collect data on current practice, attitudes and behaviour of health care practitioners, patients' outcomes and health care costs. Phase 2 introduces and supports the subgrouping for targeted treatment system, via a multi-component, quality improvement intervention that includes educational courses and outreach visits led by opinion leaders, audit/feedback, mentoring and organisational support to embed the subgrouping tools within IT and clinical management systems. We aim to recruit 1000 low back pain patients aged 18 years and over consulting 7 GP practices within one Primary Care Trust in England, UK. The study includes GPs in participating practices and physiotherapists in associated services. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the subgrouping for targeted treatment system on back pain related disability and catastrophising at 2 and 6 months, comparing data from phase 1 with phase 3. Key secondary objectives are to determine the impact on: a GPs' and physiotherapists' attitudes and behaviour regarding low back pain; b The process of care that patients receive; c The cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the new clinical system. Discussion This paper details the rationale, design, methods, planned analysis and operational aspects of the IMPaCT Back study. We aim to determine whether the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system is implemented and sustained in primary care, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision

  6. Treating the emotional and motivational inhibition of highly gifted underachievers with music psychotherapy: Meta-analysis of an evaluation study based on a sequential design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L

    The psychological and neuropsychological characteristics of gifted children and adolescents are analysed, as well as the emotional and behavioural risks linked to this condition. A prospective follow-up study of N=93 highly gifted students suffering from school failure at the beginning of adolescence was implemented. They were treated with an integrated form of music psychotherapy and verbal psychotherapy in 5 separate groups. The methodology of treatment combined active musical improvisation with the writing of stories or the production of drawings under musical induction, followed by verbal elaboration in the cognitive-psychodynamic psychotherapeutic tradition. The evaluation was based on a mixed-methods design, combining psychometric scales, projective tests and expressive tests. Comparative pretest-posttest, correlational and multidimensional analyses were computed, using non-parametric statistical procedures adapted to small samples and data belonging to a mixed level of measurement. We present a meta-analysis of the confirmatory results in 5 subgroups. There was a significant increase in the capacity of concentration, the capacity of imaginary and symbolic elaboration, the pictorial and literary creativity, self-esteem, the quality of coping strategies, as well as in school marks. There was a significant decrease in defensive functioning and in embitterment and resignation. The latent dimensions extracted with Optimal Scaling procedures from the correlational matrixes of the Delta values of TAT and TSD-Z were meaningful at the light of the state-of-the-arts. The results of the study confirm a prior theoretical modelization coming out of the preparatory stage of the research project. They are interpreted at the light of recent findings in developmental and clinical psychology of adolescence and they open many tracks for future research.

  7. Simple formation of products of exo-nido→closo-regrouping during substitution of PPh3-ligands by bis(diphenyl phosphino)alkanes in three-bridging ruthena carborane 5,6,10-[RuCl(PPh3)2]-5,6,10-(μ-H)3-10-H-exo-nido-7,8-C2B9H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheredilin, D.N.; Balagurova, E.V.; Godovikov, I.A.; Solodovnikov, S.P.; Chizhevskij, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is established that the substitution of PPh 3 -ligands by diphosphines [Ph 2 P(CH 2 ) n PPh] (n=3, 4) in three-bridging exo-nido-ruthena carborane 5,6,10-[RuCl(PPh 3 ) 2 ]-5,6,10-(μ-H) 3 -10-H-exo-nido-7,8-C 2 B 9 H 8 (1) decreases temperature of exo-nido→closo-regrouping (22 Deg C). It is demonstrated that the exo-nido-ruthena carborane complex (1) is well suited and available as reagent for preparation of closo-ruthena carboranes with different chelate diphosphines. Formation of closo-products follows through the stage of exo-nido→closo-regrouping of diphosphine complexes with exo-nido-structure [ru

  8. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuruta A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Tsuruta,1,* Kazuki Yamashita,2,* Hiroaki Tanioka,3 Akihito Tsuji,4,5 Michio Inukai,6 Toshiki Yamakawa,7 Tomoki Yamatsuji,8 Masanori Yoshimitsu,9 Kazuhiro Toyota,10 Taketoshi Yamano,11 Takeshi Nagasaka,12 Masazumi Okajima13 On behalf of the Japan Southwest Oncology Group (JSWOG 1Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, 6Department of Medicine, Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital, Okayama, 7Department of Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu, 8Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 9Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Hospital, Hiroshima, 10Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Higashihirosima Medical Center, Higashihiroshima, 11Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Medical Center, 12Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 13Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients and methods: Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were

  9. Effect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): a prospective population-based sequential comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Peter M; Giles, Matthew F; Chandratheva, Arvind; Marquardt, Lars; Geraghty, Olivia; Redgrave, Jessica N E; Lovelock, Caroline E; Binney, Lucy E; Bull, Linda M; Cuthbertson, Fiona C; Welch, Sarah J V; Bosch, Shelley; Alexander, Faye C; Carasco-Alexander, Faye; Silver, Louise E; Gutnikov, Sergei A; Mehta, Ziyah

    2007-10-20

    The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more rapid treatment after TIA and minor stroke in patients who are not admitted direct to hospital. We did a prospective before (phase 1: April 1, 2002, to Sept 30, 2004) versus after (phase 2: Oct 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007) study of the effect on process of care and outcome of more urgent assessment and immediate treatment in clinic, rather than subsequent initiation in primary care, in all patients with TIA or minor stroke not admitted direct to hospital. The study was nested within a rigorous population-based incidence study of all TIA and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; OXVASC), such that case ascertainment, investigation, and follow-up were complete and identical in both periods. The primary outcome was the risk of stroke within 90 days of first seeking medical attention, with independent blinded (to study period) audit of all events. Of the 1278 patients in OXVASC who presented with TIA or stroke (634 in phase 1 and 644 in phase 2), 607 were referred or presented direct to hospital, 620 were referred for outpatient assessment, and 51 were not referred to secondary care. 95% (n=591) of all outpatient referrals were to the study clinic. Baseline characteristics and delays in seeking medical attention were similar in both periods, but median delay to assessment in the study clinic fell from 3 (IQR 2-5) days in phase 1 to less than 1 (0-3) day in phase 2 (prisk of recurrent stroke in the patients referred to the study clinic was 10.3% (32/310 patients) in phase 1 and 2.1% (6/281 patients) in phase 2 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.49; p=0.0001); there was no significant change in risk in patients treated elsewhere. The

  10. Sequential determination of important ecotoxic radionuclides in nuclear waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilohuscin, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the dissertation thesis we focused on the development and optimization of a sequential determination method for radionuclides 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc and 126 Sn, employing extraction chromatography sorbents TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin, supplied by Eichrom Industries. Prior to the attestation of sequential separation of these proposed radionuclides from radioactive waste samples, a unique sequential procedure of 90 Sr, 239 Pu, 241 Am separation from urine matrices was tried, using molecular recognition sorbents of AnaLig (R) series and extraction chromatography sorbent DGA (R) Resin. On these experiments, four various sorbents were continually used for separation, including PreFilter Resin sorbent, which removes interfering organic materials present in raw urine. After the acquisition of positive results of this sequential procedure followed experiments with a 126 Sn separation using TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin sorbents. Radiochemical recoveries obtained from samples of radioactive evaporate concentrates and sludge showed high efficiency of the separation, while values of 126 Sn were under the minimum detectable activities MDA. Activity of 126 Sn was determined after ingrowth of daughter nuclide 126m Sb on HPGe gamma detector, with minimal contamination of gamma interfering radionuclides with decontamination factors (D f ) higher then 1400 for 60 Co and 47000 for 137 Cs. Based on the acquired experiments and results of these separation procedures, a complex method of sequential separation of 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc and 126 Sn was proposed, which included optimization steps similar to those used in previous parts of the dissertation work. Application of the sequential separation method for sorbents TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin on real samples of radioactive wastes provided satisfactory results and an economical, time sparing, efficient method. (author)

  11. Sequential lineup laps and eyewitness accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblay, Nancy K; Dietrich, Hannah L; Ryan, Shannon L; Raczynski, Jeanette L; James, Kali A

    2011-08-01

    Police practice of double-blind sequential lineups prompts a question about the efficacy of repeated viewings (laps) of the sequential lineup. Two laboratory experiments confirmed the presence of a sequential lap effect: an increase in witness lineup picks from first to second lap, when the culprit was a stranger. The second lap produced more errors than correct identifications. In Experiment 2, lineup diagnosticity was significantly higher for sequential lineup procedures that employed a single versus double laps. Witnesses who elected to view a second lap made significantly more errors than witnesses who chose to stop after one lap or those who were required to view two laps. Witnesses with prior exposure to the culprit did not exhibit a sequential lap effect.

  12. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  13. Sequential Product of Quantum Effects: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an overview for the theory of sequential products of quantum effects. We first summarize some of the highlights of this relatively recent field of investigation and then provide some new results. We begin by discussing sequential effect algebras which are effect algebras endowed with a sequential product satisfying certain basic conditions. We then consider sequential products of (discrete) quantum measurements. We next treat transition effect matrices (TEMs) and their associated sequential product. A TEM is a matrix whose entries are effects and whose rows form quantum measurements. We show that TEMs can be employed for the study of quantum Markov chains. Finally, we prove some new results concerning TEMs and vector densities.

  14. The sequential trauma score - a new instrument for the sequential mortality prediction in major trauma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma

  15. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  18. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A solution for automatic parallelization of sequential assembly code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since modern multicore processors can execute existing sequential programs only on a single core, there is a strong need for automatic parallelization of program code. Relying on existing algorithms, this paper describes one new software solution tool for parallelization of sequential assembly code. The main goal of this paper is to develop the parallelizator which reads sequential assembler code and at the output provides parallelized code for MIPS processor with multiple cores. The idea is the following: the parser translates assembler input file to program objects suitable for further processing. After that the static single assignment is done. Based on the data flow graph, the parallelization algorithm separates instructions on different cores. Once sequential code is parallelized by the parallelization algorithm, registers are allocated with the algorithm for linear allocation, and the result at the end of the program is distributed assembler code on each of the cores. In the paper we evaluate the speedup of the matrix multiplication example, which was processed by the parallelizator of assembly code. The result is almost linear speedup of code execution, which increases with the number of cores. The speed up on the two cores is 1.99, while on 16 cores the speed up is 13.88.

  20. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  1. Sequential Generalized Transforms on Function Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gil Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define two sequential transforms on a function space Ca,b[0,T] induced by generalized Brownian motion process. We then establish the existence of the sequential transforms for functionals in a Banach algebra of functionals on Ca,b[0,T]. We also establish that any one of these transforms acts like an inverse transform of the other transform. Finally, we give some remarks about certain relations between our sequential transforms and other well-known transforms on Ca,b[0,T].

  2. Research on parallel algorithm for sequential pattern mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Qin, Bai; Wang, Yu; Hao, Zhongxiao

    2008-03-01

    Sequential pattern mining is the mining of frequent sequences related to time or other orders from the sequence database. Its initial motivation is to discover the laws of customer purchasing in a time section by finding the frequent sequences. In recent years, sequential pattern mining has become an important direction of data mining, and its application field has not been confined to the business database and has extended to new data sources such as Web and advanced science fields such as DNA analysis. The data of sequential pattern mining has characteristics as follows: mass data amount and distributed storage. Most existing sequential pattern mining algorithms haven't considered the above-mentioned characteristics synthetically. According to the traits mentioned above and combining the parallel theory, this paper puts forward a new distributed parallel algorithm SPP(Sequential Pattern Parallel). The algorithm abides by the principal of pattern reduction and utilizes the divide-and-conquer strategy for parallelization. The first parallel task is to construct frequent item sets applying frequent concept and search space partition theory and the second task is to structure frequent sequences using the depth-first search method at each processor. The algorithm only needs to access the database twice and doesn't generate the candidated sequences, which abates the access time and improves the mining efficiency. Based on the random data generation procedure and different information structure designed, this paper simulated the SPP algorithm in a concrete parallel environment and implemented the AprioriAll algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that compared with AprioriAll, the SPP algorithm had excellent speedup factor and efficiency.

  3. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...

  4. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  5. [Professor GAO Yuchun's experience on "sequential acupuncture leads to smooth movement of qi"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Xing, Xiao; Cui, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Professor GAO Yuchun is considered as the key successor of GAO's academic school of acupuncture and moxibustion in Yanzhao region. Professor GAO's clinical experience of, "sequential acupuncture" is introduced in details in this article. In Professor GAO's opinions, appropriate acupuncture sequence is the key to satisfactory clinical effects during treatment. Based on different acupoints, sequential acupuncture can achieve the aim of qi following needles and needles leading qi; based on different symptoms, sequential acupuncture can regulate qi movement; based on different body positions, sequential acupuncture can harmonize qi-blood and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess. In all, according to the differences of disease condition and constitution, based on the accurate acupoint selection and appropriate manipulation, it is essential to capture the nature of diseases and make the order of acupuncture, which can achieve the aim of regulating qi movement and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess.

  6. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach

  7. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Abubeker, Jewahir Ali; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of an algorithm for sequential optimization of paths in directed graphs relative to di_erent cost functions. The considered algorithm is based on an extension of dynamic programming which allows

  8. Canada regroups for a renewed met assault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J. [Coal Association of Canada (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    An agreement in early 2003 between Canada's largest coal producers and two Vancouver area coal handling terminals has resulted in a major realignment of the national coal industry. Sherritt International Corporation and Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan have acquired the thermal coal properties previously owned by Fording, Inc.; Fording Inc. paired with Teck Comince Ltd. to form the Elk Valley Coal Corporation, suppliers of metallurgical coal. Consolidations of operations under Elk Valley Coal realised substantial operating, capital, marketing and transportation synergies and should bring huge cost savings. The article describes Elk Valley's mining operations. 1 ref., 3 photos.

  9. Validation of an analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Ponta, Michaela; Hategan, Raluca

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper was the validation of a new analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil after microwave assisted digestion in aqua regia. Determinations were performed on the ContrAA 300 (Analytik Jena) air-acetylene flame spectrometer equipped with xenon short-arc lamp as a continuum radiation source for all elements, double monochromator consisting of a prism pre-monocromator and an echelle grating monochromator, and charge coupled device as detector. For validation a method-performance study was conducted involving the establishment of the analytical performance of the new method (limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy). Moreover, the Bland and Altman statistical method was used in analyzing the agreement between the proposed assay and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry as standardized method for the multielemental determination in soil. The limits of detection in soil sample (3σ criterion) in the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry method were (mg/kg): 0.18 (Ag), 0.14 (Cd), 0.36 (Co), 0.25 (Cr), 0.09 (Cu), 1.0 (Ni), 1.4 (Pb) and 0.18 (Zn), close to those in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry: 0.12 (Ag), 0.05 (Cd), 0.15 (Co), 1.4 (Cr), 0.15 (Cu), 2.5 (Ni), 2.5 (Pb) and 0.04 (Zn). Accuracy was checked by analyzing 4 certified reference materials and a good agreement for 95% confidence interval was found in both methods, with recoveries in the range of 94-106% in atomic absorption and 97-103% in optical emission. Repeatability found by analyzing real soil samples was in the range 1.6-5.2% in atomic absorption, similar with that of 1.9-6.1% in optical emission spectrometry. The Bland and Altman method showed no statistical significant difference between the two spectrometric

  10. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2014-05-01

    Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.

  11. Sequential and simultaneous SLAR block adjustment. [spline function analysis for mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberl, F.

    1975-01-01

    Two sequential methods of planimetric SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar) block adjustment, with and without splines, and three simultaneous methods based on the principles of least squares are evaluated. A limited experiment with simulated SLAR images indicates that sequential block formation with splines followed by external interpolative adjustment is superior to the simultaneous methods such as planimetric block adjustment with similarity transformations. The use of the sequential block formation is recommended, since it represents an inexpensive tool for satisfactory point determination from SLAR images.

  12. Sequential function approximation on arbitrarily distributed point sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kailiang; Xiu, Dongbin

    2018-02-01

    We present a randomized iterative method for approximating unknown function sequentially on arbitrary point set. The method is based on a recently developed sequential approximation (SA) method, which approximates a target function using one data point at each step and avoids matrix operations. The focus of this paper is on data sets with highly irregular distribution of the points. We present a nearest neighbor replacement (NNR) algorithm, which allows one to sample the irregular data sets in a near optimal manner. We provide mathematical justification and error estimates for the NNR algorithm. Extensive numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate that the NNR algorithm can deliver satisfactory convergence for the SA method on data sets with high irregularity in their point distributions.

  13. Sequential and parallel image restoration: neural network implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M T; Leitao, J N

    1994-01-01

    Sequential and parallel image restoration algorithms and their implementations on neural networks are proposed. For images degraded by linear blur and contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation and regularization theory lead to the same high dimension convex optimization problem. The commonly adopted strategy (in using neural networks for image restoration) is to map the objective function of the optimization problem into the energy of a predefined network, taking advantage of its energy minimization properties. Departing from this approach, we propose neural implementations of iterative minimization algorithms which are first proved to converge. The developed schemes are based on modified Hopfield (1985) networks of graded elements, with both sequential and parallel updating schedules. An algorithm supported on a fully standard Hopfield network (binary elements and zero autoconnections) is also considered. Robustness with respect to finite numerical precision is studied, and examples with real images are presented.

  14. Sequential segmental classification of feline congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schneider, Matthias; Bonagura, John D

    2015-12-01

    Feline congenital heart disease is less commonly encountered in veterinary medicine than acquired feline heart diseases such as cardiomyopathy. Understanding the wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular disease demands a familiarity with a variety of lesions, occurring both in isolation and in combination, along with an appreciation of complex nomenclature and variable classification schemes. This review begins with an overview of congenital heart disease in the cat, including proposed etiologies and prevalence, examination approaches, and principles of therapy. Specific congenital defects are presented and organized by a sequential segmental classification with respect to their morphologic lesions. Highlights of diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis are offered. It is hoped that this review will provide a framework for approaching congenital heart disease in the cat, and more broadly in other animal species based on the sequential segmental approach, which represents an adaptation of the common methodology used in children and adults with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of simultaneous and sequential pediatric liver and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J; Bueno, J; Shapiro, R; Scantlebury, V; Mazariegos, G; Fung, J; Reyes, J

    2001-11-27

    (86%) of seven sequentially transplanted kidneys developed acute cellular rejection compared with only two (25%) of eight simultaneously transplanted kidneys (P<0.04). Simultaneously transplanted kidneys were less likely to develop rejection than sequentially transplanted kidneys in this series. This did not have any bearing on patient or graft survival rates. Mortality correlated directly with the severity of United Network of Organ Sharing status at the time of kidney transplantation. Candidates for simultaneous or sequential LTx/KTx should be prioritized based on medical stability to optimize distribution of scarce renal allografts.

  16. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...

  17. Simple and flexible SAS and SPSS programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B P

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes simple and flexible programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data, using SAS and SPSS. The programs read a stream of codes and produce a variety of lag-sequential statistics, including transitional frequencies, expected transitional frequencies, transitional probabilities, adjusted residuals, z values, Yule's Q values, likelihood ratio tests of stationarity across time and homogeneity across groups or segments, transformed kappas for unidirectional dependence, bidirectional dependence, parallel and nonparallel dominance, and significance levels based on both parametric and randomization tests.

  18. An accurate approximate solution of optimal sequential age replacement policy for a finite-time horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to find the optimal solution of the sequential age replacement policy for a finite-time horizon. This paper presents an accurate approximation to find an approximate optimal solution of the sequential replacement policy. The proposed approximation is computationally simple and suitable for any failure distribution. Their accuracy is illustrated by two examples. Based on the approximate solution, an approximate estimate for the total cost is derived.

  19. Dihydroazulene photoswitch operating in sequential tunneling regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Thisted, Christine Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    to electrodes so that the electron transport goes by sequential tunneling. To assure weak coupling, the DHA switching kernel is modified by incorporating p-MeSC6H4 end-groups. Molecules are prepared by Suzuki cross-couplings on suitable halogenated derivatives of DHA. The synthesis presents an expansion of our......, incorporating a p-MeSC6H4 anchoring group in one end, has been placed in a silver nanogap. Conductance measurements justify that transport through both DHA (high resistivity) and VHF (low resistivity) forms goes by sequential tunneling. The switching is fairly reversible and reenterable; after more than 20 ON...

  20. Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyukevich, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous

  1. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta; Buonaguidi, Roberto; Galzio, Renato J.; Di Nicola, Marta

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  2. Sequential Change-Point Detection via Online Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sequential change-point detection when the distribution parameters are unknown is a fundamental problem in statistics and machine learning. When the post-change parameters are unknown, we consider a set of detection procedures based on sequential likelihood ratios with non-anticipating estimators constructed using online convex optimization algorithms such as online mirror descent, which provides a more versatile approach to tackling complex situations where recursive maximum likelihood estimators cannot be found. When the underlying distributions belong to a exponential family and the estimators satisfy the logarithm regret property, we show that this approach is nearly second-order asymptotically optimal. This means that the upper bound for the false alarm rate of the algorithm (measured by the average-run-length meets the lower bound asymptotically up to a log-log factor when the threshold tends to infinity. Our proof is achieved by making a connection between sequential change-point and online convex optimization and leveraging the logarithmic regret bound property of online mirror descent algorithm. Numerical and real data examples validate our theory.

  3. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.

  5. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  6. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  8. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  9. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  10. S.M.P. SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CICIARELLI, V; LEONARD, JOSEPH

    A SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BEGINNING WITH THE BASIC FUNDAMENTALS ON THE FOURTH GRADE LEVEL IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN UNDERSTANDING OF OUR NUMBER SYSTEM, AND THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF WORKING WITH WHOLE NUMBERS--ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, AND DIVISION. COMMON FRACTIONS ARE TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH, SIXTH, AND SEVENTH GRADES. A…

  11. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  12. Sequential models for coarsening and missingness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.; Robins, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a companion paper we described what intuitively would seem to be the most general possible way to generate Coarsening at Random mechanisms a sequential procedure called randomized monotone coarsening Counterexamples showed that CAR mechanisms exist which cannot be represented in this way Here we

  13. Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role

  14. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity

  15. A framework for sequential multiblock component methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jong, S.de

    2003-01-01

    Multiblock or multiset methods are starting to be used in chemistry and biology to study complex data sets. In chemometrics, sequential multiblock methods are popular; that is, methods that calculate one component at a time and use deflation for finding the next component. In this paper a framework

  16. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  17. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects

  18. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video

  19. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    maintains the flexibility of deciding sooner than the fixed sample size procedure at the price of some lower power [13, 514]. The sequential probability... markets , detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the... skimming cruise missile can yield a significant increase in the probability of raid annihilation. Furthermore, usually detection systems are

  20. STABILIZED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the motivation for, the current state-of-the-art in convergence results, and some open questions concerning the stabilized version of the sequential quadratic programming algorithm for constrained optimization. We also discuss the tools required for its local convergence analysis, globalization challenges, and extentions of the method to the more general variational problems.

  1. Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique

  2. How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kraft

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.

  3. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  4. Eyewitness identification in simultaneous and sequential lineups: an investigation of position effects using receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisters, Julia; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2018-04-20

    For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported. Using ROC curve analysis, we investigated the effects of the suspect's position on discriminability and response criteria in both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We found that sequential lineups suffered from an unwanted position effect. Respondents employed a strict criterion for the earliest lineup positions, and shifted to a more liberal criterion for later positions. No position effects and no criterion shifts were observed in simultaneous lineups. This result suggests that sequential lineups are not superior to simultaneous lineups, and may give rise to unwanted position effects that have to be considered when conducting police lineups.

  5. Confirmatory Analysis of Simultaneous, Sequential, and Achievement Factors on the K-ABC at 11 Age Levels Ranging from 2 1/2 to 12 1/2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Victor L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents results of confirmatory factor analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children which is based on the underlying theoretical model of sequential, simultaneous, and achievement factors. Found support for the two-factor, simultaneous and sequential processing model. (MCF)

  6. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  7. Sequential Detection of Fission Processes for Harbor Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Walston, S E; Chambers, D H

    2015-02-12

    With the large increase in terrorist activities throughout the world, the timely and accurate detection of special nuclear material (SNM) has become an extremely high priority for many countries concerned with national security. The detection of radionuclide contraband based on their γ-ray emissions has been attacked vigorously with some interesting and feasible results; however, the fission process of SNM has not received as much attention due to its inherent complexity and required predictive nature. In this paper, on-line, sequential Bayesian detection and estimation (parameter) techniques to rapidly and reliably detect unknown fissioning sources with high statistical confidence are developed.

  8. Documentscape: Intertextuality, Sequentiality & Autonomy at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Bjørn, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic field study, this article introduces the concept of documentscape to the analysis of document-centric work practices. The concept of documentscape refers to the entire ensemble of documents in their mutual intertextual interlocking. Providing empirical data from...... a global software development case, we show how hierarchical structures and sequentiality across the interlocked documents are critical to how actors make sense of the work of others and what to do next in a geographically distributed setting. Furthermore, we found that while each document is created...... as part of a quasi-sequential order, this characteristic does not make the document, as a single entity, into a stable object. Instead, we found that the documents were malleable and dynamic while suspended in intertextual structures. Our concept of documentscape points to how the hierarchical structure...

  9. A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory

  10. Applying the minimax principle to sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (minimum

  11. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016

  12. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  13. Comparing two Poisson populations sequentially: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halteman, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado monitors each of its employees for radiation exposure. Excess exposure is detected by comparing the means of two Poisson populations. A sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is proposed as a replacement for the fixed sample normal approximation test. A uniformly most efficient SPRT exists, however logistics suggest using a truncated SPRT. The truncated SPRT is evaluated in detail and shown to possess large potential savings in average time spent by employees in the monitoring process

  14. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sequential Monte Carlo with Highly Informative Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Pierre; Murray, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling the posterior distribution of state-space models under highly informative observation regimes, a situation in which standard SMC methods can perform poorly. A special case is simulating bridges between given initial and final values. The basic idea is to introduce a schedule of intermediate weighting and resampling times between observation times, which guide particles towards the final state. This can always be done for continuous-...

  16. Sequential test procedures for inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Kern, E.A.; Emeigh, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    By means of a simulation study, we investigated the appropriateness of Page's and power-one sequential tests on sequences of inventory differences obtained from an example materials control unit, a sub-area of a hypothetical UF 6 -to-U 3 O 8 conversion process. The study examined detection probability and run length curves obtained from different loss scenarios. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Sequential neural models with stochastic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccaro, Marco; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Paquet, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    How can we efficiently propagate uncertainty in a latent state representation with recurrent neural networks? This paper introduces stochastic recurrent neural networks which glue a deterministic recurrent neural network and a state space model together to form a stochastic and sequential neural...... generative model. The clear separation of deterministic and stochastic layers allows a structured variational inference network to track the factorization of the model's posterior distribution. By retaining both the nonlinear recursive structure of a recurrent neural network and averaging over...

  18. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  19. A Bayesian Optimal Design for Sequential Accelerated Degradation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When optimizing an accelerated degradation testing (ADT plan, the initial values of unknown model parameters must be pre-specified. However, it is usually difficult to obtain the exact values, since many uncertainties are embedded in these parameters. Bayesian ADT optimal design was presented to address this problem by using prior distributions to capture these uncertainties. Nevertheless, when the difference between a prior distribution and actual situation is large, the existing Bayesian optimal design might cause some over-testing or under-testing issues. For example, the implemented ADT following the optimal ADT plan consumes too much testing resources or few accelerated degradation data are obtained during the ADT. To overcome these obstacles, a Bayesian sequential step-down-stress ADT design is proposed in this article. During the sequential ADT, the test under the highest stress level is firstly conducted based on the initial prior information to quickly generate degradation data. Then, the data collected under higher stress levels are employed to construct the prior distributions for the test design under lower stress levels by using the Bayesian inference. In the process of optimization, the inverse Gaussian (IG process is assumed to describe the degradation paths, and the Bayesian D-optimality is selected as the optimal objective. A case study on an electrical connector’s ADT plan is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed Bayesian sequential ADT design method. Compared with the results from a typical static Bayesian ADT plan, the proposed design could guarantee more stable and precise estimations of different reliability measures.

  20. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  1. Sequential error concealment for video/images by weighted template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koloda, Jan; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel spatial error concealment algorithm for video and images based on convex optimization. Block-based coding schemes in packet loss environment are considered. Missing macro blocks are sequentially reconstructed by filling them with a weighted set of templates...

  2. Eyewitness decisions in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a dual-process signal detection theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Christian A; Tredoux, Colin G; Parker, Janat F; MacLin, Otto H

    2005-07-01

    Many eyewitness researchers have argued for the application of a sequential alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup, given its role in decreasing false identifications of innocent suspects (sequential superiority effect). However, Ebbesen and Flowe (2002) have recently noted that sequential lineups may merely bring about a shift in response criterion, having no effect on discrimination accuracy. We explored this claim, using a method that allows signal detection theory measures to be collected from eyewitnesses. In three experiments, lineup type was factorially combined with conditions expected to influence response criterion and/or discrimination accuracy. Results were consistent with signal detection theory predictions, including that of a conservative criterion shift with the sequential presentation of lineups. In a fourth experiment, we explored the phenomenological basis for the criterion shift, using the remember-know-guess procedure. In accord with previous research, the criterion shift in sequential lineups was associated with a reduction in familiarity-based responding. It is proposed that the relative similarity between lineup members may create a context in which fluency-based processing is facilitated to a greater extent when lineup members are presented simultaneously.

  3. Sequential accelerated tests: Improving the correlation of accelerated tests to module performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John

    2016-09-01

    DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, P.; Crown, J.; Di, Leo A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is more effective than doxorubicin for patients with advanced breast cancer. The Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial tested the effect of incorporating docetaxel into anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy and compared sequential vs concurrent administration....... However, important differences may be related to doxorubicin and docetaxel scheduling, with sequential but not concurrent administration, appearing to produce better DFS than anthracycline-based chemotherapy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/16...

  5. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf

  6. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.

  8. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.

  9. A sequential/parallel track selector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolino, F; Bressani, Tullio; Chiavassa, E; Costa, S; Dellacasa, G; Gallio, M; Musso, A

    1980-01-01

    A medium speed ( approximately 1 mu s) hardware pre-analyzer for the selection of events detected in four planes of drift chambers in the magnetic field of the Omicron Spectrometer at the CERN SC is described. Specific geometrical criteria determine patterns of hits in the four planes of vertical wires that have to be recognized and that are stored as patterns of '1's in random access memories. Pairs of good hits are found sequentially, then the RAMs are used as look-up tables. (6 refs).

  10. Boundary conditions in random sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Ziff, Robert M.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of different boundary conditions on the density of random packings of disks is studied. Packings are generated using the random sequential adsorption algorithm with three different types of boundary conditions: periodic, open, and wall. It is found that the finite size effects are smallest for periodic boundary conditions, as expected. On the other hand, in the case of open and wall boundaries it is possible to introduce an effective packing size and a constant correction term to significantly improve the packing densities.

  11. Automatic synthesis of sequential control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.

    1993-01-01

    Of all hard- and software developed for industrial control purposes, the majority is devoted to sequential, or binary valued, control and only a minor part to classical linear control. Typically, the sequential parts of the controller are invoked during startup and shut-down to bring the system into its normal operating region and into some safe standby region, respectively. Despite its importance, fairly little theoretical research has been devoted to this area, and sequential control programs are therefore still created manually without much theoretical support to obtain a systematic approach. We propose a method to create sequential control programs automatically. The main ideas is to spend some effort off-line modelling the plant, and from this model generate the control strategy, that is the plan. The plant is modelled using action structures, thereby concentrating on the actions instead of the states of the plant. In general the planning problem shows exponential complexity in the number of state variables. However, by focusing on the actions, we can identify problem classes as well as algorithms such that the planning complexity is reduced to polynomial complexity. We prove that these algorithms are sound, i.e., the generated solution will solve the stated problem, and complete, i.e., if the algorithms fail, then no solution exists. The algorithms generate a plan as a set of actions and a partial order on this set specifying the execution order. The generated plant is proven to be minimal and maximally parallel. For a larger class of problems we propose a method to split the original problem into a number of simple problems that can each be solved using one of the presented algorithms. It is also shown how a plan can be translated into a GRAFCET chart, and to illustrate these ideas we have implemented a planing tool, i.e., a system that is able to automatically create control schemes. Such a tool can of course also be used on-line if it is fast enough. This

  12. From sequential to parallel programming with patterns

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    To increase in both performance and efficiency, our programming models need to adapt to better exploit modern processors. The classic idioms and patterns for programming such as loops, branches or recursion are the pillars of almost every code and are well known among all programmers. These patterns all have in common that they are sequential in nature. Embracing parallel programming patterns, which allow us to program for multi- and many-core hardware in a natural way, greatly simplifies the task of designing a program that scales and performs on modern hardware, independently of the used programming language, and in a generic way.

  13. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  14. Simultaneous optimization of sequential IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, Richard A.; Prellop, Perri B.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Santos, Jennifer F. de los; Duan, Jun; Fiveash, John B.; Brezovich, Ivan A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy often comprises two phases, in which irradiation of a volume at risk for microscopic disease is followed by a sequential dose escalation to a smaller volume either at a higher risk for microscopic disease or containing only gross disease. This technique is difficult to implement with intensity modulated radiotherapy, as the tolerance doses of critical structures must be respected over the sum of the two plans. Techniques that include an integrated boost have been proposed to address this problem. However, clinical experience with such techniques is limited, and many clinicians are uncomfortable prescribing nonconventional fractionation schemes. To solve this problem, we developed an optimization technique that simultaneously generates sequential initial and boost IMRT plans. We have developed an optimization tool that uses a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a high level programming language for technical computing. The tool uses the TPS to calculate the dose deposition coefficients (DDCs) for optimization. The DDCs were imported into external software and the treatment ports duplicated to create the boost plan. The initial, boost, and tolerance doses were specified and used to construct cost functions. The initial and boost plans were optimized simultaneously using a gradient search technique. Following optimization, the fluence maps were exported to the TPS for dose calculation. Seven patients treated using sequential techniques were selected from our clinical database. The initial and boost plans used to treat these patients were developed independently of each other by dividing the tolerance doses proportionally between the initial and boost plans and then iteratively optimizing the plans until a summation that met the treatment goals was obtained. We used the simultaneous optimization technique to generate plans that met the original planning goals. The coverage of the initial and boost target volumes in the simultaneously optimized

  15. On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Abediseid, Walid

    2013-04-04

    In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the \\\\textit{lattice decoder}. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.

  16. On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Abediseid, Walid

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.

  17. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  18. Strategic Path Planning by Sequential Parametric Bayesian Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baro Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to generate a path for a mobile agent that carries sensors used for classification, where the path is to optimize strategic objectives that account for misclassification and the consequences of misclassification, and where the weights assigned to these consequences are chosen by a strategist. We propose a model that accounts for the interaction between the agent kinematics (i.e., the ability to move, informatics (i.e., the ability to process data to information, classification (i.e., the ability to classify objects based on the information, and strategy (i.e., the mission objective. Within this model, we pose and solve a sequential decision problem that accounts for strategist preferences and the solution to the problem yields a sequence of kinematic decisions of a moving agent. The solution of the sequential decision problem yields the following flying tactics: “approach only objects whose suspected identity matters to the strategy”. These tactics are numerically illustrated in several scenarios.

  19. Mean-Variance-Validation Technique for Sequential Kriging Metamodels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Ho Sung

    2010-01-01

    The rigorous validation of the accuracy of metamodels is an important topic in research on metamodel techniques. Although a leave-k-out cross-validation technique involves a considerably high computational cost, it cannot be used to measure the fidelity of metamodels. Recently, the mean 0 validation technique has been proposed to quantitatively determine the accuracy of metamodels. However, the use of mean 0 validation criterion may lead to premature termination of a sampling process even if the kriging model is inaccurate. In this study, we propose a new validation technique based on the mean and variance of the response evaluated when sequential sampling method, such as maximum entropy sampling, is used. The proposed validation technique is more efficient and accurate than the leave-k-out cross-validation technique, because instead of performing numerical integration, the kriging model is explicitly integrated to accurately evaluate the mean and variance of the response evaluated. The error in the proposed validation technique resembles a root mean squared error, thus it can be used to determine a stop criterion for sequential sampling of metamodels

  20. Sequential decisions: a computational comparison of observational and reinforcement accounts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Mohammadi Sepahvand

    Full Text Available Right brain damaged patients show impairments in sequential decision making tasks for which healthy people do not show any difficulty. We hypothesized that this difficulty could be due to the failure of right brain damage patients to develop well-matched models of the world. Our motivation is the idea that to navigate uncertainty, humans use models of the world to direct the decisions they make when interacting with their environment. The better the model is, the better their decisions are. To explore the model building and updating process in humans and the basis for impairment after brain injury, we used a computational model of non-stationary sequence learning. RELPH (Reinforcement and Entropy Learned Pruned Hypothesis space was able to qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the results of left and right brain damaged patient groups and healthy controls playing a sequential version of Rock, Paper, Scissors. Our results suggests that, in general, humans employ a sub-optimal reinforcement based learning method rather than an objectively better statistical learning approach, and that differences between right brain damaged and healthy control groups can be explained by different exploration policies, rather than qualitatively different learning mechanisms.

  1. Online Sequential Projection Vector Machine with Adaptive Data Mean Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Jia, Ji-Ting; Zhang, Qiong; Deng, Wan-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple online learning algorithm especial for high-dimensional data. The algorithm is referred to as online sequential projection vector machine (OSPVM) which derives from projection vector machine and can learn from data in one-by-one or chunk-by-chunk mode. In OSPVM, data centering, dimension reduction, and neural network training are integrated seamlessly. In particular, the model parameters including (1) the projection vectors for dimension reduction, (2) the input weights, biases, and output weights, and (3) the number of hidden nodes can be updated simultaneously. Moreover, only one parameter, the number of hidden nodes, needs to be determined manually, and this makes it easy for use in real applications. Performance comparison was made on various high-dimensional classification problems for OSPVM against other fast online algorithms including budgeted stochastic gradient descent (BSGD) approach, adaptive multihyperplane machine (AMM), primal estimated subgradient solver (Pegasos), online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM), and SVD + OSELM (feature selection based on SVD is performed before OSELM). The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the OSPVM.

  2. Online Sequential Projection Vector Machine with Adaptive Data Mean Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple online learning algorithm especial for high-dimensional data. The algorithm is referred to as online sequential projection vector machine (OSPVM which derives from projection vector machine and can learn from data in one-by-one or chunk-by-chunk mode. In OSPVM, data centering, dimension reduction, and neural network training are integrated seamlessly. In particular, the model parameters including (1 the projection vectors for dimension reduction, (2 the input weights, biases, and output weights, and (3 the number of hidden nodes can be updated simultaneously. Moreover, only one parameter, the number of hidden nodes, needs to be determined manually, and this makes it easy for use in real applications. Performance comparison was made on various high-dimensional classification problems for OSPVM against other fast online algorithms including budgeted stochastic gradient descent (BSGD approach, adaptive multihyperplane machine (AMM, primal estimated subgradient solver (Pegasos, online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM, and SVD + OSELM (feature selection based on SVD is performed before OSELM. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the OSPVM.

  3. On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.

  4. Sequential optimization and reliability assessment method for metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Atul; Schramm, Uwe; Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Chen Wei; Cao Jian; Xia, Cedric Z.

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty is inevitable in any design process. The uncertainty could be due to the variations in geometry of the part, material properties or due to the lack of knowledge about the phenomena being modeled itself. Deterministic design optimization does not take uncertainty into account and worst case scenario assumptions lead to vastly over conservative design. Probabilistic design, such as reliability-based design and robust design, offers tools for making robust and reliable decisions under the presence of uncertainty in the design process. Probabilistic design optimization often involves double-loop procedure for optimization and iterative probabilistic assessment. This results in high computational demand. The high computational demand can be reduced by replacing computationally intensive simulation models with less costly surrogate models and by employing Sequential Optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) method. The SORA method uses a single-loop strategy with a series of cycles of deterministic optimization and reliability assessment. The deterministic optimization and reliability assessment is decoupled in each cycle. This leads to quick improvement of design from one cycle to other and increase in computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA) method when applied to designing a sheet metal flanging process. Surrogate models are used as less costly approximations to the computationally expensive Finite Element simulations

  5. Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan; Mei, Jianguo; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Kristin; Giri, Gaurav; Appleton, Anthony L.; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate high-performance sequentially solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% for blend films using a donor polymer based on the isoindigo-bithiophene repeat unit (PII2T-C10C8) and a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). This has been accomplished by systematically controlling the swelling and intermixing processes of the layer with various processing solvents during deposition of the fullerene. We find that among the solvents used for fullerene deposition that primarily swell but do not re-dissolve the polymer underlayer, there were significant microstructural differences between chloro and o-dichlorobenzene solvents (CB and ODCB, respectively). Specifically, we show that the polymer crystallite orientation distribution in films where ODCB was used to cast the fullerene is broad. This indicates that out-of-plane charge transport through a tortuous transport network is relatively efficient due to a large density of inter-grain connections. In contrast, using CB results in primarily edge-on oriented polymer crystallites, which leads to diminished out-of-plane charge transport. We correlate these microstructural differences with photocurrent measurements, which clearly show that casting the fullerene out of ODCB leads to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. Thus, we believe that tuning the processing solvents used to cast the electron acceptor in sequentially-processed devices is a viable way to controllably tune the blend film microstructure. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. On the effect of response transformations in sequential parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tobias; Wessing, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Parameter tuning of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) is attracting more and more interest. In particular, the sequential parameter optimization (SPO) framework for the model-assisted tuning of stochastic optimizers has resulted in established parameter tuning algorithms. In this paper, we enhance the SPO framework by introducing transformation steps before the response aggregation and before the actual modeling. Based on design-of-experiments techniques, we empirically analyze the effect of integrating different transformations. We show that in particular, a rank transformation of the responses provides significant improvements. A deeper analysis of the resulting models and additional experiments with adaptive procedures indicates that the rank and the Box-Cox transformation are able to improve the properties of the resultant distributions with respect to symmetry and normality of the residuals. Moreover, model-based effect plots document a higher discriminatory power obtained by the rank transformation.

  7. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  8. Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.

  9. Time scale of random sequential adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.

  10. Sequential and simultaneous choices: testing the diet selection and sequential choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Aw, Justine; Kacelnik, Alex

    2009-03-01

    We investigate simultaneous and sequential choices in starlings, using Charnov's Diet Choice Model (DCM) and Shapiro, Siller and Kacelnik's Sequential Choice Model (SCM) to integrate function and mechanism. During a training phase, starlings encountered one food-related option per trial (A, B or R) in random sequence and with equal probability. A and B delivered food rewards after programmed delays (shorter for A), while R ('rejection') moved directly to the next trial without reward. In this phase we measured latencies to respond. In a later, choice, phase, birds encountered the pairs A-B, A-R and B-R, the first implementing a simultaneous choice and the second and third sequential choices. The DCM predicts when R should be chosen to maximize intake rate, and SCM uses latencies of the training phase to predict choices between any pair of options in the choice phase. The predictions of both models coincided, and both successfully predicted the birds' preferences. The DCM does not deal with partial preferences, while the SCM does, and experimental results were strongly correlated to this model's predictions. We believe that the SCM may expose a very general mechanism of animal choice, and that its wider domain of success reflects the greater ecological significance of sequential over simultaneous choices.

  11. A fast and accurate online sequential learning algorithm for feedforward networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nan-Ying; Huang, Guang-Bin; Saratchandran, P; Sundararajan, N

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we develop an online sequential learning algorithm for single hidden layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) with additive or radial basis function (RBF) hidden nodes in a unified framework. The algorithm is referred to as online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) and can learn data one-by-one or chunk-by-chunk (a block of data) with fixed or varying chunk size. The activation functions for additive nodes in OS-ELM can be any bounded nonconstant piecewise continuous functions and the activation functions for RBF nodes can be any integrable piecewise continuous functions. In OS-ELM, the parameters of hidden nodes (the input weights and biases of additive nodes or the centers and impact factors of RBF nodes) are randomly selected and the output weights are analytically determined based on the sequentially arriving data. The algorithm uses the ideas of ELM of Huang et al. developed for batch learning which has been shown to be extremely fast with generalization performance better than other batch training methods. Apart from selecting the number of hidden nodes, no other control parameters have to be manually chosen. Detailed performance comparison of OS-ELM is done with other popular sequential learning algorithms on benchmark problems drawn from the regression, classification and time series prediction areas. The results show that the OS-ELM is faster than the other sequential algorithms and produces better generalization performance.

  12. Ab-initio validation of a simple heuristic expression for the sequential-double-ionization contribution to the double ionization of helium by ultrashort XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Aihua; Thumm, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We study two-photon double ionization of helium by short XUV pulses by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in full dimensionality within a finite-element discrete-variable-representation scheme. Based on the emission asymmetries in joint photoelectron angular distributions, we identify sequential and non-sequential contributions to two-photon double ionization for ultrashort pulses whose spectrum overlaps the sequential (ħω > 54.4 eV) and non-sequential (39.5 eV < ħω < 54.4 eV) double-ionization regimes. (paper)

  13. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-05-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  14. Bootstrap Sequential Determination of the Co-integration Rank in VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiseppe, Cavaliere; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    with empirical rejection frequencies often very much in excess of the nominal level. As a consequence, bootstrap versions of these tests have been developed. To be useful, however, sequential procedures for determining the co-integrating rank based on these bootstrap tests need to be consistent, in the sense...... in the literature by proposing a bootstrap sequential algorithm which we demonstrate delivers consistent cointegration rank estimation for general I(1) processes. Finite sample Monte Carlo simulations show the proposed procedure performs well in practice....

  15. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-( 125 I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment

  16. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  17. Sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia: evidence from artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2017-01-01

    We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia ( n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants ( n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group ( n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule. The trained healthy and aphasic groups showed greater sensitivity to the detection of grammatical items than the control group. No significant correlations between sequential learning and language abilities were observed among the aphasic participants. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia show sequential learning, but the underlying processes involved in this learning may be different than for healthy adults.

  18. Sequential decoding of intramuscular EMG signals via estimation of a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsifrot, Jonathan; Le Carpentier, Eric; Aoustin, Yannick; Farina, Dario

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the sequential decoding of intramuscular single-channel electromyographic (EMG) signals to extract the activity of individual motor neurons. A hidden Markov model is derived from the physiological generation of the EMG signal. The EMG signal is described as a sum of several action potentials (wavelet) trains, embedded in noise. For each train, the time interval between wavelets is modeled by a process that parameters are linked to the muscular activity. The parameters of this process are estimated sequentially by a Bayes filter, along with the firing instants. The method was tested on some simulated signals and an experimental one, from which the rates of detection and classification of action potentials were above 95% with respect to the reference decomposition. The method works sequentially in time, and is the first to address the problem of intramuscular EMG decomposition online. It has potential applications for man-machine interfacing based on motor neuron activities.

  19. Reliability assessment of restructured power systems using reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit; Billinton, Roy; Karki, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to evaluate reliability of a restructured power system with a bilateral market. The proposed technique is based on the combination of the reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation approaches. The reliability network equivalent techniques have been implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation procedure to reduce the computational burden of the analysis. Pseudo-sequential simulation has been used to increase the computational efficiency of the non-sequential simulation method and to model the chronological aspects of market trading and system operation. Multi-state Markov models for generation and transmission systems are proposed and implemented in the simulation. A new load shedding scheme is proposed during generation inadequacy and network congestion to minimize the load curtailment. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is used to illustrate the technique. (author)

  20. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  1. Simultaneous versus Sequential Intratympanic Steroid Treatment for Severe-to-Profound Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Lim, Won Sub; Park, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Joong Keun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; An, Yong-Hwi; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong Yang; Lim, Hyun Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Severe-to-profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) has a poor prognosis. We aimed to compare the efficacy of simultaneous and sequential oral and intratympanic steroids for this condition. Fifty patients with severe-to-profound SSNHL (>70 dB HL) were included from 7 centers. The simultaneous group (27 patients) received oral and intratympanic steroid injections for 2 weeks. The sequential group (23 patients) was treated with oral steroids for 2 weeks and intratympanic steroids for the subsequent 2 weeks. Pure-tone averages (PTA) and word discrimination scores (WDS) were compared before treatment and 2 weeks and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Treatment outcomes according to the modified American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) criteria were also analyzed. The improvement in PTA and WDS at the 2-week follow-up was 23 ± 21 dB HL and 20 ± 39% in the simultaneous group and 31 ± 29 dB HL and 37 ± 42% in the sequential group; this was not statistically significant. Complete or partial recovery at the 2-week follow-up was observed in 26% of the simultaneous group and 30% of the sequential group; this was also not significant. The improvement in PTA and WDS at the 2-month follow-up was 40 ± 20 dB HL and 37 ± 35% in the simultaneous group and 41 ± 25 dB HL and 48 ± 41% in the sequential group; this was not statistically significant. Complete or partial recovery at the 2-month follow-up was observed in 33% of the simultaneous group and 35% of the sequential group; this was also not significant. Seven patients in the sequential group did not need intratympanic steroid injections for sufficient improvement after oral steroids alone. Simultaneous oral/intratympanic steroid treatment yielded a recovery similar to that produced by sequential treatment. Because the addition of intratympanic steroids can be decided upon based on the improvement after an oral steroid, the sequential regimen can be recommended to avoid unnecessary

  2. Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...

  3. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation mode...

  4. C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T

    2002-02-01

    C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.

  5. On-line Flagging of Anomalies and Adaptive Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Fine-feature Characterization of Geosynchronous Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    model-based evidence. This work resolves cross-tag using three methods (Z-test for dependent data, classical sequential analysis and Brownian motion...Slider Movement The two-facet model is used as the Inversion Model. It represents a three-axis stabilized satellite as two facets, namely a body...the sequential analysis. If is independent and has an approximately normal distribution then Brownian motion drift analysis is used. If is

  6. Evolution from sequential decay to simultaneous multifragmentation with increasing beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiyong; Jin Genming; Li Zuyu

    1996-01-01

    Two-fragment correlation functions have been measured for 40 Ar + 197 Au collisions at E/A = 25 MeV. Based on the three-body trajectory calculation, a mean emission time of τ∼450 fm/c for light fragments was extracted from the measured correlation functions. This result suggests that the sequential decay occurs at this energy

  7. Modeling eye gaze patterns in clinician-patient interaction with lag sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Enid; Xu, Jie; Chen, Ping-Yu; Asan, Onur; Barrett, Bruce P; Chewning, Betty

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether lag sequential analysis could be used to describe eye gaze orientation between clinicians and patients in the medical encounter. This topic is particularly important as new technologies are implemented into multiuser health care settings in which trust is critical and nonverbal cues are integral to achieving trust. This analysis method could lead to design guidelines for technologies and more effective assessments of interventions. Nonverbal communication patterns are important aspects of clinician-patient interactions and may affect patient outcomes. The eye gaze behaviors of clinicians and patients in 110 videotaped medical encounters were analyzed using the lag sequential method to identify significant behavior sequences. Lag sequential analysis included both event-based lag and time-based lag. Results from event-based lag analysis showed that the patient's gaze followed that of the clinician, whereas the clinician's gaze did not follow the patient's. Time-based sequential analysis showed that responses from the patient usually occurred within 2 s after the initial behavior of the clinician. Our data suggest that the clinician's gaze significantly affects the medical encounter but that the converse is not true. Findings from this research have implications for the design of clinical work systems and modeling interactions. Similar research methods could be used to identify different behavior patterns in clinical settings (physical layout, technology, etc.) to facilitate and evaluate clinical work system designs.

  8. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...

  9. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Sequential Online Wellness Programming Is an Effective Strategy to Promote Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, Lindsay R.; Francis, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of United States youth and adults categorized as overweight or obese illustrates a need for research-based family wellness interventions. Sequential, online, Extension-delivered family wellness interventions offer a time- and cost-effective approach for both participants and Extension educators. The 6-week, online Healthy…

  11. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independen...... of the methods often (but not always) varies with the features of the data generating process....

  12. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J

    2011-09-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation modes. For sequential VCs, the interpulse interval (IPI) varied between 0.0 and 1.8 ms. All stimuli were presented at comfortably loud, loudness-balanced levels at a 250 pulse per second per electrode (ppse) stimulation rate. On average, CI subjects were able to reliably discriminate between sequential and simultaneous VCs. While there was no significant effect of IPI or stimulation mode on VC discrimination, some subjects exhibited better VC discrimination with BP + 1 stimulation. Subjects' discrimination between sequential and simultaneous VCs was correlated with electrode discrimination, suggesting that spatial selectivity may influence perception of sequential VCs. To maintain equal loudness, sequential VC amplitudes were nearly double those of simultaneous VCs, presumably resulting in a broader spread of excitation. These results suggest that perceptual differences between simultaneous and sequential VCs might be explained by differences in the spread of excitation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  13. Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

    2008-06-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...

  15. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  16. Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis

    2012-01-01

    In this study clinically relevant ultrasound images generated with synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is compared to images generated with a conventional technique. The advantage of SASB is the ability to produce high resolution ultrasound images with a high frame rate and at the same...... time massively reduce the amount of generated data. SASB was implemented in a system consisting of a conventional ultrasound scanner connected to a PC via a research interface. This setup enables simultaneous recording with both SASB and conventional technique. Eighteen volunteers were ultrasound...... scanned abdominally, and 84 sequence pairs were recorded. Each sequence pair consists of two simultaneous recordings of the same anatomical location with SASB and conventional B-mode imaging. The images were evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, contrast, unwanted artifacts, and penetration depth...

  17. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  18. Gleason-Busch theorem for sequential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Kieran; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Gleason's theorem is a statement that, given some reasonable assumptions, the Born rule used to calculate probabilities in quantum mechanics is essentially unique [A. M. Gleason, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 6, 885 (1957), 10.1512/iumj.1957.6.56050]. We show that Gleason's theorem contains within it also the structure of sequential measurements, and along with this the state update rule. We give a small set of axioms, which are physically motivated and analogous to those in Busch's proof of Gleason's theorem [P. Busch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 120403 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.120403], from which the familiar Kraus operator form follows. An axiomatic approach has practical relevance as well as fundamental interest, in making clear those assumptions which underlie the security of quantum communication protocols. Interestingly, the two-time formalism is seen to arise naturally in this approach.

  19. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  20. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  1. Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Uehara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.

  2. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  3. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-05

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  4. Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2008-01-01

    The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials

  5. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  6. Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers

  7. Sequential and simultaneous thermal and particle exposure of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steudel, I; Huber, A; Kreter, A; Linke, J; Sergienko, G; Unterberg, B; Wirtz, M

    2016-01-01

    The broad array of expected loading conditions in a fusion reactor such as ITER necessitates high requirements on the plasma facing materials (PFMs). Tungsten, the PFM for the divertor region, the most affected part of the in-vessel components, must thus sustain severe, distinct exposure conditions. Accordingly, comprehensive experiments investigating sequential and simultaneous thermal and particle loads were performed on double forged pure tungsten, not only to investigate whether the thermal and particle loads cause damage but also if the sequence of exposure maintains an influence. The exposed specimens showed various kinds of damage such as roughening, blistering, and cracking at a base temperature where tungsten could be ductile enough to compensate the induced stresses exclusively by plastic deformation (Pintsuk et al 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 417 481–6). It was found out that hydrogen has an adverse effect on the material performance and the loading sequence on the surface modification. (paper)

  8. Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, N R; Braden, J B

    2001-03-01

    Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.

  9. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  10. Decision-making in research tasks with sequential testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent controversial essay, published by JPA Ioannidis in PLoS Medicine, it has been argued that in some research fields, most of the published findings are false. Based on theoretical reasoning it can be shown that small effect sizes, error-prone tests, low priors of the tested hypotheses and biases in the evaluation and publication of research findings increase the fraction of false positives. These findings raise concerns about the reliability of research. However, they are based on a very simple scenario of scientific research, where single tests are used to evaluate independent hypotheses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present computer simulations and experimental approaches for analyzing more realistic scenarios. In these scenarios, research tasks are solved sequentially, i.e. subsequent tests can be chosen depending on previous results. We investigate simple sequential testing and scenarios where only a selected subset of results can be published and used for future rounds of test choice. Results from computer simulations indicate that for the tasks analyzed in this study, the fraction of false among the positive findings declines over several rounds of testing if the most informative tests are performed. Our experiments show that human subjects frequently perform the most informative tests, leading to a decline of false positives as expected from the simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the research tasks studied here, findings tend to become more reliable over time. We also find that the performance in those experimental settings where not all performed tests could be published turned out to be surprisingly inefficient. Our results may help optimize existing procedures used in the practice of scientific research and provide guidance for the development of novel forms of scholarly communication.

  11. Hemodynamic analysis of sequential graft from right coronary system to left coronary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxin; Mao, Boyan; Wang, Haoran; Geng, Xueying; Zhao, Xi; Zhang, Huixia; Xie, Jinsheng; Zhao, Zhou; Lian, Bo; Liu, Youjun

    2016-12-28

    Sequential and single grafting are two surgical procedures of coronary artery bypass grafting. However, it remains unclear if the sequential graft can be used between the right and left coronary artery system. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the possibility of right coronary artery system anastomosis to left coronary system. A patient-specific 3D model was first reconstructed based on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images. Two different grafts, the normal multi-graft (Model 1) and the novel multi-graft (Model 2), were then implemented on this patient-specific model using virtual surgery techniques. In Model 1, the single graft was anastomosed to right coronary artery (RCA) and the sequential graft was adopted to anastomose left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCX). While in Model 2, the single graft was anastomosed to LAD and the sequential graft was adopted to anastomose RCA and LCX. A zero-dimensional/three-dimensional (0D/3D) coupling method was used to realize the multi-scale simulation of both the pre-operative and two post-operative models. Flow rates in the coronary artery and grafts were obtained. The hemodynamic parameters were also showed, including wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). The area of low WSS and OSI in Model 1 was much less than that in Model 2. Model 1 shows optimistic hemodynamic modifications which may enhance the long-term patency of grafts. The anterior segments of sequential graft have better long-term patency than the posterior segments. With rational spatial position of the heart vessels, the last anastomosis of sequential graft should be connected to the main branch.

  12. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell

  13. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A., E-mail: puleo@uky.edu

    2014-10-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell

  14. Campbell and moment measures for finite sequential spatial processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe define moment and Campbell measures for sequential spatial processes, prove a Campbell-Mecke theorem, and relate the results to their counterparts in the theory of point processes. In particular, we show that any finite sequential spatial process model can be derived as the vector

  15. Simultaneous versus sequential penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2006-10-01

    To compare the surgical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery with those of sequential surgery. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients scheduled for simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery and 23 eyes of 23 patients scheduled for sequential keratoplasty and secondary phacoemulsification surgery were recruited. Refractive error, regular and irregular corneal astigmatism determined by Fourier analysis, and endothelial cell loss were studied at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after combined surgery in the simultaneous surgery group or after subsequent phacoemulsification surgery in the sequential surgery group. At 3 and more months after surgery, mean refractive error was significantly greater in the simultaneous surgery group than in the sequential surgery group, although no difference was seen at 1 week. The refractive error at 12 months was within 2 D of that targeted in 15 eyes (39%) in the simultaneous surgery group and within 2 D in 16 eyes (70%) in the sequential surgery group; the incidence was significantly greater in the sequential group (P = 0.0344). The regular and irregular astigmatism was not significantly different between the groups at 3 and more months after surgery. No significant difference was also found in the percentage of endothelial cell loss between the groups. Although corneal astigmatism and endothelial cell loss were not different, refractive error from target refraction was greater after simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery than after sequential surgery, indicating a better outcome after sequential surgery than after simultaneous surgery.

  16. Induction of simultaneous and sequential malolactic fermentation in durian wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniasuri, Fransisca; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-08-02

    This study represented for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) induced by Oenococcus oeni and its inoculation strategies (simultaneous vs. sequential) on the fermentation performance as well as aroma compound profile of durian wine. There was no negative impact of simultaneous inoculation of O. oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth and fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae as compared to sequential fermentation. Simultaneous MLF did not lead to an excessive increase in volatile acidity as compared to sequential MLF. The kinetic changes of organic acids (i.e. malic, lactic, succinic, acetic and α-ketoglutaric acids) varied with simultaneous and sequential MLF relative to yeast alone. MLF, regardless of inoculation mode, resulted in higher production of fermentation-derived volatiles as compared to control (alcoholic fermentation only), including esters, volatile fatty acids, and terpenes, except for higher alcohols. Most indigenous volatile sulphur compounds in durian were decreased to trace levels with little differences among the control, simultaneous and sequential MLF. Among the different wines, the wine with simultaneous MLF had higher concentrations of terpenes and acetate esters while sequential MLF had increased concentrations of medium- and long-chain ethyl esters. Relative to alcoholic fermentation only, both simultaneous and sequential MLF reduced acetaldehyde substantially with sequential MLF being more effective. These findings illustrate that MLF is an effective and novel way of modulating the volatile and aroma compound profile of durian wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  18. Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.

  19. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential

  20. Quantum Probability Zero-One Law for Sequential Terminal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Wulf

    1980-07-01

    On the basis of the Jauch-Piron quantum probability calculus a zero-one law for sequential terminal events is proven, and the significance of certain crucial axioms in the quantum probability calculus is discussed. The result shows that the Jauch-Piron set of axioms is appropriate for the non-Boolean algebra of sequential events.

  1. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  2. Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamarro, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each

  3. Characterization of a sequential pipeline approach to automatic tissue segmentation from brain MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zujun; Huang, Su

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gray matter and white matter in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for neuroradiology and clinical practice. Submission of large collections of MRI scans to pipeline processing is increasingly important. We characterized this process and suggest several improvements. To investigate tissue segmentation from brain MR images through a sequential approach, a pipeline that consecutively executes denoising, skull/scalp removal, intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed. The denoising phase employs a 3D-extension of the Bayes-Shrink method. The inhomogeneity is corrected by an improvement of the Dawant et al.'s method with automatic generation of reference points. The N3 method has also been evaluated. Subsequently the brain tissue is segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter by a generalized Otsu thresholding technique. Intensive comparisons with other sequential or iterative methods have been carried out using simulated and real images. The sequential approach with judicious selection on the algorithm selection in each stage is not only advantageous in speed, but also can attain at least as accurate segmentation as iterative methods under a variety of noise or inhomogeneity levels. A sequential approach to tissue segmentation, which consecutively executes the wavelet shrinkage denoising, scalp/skull removal, inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed to automatically segment the brain tissue into CSF, GM and WM from brain MR images. This approach is advantageous in several common applications, compared with other pipeline methods. (orig.)

  4. Bursts and heavy tails in temporal and sequential dynamics of foraging decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Jung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental understanding of behavior requires predicting when and what an individual will choose. However, the actual temporal and sequential dynamics of successive choices made among multiple alternatives remain unclear. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that there is a general bursting property in both the timing and sequential patterns of foraging decisions. We conducted a foraging experiment in which rats chose among four different foods over a continuous two-week time period. Regarding when choices were made, we found bursts of rapidly occurring actions, separated by time-varying inactive periods, partially based on a circadian rhythm. Regarding what was chosen, we found sequential dynamics in affective choices characterized by two key features: (a a highly biased choice distribution; and (b preferential attachment, in which the animals were more likely to choose what they had previously chosen. To capture the temporal dynamics, we propose a dual-state model consisting of active and inactive states. We also introduce a satiation-attainment process for bursty activity, and a non-homogeneous Poisson process for longer inactivity between bursts. For the sequential dynamics, we propose a dual-control model consisting of goal-directed and habit systems, based on outcome valuation and choice history, respectively. This study provides insights into how the bursty nature of behavior emerges from the interaction of different underlying systems, leading to heavy tails in the distribution of behavior over time and choices.

  5. Multi-Stage Recognition of Speech Emotion Using Sequential Forward Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liogienė Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensive research of speech emotion recognition introduced a huge collection of speech emotion features. Large feature sets complicate the speech emotion recognition task. Among various feature selection and transformation techniques for one-stage classification, multiple classifier systems were proposed. The main idea of multiple classifiers is to arrange the emotion classification process in stages. Besides parallel and serial cases, the hierarchical arrangement of multi-stage classification is most widely used for speech emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a sequential-forward-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification scheme. The Sequential Forward Selection (SFS and Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS techniques were employed for every stage of the multi-stage classification scheme. Experimental testing of the proposed scheme was performed using the German and Lithuanian emotional speech datasets. Sequential-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification outperformed the single-stage scheme by 12–42 % for different emotion sets. The multi-stage scheme has shown higher robustness to the growth of emotion set. The decrease in recognition rate with the increase in emotion set for multi-stage scheme was lower by 10–20 % in comparison with the single-stage case. Differences in SFS and SFFS employment for feature selection were negligible.

  6. Sequential designs for sensitivity analysis of functional inputs in computer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, J.; Roustant, O.; Kuhnt, S.

    2015-01-01

    Computer experiments are nowadays commonly used to analyze industrial processes aiming at achieving a wanted outcome. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in exploring the actual impact of adjustable parameters on the response variable. In this work we focus on sensitivity analysis of a scalar-valued output of a time-consuming computer code depending on scalar and functional input parameters. We investigate a sequential methodology, based on piecewise constant functions and sequential bifurcation, which is both economical and fully interpretable. The new approach is applied to a sheet metal forming problem in three sequential steps, resulting in new insights into the behavior of the forming process over time. - Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis method for functional and scalar inputs is presented. • We focus on the discovery of most influential parts of the functional domain. • We investigate economical sequential methodology based on piecewise constant functions. • Normalized sensitivity indices are introduced and investigated theoretically. • Successful application to sheet metal forming on two functional inputs

  7. [Co-composting high moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a sequential fed operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-11-01

    Co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes (celery and cabbage) and flower wastes (carnation) were studied in a sequential fed bed. The preliminary materials of composting were celery and carnation wastes. The sequential fed materials of composting were cabbage wastes and were fed every 4 days. Moisture content of mixture materials was between 60% and 70%. Composting was done in an aerobic static bed of composting based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. Aeration was ended when temperature of the pile was about 40 degrees C. Changes of composting of temperature, aeration rate, water content, organic matter, ash, pH, volume, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were studied. Results show that co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes and flower wastes, in a sequential fed aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation, can stabilize organic matter and removal water rapidly. The sequential fed operation are effective to overcome the difficult which traditional composting cannot applied successfully where high moisture vegetable wastes in more excess of flower wastes, such as Dianchi coastal.

  8. Bursts and Heavy Tails in Temporal and Sequential Dynamics of Foraging Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kanghoon; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D.; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of behavior requires predicting when and what an individual will choose. However, the actual temporal and sequential dynamics of successive choices made among multiple alternatives remain unclear. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that there is a general bursting property in both the timing and sequential patterns of foraging decisions. We conducted a foraging experiment in which rats chose among four different foods over a continuous two-week time period. Regarding when choices were made, we found bursts of rapidly occurring actions, separated by time-varying inactive periods, partially based on a circadian rhythm. Regarding what was chosen, we found sequential dynamics in affective choices characterized by two key features: (a) a highly biased choice distribution; and (b) preferential attachment, in which the animals were more likely to choose what they had previously chosen. To capture the temporal dynamics, we propose a dual-state model consisting of active and inactive states. We also introduce a satiation-attainment process for bursty activity, and a non-homogeneous Poisson process for longer inactivity between bursts. For the sequential dynamics, we propose a dual-control model consisting of goal-directed and habit systems, based on outcome valuation and choice history, respectively. This study provides insights into how the bursty nature of behavior emerges from the interaction of different underlying systems, leading to heavy tails in the distribution of behavior over time and choices. PMID:25122498

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer (LC is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. RESULTS: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years. Fourteen patients (58.3% were male, 20 (83.3% were White, and 22 (91.7% were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%, followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%. Seven patients (29.2% presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71% were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.

  10. Modeling sequential context effects in diagnostic interpretation of screening mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamudun, Folami; Paulus, Paige; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2018-07-01

    Prior research has shown that physicians' medical decisions can be influenced by sequential context, particularly in cases where successive stimuli exhibit similar characteristics when analyzing medical images. This type of systematic error is known to psychophysicists as sequential context effect as it indicates that judgments are influenced by features of and decisions about the preceding case in the sequence of examined cases, rather than being based solely on the peculiarities unique to the present case. We determine if radiologists experience some form of context bias, using screening mammography as the use case. To this end, we explore correlations between previous perceptual behavior and diagnostic decisions and current decisions. We hypothesize that a radiologist's visual search pattern and diagnostic decisions in previous cases are predictive of the radiologist's current diagnostic decisions. To test our hypothesis, we tasked 10 radiologists of varied experience to conduct blind reviews of 100 four-view screening mammograms. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions were collected from each radiologist under conditions mimicking clinical practice. Perceptual behavior was quantified using the fractal dimension of gaze scanpath, which was computed using the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting method. To test the effect of previous behavior and decisions, we conducted a multifactor fixed-effects ANOVA. Further, to examine the predictive value of previous perceptual behavior and decisions, we trained and evaluated a predictive model for radiologists' current diagnostic decisions. ANOVA tests showed that previous visual behavior, characterized by fractal analysis, previous diagnostic decisions, and image characteristics of previous cases are significant predictors of current diagnostic decisions. Additionally, predictive modeling of diagnostic decisions showed an overall improvement in prediction error when the model is trained on additional information about

  11. Sequential improvements in organ procurement increase the organ donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C

    2012-11-01

    Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sequential Logic Model Deciphers Dynamic Transcriptional Control of Gene Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Zhen Xuan; Wong, Sum Thai; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tsuchiya, Masa

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. Methodology Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM) is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. Principal Findings SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. Conclusions/Significance The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet providing rich biological

  13. Sequential logic model deciphers dynamic transcriptional control of gene expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xuan Yeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. METHODOLOGY: Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet

  14. MARKAL-QUEBEC dictionary and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurie, A

    1985-07-01

    This two-part volume contains the data base of the MARKAL-QUEBEC energy modeling program. The first part, which constitutes the MARKAL dictionary, contains the list of all classes and their members. The second part contains the complete data set, presented as input tables to meet the requirements of the model. The tables are regrouped in sections in accordance with the class definition: in this way, one can find successively the tables SRC, CON, PRC, DMD, and ADRATIO (one table TCH is associated with each of the first four classes). At the beginning of each section, a brief description of the input data is given.

  15. Metal fractionation of atmospheric aerosols via sequential chemical extraction: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gomez, Dario [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Unidad de Actividad Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)

    2005-01-01

    This review surveys schemes used to sequentially chemically fractionate metals and metalloids present in airborne particulate matter. It focuses mainly on sequential chemical fractionation schemes published over the last 15 years. These schemes have been classified into five main categories: (1) based on Tessier's procedure, (2) based on Chester's procedure, (3) based on Zatka's procedure, (4) based on BCR procedure, and (5) other procedures. The operational characteristics as well as the state of the art in metal fractionation of airborne particulate matter, fly ashes and workroom aerosols, in terms of applications, optimizations and innovations, are also described. Many references to other works in this area are provided. (orig.)

  16. Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong

    2015-07-01

    The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach.

  17. Constrained treatment planning using sequential beam selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudstra, E.; Storchi, P.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is described for automated treatment plan generation. The algorithm aims at delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume without violation of constraints for target, organs at risk and the surrounding normal tissue. Pre-calculated dose distributions for all candidate orientations are used as input. Treatment beams are selected in a sequential way. A score function designed for beam selection is used for the simultaneous selection of beam orientations and weights. In order to determine the optimum choice for the orientation and the corresponding weight of each new beam, the score function is first redefined to account for the dose distribution of the previously selected beams. Addition of more beams to the plan is stopped when the target dose is reached or when no additional dose can be delivered without violating a constraint. In the latter case the score function is modified by importance factor changes to enforce better sparing of the organ with the limiting constraint and the algorithm is run again. (author)

  18. Phenomenology of the next sequential lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the phenomenology of a sequential, charged lepton in the mass range 6 --13 GeV. We find the semileptonic branching ratio of such a lepton to be approx. 13%; the dominant two-body modes are found to include the decay L → ν/sub L/F* with a branching ratio approx. 6%. In this analysis we assume that the mass of the lepton under consideration is lighter than the t quark such that decays such as L → ν/sub L/t-barq, where q= (d, s, or b) are kinematically forbidden. We also find that decays such as L → ν/sub L/B* (c-barb) can also be as large as approx. 6% depending on the mixing angles; the lifetime of such a lepton is found to be approx. 2.6 x 10 -12 M/sub L/ -5 sec, where M/sub L/ is in GeV

  19. The Origin of Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, J.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2017-06-01

    Sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs) are often observed in the immediate vicinity of erupting flares and are associated with coronal mass ejections. Since their initial discovery in 2005, there have been several subsequent investigations of SCBs. These studies have used differing detection and analysis techniques, making it difficult to compare results between studies. This work employs the automated detection algorithm of Kirk et al. (Solar Phys. 283, 97, 2013) to extract the physical characteristics of SCBs in 11 flares of varying size and intensity. We demonstrate that the magnetic substructure within the SCB appears to have a significantly smaller area than the corresponding Hα emission. We conclude that SCBs originate in the lower corona around 0.1 R_{⊙} above the photosphere, propagate away from the flare center at speeds of 35 - 85 km s^{-1}, and have peak photosphere magnetic intensities of 148±2.9 G. In light of these measurements, we infer SCBs to be distinctive chromospheric signatures of erupting coronal mass ejections.

  20. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  1. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  2. Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.

  3. Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  5. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  6. Utilizing a sequential injection system furnished with an extraction microcolumn as a novel approach for executing sequential extractions of metal species in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomchoei, R.; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, J.

    2007-01-01

    This communication presents a novel approach to perform sequential extraction of elements in solid samples by using a sequential injection (SI) system incorporating a specially designed extraction microcolumn. Based on the operation of the syringe pump, different modes of extraction are potentially...... that the system entails many advantages such as being fully automated, and besides being characterised by rapidity, ease of operation and robustness, it is less prone to risks of contamination and personal errors as encountered in traditional batch systems. Moreover, improvement of the precision and accuracy...... of the chemical fractionation of metal in solids as compared with previous reports are obtained. The system ensures that extraction is performed at designated pH values. Variation of sample weight to column volume ratios do not affect the amounts of extractable metals, nor do extraction flow rates ranging from 50...

  7. Sequential and double sequential fission observed in heavy ion interaction of (11.67 MeV/u){sup 197}Au projectile with {sup 197}Au target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Tabassum [Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Khan, Ehsan Ullah [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Baluch, Javaid Jahan [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Abbottabad, (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Shafi-Ur-Rehman, [PAEC, Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan). ISL Project; Matiullah, [PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan). Physics Div.; Rafique, Muhammad [University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-09-15

    The heavy ion interaction of 11.67 MeV/u {sup 197}Au+ {sup 197}Au has been investigated using mica as a passive detector. By employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detection Technique the data of elastic scattering as well as inelastic reaction channel was collected. The off-line data analysis of multi-pronged events was performed by measuring the three-dimensional geometrical coordinates of correlated tracks on event-by-event basis. Multi pronged events observed in this reaction were due to sequential and double sequential fission. Using a computer code PRONGY based on the procedure of internal calibration, it was possible to derive quantities like mass transfer, total kinetic energy loss and scattering angles. (author)

  8. Sequential and double sequential fission observed in heavy ion interaction of (11.67 MeV/u)197Au projectile with 197Au target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Tabassum; Khan, Ehsan Ullah; Baluch, Javaid Jahan; Shafi-Ur-Rehman; Matiullah; Rafique, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    The heavy ion interaction of 11.67 MeV/u 197 Au+ 197 Au has been investigated using mica as a passive detector. By employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detection Technique the data of elastic scattering as well as inelastic reaction channel was collected. The off-line data analysis of multi-pronged events was performed by measuring the three-dimensional geometrical coordinates of correlated tracks on event-by-event basis. Multi pronged events observed in this reaction were due to sequential and double sequential fission. Using a computer code PRONGY based on the procedure of internal calibration, it was possible to derive quantities like mass transfer, total kinetic energy loss and scattering angles. (author)

  9. Tessier No. 3 and No. 4 clefts: Sequential treatment in infancy by pre-surgical orthopedic skeletal contraction, comprehensive reconstruction, and novel surgical lengthening of the ala base-canthal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolyar, John L; Hnatiuk, Mark; Shaheen, Kenneth W; Mertz, Jennifer K; Handler, Lawrence F; Jarial, Ravinder; Roldán, J Camilo

    2015-09-01

    Repair of facial clefts implies wide tissue mobilization with multi-stage surgical treatment. Authors propose pre-surgical orthopedic correction for naso-oro-ocular clefts and a novel surgical option for Tessier No. 3 cleft. Two male infants, a Tessier No. 3 cleft (age 7 months) and another Tessier No. 4 (age 3 months), were treated with a modified orthopedic Latham device with additional septo-premaxillary molding and observed to age four years. Tessier No. 3 orthopedic measurements were obtained by image corrected cephalometric analysis. Subsequent repair included tissue expansion on Tessier No. 4 and naso-frontal Rieger flap combined with myocutaneous upper lid flap on Tessier No. 3. Orthopedic movements ranged from 18.5 mm in bi-planar to 33 mm in oblique analyses. Tissue margins became aligned with platform normalization. Tissue expansion on Tessier No. 4 improved distances from ala base-lower lid and subalar base-lip. The naso-frontal flap combined with myocutaneous upper lid flap on Tessier No. 3 had similar achievement, but also sufficiently lengthened ala base-canthal distance. Repairs were facilitated by pre-surgical orthopedic correction. The naso-frontal flap combined with an upper lid myocutaneous flap seems viable as a single-stage option to lengthen ala base-canthal distance to advance repair achievement in unilateral Tessier No. 3. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Double-label autoradiographic deoxyglucose method for sequential measurement of regional cerebral glucose utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redies, C; Diksic, M; Evans, A C; Gjedde, A; Yamamoto, Y L

    1987-08-01

    A new double-label autoradiographic glucose analog method for the sequential measurement of altered regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two boluses of glucose tracer labeled with two different isotopes (short-lived /sup 18/F and long-lived /sup 3/H, respectively). An operational equation is derived which allows the determination of glucose utilization for the time period before the injection of the second tracer; this equation corrects for accumulation and loss of the first tracer from the metabolic pool occurring after the injection of the second tracer. An error analysis of this operational equation is performed. The double-label deoxyglucose method is validated in the primary somatosensory (''barrel'') cortex of the anesthetized rat. Two different rows of whiskers were stimulated sequentially in each rat; the two periods of stimulation were each preceded by an injection of glucose tracer. After decapitation, dried brain slices were first exposed, in direct contact, to standard X-ray film and then to uncoated, ''tritium-sensitive'' film. Results show that the double-label deoxyglucose method proposed in this paper allows the quantification and complete separation of glucose utilization patterns elicited by two different stimulations sequentially applied in the same animal.

  11. Moving Synergistically Acting Drug Combinations to the Clinic by Comparing Sequential versus Simultaneous Drug Administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinavahi, Saketh S; Noory, Mohammad A; Gowda, Raghavendra; Drabick, Joseph J; Berg, Arthur; Neves, Rogerio I; Robertson, Gavin P

    2018-03-01

    Drug combinations acting synergistically to kill cancer cells have become increasingly important in melanoma as an approach to manage the recurrent resistant disease. Protein kinase B (AKT) is a major target in this disease but its inhibitors are not effective clinically, which is a major concern. Targeting AKT in combination with WEE1 (mitotic inhibitor kinase) seems to have potential to make AKT-based therapeutics effective clinically. Since agents targeting AKT and WEE1 have been tested individually in the clinic, the quickest way to move the drug combination to patients would be to combine these agents sequentially, enabling the use of existing phase I clinical trial toxicity data. Therefore, a rapid preclinical approach is needed to evaluate whether simultaneous or sequential drug treatment has maximal therapeutic efficacy, which is based on a mechanistic rationale. To develop this approach, melanoma cell lines were treated with AKT inhibitor AZD5363 [4-amino- N -[(1 S )-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropyl]-1-(7 H -pyrrolo[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide] and WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 [2-allyl-1-(6-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-((4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)-1 H -pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidin-3(2 H )-one] using simultaneous and sequential dosing schedules. Simultaneous treatment synergistically reduced melanoma cell survival and tumor growth. In contrast, sequential treatment was antagonistic and had a minimal tumor inhibitory effect compared with individual agents. Mechanistically, simultaneous targeting of AKT and WEE1 enhanced deregulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways by modulating transcription factors p53 and forkhead box M1, which was not observed with sequential treatment. Thus, this study identifies a rapid approach to assess the drug combinations with a mechanistic basis for selection, which suggests that combining AKT and WEE1 inhibitors is needed for maximal efficacy. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  12. Comparison of ablation centration after bilateral sequential versus simultaneous LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jane-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Yu

    2005-01-01

    To compare ablation centration after bilateral sequential and simultaneous myopic LASIK. A retrospective randomized case series was performed of 670 eyes of 335 consecutive patients who had undergone either bilateral sequential (group 1) or simultaneous (group 2) myopic LASIK between July 2000 and July 2001 at the China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. The ablation centrations of the first and second eyes in the two groups were compared 3 months postoperatively. Of 670 eyes, 274 eyes (137 patients) comprised the sequential group and 396 eyes (198 patients) comprised the simultaneous group. Three months post-operatively, 220 eyes of 110 patients (80%) in the sequential group and 236 eyes of 118 patients (60%) in the simultaneous group provided topographic data for centration analysis. For the first eyes, mean decentration was 0.39 +/- 0.26 mm in the sequential group and 0.41 +/- 0.19 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .30). For the second eyes, mean decentration was 0.28 +/- 0.23 mm in the sequential group and 0.30 +/- 0.21 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .36). Decentration in the second eyes significantly improved in both groups (group 1, P = .02; group 2, P sequential group and 0.32 +/- 0.18 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .33). The difference of ablation center angles between the first and second eyes was 43.2 sequential group and 45.1 +/- 50.8 degrees in the simultaneous group (P = .42). Simultaneous bilateral LASIK is comparable to sequential surgery in ablation centration.

  13. Sequential data access with Oracle and Hadoop: a performance comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Canali, Luca; Grancher, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Hadoop framework has proven to be an effective and popular approach for dealing with 'Big Data' and, thanks to its scaling ability and optimised storage access, Hadoop Distributed File System-based projects such as MapReduce or HBase are seen as candidates to replace traditional relational database management systems whenever scalable speed of data processing is a priority. But do these projects deliver in practice? Does migrating to Hadoop's 'shared nothing' architecture really improve data access throughput? And, if so, at what cost? Authors answer these questions–addressing cost/performance as well as raw performance– based on a performance comparison between an Oracle-based relational database and Hadoop's distributed solutions like MapReduce or HBase for sequential data access. A key feature of our approach is the use of an unbiased data model as certain data models can significantly favour one of the technologies tested.

  14. Articulated Human Motion Tracking Using Sequential Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate human motion tracking as a high-dimensional constrained optimization problem. A novel generative method is proposed for human motion tracking in the framework of evolutionary computation. The main contribution is that we introduce immune genetic algorithm (IGA for pose optimization in latent space of human motion. Firstly, we perform human motion analysis in the learnt latent space of human motion. As the latent space is low dimensional and contents the prior knowledge of human motion, it makes pose analysis more efficient and accurate. Then, in the search strategy, we apply IGA for pose optimization. Compared with genetic algorithm and other evolutionary methods, its main advantage is the ability to use the prior knowledge of human motion. We design an IGA-based method to estimate human pose from static images for initialization of motion tracking. And we propose a sequential IGA (S-IGA algorithm for motion tracking by incorporating the temporal continuity information into the traditional IGA. Experimental results on different videos of different motion types show that our IGA-based pose estimation method can be used for initialization of motion tracking. The S-IGA-based motion tracking method can achieve accurate and stable tracking of 3D human motion.

  15. Reduction of Single Event Kinetic Models by Rigorous Relumping: Application to Catalytic Reforming Réduction de modèles cinétiques basée sur les événements constitutifs à l’aide d’un regroupement rigoureux : application au reformage catalytique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochegrue H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of refining processes using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts involves an exponentially increasing number of species and reactions, which may rapidly exceed several thousands for complex industrial feedstocks. When building a model for such a process, a priori lumped kinetic models by chemical family do no longer meet the current requirements in terms of simulation details, predictive power and extrapolability. Due to the large number of elementary steps occurring in bifunctional catalysis, it would be quite unrealistic to manually build a detailed kinetic network of this scale. Hence, computer generation of the reaction network according to simple rules offer an elegant solution in such a case. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to determine and solve the kinetic equations, mainly due to the lack of analytical detail required by a detailed model. For several refining processes, however, reasonable assumptions on the equilibria between species allow to perform an a posteriori relumping of species, thus reducing the network size substantially while retaining a kinetic network between lumps that is strictly equivalent to the detailed network. This paper describes a network generation tool and the a posteriori relumping method associated with the single-event kinetic modeling methodology. This a posteriori relumping approach is illustrated for and successfully applied to the kinetic modeling of catalytic reforming reactions. La modélisation des procédés de raffinage utilisant des catalyseurs bifonctionnels métal-acide fait intervenir un nombre exponentiellement croissant d'espèces et de réactions qui peut rapidement dépasser plusieurs milliers pour des charges industrielles complexes. Lors de la réalisation d'un modèle de procédé, l'utilisation de modèles cinétiques de regroupement a priori par familles chimiques ne satisfait plus les besoins actuels de simulation détail- lée, de prédictivité et d'extrapolabilité.

  16. Sequential formation of subgroups in OB associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Lada, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    We reconsider the structure and formation of OB association in view of recent radio and infrared observations of the adjacent molecular clouds. As a result of this reexamination, we propose that OB subgroups are formed in a step-by-step process which involves the propagation of ionization (I) and shock (S) fronts through a molecular cloud complex. OB stars formed at the edge of a molecular cloud drive these I-S fronts into the cloud. A layer of dense neutral material accumulates between the I and S fronts and eventually becomes gravitationally unstable. This process is analyzed in detail. Several arguments concerning the temperature and mass of this layer suggest that a new OB subgroup will form. After approximately one-half million years, these stars will emerge from and disrupt the star-forming layer. A new shock will be driven into the remaining molecular cloud and will initiate another cycle of star formation.Several observed properties of OB associations are shown to follow from a sequential star-forming mechanism. These include the spatial separation and systematic differences in age of OB subgroups in a given association, the regularity of subgroup masses, the alignment of subgroups along the galactic plane, and their physical expansion. Detailed observations of ionization fronts, masers, IR sources, and molecular clouds are also in agreement with this model. Finally, this mechanism provides a means of dissipating a molecular cloud and exposing less massive stars (e.g., T Tauri stars) which may have formed ahead of the shock as part of the original cloud collapsed and fragmented

  17. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  18. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  19. Parameter sampling capabilities of sequential and simultaneous data assimilation: I. Analytical comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond

    2014-01-01

    We assess the parameter sampling capabilities of some Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation methods. The forward model is assumed to be non-chaotic and have nonlinear components, and the emphasis is on results obtained for the parameters in the state-parameter vector. A variety of approximate sampling methods exist, and a number of numerical comparisons between such methods have been performed. Often, more than one of the defining characteristics vary from one method to another, so it can be difficult to point out which characteristic of the more successful method in such a comparison was decisive. In this study, we single out one defining characteristic for comparison; whether or not data are assimilated sequentially or simultaneously. The current paper is concerned with analytical investigations into this issue. We carefully select one sequential and one simultaneous JS method for the comparison. We also design a corresponding pair of pure parameter estimation methods, and we show how the JS methods and the parameter estimation methods are pairwise related. It is shown that the sequential and the simultaneous parameter estimation methods are equivalent for one particular combination of observations with different degrees of nonlinearity. Strong indications are presented for why one may expect the sequential parameter estimation method to outperform the simultaneous parameter estimation method for all other combinations of observations. Finally, the conditions for when similar relations can be expected to hold between the corresponding JS methods are discussed. A companion paper, part II (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114003), is concerned with statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments involving sequential and simultaneous JS estimation, where the design of the numerical investigation is motivated by our findings in the current paper. (paper)

  20. Probabilistic learning of nonlinear dynamical systems using sequential Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Thomas B.; Svensson, Andreas; Murray, Lawrence; Lindsten, Fredrik

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic modeling provides the capability to represent and manipulate uncertainty in data, models, predictions and decisions. We are concerned with the problem of learning probabilistic models of dynamical systems from measured data. Specifically, we consider learning of probabilistic nonlinear state-space models. There is no closed-form solution available for this problem, implying that we are forced to use approximations. In this tutorial we will provide a self-contained introduction to one of the state-of-the-art methods-the particle Metropolis-Hastings algorithm-which has proven to offer a practical approximation. This is a Monte Carlo based method, where the particle filter is used to guide a Markov chain Monte Carlo method through the parameter space. One of the key merits of the particle Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is that it is guaranteed to converge to the "true solution" under mild assumptions, despite being based on a particle filter with only a finite number of particles. We will also provide a motivating numerical example illustrating the method using a modeling language tailored for sequential Monte Carlo methods. The intention of modeling languages of this kind is to open up the power of sophisticated Monte Carlo methods-including particle Metropolis-Hastings-to a large group of users without requiring them to know all the underlying mathematical details.

  1. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  2. Sequential lineups: shift in criterion or decision strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D

    2004-04-01

    R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985) argued that a sequential lineup enhanced discriminability because it elicited use of an absolute decision strategy. E. B. Ebbesen and H. D. Flowe (2002) argued that a sequential lineup led witnesses to adopt a more conservative response criterion, thereby affecting bias, not discriminability. Height was encoded as absolute (e.g., 6 ft [1.83 m] tall) or relative (e.g., taller than). If a sequential lineup elicited an absolute decision strategy, the principle of transfer-appropriate processing predicted that performance should be best when height was encoded absolutely. Conversely, if a simultaneous lineup elicited a relative decision strategy, performance should be best when height was encoded relatively. The predicted interaction was observed, providing direct evidence for the decision strategies explanation of what happens when witnesses view a sequential lineup.

  3. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the perturbative treatment of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer reactions with special regards to the DWBA. As examples the (t,p), (p,t), and (α,d) reactions are considered. (HSI)

  4. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    pended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. .... face advective velocities consists essentially of iden- tifying the ... matrix is time consuming, a significant reduction .... Chauhan, P. 2002 Personal Communication.

  5. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  6. Generalized infimum and sequential product of quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Sun Xiuhong; Chen Zhengli

    2007-01-01

    The quantum effects for a physical system can be described by the set E(H) of positive operators on a complex Hilbert space H that are bounded above by the identity operator I. For A, B(set-membership sign)E(H), the operation of sequential product A(convolution sign)B=A 1/2 BA 1/2 was proposed as a model for sequential quantum measurements. A nice investigation of properties of the sequential product has been carried over [Gudder, S. and Nagy, G., 'Sequential quantum measurements', J. Math. Phys. 42, 5212 (2001)]. In this note, we extend some results of this reference. In particular, a gap in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in this reference is overcome. In addition, some properties of generalized infimum A sqcap B are studied

  7. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  8. The impact of eyewitness identifications from simultaneous and sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B

    2007-10-01

    Recent guidelines in the US allow either simultaneous or sequential lineups to be used for eyewitness identification. This paper investigates how potential jurors weight the probative value of the different outcomes from both of these types of lineups. Participants (n=340) were given a description of a case that included some exonerating and some incriminating evidence. There was either a simultaneous or a sequential lineup. Depending on the condition, an eyewitness chose the suspect, chose a filler, or made no identification. The participant had to judge the guilt of the suspect and decide whether to render a guilty verdict. For both simultaneous and sequential lineups an identification had a large effect,increasing the probability of a guilty verdict. There were no reliable effects detected between making no identification and identifying a filler. The effect sizes were similar for simultaneous and sequential lineups. These findings are important for judges and other legal professionals to know for trials involving lineup identifications.

  9. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  10. Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1995-01-01

    We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...

  11. Multichannel, sequential or combined X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florestan, J.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectrometer qualities and defects are evaluated for sequential and multichannel categories. Multichannel X-ray spectrometer has time-coherency advantage and its results could be more reproducible; on the other hand some spatial incoherency limits low percentage and traces applications, specially when backgrounds are very variable. In this last case, sequential X-ray spectrometer would find again great usefulness [fr

  12. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  13. Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Flowe, HD; Smith, HMJ; Karoğlu, N; Onwuegbusi, TO; Rai, L

    2015-01-01

    Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences...

  14. Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278 ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf

  15. Sequential bayes estimation algorithm with cubic splines on uniform meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossfeld, F.; Mika, K.; Plesser-Walk, E.

    1975-11-01

    After outlining the principles of some recent developments in parameter estimation, a sequential numerical algorithm for generalized curve-fitting applications is presented combining results from statistical estimation concepts and spline analysis. Due to its recursive nature, the algorithm can be used most efficiently in online experimentation. Using computer-sumulated and experimental data, the efficiency and the flexibility of this sequential estimation procedure is extensively demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  16. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E

    1994-04-01

    To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  17. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):R J → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G k (x)=f(x)+g k (x), to obtain x k . The auxiliary functions g k (x):D subset of R J → R + are nonnegative on the set D, each x k is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:R J → R over x in the set C = D-bar, the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by x-circumflex. We assume that the functions g k (x) satisfy the inequalities 0≤g k (x)≤G k-1 (x)-G k-1 (x k-1 ), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {(x k )} is decreasing and converges to f(x-circumflex). If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if x-circumflex is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {x k } is bounded, and f(x*)=f(x-circumflex), for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if x-circumflex is unique, x* = x-circumflex and {x k } → x-circumflex. When x-circumflex is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton–Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results

  18. PARTICLE FILTERING WITH SEQUENTIAL PARAMETER LEARNING FOR NONLINEAR BOLD fMRI SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Wang, Michelle Yongmei

    Analyzing the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is typically based on recent ground-breaking time series analysis techniques. This work represents a significant improvement over existing approaches to system identification using nonlinear hemodynamic models. It is important for three reasons. First, instead of using linearized approximations of the dynamics, we present a nonlinear filtering based on the sequential Monte Carlo method to capture the inherent nonlinearities in the physiological system. Second, we simultaneously estimate the hidden physiological states and the system parameters through particle filtering with sequential parameter learning to fully take advantage of the dynamic information of the BOLD signals. Third, during the unknown static parameter learning, we employ the low-dimensional sufficient statistics for efficiency and avoiding potential degeneration of the parameters. The performance of the proposed method is validated using both the simulated data and real BOLD fMRI data.

  19. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...... assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis...... strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. RESULTS: When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis...

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF AGGREGATION AND SEQUENTIAL-PARALLEL EXECUTION MODES OF INTERSECTING OPERATION SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. М. Levin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model and a method for the problem of optimization of aggregation and of sequential- parallel execution modes of intersecting operation sets are proposed. The proposed method is based on the two-level decomposition scheme. At the top level the variant of aggregation for groups of operations is selected, and at the lower level the execution modes of operations are optimized for a fixed version of aggregation.

  1. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Abubeker, Jewahir Ali

    2011-05-14

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of an algorithm for sequential optimization of paths in directed graphs relative to di_erent cost functions. The considered algorithm is based on an extension of dynamic programming which allows to represent the initial set of paths and the set of optimal paths after each application of optimization procedure in the form of a directed acyclic graph.

  2. A mathematical programming approach for sequential clustering of dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jonathan C.; Bennett, Laura; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.; Tsoka, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    A common analysis performed on dynamic networks is community structure detection, a challenging problem that aims to track the temporal evolution of network modules. An emerging area in this field is evolutionary clustering, where the community structure of a network snapshot is identified by taking into account both its current state as well as previous time points. Based on this concept, we have developed a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model, SeqMod, that sequentially clusters each snapshot of a dynamic network. The modularity metric is used to determine the quality of community structure of the current snapshot and the historical cost is accounted for by optimising the number of node pairs co-clustered at the previous time point that remain so in the current snapshot partition. Our method is tested on social networks of interactions among high school students, college students and members of the Brazilian Congress. We show that, for an adequate parameter setting, our algorithm detects the classes that these students belong more accurately than partitioning each time step individually or by partitioning the aggregated snapshots. Our method also detects drastic discontinuities in interaction patterns across network snapshots. Finally, we present comparative results with similar community detection methods for time-dependent networks from the literature. Overall, we illustrate the applicability of mathematical programming as a flexible, adaptable and systematic approach for these community detection problems. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.

  3. Sequential decision reliability concept and failure rate assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1990-11-01

    Conventionally, a reliability concept is considered together with both each basic unit and their integration in a complicated large scale system such as a nuclear power plant (NPP). Basically, as the plant's operational status is determined by the information obtained from various sensors, the plant's reliability and the risk assessment is closely related to the reliability of the sensory information and hence the sensor components. However, considering the relevant information-processing systems, e.g. fault detection processors, there exists a further question about the reliability of such systems, specifically the reliability of the systems' decision-based outcomes by means of which the further actions are performed. To this end, a general sequential decision reliability concept and the failure rate assessment methodology is introduced. The implications of the methodology are investigated and the importance of the decision reliability concept in system operation is demonstrated by means of sensory signals in real-time from the Borssele NPP in the Netherlands. (author). 21 refs.; 8 figs

  4. Fatigue reduction during aggregated and distributed sequential stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Austin J; Babbar, Vishvek; Ali, Saima; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2017-08-01

    Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can generate muscle contractions for rehabilitation and exercise. However, NMES-evoked contractions are limited by fatigue when they are delivered "conventionally" (CONV) using a single active electrode. Researchers have developed "sequential" (SEQ) stimulation, involving rotation of pulses between multiple "aggregated" (AGGR-SEQ) or "distributed" (DISTR-SEQ) active electrodes, to reduce fatigue (torque-decline) by reducing motor unit discharge rates. The primary objective was to compare fatigue-related outcomes, "potentiation," "variability," and "efficiency" between CONV, AGGR-SEQ, and DISTR-SEQ stimulation of knee extensors in healthy participants. Torque and current were recorded during testing with fatiguing trains using each NMES type under isometric and isokinetic (180°/s) conditions. Compared with CONV stimulation, SEQ techniques reduced fatigue-related outcomes, increased potentiation, did not affect variability, and reduced efficiency. SEQ techniques hold promise for reducing fatigue during NMES-based rehabilitation and exercise; however, optimization is required to improve efficiency. Muscle Nerve 56: 271-281, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Sequential Recurrent Encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rußwurm, Marc; Körner, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Earth observation (EO) sensors deliver data with daily or weekly temporal resolution. Most land use and land cover (LULC) approaches, however, expect cloud-free and mono-temporal observations. The increasing temporal capabilities of today's sensors enables the use of temporal, along with spectral and spatial features. Domains, such as speech recognition or neural machine translation, work with inherently temporal data and, today, achieve impressive results using sequential encoder-decoder structures. Inspired by these sequence-to-sequence models, we adapt an encoder structure with convolutional recurrent layers in order to approximate a phenological model for vegetation classes based on a temporal sequence of Sentinel 2 (S2) images. In our experiments, we visualize internal activations over a sequence of cloudy and non-cloudy images and find several recurrent cells, which reduce the input activity for cloudy observations. Hence, we assume that our network has learned cloud-filtering schemes solely from input data, which could alleviate the need for tedious cloud-filtering as a preprocessing step for many EO approaches. Moreover, using unfiltered temporal series of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, we achieved in our experiments state-of-the-art classification accuracies on a large number of crop classes with minimal preprocessing compared to other classification approaches.

  6. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Ptosis and Strabismus Surgery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Karen E; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D; Katowitz, William R; Katowitz, James A

    The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children. Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations. Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28). In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.

  7. Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential

  8. Robust real-time pattern matching using bayesian sequential hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pele, Ofir; Werman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a method for robust real time pattern matching. We first introduce a family of image distance measures, the "Image Hamming Distance Family". Members of this family are robust to occlusion, small geometrical transforms, light changes and non-rigid deformations. We then present a novel Bayesian framework for sequential hypothesis testing on finite populations. Based on this framework, we design an optimal rejection/acceptance sampling algorithm. This algorithm quickly determines whether two images are similar with respect to a member of the Image Hamming Distance Family. We also present a fast framework that designs a near-optimal sampling algorithm. Extensive experimental results show that the sequential sampling algorithm performance is excellent. Implemented on a Pentium 4 3 GHz processor, detection of a pattern with 2197 pixels, in 640 x 480 pixel frames, where in each frame the pattern rotated and was highly occluded, proceeds at only 0.022 seconds per frame.

  9. Sequential blind identification of underdetermined mixtures using a novel deflation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjian; Yu, Simin; Wei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    In this brief, we consider the problem of blind identification in underdetermined instantaneous mixture cases, where there are more sources than sensors. A new blind identification algorithm, which estimates the mixing matrix in a sequential fashion, is proposed. By using the rank-1 detecting device, blind identification is reformulated as a constrained optimization problem. The identification of one column of the mixing matrix hence reduces to an optimization task for which an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed. The identification of the other columns of the mixing matrix is then carried out by a generalized eigenvalue decomposition-based deflation method. The key merit of the proposed deflation method is that it does not suffer from error accumulation. The proposed sequential blind identification algorithm provides more flexibility and better robustness than its simultaneous counterpart. Comparative simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the simultaneous blind identification algorithm.

  10. A Robust Real Time Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method for Sequential Movement Events of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing; Zhou, Qianwei; Huang, Jingchang

    2018-03-27

    Parameters estimation of sequential movement events of vehicles is facing the challenges of noise interferences and the demands of portable implementation. In this paper, we propose a robust direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method for the sequential movement events of vehicles based on a small Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microphone array system. Inspired by the incoherent signal-subspace method (ISM), the method that is proposed in this work employs multiple sub-bands, which are selected from the wideband signals with high magnitude-squared coherence to track moving vehicles in the presence of wind noise. The field test results demonstrate that the proposed method has a better performance in emulating the DOA of a moving vehicle even in the case of severe wind interference than the narrowband multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method, the sub-band DOA estimation method, and the classical two-sided correlation transformation (TCT) method.

  11. Sequentially-crosslinked biomimetic bioactive glass/gelatin methacryloyl composites hydrogels for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiafu; Zhao, Fujian; Zhang, Wen; Mo, Yunfei; Zeng, Lei; Li, Xian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2018-08-01

    In recent years, gelatin-based composites hydrogels have been intensively investigated because of their inherent bioactivity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Herein, we fabricated photocrosslinkable biomimetic composites hydrogels from bioactive glass (BG) and gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) by a sequential physical and chemical crosslinking (gelation + UV) approach. The results showed that the compressive modulus of composites hydrogels increased significantly through the sequential crosslinking approach. The addition of BG resulted in a significant increase in physiological stability and apatite-forming ability. In vitro data indicated that BG/GelMA composites hydrogels promoted cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Overall, the BG/GelMA composites hydrogels combined the advantages of good biocompatibility and bioactivity, and had potential applications in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Development and sensitivity analysis of a fullykinetic model of sequential reductive dechlorination in subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    and natural degradation of chlorinated solvents frequently occurs in the subsurface through sequential reductive dechlorination. However, the occurrence and the performance of natural sequential reductive dechlorination strongly depends on environmental factor such as redox conditions, presence of fermenting...... organic matter / electron donors, presence of specific biomass, etc. Here we develop a new fully-kinetic biogeochemical reactive model able to simulate chlorinated solvents degradation as well as production and consumption of molecular hydrogen. The model is validated using batch experiment data......Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and often represent a serious threat to groundwater-based drinking water resources. Natural attenuation of contaminant plumes can play a major role in contaminated site management...

  13. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  14. Precise algorithm to generate random sequential adsorption of hard polygons at saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.

    2018-04-01

    Random sequential adsorption (RSA) is a time-dependent packing process, in which particles of certain shapes are randomly and sequentially placed into an empty space without overlap. In the infinite-time limit, the density approaches a "saturation" limit. Although this limit has attracted particular research interest, the majority of past studies could only probe this limit by extrapolation. We have previously found an algorithm to reach this limit using finite computational time for spherical particles and could thus determine the saturation density of spheres with high accuracy. In this paper, we generalize this algorithm to generate saturated RSA packings of two-dimensional polygons. We also calculate the saturation density for regular polygons of three to ten sides and obtain results that are consistent with previous, extrapolation-based studies.

  15. Enhancing sequential time perception and storytelling ability of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Sara; Eden, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    A 3-month intervention was conducted to enhance the sequential time perception and storytelling ability of young children with hearing loss. The children were trained to arrange pictorial episodes of temporal scripts and tell the stories they created. Participants (N = 34, aged 4-7 years) were divided into 2 groups based on whether their spoken-language gap was more or less than 1 year compared to age norms. They completed A. Kaufman and N. Kaufman's (1983) picture series subtest and Guralnik's (1982) storytelling test at pretest and posttest. Measures demonstrated significant improvement in sequential time and storytelling achievement postintervention. Three of the examined demographic variables revealed correlations: Participants with genetic etiology showed greater improvement in time sequencing and storytelling than participants with unknown etiology; early onset of treatment correlated with better achievement in time sequencing; cochlear implant users showed greater storytelling improvement than hearing aid users.

  16. Native Frames: Disentangling Sequential from Concerted Three-Body Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Severt, T.; Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Feizollah, Peyman; Kaderiya, Balram; Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Raju P., Kanaka; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2018-03-01

    A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O++C++S+ and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO2 + or CS2 + , before its unimolecular dissociation. This native-frame method works for any projectile (electrons, ions, or photons), provides details on each step of the sequential breakup, and enables the retrieval of the relevant spectra for sequential and concerted breakup separately. Specifically, this allows the determination of the branching ratio of all these processes in OCS3 + breakup. Moreover, we find that the first step of sequential breakup is tightly aligned along the laser polarization and identify the likely electronic states of the intermediate dication that undergo unimolecular dissociation in the second step. Finally, the separated concerted breakup spectra show clearly that the central carbon atom is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the laser field.

  17. Assessing potential forest and steel inter-industry residue utilisation by sequential chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makela, M.

    2012-10-15

    Traditional process industries in Finland and abroad are facing an emerging waste disposal problem due recent regulatory development which has increased the costs of landfill disposal and difficulty in acquiring new sites. For large manufacturers, such as the forest and ferrous metals industries, symbiotic cooperation of formerly separate industrial sectors could enable the utilisation waste-labeled residues in manufacturing novel residue-derived materials suitable for replacing commercial virgin alternatives. Such efforts would allow transforming the current linear resource use and disposal models to more cyclical ones and thus attain savings in valuable materials and energy resources. The work described in this thesis was aimed at utilising forest and carbon steel industry residues in the experimental manufacture of novel residue-derived materials technically and environmentally suitable for amending agricultural or forest soil properties. Single and sequential chemical extractions were used to compare the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements in the manufactured amendment samples to relevant Finnish statutory limit values for the use of fertilizer products and to assess respective potential availability under natural conditions. In addition, the quality of analytical work and the suitability of sequential extraction in the analysis of an industrial solid sample were respectively evaluated through the analysis of a certified reference material and by X-ray diffraction of parallel sequential extraction residues. According to the acquired data, the incorporation of both forest and steel industry residues, such as fly ashes, lime wastes, green liquor dregs, sludges and slags, led to amendment liming capacities (34.9-38.3%, Ca equiv., d.w.) comparable to relevant commercial alternatives. Only the first experimental samples showed increased concentrations of pseudo-total cadmium and chromium, of which the latter was specified as the trivalent Cr(III). Based on

  18. Chemical and sequential analysis of some metals in sediments from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad Martinez; Brenda Estanol; Miguel Angel Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Sediments collected from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico got carefully mixed, dried, and finally subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Metal concentration was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sequential chemical analysis was performed by modified TESSIER technique. Results and statistical analysis (α = 0.05) show concentrations of most elements (excepting Mn, Ca, Ga, As and Pb) in the range of those of the earth crust's values, which set a sampling zone base line. Sequential extraction shows the potential risk of mobilization of metals sequestered in particulate phases by oxidation of anoxic sediments or intense organic matter degradation. (author)

  19. Sequential inference as a mode of cognition and its correlates in fronto-parietal and hippocampal brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H B FitzGerald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Normative models of human cognition often appeal to Bayesian filtering, which provides optimal online estimates of unknown or hidden states of the world, based on previous observations. However, in many cases it is necessary to optimise beliefs about sequences of states rather than just the current state. Importantly, Bayesian filtering and sequential inference strategies make different predictions about beliefs and subsequent choices, rendering them behaviourally dissociable. Taking data from a probabilistic reversal task we show that subjects' choices provide strong evidence that they are representing short sequences of states. Between-subject measures of this implicit sequential inference strategy had a neurobiological underpinning and correlated with grey matter density in prefrontal and parietal cortex, as well as the hippocampus. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for sequential inference in human cognition, and by exploiting between-subject variation in this measure we provide pointers to its neuronal substrates.

  20. Sequential Release of Proteins from Structured Multishell Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovich, Ulyana; Michaels, Thomas C T; De Genst, Erwin; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-10-09

    In nature, a wide range of functional materials is based on proteins. Increasing attention is also turning to the use of proteins as artificial biomaterials in the form of films, gels, particles, and fibrils that offer great potential for applications in areas ranging from molecular medicine to materials science. To date, however, most such applications have been limited to single component materials despite the fact that their natural analogues are composed of multiple types of proteins with a variety of functionalities that are coassembled in a highly organized manner on the micrometer scale, a process that is currently challenging to achieve in the laboratory. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of multicomponent protein microcapsules where the different components are positioned in a controlled manner. We use molecular self-assembly to generate multicomponent structures on the nanometer scale and droplet microfluidics to bring together the different components on the micrometer scale. Using this approach, we synthesize a wide range of multiprotein microcapsules containing three well-characterized proteins: glucagon, insulin, and lysozyme. The localization of each protein component in multishell microcapsules has been detected by labeling protein molecules with different fluorophores, and the final three-dimensional microcapsule structure has been resolved by using confocal microscopy together with image analysis techniques. In addition, we show that these structures can be used to tailor the release of such functional proteins in a sequential manner. Moreover, our observations demonstrate that the protein release mechanism from multishell capsules is driven by the kinetic control of mass transport of the cargo and by the dissolution of the shells. The ability to generate artificial materials that incorporate a variety of different proteins with distinct functionalities increases the breadth of the potential applications of artificial protein-based materials

  1. Lexical decoder for continuous speech recognition: sequential neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, Christine

    1991-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation concerns the study of a connectionist architecture to treat sequential inputs. In this context, the model proposed by J.L. Elman, a recurrent multilayers network, is used. Its abilities and its limits are evaluated. Modifications are done in order to treat erroneous or noisy sequential inputs and to classify patterns. The application context of this study concerns the realisation of a lexical decoder for analytical multi-speakers continuous speech recognition. Lexical decoding is completed from lattices of phonemes which are obtained after an acoustic-phonetic decoding stage relying on a K Nearest Neighbors search technique. Test are done on sentences formed from a lexicon of 20 words. The results are obtained show the ability of the proposed connectionist model to take into account the sequentiality at the input level, to memorize the context and to treat noisy or erroneous inputs. (author) [fr

  2. Computing Sequential Equilibria for Two-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2006-01-01

    Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies...... obtained by the algorithm are not necessarily sequentially rational and that this deficiency is often problematic for the practical applications. We show how to remove this deficiency by modifying the linear programs constructed by Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel so that pairs of strategies forming...... a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial time. In addition, the equilibrium we find is normal-form perfect. Our technique generalizes to general-sum games...

  3. Computing sequential equilibria for two-player games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2006-01-01

    Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Their algorithm has been used by AI researchers...... for constructing prescriptive strategies for concrete, often fairly large games. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies obtained by the algorithm are not necessarily sequentially rational and that this deficiency is often problematic for the practical applications. We show how to remove this deficiency...... by modifying the linear programs constructed by Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel so that pairs of strategies forming a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial...

  4. Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Smith, Harriet M J; Karoğlu, Nilda; Onwuegbusi, Tochukwu O; Rai, Lovedeep

    2016-01-01

    Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences. We had participants view a crime video, and then they attempted to identify the perpetrator from a simultaneous or sequential lineup. The test faces were presented either upright or inverted, as previous research has shown that inverting test faces disrupts configural processing. The size of the inversion effect for faces was the same across lineup procedures, indicating that configural processing underlies face recognition in both procedures. Discrimination accuracy was comparable across lineup procedures in both the upright and inversion condition. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  5. Visual short-term memory for sequential arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun; Jiang, Yuhong

    2005-04-01

    The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for a single visual display has been investigated in past research, but VSTM for multiple sequential arrays has been explored only recently. In this study, we investigate the capacity of VSTM across two sequential arrays separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). VSTM for spatial locations (Experiment 1), colors (Experiments 2-4), orientations (Experiments 3 and 4), and conjunction of color and orientation (Experiment 4) were tested, with the SOA across the two sequential arrays varying from 100 to 1,500 msec. We find that VSTM for the trailing array is much better than VSTM for the leading array, but when averaged across the two arrays VSTM has a constant capacity independent of the SOA. We suggest that multiple displays compete for retention in VSTM and that separating information into two temporally discrete groups does not enhance the overall capacity of VSTM.

  6. Sequential analysis in neonatal research-systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Elie, Valéry; Ha, Phuong Thi Viet; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2018-05-01

    As more new drugs are discovered, traditional designs come at their limits. Ten years after the adoption of the European Paediatric Regulation, we performed a systematic review on the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica database of sequential trials involving newborns. Out of 326 identified scientific reports, 21 trials were included. They enrolled 2832 patients, of whom 2099 were analyzed: the median number of neonates included per trial was 48 (IQR 22-87), median gestational age was 28.7 (IQR 27.9-30.9) weeks. Eighteen trials used sequential techniques to determine sample size, while 3 used continual reassessment methods for dose-finding. In 16 studies reporting sufficient data, the sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674) with respect to a traditional trial. When the number of neonates finally included in the analysis was considered, the difference became significant: 35 (57%) patients (IQR 10 to 136.5, p = 0.0033). Sequential trial designs have not been frequently used in Neonatology. They might potentially be able to reduce the number of patients in drug trials, although this is not always the case. What is known: • In evaluating rare diseases in fragile populations, traditional designs come at their limits. About 20% of pediatric trials are discontinued, mainly because of recruitment problems. What is new: • Sequential trials involving newborns were infrequently used and only a few (n = 21) are available for analysis. • The sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674).

  7. The pursuit of balance in sequential randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Guiteras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In many randomized trials, subjects enter the sample sequentially. Because the covariates for all units are not known in advance, standard methods of stratification do not apply. We describe and assess the method of DA-optimal sequential allocation (Atkinson, 1982 for balancing stratification covariates across treatment arms. We provide simulation evidence that the method can provide substantial improvements in precision over commonly employed alternatives. We also describe our experience implementing the method in a field trial of a clean water and handwashing intervention in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the first time the method has been used. We provide advice and software for future researchers.

  8. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  9. Properties of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, W.T.; Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Approximate forms of the first- and second-order distorted-wave Born amplitudes are used to study the overall structure, particularly the selection rules, of the amplitudes for simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons. The role of the spin-state assumed for the intermediate deuterons in sequential (t, p) reactions is stressed. The similarity of one-step and two-step amplitudes for (α, d) reactions is exhibited, and the consequent absence of any obvious J-dependence in their interference is noted. (orig.)

  10. Event-shape analysis: Sequential versus simultaneous multifragment emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebra, D.A.; Howden, S.; Karn, J.; Nadasen, A.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Vander Molen, A.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Norbeck, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Michigan State University 4π array has been used to select central-impact-parameter events from the reaction 40 Ar+ 51 V at incident energies from 35 to 85 MeV/nucleon. The event shape in momentum space is an observable which is shown to be sensitive to the dynamics of the fragmentation process. A comparison of the experimental event-shape distribution to sequential- and simultaneous-decay predictions suggests that a transition in the breakup process may have occurred. At 35 MeV/nucleon, a sequential-decay simulation reproduces the data. For the higher energies, the experimental distributions fall between the two contrasting predictions

  11. Sequential approach to Colombeau's theory of generalized functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    J.F. Colombeau's generalized functions are constructed as equivalence classes of the elements of a specially chosen ultrapower of the class of the C ∞ -functions. The elements of this ultrapower are considered as sequences of C ∞ -functions, so in a sense, the sequential construction presented here refers to the original Colombeau theory just as, for example, the Mikusinski sequential approach to the distribution theory refers to the original Schwartz theory of distributions. The paper could be used as an elementary introduction to the Colombeau theory in which recently a solution was found to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions. (author). Refs

  12. Comparison of ERBS orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Fabien, S. M.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Div. (FDD) at NASA-Goddard commissioned a study to develop the Real Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft on a DOS based personal computer (PC). An overview is presented of RTOD/E capabilities and the results are presented of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOS/E on a PC with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. RTOD/E was used to perform sequential orbit determination for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) was used to perform the batch least squares orbit determination. The estimated ERBS ephemerides were obtained for the Aug. 16 to 22, 1989, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for ERBS were available. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for ERBS; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  13. Performance Analysis of Video Transmission Using Sequential Distortion Minimization Method for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Astin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.

  14. Self-regulated learning of important information under sequential and simultaneous encoding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Castel, Alan D

    2018-05-01

    Learners make a number of decisions when attempting to study efficiently: they must choose which information to study, for how long to study it, and whether to restudy it later. The current experiments examine whether documented impairments to self-regulated learning when studying information sequentially, as opposed to simultaneously, extend to the learning of and memory for valuable information. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1-10 points sequentially or simultaneously at a preset presentation rate; in Experiment 2, study was self-paced and participants could choose to restudy. Although participants prioritized high-value over low-value information, irrespective of presentation, those who studied the items simultaneously demonstrated superior value-based prioritization with respect to recall, study selections, and self-pacing. The results of the present experiments support the theory that devising, maintaining, and executing efficient study agendas is inherently different under sequential formatting than simultaneous. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sequential fault diagnosis for mechatronics system using diagnostic hybrid bond graph and composite harmony search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a sequential fault diagnosis method to handle asynchronous distinct faults using diagnostic hybrid bond graph and composite harmony search. The faults under consideration include fault mode, abrupt fault, and intermittent fault. The faults can occur in different time instances, which add to the difficulty of decision making for fault diagnosis. This is because the earlier occurred fault can exhibit fault symptom which masks the fault symptom of latter occurred fault. In order to solve this problem, a sequential identification algorithm is developed in which the identification task is reactivated based on two conditions. The first condition is that the latter occurred fault has at least one inconsistent coherence vector element which is consistent in coherence vector of the earlier occurred fault, and the second condition is that the existing fault coherence vector has the ability to hide other faults and the second-level residual exceeds the threshold. A new composite harmony search which is capable of handling continuous variables and binary variables simultaneously is proposed for identification purpose. Experiments on a mobile robot system are conducted to assess the proposed sequential fault diagnosis algorithm.

  16. Comparison of ERBS orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Fabien, S. M.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-10-01

    The Flight Dynamics Div. (FDD) at NASA-Goddard commissioned a study to develop the Real Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft on a DOS based personal computer (PC). An overview is presented of RTOD/E capabilities and the results are presented of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOS/E on a PC with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. RTOD/E was used to perform sequential orbit determination for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) was used to perform the batch least squares orbit determination. The estimated ERBS ephemerides were obtained for the Aug. 16 to 22, 1989, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for ERBS were available. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for ERBS; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  17. Sequential nonadiabatic excitation of large molecules and ions driven by strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Ivanov, Misha Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Electronic processes leading to dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in strong laser fields are investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy, we study the dependence of fragmentation on laser intensity for a series of related molecules and report regular trends in this dependence on the size, symmetry, and electronic structure of a molecule. Based on these data, we develop a model of dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields. The model is built on three elements: (i) nonadiabatic population transfer from the ground electronic state to the excited-state manifold via a doorway (charge-transfer) transition; (ii) exponential enhancement of this transition by collective dynamic polarization of all electrons, and (iii) sequential energy deposition in both neutral molecules and resulting molecular ions. The sequential nonadiabatic excitation is accelerated by a counterintuitive increase of a large molecule's polarizability following its ionization. The generic theory of sequential nonadiabatic excitation forms a basis for quantitative description of various nonlinear processes in polyatomic molecules and ions in strong laser fields

  18. The parallel-sequential field subtraction technique for coherent nonlinear ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear imaging techniques have recently emerged which have the potential to detect cracks at a much earlier stage than was previously possible and have sensitivity to partially closed defects. This study explores a coherent imaging technique based on the subtraction of two modes of focusing: parallel, in which the elements are fired together with a delay law and sequential, in which elements are fired independently. In the parallel focusing a high intensity ultrasonic beam is formed in the specimen at the focal point. However, in sequential focusing only low intensity signals from individual elements enter the sample and the full matrix of transmit-receive signals is recorded and post-processed to form an image. Under linear elastic assumptions, both parallel and sequential images are expected to be identical. Here we measure the difference between these images and use this to characterise the nonlinearity of small closed fatigue cracks. In particular we monitor the change in relative phase and amplitude at the fundamental frequencies for each focal point and use this nonlinear coherent imaging metric to form images of the spatial distribution of nonlinearity. The results suggest the subtracted image can suppress linear features (e.g. back wall or large scatters) effectively when instrumentation noise compensation in applied, thereby allowing damage to be detected at an early stage (c. 15% of fatigue life) and reliably quantified in later fatigue life.

  19. Sequential Coherence in Sentence Pairs Enhances Imagery during Comprehension: An Individual Differences Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Madden-Lombardi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how sequential coherence in sentence pairs (events in sequence vs. unrelated events affects the perceived ability to form a mental image of the sentences for both auditory and visual presentations. In addition, we investigated how the ease of event imagery affected online comprehension (word reading times in the case of sequentially coherent and incoherent sentence pairs. Two groups of comprehenders were identified based on their self-reported ability to form vivid mental images of described events. Imageability ratings were higher and faster for pairs of sentences that described events in coherent sequences rather than non-sequential events, especially for high imagers. Furthermore, reading times on individual words suggested different comprehension patterns with respect to sequence coherence for the two groups of imagers, with high imagers activating richer mental images earlier than low imagers. The present results offer a novel link between research on imagery and discourse coherence, with specific contributions to our understanding of comprehension patterns for high and low imagers.

  20. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  1. Is sequential cranial ultrasound reliable for detection of white matter injury in very preterm infants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijser, Lara M.; Steggerda, Sylke J.; Walther, Frans J.; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van; Bruine, Francisca T. de; Grond, Jeroen van der

    2010-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound (cUS) may not be reliable for detection of diffuse white matter (WM) injury. Our aim was to assess in very preterm infants the reliability of a classification system for WM injury on sequential cUS throughout the neonatal period, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference standard. In 110 very preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks), serial cUS during admission (median 8, range 4-22) and again around term equivalent age (TEA) and a single MRI around TEA were performed. cUS during admission were assessed for presence of WM changes, and contemporaneous cUS and MRI around TEA additionally for abnormality of lateral ventricles. Sequential cUS (from birth up to TEA) and MRI were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, or severely abnormal, based on a combination of findings of the WM and lateral ventricles. Predictive values of the cUS classification were calculated. Sequential cUS were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, and severely abnormal in, respectively, 22%, 65%, and 13% of infants and MRI in, respectively, 30%, 52%, and 18%. The positive predictive value of the cUS classification for the MRI classification was high for severely abnormal WM (0.79) but lower for normal/mildly abnormal (0.67) and moderately abnormal (0.64) WM. Sequential cUS during the neonatal period detects severely abnormal WM in very preterm infants but is less reliable for mildly and moderately abnormal WM. MRI around TEA seems needed to reliably detect WM injury in very preterm infants. (orig.)

  2. Selective condensation drives partitioning and sequential secretion of cyst wall proteins in differentiating Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Konrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled secretion of a protective extracellular matrix is required for transmission of the infective stage of a large number of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Differentiating trophozoites of the highly minimized protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia secrete the proteinaceous portion of the cyst wall material (CWM consisting of three paralogous cyst wall proteins (CWP1-3 via organelles termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Phylogenetic and molecular data indicate that Diplomonads have lost a classical Golgi during reductive evolution. However, neogenesis of ESVs in encysting Giardia trophozoites transiently provides basic Golgi functions by accumulating presorted CWM exported from the ER for maturation. Based on this "minimal Golgi" hypothesis we predicted maturation of ESVs to a trans Golgi-like stage, which would manifest as a sorting event before regulated secretion of the CWM. Here we show that proteolytic processing of pro-CWP2 in maturing ESVs coincides with partitioning of CWM into two fractions, which are sorted and secreted sequentially with different kinetics. This novel sorting function leads to rapid assembly of a structurally defined outer cyst wall, followed by slow secretion of the remaining components. Using live cell microscopy we find direct evidence for condensed core formation in maturing ESVs. Core formation suggests that a mechanism controlled by phase transitions of the CWM from fluid to condensed and back likely drives CWM partitioning and makes sorting and sequential secretion possible. Blocking of CWP2 processing by a protease inhibitor leads to mis-sorting of a CWP2 reporter. Nevertheless, partitioning and sequential secretion of two portions of the CWM are unaffected in these cells. Although these cysts have a normal appearance they are not water resistant and therefore not infective. Our findings suggest that sequential assembly is a basic architectural principle of protective wall formation and requires

  3. Embedding responses in spontaneous neural activity shaped through sequential learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in

  4. Sequential reconstruction of driving-forces from nonlinear nonstationary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Ulaş

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a functional analysis-based method for the estimation of driving-forces from nonlinear dynamic systems. The driving-forces account for the perturbation inputs induced by the external environment or the secular variations in the internal variables of the system. The proposed algorithm is applicable to the problems for which there is too little or no prior knowledge to build a rigorous mathematical model of the unknown dynamics. We derive the estimator conditioned on the differentiability of the unknown system’s mapping, and smoothness of the driving-force. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive sequential realization of the blind prediction error method, where the basic idea is to predict the observables, and retrieve the driving-force from the prediction error. Our realization of this idea is embodied by predicting the observables one-step into the future using a bank of echo state networks (ESN) in an online fashion, and then extracting the raw estimates from the prediction error and smoothing these estimates in two adaptive filtering stages. The adaptive nature of the algorithm enables to retrieve both slowly and rapidly varying driving-forces accurately, which are illustrated by simulations. Logistic and Moran-Ricker maps are studied in controlled experiments, exemplifying chaotic state and stochastic measurement models. The algorithm is also applied to the estimation of a driving-force from another nonlinear dynamic system that is stochastic in both state and measurement equations. The results are judged by the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bounds. The method is finally put into test on a real-world application; extracting sun’s magnetic flux from the sunspot time series.

  5. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La présence et l'influence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) continuent de s'élargir et de s'accroître, tout comme leurs répercussions sur le développement économique. Toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup de travail à faire avant de pouvoir comprendre d'une manière systématique et ...

  6. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal supplement features 10 years of West African health systems research. In the wake of the devastating Ebola virus outbreak in 2014, increased attention has been paid to West Africa's poorly functioning health systems. View moreJournal supplement features 10 years of West African health systems research ...

  7. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  8. Autonomisation de regroupements de producteurs marginalisés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams will direct their focus towards new frontiers in cancer research. View moreSix world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers ...

  9. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mawulé Dassekpo

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, plasticizer (PL, followed by adding water (WA increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete. Keywords: Mixing method, Sequential addition, Synthesis parameters, Fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, Compressive properties

  10. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  11. On Modeling Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems with Parallel, Sequential and Genuinely Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosic, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    We study certain types of Cellular Automata (CA) viewed as an abstraction of large-scale Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). We argue that the classical CA model needs to be modified in several important respects, in order to become a relevant and sufficiently general model for the large-scale MAS, and so that thus generalized model can capture many important MAS properties at the level of agent ensembles and their long-term collective behavior patterns. We specifically focus on the issue of inter-agent communication in CA, and propose sequential cellular automata (SCA) as the first step, and genuinely Asynchronous Cellular Automata (ACA) as the ultimate deterministic CA-based abstract models for large-scale MAS made of simple reactive agents. We first formulate deterministic and nondeterministic versions of sequential CA, and then summarize some interesting configuration space properties (i.e., possible behaviors) of a restricted class of sequential CA. In particular, we compare and contrast those properties of sequential CA with the corresponding properties of the classical (that is, parallel and perfectly synchronous) CA with the same restricted class of update rules. We analytically demonstrate failure of the studied sequential CA models to simulate all possible behaviors of perfectly synchronous parallel CA, even for a very restricted class of non-linear totalistic node update rules. The lesson learned is that the interleaving semantics of concurrency, when applied to sequential CA, is not refined enough to adequately capture the perfect synchrony of parallel CA updates. Last but not least, we outline what would be an appropriate CA-like abstraction for large-scale distributed computing insofar as the inter-agent communication model is concerned, and in that context we propose genuinely asynchronous CA. (author)

  12. Sequential topographical portrayal of myocardial blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richeson, J.F.; Waag, R.C.; Zwierzynski, D.; Schenk, E.A. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Methods to portray myocardial blood flow in a two-dimensional continuum are advantageous in that they allow blood flow history to be overlaid on histological or histochemical descriptions of the consequences of ischemia. We describe here autoradiographic methods that allow such portrayals at three separate times during the evolution of ischemic injury. A computer-based image-analysis system was used to derive such flow maps by taking advantage of the physical characteristics of radioactive isotopes.

  13. Fast regularizing sequential subspace optimization in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöpfer, F; Schuster, T

    2009-01-01

    We are concerned with fast computations of regularized solutions of linear operator equations in Banach spaces in case only noisy data are available. To this end we modify recently developed sequential subspace optimization methods in such a way that the therein employed Bregman projections onto hyperplanes are replaced by Bregman projections onto stripes whose width is in the order of the noise level

  14. Sequential and simultaneous revascularization in adult orthotopic piggyback liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, WG; Miyamoto, S; Nemes, BA; Peeters, PMJG; de Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH

    The aim of the study was to assess whether there is a difference in outcome after sequential or simultaneous revascularization during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in terms of patient and graft survival, mortality, morbidity, and liver function. The study population consisted of 102 adult

  15. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  16. Excessive pressure in multichambered cuffs used for sequential compression therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P; Belgrado, JP; Leduc, A; Leduc, O; Verdonck, P

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Pneumatic compression devices, used as part of the therapeutic strategy for lymphatic drainage, often have cuffs with multiple chambers that are, inflated sequentially. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the relationship between cuff chamber pressure

  17. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4 OCM has been analysed over parts ...

  18. Sequential and Biomechanical Factors Constrain Timing and Motion in Tapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how timing accuracy in tapping sequences is influenced by sequential effects of preceding finger movements and biomechanical interdependencies among fingers. Skilled pianists tapped Sequences at 3 rates; in each sequence, a finger whose motion was more or less independent of

  19. The Efficacy of Sequential Therapy in Eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  20. The efficacy of sequential therapy in eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  1. In Vivo Evaluation of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Hansen, Peter Møller; Lange, Theis

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound in vivo imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamformation (SASB) is compared with conventional imaging in a double blinded study using side-by-side comparisons. The objective is to evaluate if the image quality in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast...

  2. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)

  3. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors). 15 refs.

  4. The Motivating Language of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one,…

  5. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, here we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The

  6. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  7. A path-level exact parallelization strategy for sequential simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Oscar F.; Baeza, Daniel; Ortiz, Julián M.; Herrero, José R.

    2018-01-01

    Sequential Simulation is a well known method in geostatistical modelling. Following the Bayesian approach for simulation of conditionally dependent random events, Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) method draws simulated values for K categories (categorical case) or classes defined by K different thresholds (continuous case). Similarly, Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) method draws simulated values from a multivariate Gaussian field. In this work, a path-level approach to parallelize SIS and SGS methods is presented. A first stage of re-arrangement of the simulation path is performed, followed by a second stage of parallel simulation for non-conflicting nodes. A key advantage of the proposed parallelization method is to generate identical realizations as with the original non-parallelized methods. Case studies are presented using two sequential simulation codes from GSLIB: SISIM and SGSIM. Execution time and speedup results are shown for large-scale domains, with many categories and maximum kriging neighbours in each case, achieving high speedup results in the best scenarios using 16 threads of execution in a single machine.

  8. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  9. Algorithm for Non-proportional Loading in Sequentially Linear Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Rots, J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Sequentially linear analysis (SLA) is an alternative to the Newton-Raphson method for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete and masonry structures. In this paper SLA is extended to load cases that are applied one after the other, for example first dead load and then wind load. It

  10. Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi agent Sequential Decision Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-17

    Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi-agent Sequential Decision Tasks The overall objective of this project was to develop multi-agent reinforcement... learning (MARL) approaches for intelligent agents to autonomously learn distributed control policies in decentral- ized partially observable... learning of policies in Dec-POMDPs, established performance bounds, evaluated these algorithms both theoretically and empirically, The views

  11. Sequential stenotic strictures of the small bowel leading to obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are primarily caused by adhesions, hernias, neoplasms, or inflammatory strictures. Intraluminal strictures are an uncommon cause of SBO. This report describes our findings in a unique case of sequential, stenotic intraluminal strictures of the small intestine, discusses the differential diagnosis of intraluminal intestinal strictures, and reviews the literature regarding intraluminal pathology.

  12. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  13. Standardized method for reproducing the sequential X-rays flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes, Alejandra; Molina, Katherine; Gudino, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    A method is validated to estandardize in the taking, developing and analysis of bite-wing radiographs taken in sequential way, in order to compare and evaluate detectable changes in the evolution of the interproximal lesions through time. A radiographic positioner called XCP® is modified by means of a rigid acrylic guide, to achieve proper of the X ray equipment core positioning relative to the XCP® ring and the reorientation during the sequential x-rays process. 16 subjects of 4 to 40 years old are studied for a total number of 32 registries. Two x-rays of the same block of teeth of each subject have been taken in sequential way, with a minimal difference of 30 minutes between each one, before the placement of radiographic attachment. The images have been digitized with a Super Cam® scanner and imported to a software. The measurements in X and Y-axis for both x-rays were performed to proceed to compare. The intraclass correlation index (ICI) has shown that the proposed method is statistically related to measurement (mm) obtained in the X and Y-axis for both sequential series of x-rays (p=0.01). The measures of central tendency and dispersion have shown that the usual occurrence is indifferent between the two measurements (Mode 0.000 and S = 0083 and 0.109) and that the probability of occurrence of different values is lower than expected. (author) [es

  14. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer machine (Buck Scientific VPG 210).

  15. Investigation of the sequential validity of quality improvement team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Self-assessment is widely used in the health care improvement collaboratives quality improvement (QI) teams' to assess their own performance. There is mixed evidence on the validity of this approach. This study investigated sequential validity of self-assessments in a QI HIV collaborative in Tanzania.

  16. On the origin of reproducible sequential activity in neural circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, V. S.; Zhigulin, V. P.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    2004-12-01

    Robustness and reproducibility of sequential spatio-temporal responses is an essential feature of many neural circuits in sensory and motor systems of animals. The most common mathematical images of dynamical regimes in neural systems are fixed points, limit cycles, chaotic attractors, and continuous attractors (attractive manifolds of neutrally stable fixed points). These are not suitable for the description of reproducible transient sequential neural dynamics. In this paper we present the concept of a stable heteroclinic sequence (SHS), which is not an attractor. SHS opens the way for understanding and modeling of transient sequential activity in neural circuits. We show that this new mathematical object can be used to describe robust and reproducible sequential neural dynamics. Using the framework of a generalized high-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model, that describes the dynamics of firing rates in an inhibitory network, we present analytical results on the existence of the SHS in the phase space of the network. With the help of numerical simulations we confirm its robustness in presence of noise in spite of the transient nature of the corresponding trajectories. Finally, by referring to several recent neurobiological experiments, we discuss possible applications of this new concept to several problems in neuroscience.

  17. The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...

  18. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile

  19. Influence of synchronous and sequential stimulation on muscle fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, M.; Thomsen, M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    1997-01-01

    In acute experiments the sciatic nerve of the rat is electrically stimulated to induce fatigue in the medial Gastrocnemius muscle. Fatigue tests are carried out using intermittent stimulation of different compartments (sequential) or a single compartment (synchronous) of the sciatic nerve. The

  20. Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…