Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the unit commitment (UC) in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which implies that it is difficult to determine the relative cost...... efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....
Re-grouping stars based on the chemical tagging technique: A case study of M67 and IC4651
Blanco-Cuaresma, S
2016-01-01
The chemical tagging technique proposed by Freeman & Bland-Hawthorn (2002) is based on the idea that stars formed from the same molecular cloud should share the same chemical signature. Thus, using only the chemical composition of stars we should be able to re-group the ones that once belonged to the same stellar aggregate. In Blanco-Cuaresma et al. (2015), we tested the technique on open cluster stars using iSpec (Blanco-Cuaresma et al. 2014a), we demonstrated their chemical homogeneity but we found that the 14 studied elements lead to chemical signatures too similar to reliably distinguish stars from different clusters. This represents a challenge to the technique and a new question was open: Could the inclusion of other elements help to better distinguish stars from different aggregates? With an updated and improved version of iSpec, we derived abundances for 28 elements using spectra from HARPS, UVES and NARVAL archives for the open clusters M67 and IC4651, and we found that the chemical signatures of...
Thanheiser, Eva
2012-01-01
This case study of a PST's understanding of regrouping with multidigit whole numbers in base-10 and non-base-10 contexts shows that although she seems to have all the knowledge elements necessary to give a conceptually based explanation of regrouping in the context of 3-digit numbers, she is unable to do so. This inability may be due to a lack of…
Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: Opacity Regrouping
Wollaeger, Ryan T
2014-01-01
Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that, in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure "opacity regrouping". Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in \\supernu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck ...
RADIATION TRANSPORT FOR EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS: OPACITY REGROUPING
Wollaeger, Ryan T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1500 Engineering Drive, 410 ERB, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Van Rossum, Daniel R., E-mail: wollaeger@wisc.edu, E-mail: daan@flash.uchicago.edu [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2014-10-01
Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure ''opacity regrouping''. Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in SuperNu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck factor for modified IMC-DDMC. We test SuperNu using numerical experiments including a quasi-manufactured analytic solution, a simple 10 group problem, and the W7 problem for Type Ia supernovae. We find that opacity regrouping is necessary to make our IMC-DDMC implementation feasible for the W7 problem and possibly Type Ia supernova simulations in general. We compare the bolometric light curves and spectra produced by the SuperNu and PHOENIX radiation transport codes for the W7 problem. The overall shape of the bolometric light curves are in good agreement, as are the spectra and their evolution with time. However, for the numerical specifications we considered, we find that the peak luminosity of the light curve calculated using SuperNu is ∼10% less than that calculated using PHOENIX.
Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries
Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen;
2011-01-01
Domestic horses are faced with social challenges throughout their lives due to limitations in social contact, space restrictions and frequent changes in social companionship. This is in contrast to natural conditions where horses live in relatively stable harem bands. Currently, little is known...... about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...
Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA
2016-10-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.
A Trust-region-based Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm
Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints....
Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression
无
2006-01-01
Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.
Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA
Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in
2016-07-15
Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.
Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA
Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib
2016-07-01
Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.
Cooperative Sequential Spectrum Sensing Based on Level-triggered Sampling
Yilmaz, Yasin; Wang, Xiaodong
2011-01-01
We propose a new framework for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, that is based on a novel class of non-uniform samplers, called the event-triggered samplers, and sequential detection. In the proposed scheme, each secondary user computes its local sensing decision statistic based on its own channel output; and whenever such decision statistic crosses certain predefined threshold values, the secondary user will send one (or several) bit of information to the fusion center. The fusion center asynchronously receives the bits from different secondary users and updates the global sensing decision statistic to perform a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), to reach a sensing decision. We provide an asymptotic analysis for the above scheme, and under different conditions, we compare it against the cooperative sensing scheme that is based on traditional uniform sampling and sequential detection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme, using even 1 bit, can outperform its uniform ...
WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math
Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.
2014-01-01
This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…
Refinement-based verification of sequential implementations of Stateflow charts
Miyazawa, Alvaro; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.5
2011-01-01
Simulink/Stateflow charts are widely used in industry for the specification of control systems, which are often safety-critical. This suggests a need for a formal treatment of such models. In previous work, we have proposed a technique for automatic generation of formal models of Stateflow blocks to support refinement-based reasoning. In this article, we present a refinement strategy that supports the verification of automatically generated sequential C implementations of Stateflow charts. In particular, we discuss how this strategy can be specialised to take advantage of architectural features in order to allow a higher level of automation.
Poage, J. L.
1975-01-01
A sequential nonparametric pattern classification procedure is presented. The method presented is an estimated version of the Wald sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). This method utilizes density function estimates, and the density estimate used is discussed, including a proof of convergence in probability of the estimate to the true density function. The classification procedure proposed makes use of the theory of order statistics, and estimates of the probabilities of misclassification are given. The procedure was tested on discriminating between two classes of Gaussian samples and on discriminating between two kinds of electroencephalogram (EEG) responses.
Visual Appearance-Based Unmanned Vehicle Sequential Localization
Wei Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Localizationis of vital importance for an unmanned vehicle to drive on the road. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, inertial equipment, artificial landmarks, distributing sensors or global positioning system (GPS information. Currently, the problem of localization with vision information is most concerned. However, vision‐based localization techniquesare still unavailable for practical applications. In this paper, we present a vision‐based sequential probability localization method. This method uses the surface information of the roadside to locate the vehicle, especially in the situation where GPS information is unavailable. It is composed of two step, first, in a recording stage, we construct a ground truthmap with the appearance of the roadside environment. Then in an on‐line stage, we use a sequential matching approach to localize the vehicle. In the experiment, we use two independent cameras to observe the environment, one is left‐orientated and the other is right. SIFT features and Daisy features are used to represent for the visual appearance of the environment. The experiment results show that the proposed method could locate the vehicle in a complicated, large environment with high reliability.
Schedule-based sequential localization in asynchronous wireless networks
Zachariah, Dave; De Angelis, Alessio; Dwivedi, Satyam; Händel, Peter
2014-12-01
In this paper, we consider the schedule-based network localization concept, which does not require synchronization among nodes and does not involve communication overhead. The concept makes use of a common transmission sequence, which enables each node to perform self-localization and to localize the entire network, based on noisy propagation-time measurements. We formulate the schedule-based localization problem as an estimation problem in a Bayesian framework. This provides robustness with respect to uncertainty in such system parameters as anchor locations and timing devices. Moreover, we derive a sequential approximate maximum a posteriori (AMAP) estimator. The estimator is fully decentralized and copes with varying noise levels. By studying the fundamental constraints given by the considered measurement model, we provide a system design methodology which enables a scalable solution. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed AMAP estimator by numerical simulations emulating an impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless network.
HASM-AD Algorithm Based on the Sequential Least Squares
WANG Shihai; YUE Tianxiang
2010-01-01
The HASM (high accuracy surface modeling) technique is based on the fundamental theory of surfaces, which has been proved to improve the interpolation accuracy in surface fitting. However, the integral iterative solution in previous studies resulted in high temporal complexity in computation and huge memory usage so that it became difficult to put the technique into application,especially for large-scale datasets. In the study, an innovative model (HASM-AD) is developed according to the sequential least squares on the basis of data adjustment theory. Sequential division is adopted in the technique, so that linear equations can be divided into groups to be processed in sequence with the temporal complexity reduced greatly in computation. The experiment indicates that the HASM-AD technique surpasses the traditional spatial interpolation methods in accuracy. Also, the cross-validation result proves the same conclusion for the spatial interpolation of soil PH property with the data sampled in Jiangxi province. Moreover, it is demonstrated in the study that the HASM-AD technique significantly reduces the computational complexity and lessens memory usage in computation.
An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations
Utpala Niranjan
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for designing a web recommendation system, which provides personalized recommendations of web access sequences for users. This paper describes the design of a web recommendation system for providing recommendations to a user's web access sequence. The proposed system is mainly based on mining closed sequential web access patterns. Initially, the PrefixSpan algorithm is employed on the preprocessed web server log data for mining sequential web access patterns. Subsequently, with the aid of post-pruning strategy, the closed sequential web access patterns are discovered from the complete set of sequential web access patterns. Then, a pattern tree, a compact representation of closed sequential patterns, is constructed from the discovered closed sequential web access patterns. The Patricia trie based data structure is used in the construction of the pattern tree. For a given user's web access sequence, the proposed system provides recommendations on the basis of the constructed pattern tree. The experimentation of the proposed system is performed using synthetic dataset and the performance of the proposed recommendation system is evaluated with precision, applicability and hit ratio.
SEQUENTIAL CLUSTERING-BASED EVENT DETECTION FOR NONINTRUSIVE LOAD MONITORING
Karim Said Barsim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of change-point detection has been well studied and adopted in many signal processing applications. In such applications, the informative segments of the signal are the stationary ones before and after the change-point. However, for some novel signal processing and machine learning applications such as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM, the information contained in the non-stationary transient intervals is of equal or even more importance to the recognition process. In this paper, we introduce a novel clustering-based sequential detection of abrupt changes in an aggregate electricity consumption profile with accurate decomposition of the input signal into stationary and non-stationary segments. We also introduce various event models in the context of clustering analysis. The proposed algorithm is applied to building-level energy profiles with promising results for the residential BLUED power dataset.
Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse
2015-01-01
The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…
Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband
Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E
2014-03-18
A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.
Wodziński Marek
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach to the sequential data classification, based on traditional machine learning algorithms (neural networks, principal component analysis, multivariate Gaussian anomaly detector and finding the shortest path in a directed acyclic graph, using A* algorithm with a regression-based heuristic. Palm gestures were used as an example of the sequential data and a quadrocopter was the controlled object. The study includes creation of a conceptual model and practical construction of a system using the GPU to ensure the realtime operation. The results present the classification accuracy of chosen gestures and comparison of the computation time between the CPU- and GPU-based solutions.
Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George
2010-01-01
"Investigator Names" is a newly required field in MEDLINE citations. It consists of personal names listed as members of corporate organizations in an article. Extracting investigator names automatically is necessary because of the increasing volume of articles reporting collaborative biomedical research in which a large number of investigators participate. In this paper, we present an SVM-based stacked sequential learning method in a novel application - recognizing named entities such as the first and last names of investigators from online medical journal articles. Stacked sequential learning is a meta-learning algorithm which can boost any base learner. It exploits contextual information by adding the predicted labels of the surrounding tokens as features. We apply this method to tag words in text paragraphs containing investigator names, and demonstrate that stacked sequential learning improves the performance of a nonsequential base learner such as an SVM classifier.
A nearest neighbor search algorithm of high-dimensional data based on sequential NPsim matrix
李文法
2016-01-01
Problems existin similarity measurement and index tree construction which affect the perform-ance of nearest neighbor search of high-dimensional data .The equidistance problem is solved using NPsim function to calculate similarity .And a sequential NPsim matrix is built to improve indexing performance .To sum up the above innovations , a nearest neighbor search algorithm of high-dimen-sional data based on sequential NPsim matrix is proposed in comparison with the nearest neighbor search algorithms based on KD-tree or SR-tree on Munsell spectral data set .Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm similarity is better than that of other algorithms and searching speed is more than thousands times of others .In addition , the slow construction speed of sequential NPsim matrix can be increased by using parallel computing .
Information-based sample size re-estimation in group sequential design for longitudinal trials.
Zhou, Jing; Adewale, Adeniyi; Shentu, Yue; Liu, Jiajun; Anderson, Keaven
2014-09-28
Group sequential design has become more popular in clinical trials because it allows for trials to stop early for futility or efficacy to save time and resources. However, this approach is less well-known for longitudinal analysis. We have observed repeated cases of studies with longitudinal data where there is an interest in early stopping for a lack of treatment effect or in adapting sample size to correct for inappropriate variance assumptions. We propose an information-based group sequential design as a method to deal with both of these issues. Updating the sample size at each interim analysis makes it possible to maintain the target power while controlling the type I error rate. We will illustrate our strategy with examples and simulations and compare the results with those obtained using fixed design and group sequential design without sample size re-estimation.
Power Management during Scan Based Sequential Circuit Testing
p, Reshma
2011-01-01
This paper shows that not every scan cell contributes equally to the power consumption during scan based test. The transitions at some scan cells cause more toggles at the internal signal lines of a circuit than the transitions at other scan cells. Hence the transitions at these scan cells have a larger impact on the power consumption during test application. These scan cells are called power sensitive scan cells.A verilog based approach is proposed to identify a set of power sensitive scan cells. Additional hardware is added to freeze the outputs of power sensitive scan cells during scan shifting in order to reduce the shift power consumption.when multiple scan chain is incorporated along with freezing the power sensitive scan cell,over all power during testing can be reduced to a larger extend.
Bidirectional Growth Based Mining and Cyclic Behaviour Analysis of Web Sequential Patterns
Srikantaiah K C
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The moreaccurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized toeffectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine
Wald, Abraham
2013-01-01
In 1943, while in charge of Columbia University's Statistical Research Group, Abraham Wald devised Sequential Design, an innovative statistical inference system. Because the decision to terminate an experiment is not predetermined, sequential analysis can arrive at a decision much sooner and with substantially fewer observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations. The system's immense value was immediately recognized, and its use was restricted to wartime research and procedures. In 1945, it was released to the public and has since revolutio
Impact of sheep stocking density and breed on behaviour of newly regrouped adult rams
Engeldal SEC
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Placing animals in cages with certain density and good grouping were two important aspects needed in intensive livestock production system to produce optimal production and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to examine effect of stocking density, breed and elapse of time on behaviour of newly regrouped, unacquainted adult rams from three sheep breeds i.e. Barbados Blackbelly Cross, Local Garut and Composite Garut, as possible factor causing variation in welfare status. Instantaneous scan sampling was used for recording sheep behaviour at three different stocking densities. Thirty-six adult rams were used in this research and divided into three groups (n = 12 on the basis of breed. At each stocking density four rams of the same breed were observed during two consecutive days. The recorded behaviours were agonistic-, self-care-, exploratory-, aberrant-, mating-, locomotive- and standing behaviour. The results showed that during the entire experiment agonistic behaviour was observed at the highest frequency. Stocking density was found to have a significant effect on exploratory-, locomotive- and standing behaviour. The effect of breed was found to cause significant differences in agonistic-, self-care-, aberrant- and mating behaviour. Significant differences were also found between day 1 and day 2 of regrouping for agonistic-, exploratory, self-care- and mating behaviour. It is concluded that the three breeds do differ in their behavioural reactions to different stocking density levels and time needed for adaptation after regrouping
Sequential Processes in Palladium-Catalyzed Silicon-Based Cross-Coupling
Denmark, Scott E; Liu, Jack H.-C.
2010-01-01
Although developed somewhat later, silicon-based cross-coupling has become a viable alternative to the more conventional Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille-Kosugi-Migita, and Negishi cross-coupling reactions because of its broad substrate scope, high stability of silicon-containing reagents, and low toxicity of waste streams. An empowering and yet underappreciated feature unique to silicon-based cross-coupling is the wide range of sequential processes available. In these processes, simple precursors are ...
Treatment of mites folliculitis with an ornidazole-based sequential therapy
Luo, Yang; Sun, Yu-Jiao; Zhang, Li; Luan, Xiu-Li
2016-01-01
Abstract Objective: Treatment of Demodex infestations is often inadequate and associated with low effective rate. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an ornidazole-based sequential therapy for mites folliculitis treatment. Methods: Two-hundred patients with mites folliculitis were sequentially treated with either an ornidazole- or metronidazole-based regimen. Sebum cutaneum was extruded from the sebaceous glands of each patient's nose and the presence of Demodex mites were examined by light microscopy. The clinical manifestations of relapse of mites folliculitis were recorded and the subjects were followed up at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Results: Patients treated with the ornidazole-based regimen showed an overall effective rate of 94.0%. Additionally, at the 2, 4, 8, and 12-week follow-up, these patients had significantly lower rates of Demodex mite relapse and new lesion occurrence compared with patients treated with the metronidazole-based regimen (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Sequential therapy using ornidazole, betamethasone, and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) gel is highly effective for treating mites folliculitis. PMID:27399141
Cho, Tae Min; Lee, Byung Chai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-01-15
In this study, an effective method for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is proposed enhancing sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) method by convex approximations. In SORA, reliability estimation and deterministic optimization are performed sequentially. The sensitivity and function value of probabilistic constraint at the most probable point (MPP) are obtained in the reliability analysis loop. In this study, the convex approximations for probabilistic constraint are constructed by utilizing the sensitivity and function value of the probabilistic constraint at the MPP. Hence, the proposed method requires much less function evaluations of probabilistic constraints in the deterministic optimization than the original SORA method. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method were verified through numerical examples
Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behaviour
Eva eFriedel
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal–directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed versus habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favour of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.
Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.
Friedel, Eva; Koch, Stefan P; Wendt, Jean; Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian
2014-01-01
In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.
Context Specificity of the ANS Stress Response during Two Regrouping Experiments in Goats
Patt, Antonia; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Hillmann, Edna; Langbein, Jan; Keil, Nina M.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs between two regrouping procedures in goats, which would indicate stimulus specificity of these stressors. Applying two regrouping procedures, we evaluated heart rate and heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, and RMSSD/SDNN). The two regrouping procedures were (1) introduction of individual goats into established groups (“introduction experiment”) and (2) temporary separation and subsequent reintegration of individuals from/into their group with two levels of contact during separation (“separation experiment”). In the “introduction experiment,” the heart rate of introduced goats while lying decreased continuously from an average 78 to 68 beats/min from before the introduction to the last day of the introduction period. Inversely, RMSSD increased continuously from 41 to 62 ms, which, on its own, would indicate an adaptation to the situation. During the “separation experiment,” heart rate while lying was higher when goats were separated in the “acoustic contact treatment” (82 beats/min on average) compared with the “restricted physical contact treatment” (75 beats/min on average). This difference reflected a higher level of arousal during the “acoustic contact treatment.” However, heart rate activity did not allow detecting effects of separation or reintegration. Even though it can be assumed that both the separation and introduction of goats are stressful for goats, the ANS reactions observed in this study differed between the two management procedures indicating that the ANS activation was specific to each situation. In addition, we discuss the ANS results in context with earlier findings of variables of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (fecal cortisol metabolites) and behavior (lying and feeding). As correspondence between ANS, HPA, and behavioral reactions was limited both within and across experiments, the results
Adaptive list sequential sampling method for population-based observational studies
2014-01-01
Background In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired composition. Inviting too many individuals or too few individuals from a particular subgroup could lead to unnecessary costs or decreased precision. Another problem is that there is frequently no or only partial information available about the willingness to participate. In this situation, we cannot adjust the recruitment procedure for non-participation before the recruitment period starts. Methods We have developed an adaptive list sequential sampling method that can deal with unknown participation probabilities and delayed responses to the invitation to participate in the study. In a sequential way, we evaluate whether we should invite a person from the population or not. During this evaluation, we correct for the fact that this person could decline to participate using an estimated participation probability. We use the information from all previously invited persons to estimate the participation probabilities for the non-evaluated individuals. Results The simulations showed that the adaptive list sequential sampling method can be used to estimate the participation probability during the recruitment period, and that it can successfully recruit a sample with a specific composition. Conclusions The adaptive list sequential sampling method can successfully recruit a sample with a specific desired composition when we have partial or no information about the willingness to participate before we start the recruitment period and when individuals may have a delayed response to the invitation. PMID:24965316
Adaptive list sequential sampling method for population-based observational studies.
Hof, Michel H; Ravelli, Anita C J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H
2014-06-25
In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired composition. Inviting too many individuals or too few individuals from a particular subgroup could lead to unnecessary costs or decreased precision. Another problem is that there is frequently no or only partial information available about the willingness to participate. In this situation, we cannot adjust the recruitment procedure for non-participation before the recruitment period starts. We have developed an adaptive list sequential sampling method that can deal with unknown participation probabilities and delayed responses to the invitation to participate in the study. In a sequential way, we evaluate whether we should invite a person from the population or not. During this evaluation, we correct for the fact that this person could decline to participate using an estimated participation probability. We use the information from all previously invited persons to estimate the participation probabilities for the non-evaluated individuals. The simulations showed that the adaptive list sequential sampling method can be used to estimate the participation probability during the recruitment period, and that it can successfully recruit a sample with a specific composition. The adaptive list sequential sampling method can successfully recruit a sample with a specific desired composition when we have partial or no information about the willingness to participate before we start the recruitment period and when individuals may have a delayed response to the invitation.
Spatiotemporal Mining of Time-Series Remote Sensing Images Based on Sequential Pattern Mining
Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.
2015-07-01
With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern
Multiple frequencies sequential coding for SSVEP-based brain-computer interface.
Yangsong Zhang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI has become one of the most promising modalities for a practical noninvasive BCI system. Owing to both the limitation of refresh rate of liquid crystal display (LCD or cathode ray tube (CRT monitor, and the specific physiological response property that only a very small number of stimuli at certain frequencies could evoke strong SSVEPs, the available frequencies for SSVEP stimuli are limited. Therefore, it may not be enough to code multiple targets with the traditional frequencies coding protocols, which poses a big challenge for the design of a practical SSVEP-based BCI. This study aimed to provide an innovative coding method to tackle this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present a novel protocol termed multiple frequencies sequential coding (MFSC for SSVEP-based BCI. In MFSC, multiple frequencies are sequentially used in each cycle to code the targets. To fulfill the sequential coding, each cycle is divided into several coding epochs, and during each epoch, certain frequency is used. Obviously, different frequencies or the same frequency can be presented in the coding epochs, and the different epoch sequence corresponds to the different targets. To show the feasibility of MFSC, we used two frequencies to realize four targets and carried on an offline experiment. The current study shows that: 1 MFSC is feasible and efficient; 2 the performance of SSVEP-based BCI based on MFSC can be comparable to some existed systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed protocol could potentially implement much more targets with the limited available frequencies compared with the traditional frequencies coding protocol. The efficiency of the new protocol was confirmed by real data experiment. We propose that the SSVEP-based BCI under MFSC might be a promising choice in the future.
Takita, Eiji; Kohda, Katsunori; Tomatsu, Hajime; Hanano, Shigeru; Moriya, Kanami; Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Shibata, Daisuke
2013-12-01
Ligation, the joining of DNA fragments, is a fundamental procedure in molecular cloning and is indispensable to the production of genetically modified organisms that can be used for basic research, the applied biosciences, or both. Given that many genes cooperate in various pathways, incorporating multiple gene cassettes in tandem in a transgenic DNA construct for the purpose of genetic modification is often necessary when generating organisms that produce multiple foreign gene products. Here, we describe a novel method, designated PRESSO (precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate), for the tandem ligation of multiple DNA fragments. We amplified donor DNA fragments with non-palindromic ends, and ligated the fragment to acceptor DNA fragments on solid beads. After the final donor DNA fragments, which included vector sequences, were joined to the construct that contained the array of fragments, the ligation product (the construct) was thereby released from the beads via digestion with a rare-cut meganuclease; the freed linear construct was circularized via an intra-molecular ligation. PRESSO allowed us to rapidly and efficiently join multiple genes in an optimized order and orientation. This method can overcome many technical challenges in functional genomics during the post-sequencing generation.
S Jayanthy; M C Bhuvaneswari
2015-02-01
In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps. The fault simulator based on fuzzy delay detects unstable states, oscillations and non-confluence of settling states in asynchronous sequential circuits. The fuzzy delay model based fault simulator is used to validate the test patterns produced by Elitist Non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm (ENGA) based test generator, for detecting crosstalk delay faults in asynchronous sequential circuits. The multi-objective genetic algorithm, ENGA targets two objectives of maximizing fault coverage and minimizing number of transitions. Experimental results are tabulated for SIS benchmark circuits for three gate delay models, namely unit delay model, rise/fall delay model and fuzzy delay model. Experimental results indicate that test validation using fuzzy delay model is more accurate than unit delay model and rise/fall delay model.
A Simplified Short Term Load Forecasting Method Based on Sequential Patterns
Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar
2014-01-01
, require considerable expertise for model construction and re-construction. Consequently, they might be impractical to use in case multiple regional forecasts are to be conducted. In this perspective, a simplified hour-ahead load forecasting algorithm was created so as to provide an automated approach...... to the problem as an alternative to other established forecasting techniques. This algorithm is based on sequential patterns and, hence, the continuous data are discretized in order to compare recent to past patterns. Although some error due to discretization is introduced, the method performs adequately well...... in comparison with an ARIMA model....
Sequential maneuvering decisions based on multi-stage influence diagram in air combat
无
2007-01-01
A multi-stage influence diagram is used to model the pilot's sequential decision making in one on one air combat.The model based on the multi-stage influence diagram graphically describes the elements of decision process,and contains a point-mass model for the dynamics of an aircraft and takes into account the decision maker's Dreferences under uncertain conditions.Considering an active opponent,the opponent's maneuvers can be modeled stochastically.The solution of multistage influence diagram Can be obtained by converting the multistage influence diagram into a two-level optimization problem.The simulation results show the model is effective.
Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua
2015-01-15
Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.
Han Zou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.
Thiacalix[4]arene based reconfigurable molecular switches: set-reset memorized sequential device.
Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Rajesh; Bhalla, Vandana
2011-12-21
The fluorescent chemosensors 3, 5 and 7 based on thiacalix[4]arene bearing naphthyl groups have been designed and synthesized. The optical chemosensor 3 based on a thiacalix[4]arene of cone conformation behaves as "turn-on" optical chemosensor for Fe(3+) and F(-) ions. However, chemosensors 5 and 7 based on a thiacalix[4]arene of 1,3-alternate conformation demonstrate "turn-on" optical behaviour for Hg(2+), F(-) ions (with receptor 5 as turn-on for K(+) ions also) and "turn-off" behaviour for Fe(3+) ions. The simultaneous presence of Fe(3+) and Hg(2+) or K(+) or F(-) ions results in formulation of reversible "on-off" switches. Various molecular logic gates developed in response to molecular switching between these chemical inputs have been integrated into sequential logic circuits with memory function in a feedback loop which mimics "set-reset" molecular level information processing device.
IMPROVED ALGORITHM FOR ROAD REGION SEGMENTATION BASED ON SEQUENTIAL MONTE-CARLO ESTIMATION
Zdenek Prochazka
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers and car makers put a lot of intensive effort into development of autonomous driving systems. Since visual information is the main modality used by human driver, a camera mounted on moving platform is very important kind of sensor, and various computer vision algorithms to handle vehicle surrounding situation are under intensive research. Our final goal is to develop a vision based lane detection system with ability to handle various types of road shapes, working on both structured and unstructured roads, ideally under presence of shadows. This paper presents a modified road region segmentation algorithm based on sequential Monte-Carlo estimation. Detailed description of the algorithm is given, and evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the segmentation algorithm developed as a part of our previous work, as well as an conventional algorithm based on colour histogram.
DYNAMIC PARAMETERS ESTIMATION OF INTERFEROMETRIC SIGNALS BASED ON SEQUENTIAL MONTE CARLO METHOD
M. A. Volynsky
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with sequential Monte Carlo method applied to problem of interferometric signals parameters estimation. The method is based on the statistical approximation of the posterior probability density distribution of parameters. Detailed description of the algorithm is given. The possibility of using the residual minimum between prediction and observation as a criterion for the selection of multitude elements generated at each algorithm step is shown. Analysis of input parameters influence on performance of the algorithm has been conducted. It was found that the standard deviation of the amplitude estimation error for typical signals is about 10% of the maximum amplitude value. The phase estimation error was shown to have a normal distribution. Analysis of the algorithm characteristics depending on input parameters is done. In particular, the influence analysis for a number of selected vectors of parameters on evaluation results is carried out. On the basis of simulation results for the considered class of signals, it is recommended to select 30% of the generated vectors number. The increase of the generated vectors number over 150 does not give significant improvement of the obtained estimates quality. The sequential Monte Carlo method is recommended for usage in dynamic processing of interferometric signals for the cases when high immunity is required to non-linear changes of signal parameters and influence of random noise.
Chen Szi-Wen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A novel approach that employs a complexity-based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT technique for real-time detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF and ventricular tachycardia (VT is presented. A dataset consisting of a number of VF and VT electrocardiogram (ECG recordings drawn from the MIT-BIH database was adopted for such an analysis. It was split into two smaller datasets for algorithm training and testing, respectively. Each ECG recording was measured in a 10-second interval. For each recording, a number of overlapping windowed ECG data segments were obtained by shifting a 5-second window by a step of 1 second. During the windowing process, the complexity measure (CM value was calculated for each windowed segment and the task of pattern recognition was then sequentially performed by the SHT procedure. A preliminary test conducted using the database produced optimal overall predictive accuracy of . The algorithm was also implemented on a commercial embedded DSP controller, permitting a hardware realization of real-time ventricular arrhythmia detection.
SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array
B. F. Zong
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.
YANG Jian-qiu; WANG Yan-rong
2011-01-01
Several structural design parameters for the description of the geometric features of a hollow fan blade were determined. A structural design optimization model of a hollow fan blade which based on the strength constraint and minimum mass was established based on the finite element method through these parameters. Then, the sequential quadratic programming algorithm was employed to search the optimal solutions. Several groups of value for initial design variables were chosen, for the purpose of not only finding much more local optimal results but also analyzing which discipline that the variables according to could be benefit for the convergence and robustness. Response surface method and Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze whether the objective function and constraint function are sensitive to the variation of variables or not. Then the robust results could be found among a group of different local optimal solutions.
Study of sequential optimal control algorithm smart isolation structure based on Simulink-S function
Liu, Xiaohuan; Liu, Yanhui
2017-01-01
The study of this paper focuses on smart isolation structure, a method for realizing structural vibration control by using Simulink simulation is proposed according to the proposed sequential optimal control algorithm. In the Simulink simulation environment, A smart isolation structure is used to compare the control effect of three algorithms, i.e., classical optimal control algorithm, linear quadratic gaussian control algorithm and sequential optimal control algorithm under the condition of sensor contaminated with noise. Simulation results show that this method can be applied to the simulation of sequential optimal control algorithm and the proposed sequential optimal control algorithm has a good ability of resisting the noise and better control efficiency.
Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine;
proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...... information in probabilistic inverse problems. Unfortunately, when this strategy is applied with the multiple-point-based simulation algorithm SNESIM the reproducibility of training image patterns is violated. In this study we suggest to combine sequential simulation with the frequency matching method...
A sequential procedure for implementing a computer-based information system.
Aldrich, D S; Helbig, L C
1986-09-01
A sequential procedure is presented for the foodservice manager to follow when considering initial implementation of a computer-based information system (CBIS). A feasibility study is recommended as a first step to analyze the information desired and resources available in order to determine objectives of the proposed CBIS. Alternative CBIS design plans should then be evaluated against critical success factors to determine the direction of initial CBIS efforts. Application software, which provides needed support, then determines the hardware needed. Information about vendors and the suitability of the CBIS to meet needs should be determined next. The following management procedures are suggested: utilization of project management skills, identification of roles for the project team members, and initiation of a phased implementation strategy. Finally, to ensure control of the CBIS project, evaluation and documentation are advised.
Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments.
Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus
2015-07-01
Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common (13)C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR.
Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments
Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus, E-mail: rali@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany)
2015-07-15
Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common {sup 13}C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR.
SEQUENTIAL DIAGNOSIS FOR A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BASED ON FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK
ZHOU Xiong; WANG Huaqing; CHEN Peng; TANG Yike
2008-01-01
A sequential diagnosis method is proposed based on a fuzzy neural network realized by "the partially-linearized neural network (PNN)", by which the fault types of rotating machinery can be precisely and effectively distinguished at an early stage on the basis of the possibilities of symptom parameters. The non-dimensional symptom parameters in time domain are defined for reflecting the features of time signals measured for the fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. The synthetic detection index is also proposed to evaluate the sensitivity of non-dimensional symptom parameters for detecting faults. The practical example of condition diagnosis for detecting and distinguishing fault states of a centrifugal pump system, such as cavitation, impeller eccentricity which often occur in a centrifugal pump system, are shown to verify the efficiency of the method proposed in this paper.
Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine;
In order to move beyond simplified covariance based a priori models, which are typically used for inverse problems, more complex multiple-point-based a priori models have to be considered. By means of marginal probability distributions ‘learned’ from a training image, sequential simulation has pr...... in order to improve the pattern reproducibility while maintaining the efficiency of the sequential Gibbs sampling strategy. We compare realizations of three types of a priori models. Finally, the results are exemplified through crosshole travel time tomography....
Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping;
2009-01-01
upon the training dataset for complex activities, we build our activity models by mining a set of Emerging Patterns from the sequential activity trace only and apply our models in recognizing sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities. We conduct our empirical studies in a real smart home...
PredSTP: a highly accurate SVM based model to predict sequential cystine stabilized peptides.
Islam, S M Ashiqul; Sajed, Tanvir; Kearney, Christopher Michel; Baker, Erich J
2015-07-05
Numerous organisms have evolved a wide range of toxic peptides for self-defense and predation. Their effective interstitial and macro-environmental use requires energetic and structural stability. One successful group of these peptides includes a tri-disulfide domain arrangement that offers toxicity and high stability. Sequential tri-disulfide connectivity variants create highly compact disulfide folds capable of withstanding a variety of environmental stresses. Their combination of toxicity and stability make these peptides remarkably valuable for their potential as bio-insecticides, antimicrobial peptides and peptide drug candidates. However, the wide sequence variation, sources and modalities of group members impose serious limitations on our ability to rapidly identify potential members. As a result, there is a need for automated high-throughput member classification approaches that leverage their demonstrated tertiary and functional homology. We developed an SVM-based model to predict sequential tri-disulfide peptide (STP) toxins from peptide sequences. One optimized model, called PredSTP, predicted STPs from training set with sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 94.86%, 94.11%, 84.31%, 94.30% and 0.86, respectively, using 200 fold cross validation. The same model outperforms existing prediction approaches in three independent out of sample testsets derived from PDB. PredSTP can accurately identify a wide range of cystine stabilized peptide toxins directly from sequences in a species-agnostic fashion. The ability to rapidly filter sequences for potential bioactive peptides can greatly compress the time between peptide identification and testing structural and functional properties for possible antimicrobial and insecticidal candidates. A web interface is freely available to predict STP toxins from http://crick.ecs.baylor.edu/.
Design and Implementation of a Hybrid SET-CMOS Based Sequential Circuits
Anindya Jana
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Single Electron Transistor is a hot cake in the present research area of VLSI design and Microelectron-ics technology. It operates through one-by-one tunneling of electrons through the channel, utilizing the Coulomb blockade Phenomenon. Due to nanoscale feature size, ultralow power dissipation, and unique Coulomb blockade oscillation characteristics it may replace Field Effect Transistor FET. SET is very much advantageous than CMOS in few points. And in few points CMOS is advantageous than SET. So it has been seen that Combination of SET and CMOS is very much effective in the nanoscale, low power VLSI circuits. This paper has given a idea to make different sequential circuits using the Hybrid SET-CMOS. The MIB model for SET and BSIM4 model for CMOS are used. The operations of the proposed circuits are verified in Tanner environment. The performances of CMOS and Hybrid SET-CMOS based circuits are compared. The hybrid SET-CMOS circuit is found to consume lesser power than the CMOS based circuit. Further it is established that hybrid SET-CMOS based circuit is much faster compared to CMOS based circuit.
Inferring Sequential Order of Somatic Mutations during Tumorgenesis based on Markov Chain Model.
Kang, Hao; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas; Zeng, Tao; Chen, Luonan
2015-01-01
Tumors are developed and worsen with the accumulated mutations on DNA sequences during tumorigenesis. Identifying the temporal order of gene mutations in cancer initiation and development is a challenging topic. It not only provides a new insight into the study of tumorigenesis at the level of genome sequences but also is an effective tool for early diagnosis of tumors and preventive medicine. In this paper, we develop a novel method to accurately estimate the sequential order of gene mutations during tumorigenesis from genome sequencing data based on Markov chain model as TOMC (Temporal Order based on Markov Chain), and also provide a new criterion to further infer the order of samples or patients, which can characterize the severity or stage of the disease. We applied our method to the analysis of tumors based on several high-throughput datasets. Specifically, first, we revealed that tumor suppressor genes (TSG) tend to be mutated ahead of oncogenes, which are considered as important events for key functional loss and gain during tumorigenesis. Second, the comparisons of various methods demonstrated that our approach has clear advantages over the existing methods due to the consideration on the effect of mutation dependence among genes, such as co-mutation. Third and most important, our method is able to deduce the ordinal sequence of patients or samples to quantitatively characterize their severity of tumors. Therefore, our work provides a new way to quantitatively understand the development and progression of tumorigenesis based on high throughput sequencing data.
Massias, Bastien; Urdaci, Maria C
2009-05-01
The ProReg XL Tool (Profile Regrouping Excel Tool) is a new tool suite designed to rapidly regroup a large number of identical electrophoretic profiles. This tool suite is coded in Visual Basic Application for Microsoft Excel, and thus requires this spreadsheet software to operate. It was designed for use with a new screening strategy of clones from an rrs (16S rDNA) clone library, but it may also be helpful in other electrophoretic applications. ProReg XL Tool is organized in different steps where the user has the capability--in addition to regrouping electrophoretic profiles--to control gel quality, determine signal attenuation, and draw pie charts.
L. Wang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Maximum Sequential Similarity Reasoning (MSSR algorithm based method for co-registration of 3D TLS data and 2D floor plans. The co-registration consists of two tasks: estimating a transformation between the two datasets and finding the vertical locations of windows and doors. The method first extracts TLS line sequences and floor plan line sequences from a series of horizontal cross-section bands of the TLS points and floor plans respectively. Then each line sequence is further decomposed into column vectors defined by using local transformation invariant information between two neighbouring line segments. Based on a normalized cross-correlation based similarity score function, the proposed MSSR algorithm is then used to iteratively estimate the vertical and horizontal locations of each floor plan by finding the longest matched consecutive column vectors between floor plan line sequences and TLS line sequences. A group matching algorithm is applied to simultaneously determine final matching results across floor plans and estimate the transformation parameters between floor plans and TLS points. With real datasets, the proposed method demonstrates its ability to deal with occlusions and multiple matching problems. It also shows the potential to detect conflict between floor plan and as-built, which makes it a promising method that can find many applications in many industrial fields.
Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna
2016-12-01
In recent years, it has been shown that reversible logic can play an important role in power optimization for computer design. The various reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, Peres, and Toffoli gates have been discussed by researchers, but very little work has been done on reversible sequential circuits. Design of reversible sequential circuits using lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers is proposed. Here, flip-flops are designed with the help of basic reversible logic gates such as Feynman, Fredkin, and Peres gates. Theoretical descriptions along with mathematical formulation of the devices are provided. The devices are also analyzed through finite difference-beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation.
Huang, Hong Zhong; Zhang, Xudong; Meng, De Biao; Wang, Zhonglai; Liu, Yu [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)
2013-06-15
Reliability based design optimization (RBDO) has been widely implemented in engineering practices for high safety and reliability. It is an important challenge to improve computational efficiency. Sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) has made great efforts to improve computational efficiency by decoupling a RBDO problem into sequential deterministic optimization and reliability analysis as a single-loop method. In this paper, in order to further improve computational efficiency and extend the application of the current SORA method, an enhanced SORA (ESORA) is proposed by considering constant and varying variances of random design variables while keeping the sequential framework. Some mathematical examples and an engineering case are given to illustrate the proposed method and validate the efficiency.
Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders
We show that well-known textbook formulae for determining the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time can easily be extended to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. The provided performance measures and conditions...
Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders
2008-01-01
We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...
Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse
2015-01-01
Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…
The Economic Efficiency of Urban Land Use with a Sequential Slack-Based Model in Korea
Yongrok Choi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Since the inauguration of the government-led five year economic plans in the 1960s, Korea has achieved remarkable economic development. Korea’s economic strategy, known as ‘The Miracle on the Han River’, focused on heavy and chemical industries such as ship building and petrochemicals and was based on resource intensive urbanization. This rapid urban development caused a series of problems, such as over-development in urban areas, bottlenecks in utilities, and environmental degradation. Nevertheless, the Korean government has recently moved toward deregulation of the greenbelts of major city areas. Since very few studies have analyzed the urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE in Korea, this paper assesses the feasibility of recent deregulation policy concerning the greenbelts utilizing the sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model under environmental constraints across 16 South Korean cities from 2006 to 2013. Our research makes three significant contributions to urbanization research. First, this paper uses an SSBM model to analyze the dynamic changes of urban land use economic efficiency in Korea at the regional level; Second, this paper analyzes factors influencing ULUEE in Korea, and the feasibility of the deregulation policies on the greenbelts; Third, this paper suggests more performance-oriented policy alternatives to improve the ULUEE and implement sustainable greenbelt management.
Murphy, H M; Payne, S J; Gagnon, G A
2008-04-01
This study was designed to examine the potential downstream benefits of sequential disinfection to control the persistence of Escherichia coli under conditions relevant to drinking water distribution systems. Eight annular reactors (four polycarbonate and four cast iron) were setup in parallel to address various factors that could influence biofilm growth in distribution systems. Eight reactors were treated with chlorine, chlorine dioxide and monochloramine alone or in combination with UV to examine the effects on Escherichia coli growth and persistence in both the effluent and biofilm. In general, UV-treated systems in combination with chlorine or chlorine dioxide and monochloramine achieved greater log reductions in both effluent and biofilm than systems treated with chlorine-based disinfectants alone. However, during UV-low chlorine disinfection, E. coli was found to persist at low levels, suggesting that the UV treatment had instigated an adaptive mutation. During UV-chlorine-dioxide treatment, the E. coli that was initially below the detection limit reappeared during a low level of disinfection (0.2 mg/L) in the cast iron systems. Chloramine was shown to be effective in disinfecting suspended E. coli in the effluent but was unable to reduce biofilm counts to below the detection limit. Issues such as repair mechanism of E. coli and nitrification could help explain some of these aberrations. Improved understanding of the ability of chlorine-based disinfectant in combination with UV to provide sufficient disinfection will ultimately effect in improved management and safety of drinking water.
M. J. Werner
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Data assimilation is routinely employed in meteorology, engineering and computer sciences to optimally combine noisy observations with prior model information for obtaining better estimates of a state, and thus better forecasts, than achieved by ignoring data uncertainties. Earthquake forecasting, too, suffers from measurement errors and partial model information and may thus gain significantly from data assimilation. We present perhaps the first fully implementable data assimilation method for earthquake forecasts generated by a point-process model of seismicity. We test the method on a synthetic and pedagogical example of a renewal process observed in noise, which is relevant for the seismic gap hypothesis, models of characteristic earthquakes and recurrence statistics of large quakes inferred from paleoseismic data records. To address the non-Gaussian statistics of earthquakes, we use sequential Monte Carlo methods, a set of flexible simulation-based methods for recursively estimating arbitrary posterior distributions. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of forecasting earthquakes based on data assimilation.
Ehlers, Lennart; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; He, Xin; Jensen, Karsten H.
2016-04-01
Precipitation is a key input to hydrological models. Spatially distributed rainfall used in hydrological modelling is commonly based on the interpolation of gauge rainfall using conventional geostatistical techniques such as kriging, e.g. Salamon and Feyen [2009], Stisen et al. [2011]. While being effective point interpolators [Moulin et al., 2009], these techniques are unable to reproduce the spatial variability inherent in the rainfall process at unsampled locations. Stochastic simulation approaches provide the means to better capture this variability and hence to quantify the associated spatial uncertainty [McMillan et al., 2011]. The objective of this study is to quantify uncertainties in interpolated gauge based rainfall by employing sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) coupled with ordinary kriging (OK) to generate realizations of daily precipitation at a 2x2 km2 grid. The rainfall gauge data was collected in a 1055 km2 subcatchment within the HOBE catchment (Jutland, Denmark) [Jensen and Illangasekare, 2011]. The following uncertainties are considered: i) interpolation uncertainty ii) uncertainty on the point measurement iii) location uncertainty. Results from using different numbers of SGS realizations and different lengths of the simulated period as well as different assumptions on the underlying uncertainties will be presented and discussed with regard to mean annual catchment rainfall. Jensen, K. H., and T. H. Illangasekare (2011), HOBE: A Hydrological Observatory, Vadose Zone J, 10(1), 1-7. McMillan, H., B. Jackson, M. Clark, D. Kavetski, and R. Woods (2011), Rainfall uncertainty in hydrological modelling: An evaluation of multiplicative error models, J Hydrol, 400(1-2), 83-94. Moulin, L., E. Gaume, and C. Obled (2009), Uncertainties on mean areal precipitation: assessment and impact on streamflow simulations, Hydrol Earth Syst Sc, 13(2), 99-114. Salamon, P., and L. Feyen (2009), Assessing parameter, precipitation, and predictive uncertainty in a
Hall, Olivia J; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Vermillion, Meghan S; Fink, Ashley L; Phuong, Vanessa; Krammer, Florian; Klein, Sabra L
2017-02-08
In addition to their intended use, progesterone (P4)-based contraceptives promote anti-inflammatory immune responses, yet their effects on the outcome of infectious diseases, including influenza A virus (IAV), are rarely evaluated. To evaluate their impact on immune responses to sequential IAV infections, adult female mice were treated with placebo or one of two progestins, P4 or levonorgestrel (LNG), and infected with mouse adapted (ma) H1N1 virus. Treatment with P4 or LNG reduced morbidity, but had no effect on pulmonary virus titers, during primary H1N1 infection as compared to placebo treatment. In serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, total anti-IAV IgG and IgA titers and virus neutralizing antibody titers, but not hemagglutinin stalk antibody titers, were lower in progestin-treated mice as compared with placebo-treated mice. Females were challenged six weeks later with either a maH1N1 drift variant (maH1N1dv) or maH3N2 IAV. Protection following infection with the maH1N1dv was similar among all groups. In contrast, following challenge with maH3N2, progestin treatment reduced survival as well as numbers and activity of H1N1- and H3N2-specific memory CD8+ T cells, including tissue resident cells, compared with placebo treatment. In contrast to primary IAV infection, progestin treatment increased neutralizing and IgG antibody titers against both challenge viruses compared with placebo treatment. While the immunomodulatory properties of progestins protected naïve females against severe outcome from IAV infection, it made them more susceptible to secondary challenge with a heterologous IAV, despite improving their antibody responses against a secondary IAV infection. Taken together, the immunomodulatory effects of progestins differentially regulate the outcome of infection depending on exposure history.IMPORTANCE The impact of hormone-based contraceptives on the outcome of infectious diseases outside of the reproductive tract is rarely considered. Using a mouse
Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4
Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon
2016-01-01
Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.
Vimmrová, Alena; Kočí, Václav; Krejsová, Jitka; Černý, Robert
2016-06-01
A method for lightweight-gypsum material design using waste stone dust as the foaming agent is described. The main objective is to reach several physical properties which are inversely related in a certain way. Therefore, a linear optimization method is applied to handle this task systematically. The optimization process is based on sequential measurement of physical properties. The results are subsequently point-awarded according to a complex point criterion and new composition is proposed. After 17 trials the final mixture is obtained, having the bulk density equal to (586 ± 19) kg/m3 and compressive strength (1.10 ± 0.07) MPa. According to a detailed comparative analysis with reference gypsum, the newly developed material can be used as excellent thermally insulating interior plaster with the thermal conductivity of (0.082 ± 0.005) W/(m·K). In addition, its practical application can bring substantial economic and environmental benefits as the material contains 25 % of waste stone dust.
A reduced order model based on Kalman filtering for sequential data assimilation of turbulent flows
Meldi, M.; Poux, A.
2017-10-01
A Kalman filter based sequential estimator is presented in this work. The estimator is integrated in the structure of segregated solvers for the analysis of incompressible flows. This technique provides an augmented flow state integrating available observation in the CFD model, naturally preserving a zero-divergence condition for the velocity field. Because of the prohibitive costs associated with a complete Kalman Filter application, two model reduction strategies have been proposed and assessed. These strategies dramatically reduce the increase in computational costs of the model, which can be quantified in an augmentation of 10%- 15% with respect to the classical numerical simulation. In addition, an extended analysis of the behavior of the numerical model covariance Q has been performed. Optimized values are strongly linked to the truncation error of the discretization procedure. The estimator has been applied to the analysis of a number of test cases exhibiting increasing complexity, including turbulent flow configurations. The results show that the augmented flow successfully improves the prediction of the physical quantities investigated, even when the observation is provided in a limited region of the physical domain. In addition, the present work suggests that these Data Assimilation techniques, which are at an embryonic stage of development in CFD, may have the potential to be pushed even further using the augmented prediction as a powerful tool for the optimization of the free parameters in the numerical simulation.
Babu, G S; Suresh, S
2013-02-01
In this paper, we present a sequential projection-based metacognitive learning algorithm in a radial basis function network (PBL-McRBFN) for classification problems. The algorithm is inspired by human metacognitive learning principles and has two components: a cognitive component and a metacognitive component. The cognitive component is a single-hidden-layer radial basis function network with evolving architecture. The metacognitive component controls the learning process in the cognitive component by choosing the best learning strategy for the current sample and adapts the learning strategies by implementing self-regulation. In addition, sample overlapping conditions and past knowledge of the samples in the form of pseudosamples are used for proper initialization of new hidden neurons to minimize the misclassification. The parameter update strategy uses projection-based direct minimization of hinge loss error. The interaction of the cognitive component and the metacognitive component addresses the what-to-learn, when-to-learn, and how-to-learn human learning principles efficiently. The performance of the PBL-McRBFN is evaluated using a set of benchmark classification problems from the University of California Irvine machine learning repository. The statistical performance evaluation on these problems proves the superior performance of the PBL-McRBFN classifier over results reported in the literature. Also, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm on a practical Alzheimer's disease detection problem. The performance results on open access series of imaging studies and Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative datasets, which are obtained from different demographic regions, clearly show that PBL-McRBFN can handle a problem with change in distribution.
王晖; 刘大有; 等
1994-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.
Lim, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chai; Lee, Ik Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
This study develops an efficient and accurate methodology for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) by combining the most probable point (MPP)-based dimension reduction method (DRM) to enhance accuracy and the sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) to enhance efficiency. In many researches, first-order reliability method (FORM) has been utilized for RBDO methods due to its efficiency and simplicity. However, it might not be accurate enough for highly nonlinear performance functions. Therefore, the MPP-based DRM is introduced for the accurate reliability assessment in this study. Even though the MPP-based DRM significantly improves the accuracy, additional computations for the moment-based integration are required. It is desirable to reduce the number of reliability analyses in the RBDO process. Since decoupled approaches such as SORA reduce necessary reliability analyses considerably, DRM-based SORA is proposed in this study for accurate and efficient RBDO. Furthermore, convex linearization is introduced to approximate inactive probabilistic constraints to additionally improve the efficiency. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are verified through numerical examples.
Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping
2009-01-01
Recognizing human activity from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing. Human activity recognition is particularly challenging because activities are often performed in not only simple (i.e., sequential), but also complex (i.e., interleaved and concur...
Miriam Martinez-Biarge
Full Text Available The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings.Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS and confirmed on MRI.138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32, mid (2-6 weeks; n = 30 and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76. 63 infants (77% had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami.In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2-6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI.
Bouchekif, Hassen
2015-01-01
A series of novel, well-defined triblock (PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE) and pentablock (PSiDEGVE-b-PCEVE-b-PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE) terpolymers of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiEGVE) were synthesized by sequential base-assisted living cationic polymerization. The living character of the homopolymerization of the three VE monomers and the crossover reaction resulting in the formation of well-defined block copolymers were investigated in various solvents (toluene, dichloromethane and n-hexane) using either a monofunctional [nBVE-acetic acid adduct (nBEA), CEVE-acetic acid adduct (CEEA) and SiDEGVE-acetic acid adduct (SiDEGEA)] or a difunctional [1,4-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl bis(2-methoxyethyl acetate) (cHDMEA)] initiator. All initiators are structurally equivalent to the dormant species of the corresponding monomers in order to achieve fast initiation. The optimal conditions of polymerization were achieved in n-hexane at -20 °C, in the presence of 1 M AcOEt (base). Good control over the number average molecular weight (Mn) and the polydispersity index (PDI) was obtained only at [Et3Al2Cl3]0 = [Chain-end]0 ≤ 10 mM. 2,6-Di-tert-butylpyridine (DtBP) was used as a non-nucleophilic proton trap to suppress any protonic initiation from moisture (i.e., Et3Al2Cl3·H2O). Well-defined PnBVEn-b-PCEVEp-b-PSiDEGVEq and PSiDEGVEq-b-PCEVEp-b-PnBVEn-b-PCEVEp-b-PSiDEGVEq terpolymers with a high crossover efficiency, no PCEVE-induced physical gelation, and predictable Mn and PDI < 1.15 were synthesized successfully provided that the targeted DPCEVE/DPnBVE ratio (i.e., p/n) did not exceed 2 and 0.2, respectively. The quantitative desilylation of the PSiEGVE by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to triblock and pentablock terpolymers in which the PCEVE is the central block and the polyalcohol is the outer block. The thermal properties of the synthesized materials were examined by differential scanning
Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array
Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann
2001-10-01
AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine
Koda, Shunichi; Goodwin, Jonathan; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Fujii, Hirotada; Hirata, Hiroshi
2012-01-01
The development of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based mapping of pH is an important advancement for the field of diagnostic imaging. The ability to accurately quantify pH change in vivo and monitor spatial distribution is desirable for the assessment of a number of pathological conditions in the human body as well as the monitoring of treatment response. In this work we introduce a method for EPR-based pH mapping, utilizing a method of spectral-spatial imaging of sequentially scanned...
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Angelis, Luca De; Rahbek, Anders
2015-01-01
work done for the latter in Cavaliere, Rahbek and Taylor [Econometric Reviews (2014) forthcoming], we establish the asymptotic properties of the procedures based on information criteria in the presence of heteroskedasticity (conditional or unconditional) of a quite general and unknown form....... The relative finite-sample properties of the different methods are investigated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. For the simulation DGPs considered in the analysis, we find that the BIC-based procedure and the bootstrap sequential test procedure deliver the best overall performance in terms...
Sequential Adaptive Fuzzy Inference System Based Intelligent Control of Robot Manipulators
Sahraoui Mustapha
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to the presentation and implementation of an optimized technique allowing an on-line estimation of a robot manipulator parameters to use them in a computed torque control. Indeed the proposed control law needs the exact robot model to give good performances. The complexity of the robot manipulator and its strong non-linearity makes it hard to know its parameters. Therefore, we propose in this paper to use neuro-fuzzy networks Sequential Adaptive Fuzzy Inference System (SAFIS to estimate the parameters of the controlled robot manipulator.
Information-based complexity, feedback and dynamics in sequential convex programming
Raginsky, Maxim
2010-01-01
We study the intrinsic limitations of sequential convex optimization through the lens of feedback information theory. In the oracle model of optimization, an algorithm queries an {\\em oracle} for noisy information about the unknown objective function, and the goal is to (approximately) minimize every function in a given class using as few queries as possible. We show that, in order for a function to be optimized, the algorithm must be able to accumulate enough information about the objective. This, in turn, puts limits on the speed of optimization under specific assumptions on the oracle and the type of feedback. Our techniques are akin to the ones used in statistical literature to obtain minimax lower bounds on the risks of estimation procedures; the notable difference is that, unlike in the case of i.i.d. data, a sequential optimiation algorithm can gather observations in a {\\em controlled} manner, so that the amount of information at each step is allowed to change in time. In particular, we show that optim...
A Soft Sensor for Bioprocess Control Based on Sequential Filtering of Metabolic Heat Signals
Dan Paulsson
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Soft sensors are the combination of robust on-line sensor signals with mathematical models for deriving additional process information. Here, we apply this principle to a microbial recombinant protein production process in a bioreactor by exploiting bio-calorimetric methodology. Temperature sensor signals from the cooling system of the bioreactor were used for estimating the metabolic heat of the microbial culture and from that the specific growth rate and active biomass concentration were derived. By applying sequential digital signal filtering, the soft sensor was made more robust for industrial practice with cultures generating low metabolic heat in environments with high noise level. The estimated specific growth rate signal obtained from the three stage sequential filter allowed controlled feeding of substrate during the fed-batch phase of the production process. The biomass and growth rate estimates from the soft sensor were also compared with an alternative sensor probe and a capacitance on-line sensor, for the same variables. The comparison showed similar or better sensitivity and lower variability for the metabolic heat soft sensor suggesting that using permanent temperature sensors of a bioreactor is a realistic and inexpensive alternative for monitoring and control. However, both alternatives are easy to implement in a soft sensor, alone or in parallel.
Pascaline Clerc
Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria.
Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M
2012-01-01
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria.
Sastry, P S
2008-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of detecting statistically significant sequential patterns in multi-neuronal spike trains. These patterns are characterized by an ordered sequences of spikes from different neurons with specific delays between spikes. We have previously proposed a data mining scheme to efficiently discover such patterns which are frequent in the sense that the count of non-overlapping occurrences of the pattern in the data stream is above a threshold. Here we propose a method to determine the statistical significance of these repeating patterns and to set the thresholds automatically. The novelty of our approach is that we use a compound null hypothesis that includes not only models of independent neurons but also models where neurons have weak dependencies. The strength of interaction among the neurons is represented in terms of certain pair-wise conditional probabilities. We specify our null hypothesis by putting an upper bound on all such conditional probabilities. We construct a proba...
Liu, Wei; Ma, Shunjian; Sun, Mingwei; Yi, Haidong; Wang, Zenghui; Chen, Zengqiang
2016-08-01
Path planning plays an important role in aircraft guided systems. Multiple no-fly zones in the flight area make path planning a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. It is necessary to obtain a feasible optimal solution in real time. In this article, the flight path is specified to be composed of alternate line segments and circular arcs, in order to reformulate the problem into a static optimization one in terms of the waypoints. For the commonly used circular and polygonal no-fly zones, geometric conditions are established to determine whether or not the path intersects with them, and these can be readily programmed. Then, the original problem is transformed into a form that can be solved by the sequential quadratic programming method. The solution can be obtained quickly using the Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer (SNOPT) package. Mathematical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness and rapidity of the proposed algorithm.
Pure perceptual-based learning of second-, third-, and fourth-order sequential probabilities.
Remillard, Gilbert
2011-07-01
There is evidence that sequence learning in the traditional serial reaction time task (SRTT), where target location is the response dimension, and sequence learning in the perceptual SRTT, where target location is not the response dimension, are handled by different mechanisms. The ability of the latter mechanism to learn sequential contingencies that can be learned by the former mechanism was examined. Prior research has established that people can learn second-, third-, and fourth-order probabilities in the traditional SRTT. The present study reveals that people can learn such probabilities in the perceptual SRTT. This suggests that the two mechanisms may have similar architectures. A possible neural basis of the two mechanisms is discussed.
Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhao, Cheng; Li, Gongke
2016-07-01
Achieving reproducible signals is a key point to improve the analytical precision and accuracy of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique and further expand the application scope of SERS for on-site and rapid analysis of real sample with complex matrice. In this work, a novel Au@hydroxyl-functionalized polystyrene (Au@PS-OH) substrate was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and chemical assembly method, which possessed promised potential for the rapid and sequential analysis of multisamples coupling with SERS technique. Au@PS-OH substrate with regular nanoarrayed morphology possessed excellent anti-agglomeration capability even for testing solutions with strong basicity or acidity, mechanic and chemical stability due to the large amount of Au nanoparticles homogeneously and stably fixed on substrate surface. Moreover, excellent hydrophobicity of Au@PS-OH substrate could keep testing droplets of multiple samples stable and uniform spherical shape with similar contact angles to substrate, which guaranteed the reproducible SERS light paths and SERS signals during real sequential analysis. Then, an Au@PS-OH based SERS analytical method was developed and practically applied for the sequential determination of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in various textiles. It was satisfactory that the contents of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in black woolen, green woolen and yellow fiber cloth could be actually found and calculated to be 106.4, 120.9 and 140.8mg/kg with good recoveries of 76.0-118.9% and relative standard deviations of 1.6-5.1%. It is expected that this SERS method is suitable for on-site and rapid analysis of multiple samples in a short period.
Anne eGiersch
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Looking at a pair of objects is easy when automatic grouping mechanisms bind these objects together, but visual exploration can also be more flexible. It is possible to mentally ‘re-group’ two objects that are not only separate but belong to different pairs of objects. ‘Re-grouping’ is in conflict with automatic grouping, since it entails a separation of each item from the set it belongs to. This ability appears to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Here we check if this impairment is selective, which would suggest a dissociation between grouping and ‘re-grouping’, or if it impacts on usual, automatic grouping, which would call for a better understanding of the interactions between automatic grouping and ‘re-grouping’. Sixteen outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls had to identify two identical and contiguous target figures within a display of circles and squares alternating around a fixation point. Eye-tracking was used to check central fixation. The target pair could be located in the same or separate hemifields. Identical figures were grouped by a connector (grouped automatically or not (to be re-grouped. Attention modulation of automatic grouping was tested by manipulating the proportion of connected and unconnected targets, thus prompting subjects to focalize on either connected or unconnected pairs. Both groups were sensitive to automatic grouping in most conditions, but patients were unusually slowed down for connected targets while focalizing on unconnected pairs. In addition, this unusual effect occurred only when target were presented within the same hemifield. Patients and controls differed on this asymmetry between within- and across-hemifield presentation, suggesting that patients with schizophrenia do not re-group figures in the same way as controls do. We discuss possible implications on how ‘re-grouping’ ties in with ongoing, automatic perception in healthy volunteers.
Carlomagno, Chiara; Daniele, Gennaro; Bianco, Roberto; Marciano, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Matano, Elide; Nappi, Lucia; Pepe, Stefano; DE Placido, Sabino; Tortora, Giampaolo
2011-05-01
The combination of EGFR inhibitors and anti-angiogenic drugs has a strong pre-clinical rationale, yet its use has produced controversial clinical results. We conducted two sequential phase I trials to evaluate the feasibility and the recommended dose of erlotinib when combined with fluoropyrimidine-oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. A total of 21 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients were treated in two sequential phase I trials. In the first trial, 12 patients were treated with escalating doses of erlotinib plus FOLFOX. In the second, 9 patients were treated with escalating doses of erlotinib combined with oxaliplatin, capecitabine and bevacizumab. No MTD was reached in either of the trials. The only dose-limiting toxicities observed were neutropenia and diarrhea. No unexpected toxicities were noted. Hematological toxicity was the most frequently noted adverse event with infusional 5FU therapy, while gastrointestinal toxicity was the most common adverse event. In the second trial most patients withdrew from treatment due to toxicity, and less than half completed the therapeutic program as per protocol, mostly due to toxicity. In conclusion, the present study confirms the disappointing results of the double combination of EGFR inhibitors and anti-angiogenic drugs in mCRC patients.
Branchini, Bruce
2016-01-01
We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues.
Zhang, Xunxun; Xu, Hongke; Fang, Jianwu; Sheng, Gang
2017-04-01
Vehicle detection in high-resolution aerial images has received widespread interests when it comes to providing the required information for traffic management and urban planning. It is challenging due to the relatively small size of the vehicles and the complex background. Furthermore, it is particularly challenging if the higher detection efficiency is required. Therefore, an urban vehicle detection algorithm is proposed via improved entropy rate clustering (IERC) and correlation-based sequential dictionary learning (CSDL). First, to enhance the detection accuracy, IERC is designed to generate more regular superpixels. It aims to avoid the situation that one superpixel sometimes straddles multiple vehicles. The generated superpixels are then treated as the seeds for the training sample selection. Then, CSDL is constructed to achieve a fast sequential training and updating of the dictionary. In CSDL, only the atoms correlated with the sparse representation of the new training data are inferred. Finally, comprehensive analyses and comparisons on two data sets demonstrate that the proposed method generates satisfactory and competitive results.
Horizontal Coalition Stability Analysis of Supply Chain Entities Based on Sequential Game
Shizhao Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming to find the effect of the same status entities’ horizontal coordination on supply chain, this paper studied the coalition stability of dealers in a two-stage supply chain with one supplier and multiple dealers. First, a vertical sequential game model is built, where the supplier is leader and the multiple dealers are followers. In the second stage of the game, multiple dealers face two selections: playing Nash game with each other or developing a coalition. Then, according to the results acquired by comparing the dealers’ profits which depend on their coalition situations, the criterion of coalition stability is developed. Finally, numerical simulation is used to verify the validity of the model, and some insights are obtained. For example, if the sensitivity coefficient T of the market price is fixed, dealers’ coalition tends to be stable with the increasing of the substitution rate k in a reasonable range; the supplier’s optimal wholesale price is constant with and without dealer’s coalition, but dealers’ coalition causes demand to decrease, which leads to the decrease of the supplier’s profit too. The result of this paper provides an important reference for the formation of dealers’ coalition in IT or automobile supply chain.
Donald A. McLaren
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes and tests a wavelet-based implicit numerical method for solving partial differential equations. Intended for problems with localized small-scale interactions, the method exploits the form of the wavelet decomposition to divide the implicit system created by the time-discretization into multiple smaller systems that can be solved sequentially. Included is a test on a basic non-linear problem, with both the results of the test, and the time required to calculate them, compared with control results based on a single system with fine resolution. The method is then tested on a non-trivial problem, its computational time and accuracy checked against control results. In both tests, it was found that the method requires less computational expense than the control. Furthermore, the method showed convergence towards the fine resolution control results.
Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.
2002-01-01
LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729
Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W
2002-01-01
LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.
Giuseppe Rocca
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia is often unsatisfactory. We assessed the efficacy of a bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium thermal water cycle of 12 days, in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients with functional dyspepsia were sent by their general practitioners to 12 days of treatment with thermal water, 200–400 ml in the morning, at temperature of 33°C (91.4 F and were evaluated on a strict intention to treat basis. Four efficacy endpoints were analyzed as follows: (i reduction of the global symptoms score, (ii reduction of intensity to a level not interfering with everyday activities, (iii specific efficacy on ulcer-like or dysmotility-like dyspepsia and (iv esophageal or abdominal-associated symptoms. Statistical significance was reached for all three primary outcomes after the first 29 consecutive patients. Thermal water reduced the global symptom score, reduced intensity of symptoms to a level not interfering with everyday activity, but was unable to completely suppress all symptoms. A parallel effect emerged for ulcer-like and dyspepsia-like subgroups. The effect on heartburn and abdominal symptoms was not significant, suggesting a specific effect of the water on the gastric and duodenal wall. The Roma II criteria identify a natural kind of dyspepsia that improves with thermal water. Ulcer-like and dysmotility-like are not therapeutically distinguishable subgroups. Patients with dominant esophageal or abdominal symptoms should receive a different therapy. Sequential methods are very effective for the evaluation of traditional care practices and should be considered preliminary and integrative to randomized controlled trials in this context.
Dioni, Federico; Rocca, Nadia; Oliveri, Filippo; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Bonino, Ferruccio
2007-01-01
Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia is often unsatisfactory. We assessed the efficacy of a bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium thermal water cycle of 12 days, in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients with functional dyspepsia were sent by their general practitioners to 12 days of treatment with thermal water, 200–400 ml in the morning, at temperature of 33°C (91.4 F) and were evaluated on a strict intention to treat basis. Four efficacy endpoints were analyzed as follows: (i) reduction of the global symptoms score, (ii) reduction of intensity to a level not interfering with everyday activities, (iii) specific efficacy on ulcer-like or dysmotility-like dyspepsia and (iv) esophageal or abdominal-associated symptoms. Statistical significance was reached for all three primary outcomes after the first 29 consecutive patients. Thermal water reduced the global symptom score, reduced intensity of symptoms to a level not interfering with everyday activity, but was unable to completely suppress all symptoms. A parallel effect emerged for ulcer-like and dyspepsia-like subgroups. The effect on heartburn and abdominal symptoms was not significant, suggesting a specific effect of the water on the gastric and duodenal wall. The Roma II criteria identify a natural kind of dyspepsia that improves with thermal water. Ulcer-like and dysmotility-like are not therapeutically distinguishable subgroups. Patients with dominant esophageal or abdominal symptoms should receive a different therapy. Sequential methods are very effective for the evaluation of traditional care practices and should be considered preliminary and integrative to randomized controlled trials in this context. PMID:17965771
Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt
2017-01-01
The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine...... by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH† and ΔS†), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed...... to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found...
Sequential memory: Binding dynamics
Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail
2015-10-01
Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.
Nagarajaiah, Honnappa; Mishra, Abhaya Kumar; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha
2016-04-26
α-Chloroketones - obtained by the atom-economical chlorination of ketones with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in the presence of p-TSA under ball-milling conditions - were set up for a sequential base-mediated condensation reaction with thiourea/thiosemicarbazides, o-phenylenediamine and salicylaldehyde to afford 2-aminothiazoles, 2-hydrazinylthiazoles, quinoxalines and benzoylbenzofurans, respectively, in respectable yields. The viability of one-pot sequential acid- and base-mediated reactions in the solid state under ball-milling conditions is thus demonstrated.
PENG Lei; LIU Li; LONG Teng; GUO Xiaosong
2014-01-01
As a promising technique, surrogate-based design and optimization(SBDO) has been widely used in modern engineering design optimizations. Currently, static surrogate-based optimization methods have been successfully applied to expensive optimization problems. However, due to the low efficiency and poor flexibility, static surrogate-based optimization methods are difficult to efficiently solve practical engineering cases. At the aim of enhancing efficiency, a novel surrogate-based efficient optimization method is developed by using sequential radial basis function(SEO-SRBF). Moreover, augmented Lagrangian multiplier method is adopted to solve the problems involving expensive constraints. In order to study the performance of SEO-SRBF, several numerical benchmark functions and engineering problems are solved by SEO-SRBF and other well-known surrogate-based optimization methods including EGO, MPS, and IARSM. The optimal solutions, number of function evaluations, and algorithm execution time are recorded for comparison. The comparison results demonstrate that SEO-SRBF shows satisfactory performance in both optimization efficiency and global convergence capability. The CPU time required for running SEO-SRBF is dramatically less than that of other algorithms. In the torque arm optimization case using FEA simulation, SEO-SRBF further reduces 21% of thematerial volume compared with the solution from static-RBF subject to the stress constraint. This study provides the efficient strategy to solve expensive constrained optimization problems.
From sequential to one-pot synthesis of dipyrrin based grid-type mixed metal-organic frameworks.
Béziau, Antoine; Baudron, Stéphane A; Fluck, Audrey; Hosseini, Mir Wais
2013-12-16
Both sequential and one-pot strategies for the preparation of a series of grid-type mixed metal-organic frameworks (MM'MOFs) based on dipyrrin ligands appended with either a pyridyl or a phenyl-imidazolyl moiety have been investigated. For the stepwise approach, the differentiation between the two coordination sites (nature, charge, and denticity) was exploited for the synthesis of a family of five discrete Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pd(II) complexes. Acting as metallatectons, these construction building blocks lead to the formation of a series of MM'MOFs upon self-assembly with CdCl2. In these rhombic grid-type architectures, four consecutive metallatectons are bridged by Cd(II) cations adopting an octahedral coordination geometry with the chloride anions occupying apical positions, thus behaving as square nodes. The shape of the rhombus grids as well as the way they are packed (stacking or interpenetration) in the crystalline phase are controlled by the nature of metallatectons and the solvent molecules present in the crystals. Consequently, the heterometallic assemblies display different accessible voids, although they are built on layers with the same connectivity. More interestingly, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction on both single crystals and microcrystalline powders, the same MM'MOFs were obtained by a one-pot strategy through direct combinations of dipyrrin derivatives with the corresponding metal salts. This one-pot approach is efficient and more convenient than the sequential alternative, since the isolation, purification, and characterization of the, sometimes insoluble, metallatectons are not required.
Sequential biases in accumulating evidence
Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry
2015-01-01
Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562
Hyong Koh, M; Sipahi, Rifat
2016-11-01
Dynamics of many multi-agent systems is influenced by communication/activation delays τ. In the presence of delays, there exists a certain margin called the delay margin τ(*), less than which system stability holds. This margin depends strongly on agents' dynamics and the agent network. In this article, three key elements, namely, the delay margin, network graph, and a distance threshold conditioning two agents' connectivity are considered in a multi-agent consensus dynamics under delay τ. We report that when the dynamics is unstable under this delay, its states can be naturally bounded, even for arbitrarily large threshold values, preventing agents to disperse indefinitely. This mechanism can also make the system recover stability in a self-regulating manner, mainly induced by network separation and enhanced delay margin. Under certain conditions, unstable consensus dynamics can keep separating into smaller stable subnetwork dynamics until all agents stabilize in their respective subnetworks. Results are then demonstrated on a previously validated robot coordination model, where specifically robustness of τ(*) is studied against the delay τinh inherently present in the orientation measurements of the robots. To this end, a mathematical framework to compute τ(*) with respect to τinh in quasi-state is developed, demonstrating that τ(*) can be sensitive to τinh, yet robot regrouping and stabilization of subnetworks is still possible.
Filippidis, Stavros K.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.
2009-01-01
An adaptive educational system that uses adaptive presentation is presented. In this system fragments of different images present the same content and the system can choose the one most relevant to the user based on the sequential-global dimension of Felder-Silverman's learning style theory. In order to retrieve the learning style of each student…
Filippidis, Stavros K.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.
2009-01-01
An adaptive educational system that uses adaptive presentation is presented. In this system fragments of different images present the same content and the system can choose the one most relevant to the user based on the sequential-global dimension of Felder-Silverman's learning style theory. In order to retrieve the learning style of each student…
GA-BASED MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION ESTIMATION OF VLSI SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS OF ARBITRARY DELAY MODELS
Lu Junming; Lin Zhenghui
2002-01-01
In this paper, the glitching activity and process variations in the maximum power dissipation estimation of CMOS circuits are introduced. Given a circuit and the gate library,a new Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based technique is developed to determine the maximum power dissipation from a statistical point of view. The simulation on ISCAS-89 benchmarks shows that the ratio of the maximum power dissipation with glitching activity over the maximum power under zero-delay model ranges from 1.18 to 4.02. Compared with the traditional Monte Carlo-based technique, the new approach presented in this paper is more effective.
GA—BASED MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION ESTIMATION OF VLSI SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS OF ARBITRARY DELAY MODELS
LuJunming; LinZhenghui
2002-01-01
In this paper,the glitching activity and process variations in the maximum power dissipation estimation of CMOS circulits are introduced.Given a circuit and the gate library,a new Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based technique is developed to determine the maximum power dissipation from a statistical point of view.The simulation on ISCAS-89 benchmarks shows that the ratio of the maximum power dissipation with glitching activity over the maximum power under zero-delay model ranges from 1.18 to 4.02.Compared with the traditional Monte Carlo-based technique,the new approach presented in this paper is more effective.
A sequential tree approach for incremental sequential pattern mining
RAJESH KUMAR BOGHEY; SHAILENDRA SINGH
2016-12-01
‘‘Sequential pattern mining’’ is a prominent and significant method to explore the knowledge and innovation from the large database. Common sequential pattern mining algorithms handle static databases.Pragmatically, looking into the functional and actual execution, the database grows exponentially thereby leading to the necessity and requirement of such innovation, research, and development culminating into the designing of mining algorithm. Once the database is updated, the previous mining result will be incorrect, and we need to restart and trigger the entire mining process for the new updated sequential database. To overcome and avoid the process of rescanning of the entire database, this unique system of incremental mining of sequential pattern is available. The previous approaches, system, and techniques are a priori-based frameworks but mine patterns is an advanced and sophisticated technique giving the desired solution. We propose and incorporate an algorithm called STISPM for incremental mining of sequential patterns using the sequence treespace structure. STISPM uses the depth-first approach along with backward tracking and the dynamic lookahead pruning strategy that removes infrequent and irregular patterns. The process and approach from the root node to any leaf node depict a sequential pattern in the database. The structural characteristic of the sequence tree makes it convenient and appropriate for incremental sequential pattern mining. The sequence tree also stores all the sequential patterns with its count and statistics, so whenever the support system is withdrawn or changed, our algorithm using frequent sequence tree as the storage structure can find and detect all the sequential patternswithout mining the database once again.
Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Ljung, Lennart;
2014-01-01
Model estimation and structure detection with short data records are two issues that receive increasing interests in System Identification. In this paper, a multiple kernel-based regularization method is proposed to handle those issues. Multiple kernels are conic combinations of fixed kernels...
Corpus Callosum Analysis using MDL-based Sequential Models of Shape and Appearance
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.; Ryberg, Charlotte
2004-01-01
This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance images of the brain based on the widely used Active Appearance Models (AAMs) by Cootes et al. Extensions of the original method, which are designed to improve this specific case ar...
面向国产CPU SW-1600的向量重组%DOMESTIC PRODUCED CPU SW-1600 ORIENTED VECTOR REGROUP
魏帅; 赵荣彩; 姚远
2011-01-01
Since vectorized regroup instructions sire comparatively complex whereas different instructions correspond to different delays, it is hard to find out a uniform and efficient vector regroup algorithm. The paper analyzes shifting and insertion/extraction instructions that are offered by domestic produced CPU SW-1600, and presents an optimal algorithm that only depends on shifting or insertion/extraction instructions to realize vector regroup as well as an efficient algorithm that integrates the two types of instructions to realize vector regroup. At last it is proven by experiments that the algorithms can better vectorize programs. The speedup ratio for integer type values reaches 7.31 while that for complex double precision float type programs reaches 1. 83.%由于向量化重组指令比较复杂并且不同指令有不同的延迟,从而难以寻找一种统一高效的向量重组算法.对国产CPUSW-1600提供的移位和插入提取指令进行了分析,提出单独依靠移位或插入提取指令实现向量重组的最优算法,并综合这两类指令实现向量重组的高效算法.最后通过实验证明该算法可以较好地对程序进行向量化,对整型数据的加速比达到7.31,对复杂的双精度浮点型程序的加速比也达到1.83.
Ghahari, Alireza
2009-01-01
Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.
Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout
2013-10-01
In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96.
Complementary sequential measurements generate entanglement
Coles, Patrick J.; Piani, Marco
2013-01-01
We present a new paradigm for capturing the complementarity of two observables. It is based on the entanglement created by the interaction between the system observed and the two measurement devices used to measure the observables sequentially. Our main result is a lower bound on this entanglement and resembles well-known entropic uncertainty relations. Besides its fundamental interest, this result directly bounds the effectiveness of sequential bipartite operations---corresponding to the mea...
Sequential stream segregation of voiced and unvoiced speech sounds based on fundamental frequency.
David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J
2017-02-01
Differences in fundamental frequency (F0) between voiced sounds are known to be a strong cue for stream segregation. However, speech consists of both voiced and unvoiced sounds, and less is known about whether and how the unvoiced portions are segregated. This study measured listeners' ability to integrate or segregate sequences of consonant-vowel tokens, comprising a voiceless fricative and a vowel, as a function of the F0 difference between interleaved sequences of tokens. A performance-based measure was used, in which listeners detected the presence of a repeated token either within one sequence or between the two sequences (measures of voluntary and obligatory streaming, respectively). The results showed a systematic increase of voluntary stream segregation as the F0 difference between the two interleaved sequences increased from 0 to 13 semitones, suggesting that F0 differences allowed listeners to segregate speech sounds, including the unvoiced portions. In contrast to the consistent effects of voluntary streaming, the trend towards obligatory stream segregation at large F0 differences failed to reach significance. Listeners were no longer able to perform the voluntary-streaming task reliably when the unvoiced portions were removed from the stimuli, suggesting that the unvoiced portions were used and correctly segregated in the original task. The results demonstrate that streaming based on F0 differences occurs for natural speech sounds, and that the unvoiced portions are correctly assigned to the corresponding voiced portions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Predicting DNA-binding sites of proteins based on sequential and 3D structural information.
Li, Bi-Qing; Feng, Kai-Yan; Ding, Juan; Cai, Yu-Dong
2014-06-01
Protein-DNA interactions play important roles in many biological processes. To understand the molecular mechanisms of protein-DNA interaction, it is necessary to identify the DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins. In the last decade, computational approaches have been developed to predict protein-DNA-binding sites based solely on protein sequences. In this study, we developed a novel predictor based on support vector machine algorithm coupled with the maximum relevance minimum redundancy method followed by incremental feature selection. We incorporated not only features of physicochemical/biochemical properties, sequence conservation, residual disorder, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, but also five three-dimensional (3D) structural features calculated from PDB data to predict the protein-DNA interaction sites. Feature analysis showed that 3D structural features indeed contributed to the prediction of DNA-binding site and it was demonstrated that the prediction performance was better with 3D structural features than without them. It was also shown via analysis of features from each site that the features of DNA-binding site itself contribute the most to the prediction. Our prediction method may become a useful tool for identifying the DNA-binding sites and the feature analysis described in this paper may provide useful insights for in-depth investigations into the mechanisms of protein-DNA interaction.
Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout
2013-10-15
In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an
CHIRP-Like Signals: Estimation, Detection and Processing A Sequential Model-Based Approach
Candy, J. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-08-04
Chirp signals have evolved primarily from radar/sonar signal processing applications specifically attempting to estimate the location of a target in surveillance/tracking volume. The chirp, which is essentially a sinusoidal signal whose phase changes instantaneously at each time sample, has an interesting property in that its correlation approximates an impulse function. It is well-known that a matched-filter detector in radar/sonar estimates the target range by cross-correlating a replicant of the transmitted chirp with the measurement data reflected from the target back to the radar/sonar receiver yielding a maximum peak corresponding to the echo time and therefore enabling the desired range estimate. In this application, we perform the same operation as a radar or sonar system, that is, we transmit a “chirp-like pulse” into the target medium and attempt to first detect its presence and second estimate its location or range. Our problem is complicated by the presence of disturbance signals from surrounding broadcast stations as well as extraneous sources of interference in our frequency bands and of course the ever present random noise from instrumentation. First, we discuss the chirp signal itself and illustrate its inherent properties and then develop a model-based processing scheme enabling both the detection and estimation of the signal from noisy measurement data.
Matteo Pappalardo
Full Text Available The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R, a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
Jensen, Ole Riis
In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is pos...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....
Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Peng; Fu, Minglai; Ma, Jun; Ning, Ping
2016-07-01
A novel synergistic technology based on nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was developed for treatment of dye wastewater. The synergistic technology was significantly superior, where above 99% of methylene blue (MB) was removed, comparatively, removal efficiencies of MB with the sole technology of NZVI and KMnO4 at pH 6.39 being 52.9% and 63.1%, respectively. The advantages of this technology include (1) the in situ formed materials (manganese (hydr)oxides, iron hydroxides and MnFe oxide), resulting in the stable and high removal efficiency of MB and (2) high removal capacity in a wide range of pH value. Compared with simultaneous addition system of NZVI and KMnO4, MB removal was remarkably improved by sequential addition system, especially when KMnO4 addition time was optimized at 20 min. Analyses of crystal structure (XRD), morphological difference (FE-SEM), element valence and chemical groups (XPS) of NZVI before and after reaction had confirmed the formation of in situ materials, which obviously enhanced removal of MB by oxidation and adsorption. More importantly, the roles of in situ formed materials and degradation mechanism were innovatively investigated, and the results suggested that NCH3 bond of MB molecule was attacked by oxidants (KMnO4 and in situ manganese (hydr)oxides) at position C1 and C9, resulting in cleavage of chromophore. This study provides new insights about an applicable technology for treatment of dye wastewater.
Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Tinto, Halidou; Sawa, Patrick
2017-01-01
Background Management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria relies on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These highly effective regimens have contributed to reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, artemisinin resistance in Asia and changing parasite...... whether prolonged ACT-based regimens using currently available formulations can eliminate potentially resistant parasites. The protocol investigates whether a sequential course of two licensed ACT in 1080 children aged 6–120 months exhibits superior efficacy against acute P. falciparum malaria and non...... gametocytaemia, occurrence of treatment-related adverse events in the double-ACT versus single-ACT arms, carriage of molecular markers of drug resistance, drug kinetics and patient adherence to treatment. Discussion This protocol addresses efficacy and safety of sequential ACT regimens in P. falciparum malaria...
2005-07-01
a constant factor of K + 2. (To see this, note sequential stacking requires training K+2 classifiers: the classifiers f1, . . . , fK used in cross...on the non- sequential learners (ME and VP) but improves per- formance of the sequential learners (CRFs and VPH - MMs) less consistently. This pattern
Ma, Yifei [Second Military Medical University, Department of Orthorpedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Second Military Medical University, Department of Pathology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Xu, Wei; Xiao, Jianru [Second Military Medical University, Department of Orthorpedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Bai, Ruojing [Geriatrics Institute, Department of Geriatrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Laboratory of Neuro-Trauma and Neurodegenerative Disorder, Tianjin (China); Li, Yiming [Neurosurgery Institute, Department of Neuro-oncology, Beijing (China); Yu, Hongyu [Second Military Medical University, Department of Pathology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yang, Chunshan [Panorama Medical Imaging Center, Department of PET/CT Radiology, Shanghai (China); Department of PET/CT Radiology Center, Shanghai (China); Shi, Huazheng; Zhang, Jian [Department of PET/CT Radiology Center, Shanghai (China); Li, Jidong [The First People' s Hospital of Shangqiu, Department of Stomatology, Shangqiu, Henan Province (China); Wang, Chenguang [Second Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai (China)
2017-02-15
To test the performance of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in predicting survival after sunitinib therapies in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). CUP patients were enrolled for sequential PET/CT scanning for sunitinib and a control group. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to test the efficacy of sunitinib therapy in CUP patients. Next, sequential analyses involving PET/CT parameters were performed to identify and validate sensitive PET/CT biomarkers for sunitinib therapy. Finally, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (TDROC) analyses were performed to compare the predictive accuracy. Multivariate analysis proved that sunitinib group had significantly improved survival (p < 0.01) as compared to control group. After cycle 2 of therapy, multivariate analysis identified volume-based PET/CT parameters as sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib (p < 0.01). TDROC curves demonstrated whole-body total lesion glycolysis reduction (Δ WTLG) and follow-up WTLG to have good accuracy for efficacy prediction. This evidence was validated after cycle 4 of therapy with the same method. Sunitinib therapy proved effective in treatment of CUP. PET/CT volume-based parameters may help predict outcome of sunitinib therapy, in which Δ WTLG and follow-up WTLG seem to be sensitive biomarkers for sunitinib efficacy. Patients with greater reduction and lower WTLG at follow-up seem to have better survival outcome. (orig.)
Lewis, Roger J; Lipsky, Ari M; Berry, Donald A
2007-01-01
The decision to terminate a controlled clinical trial at the time of an interim analysis is perhaps best made by weighing the value of the likely additional information to be gained if further subjects are enrolled against the various costs of that further enrollment. The most commonly used statistical plans for interim analysis (eg, O'Brien-Fleming), however, are based on a frequentist approach that makes no such comparison. A two-armed Bayesian decision-theoretic clinical trial design is developed for a disease with two possible outcomes, incorporating a quadratic decision loss function and using backward induction to quantify the cost of future enrollment. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare frequentist error rates and mean required sample sizes for these Bayesian designs with the two-tailed frequentist group-sequential designs of, O'Brien-Fleming and Pocock. When the terminal decision loss function is chosen to yield typical frequentist error rates, the mean sample sizes required by the Bayesian designs are smaller than those of the corresponding O'Brien-Fleming frequentist designs, largely due to the more frequent interim analyses typically used with the Bayesian designs and the ability of the Bayesian designs to terminate early and conclude equivalence. Adding stochastic curtailment to the frequentist designs and using the same number of interim analyses results in largely equivalent trials. An example of a Bayesian design for the data safety monitoring of a clinical trial is given. Our design assumes independence of the probabilities of success in the two trial arms. Additionally, we have chosen non-informative priors and selected loss functions to produce trials with appealing frequentist error rates, rather than choosing priors that reflect realistic prior information and loss functions that reflect true costs. Our Bayesian designs allow interpretation of the final results along either Bayesian or frequentist lines. For the Bayesian, they minimize
Sungho Woo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.
Distributed Spectrum Detection Based on Sequential Markov Chain%基于时序马尔可夫链的分布式频谱检测
罗银辉; 华漫
2011-01-01
针对无线传感网络中的合作谱检测问题,提出一种基于时序马尔可夫链的分布式频谱检测算法.假定单节点对频谱的感知是一个马尔可夫过程,本地序列检测采用序列概率比测试进行频谱探测,得到本地序列检测值.各个感知节点将检测结果发送到数据融合中心,根据设定门限确定最终检测结果.通过Matlab仿真验证了该算法的时序检测性能.%Aiming at the cooperation spectrum detection in Wireless Sensor Network(WSN), this paper presents a distributed spectrum detection based on sequential Markov chain. It assumes the detection of the single node is a Markov process, and the result value of local sequence detection is obtained by the Sequential Probability Ratio Test(SPRT). After the measurements result of each node's own is sent to the data fusion center, the final results can be determined in line with the threshold. Matlab simulation validates the sequential detection performance.
Complementary sequential measurements generate entanglement
Coles, Patrick J.; Piani, Marco
2014-01-01
We present a paradigm for capturing the complementarity of two observables. It is based on the entanglement created by the interaction between the system observed and the two measurement devices used to measure the observables sequentially. Our main result is a lower bound on this entanglement and resembles well-known entropic uncertainty relations. Besides its fundamental interest, this result directly bounds the effectiveness of sequential bipartite operations—corresponding to the measurement interactions—for entanglement generation. We further discuss the intimate connection of our result with two primitives of information processing, namely, decoupling and coherent teleportation.
Qi, Hong; Qiao, Yao-Bin; Ren, Ya-Tao; Shi, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Ze-Yu; Ruan, Li-Ming
2016-10-17
Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is used as an optimization algorithm to reconstruct the optical parameters based on the time-domain radiative transfer equation (TD-RTE). Numerous time-resolved measurement signals are obtained using the TD-RTE as forward model. For a high computational efficiency, the gradient of objective function is calculated using an adjoint equation technique. SQP algorithm is employed to solve the inverse problem and the regularization term based on the generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model is used to overcome the ill-posed problem. Simulated results show that the proposed reconstruction scheme performs efficiently and accurately.
A Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm Based on Sequential Binary Tree%基于有序二叉树的多模式匹配算法
胡佩华; 王永成; 刘功申
2002-01-01
By analyzing the multiple pattern matching algorithm based on tree structure, a multiple pattern matching algorithm based on sequential binary tree is proposed in this paper. It is proved by experiment that the algorithm has three features: its constructing process is quick. Its cost of memory is small. At the same time, its searching process is as quickly as the traditional algorithm. The algorithm proposed in this paper is suit for the application whose pattern set is changing dynamically, that is to say, it is suit for the application whose automata must be constructed dynamically. So, the algorithm has a good application prospect.
Niti Ashish Kumar Desai
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Business Strategies are formulated based on an understanding of customer needs. This requires development of a strategy to understand customer behaviour and buying patterns, both current and future. This involves understanding, first how an organization currently understands customer needs and second predicting future trends to drive growth. This article focuses on purchase trend of customer, where timing of purchase is more important than association of item to be purchased, and which can be found out with Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM methods. Conventional SPM algorithms worked purely on frequency identifying patterns that were more frequent but suffering from challenges like generation of huge number of uninteresting patterns, lack of user’s interested patterns, rare item problem, etc. Article attempts a solution through development of a SPM algorithm based on various constraints like Gap, Compactness, Item, Recency, Profitability and Length along with Frequency constraint. Incorporation of six additional constraints is as well to ensure that all patterns are recently active (Recency, active for certain time span (Compactness, profitable and indicative of next timeline for purchase (Length―Item―Gap. The article also attempts to throw light on how proposed Constraint-based Prefix Span algorithm is helpful to understand buying behaviour of customer which is in formative stage.
Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis
Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John
2014-01-01
Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…
Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen
2014-05-01
In this paper, using a within-subjects design, we estimate the utility weights that subjects attach to the outcome of their interaction partners in four decision situations: (1) binary Dictator Games (DG), second player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) after the first player (2) cooperated and (3) defected, and (4) first player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that the average weights in these four decision situations have the following order: (1)>(2)>(4)>(3). Moreover, the average weight is positive in (1) but negative in (2), (3), and (4). Our findings indicate the existence of strong negative and small positive reciprocity for the average subject, but there is also high interpersonal variation in the weights in these four nodes. We conclude that the PD frame makes subjects more competitive than the DG frame. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we simultaneously analyze beliefs of subjects about others' utility weights in the same four decision situations. We compare several alternative theoretical models on beliefs, e.g., rational beliefs (Bayesian-Nash equilibrium) and a consensus model. Our results on beliefs strongly support the consensus effect and refute rational beliefs: there is a strong relationship between own preferences and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable across the four decision situations.
Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K. T.
2012-12-01
Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing value of water resources and influences operation of hydropower reservoirs significantly. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 hours lead-time is considered with the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market in perspectives. The procedure presented comprises of an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, and a sequential data assimilation routine. The structure of the error model was investigated using freely available software for detecting mathematical relationships in a given dataset (EUREQA) and adopted to contain minimum complexity for computational reasons. As new streamflow data become available the extra information manifested in the discrepancies between measurements and conceptual model outputs are extracted and assimilated into the forecasting system recursively using Sequential Monte Carlo technique. Besides improving forecast skills significantly, the probabilistic inflow forecasts provided by the present approach entrains suitable information for reducing uncertainty in decision making processes related to hydropower systems operation. The potential of the current procedure for improving accuracy of inflow forecasts at lead-times unto 24 hours and its reliability in different seasons of the year will be illustrated and discussed thoroughly.
Santos, A J G; Mazzilli, B P; Fávaro, D I T; Silva, P S C
2006-01-01
Phosphogypsum is a waste produced by the phosphate fertilizer industry. Although phosphogypsum is mainly calcium sulphate dihydrate, it contains elevated levels of impurities, which originate from the source phosphate rock used in the phosphoric acid production. Among these impurities, radionuclides from 238U and 232Th decay series are of most concern due to their radiotoxicity. Other elements, such as rare earth elements (REE) and Ba are also enriched in the phosphogypsum. The bioavailability of radionuclides (226Ra, 210Pb and 232Th), rare earth elements and Ba to the surrounding aquatic system was evaluated by the application of sequential leaching of the phosphogypsum samples from the Brazilian phosphoric acid producers. The sequential extraction results show that most of the radium and lead are located in the "iron oxide" (non-CaSO4) fraction, and that only 13-18% of these radionuclides are distributed in the most labile fraction. Th, REE and Ba were found predominantly in the residual phase, which corresponds to a small fraction of the phosphate rock or monazite that did not react and to insoluble compounds such as sulphates, phosphates and silicates. It can be concluded that although all these elements are enriched in the phosphogypsum samples they are not associated with CaSO4 itself and therefore do not represent a threat to the surrounding aquatic environment.
Sequentializing Parameterized Programs
Salvatore La Torre
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We exhibit assertion-preserving (reachability preserving transformations from parameterized concurrent shared-memory programs, under a k-round scheduling of processes, to sequential programs. The salient feature of the sequential program is that it tracks the local variables of only one thread at any point, and uses only O(k copies of shared variables (it does not use extra counters, not even one counter to keep track of the number of threads. Sequentialization is achieved using the concept of a linear interface that captures the effect an unbounded block of processes have on the shared state in a k-round schedule. Our transformation utilizes linear interfaces to sequentialize the program, and to ensure the sequential program explores only reachable states and preserves local invariants.
时序逻辑电路设计的Petri网方法%Design of Sequential Logic Circuit Based on Petri Net
张继军; 吴哲辉
2002-01-01
A new method for designing sequential logic circuits is put forward in this paper. The method is that driv-ing condition for flip-flops is obtained by means of the transition firing condition of petri net and that designing asyn-chronous sequential circuits and synchronous sequential circuits can be unified.
Analyzing Sequential Patterns in Retail Databases
Unil Yun
2007-01-01
Finding correlated sequential patterns in large sequence databases is one of the essential tasks in data miningsince a huge number of sequential patterns are usually mined, but it is hard to find sequential patterns with the correlation.According to the requirement of real applications, the needed data analysis should be different. In previous mining approaches,after mining the sequential patterns, sequential patterns with the weak affinity are found even with a high minimum support.In this paper, a new framework is suggested for mining weighted support affinity patterns in which an objective measure,sequential ws-confidence is developed to detect correlated sequential patterns with weighted support affinity patterns. Toefficiently prune the weak affinity patterns, it is proved that ws-confidence measure satisfies the anti-monotone and crossweighted support properties which can be applied to eliminate sequential patterns with dissimilar weighted support levels.Based on the framework, a weighted support affinity pattern mining algorithm (WSMiner) is suggested. The performancestudy shows that WSMiner is efficient and scalable for mining weighted support affinity patterns.
Sequential Design of Experiments
Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-06-30
A sequential design of experiments strategy is being developed and implemented that allows for adaptive learning based on incoming results as the experiment is being run. The plan is to incorporate these strategies for the NCCC and TCM experimental campaigns to be run in the coming months. This strategy for experimentation has the advantages of allowing new data collected during the experiment to inform future experimental runs based on their projected utility for a particular goal. For example, the current effort for the MEA capture system at NCCC plans to focus on maximally improving the quality of prediction of CO_{2} capture efficiency as measured by the width of the confidence interval for the underlying response surface that is modeled as a function of 1) Flue Gas Flowrate [1000-3000] kg/hr; 2) CO_{2} weight fraction [0.125-0.175]; 3) Lean solvent loading [0.1-0.3], and; 4) Lean solvent flowrate [3000-12000] kg/hr.
2007-04-01
REGROUPEMENT DE L’INFORMATION CONCERNANT L’IDENTIFICATION AU COMBAT : UNE ANALYSE DOCUMENTAIRE . by: Julie Famewo, Michael Matthews and Tab...papers/paper490. pdf . Kraemer, C., Noth, M, & Weber, M. (2006). Information aggregation with costly information and random ordering: Experimental
Sequential Detection of Digital Watermarking
LI Li; YU Yu-lian; WANG Pei
2005-01-01
The paper analyzed a new watermarking detection paradigm including double detection thresholds based on sequential hypothesis testing. A joint design of watermarking encoding and detection was proposed. The paradigm had good immunity to noisy signal attacks and high detection probability. Many experiments proved that the above algorithm can detect watermarks about 66% faster than popular detectors, which could have significant impact on many applications such as video watermarking detection and watermark-searching in a large database of digital contents.
Ripollés-Melchor, J; Casans-Francés, R; Espinosa, A; Abad-Gurumeta, A; Feldheiser, A; López-Timoneda, F; Calvo-Vecino, J M
2016-01-01
Numerous studies have compared perioperative esophageal doppler monitoring (EDM) guided intravascular volume replacement strategies with conventional clinical volume replacement in surgical patients. The use of the EDM within hemodynamic algorithms is called 'goal directed hemodynamic therapy' (GDHT). Meta-analysis of the effects of EDM guided GDHT in adult non-cardiac surgery on postoperative complications and mortality using PRISMA methodology. A systematic search was performed in Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (last update, March 2015). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which perioperative GDHT was compared to other fluid management. Overall complications. Mortality; number of patients with complications; cardiac, renal and infectious complications; incidence of ileus. Studies were subjected to quantifiable analysis, pre-defined subgroup analysis (stratified by surgery, type of comparator and risk); pre-defined sensitivity analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Fifty six RCTs were initially identified, 15 fulfilling the inclusion criteria, including 1,368 patients. A significant reduction was observed in overall complications associated with GDHT compared to other fluid therapy (RR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.89; P=0.0009) in colorectal, urological and high-risk surgery compared to conventional fluid therapy. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, neither in other subgroups. The impact on preventing the development of complications in patients using EDM is high, causing a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 50% for a number needed to treat (NNT)=6. GDHT guided by EDM decreases postoperative complications, especially in patients undergoing colorectal surgery and high-risk surgery. However, no differences versus restrictive fluid therapy and in intermediate-risk patients were found. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
1974-01-01
The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.
Sequential monitoring with conditional randomization tests
Plamadeala, Victoria; 10.1214/11-AOS941
2012-01-01
Sequential monitoring in clinical trials is often employed to allow for early stopping and other interim decisions, while maintaining the type I error rate. However, sequential monitoring is typically described only in the context of a population model. We describe a computational method to implement sequential monitoring in a randomization-based context. In particular, we discuss a new technique for the computation of approximate conditional tests following restricted randomization procedures and then apply this technique to approximate the joint distribution of sequentially computed conditional randomization tests. We also describe the computation of a randomization-based analog of the information fraction. We apply these techniques to a restricted randomization procedure, Efron's [Biometrika 58 (1971) 403--417] biased coin design. These techniques require derivation of certain conditional probabilities and conditional covariances of the randomization procedure. We employ combinatoric techniques to derive t...
Sequential nonlinear tracking filter without requirement of measurement decorrelation
Taifan Quan
2015-01-01
Sequential measurement processing is of benefit to both estimation accuracy and computational efficiency. When the noises are correlated across the measurement components, decorrelation based on covariance matrix factorization is required in the previous methods in order to perform sequential updates properly. A new sequential processing method, which carries out the sequential updates directly using the correlated measurement components, is proposed. And a typical sequential processing example is investigated, where the converted position measure-ments are used to estimate target states by standard Kalman filtering equations and the converted Doppler measurements are then incorporated into a minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimator with the updated cross-covariance involved to account for the correlated errors. Numerical simulations demonstrate the superiority of the proposed new sequential processing in terms of better accuracy and consistency than the conventional sequential filter based on measurement decorrelation.
Sequential stochastic optimization
Cairoli, Renzo
1996-01-01
Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet
A universal property for sequential measurement
Westerbaan, Abraham; Westerbaan, Bas
2016-09-01
We study the sequential product the operation p ∗ q = √{ p } q √{ p } on the set of effects, [0, 1]𝒜, of a von Neumann algebra 𝒜 that represents sequential measurement of first p and then q. In their work [J. Math. Phys. 49(5), 052106 (2008)], Gudder and Latrémolière give a list of axioms based on physical grounds that completely determines the sequential product on a von Neumann algebra of type I, that is, a von Neumann algebra ℬ(ℋ) of all bounded operators on some Hilbert space ℋ. In this paper we give a list of axioms that completely determines the sequential product on all von Neumann algebras simultaneously (Theorem 4).
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1998-01-01
the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...
Brufsky, Adam M
2017-09-01
Treatment options for hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) continue to increase in parallel with expanding knowledge about the complex biology of breast cancer subtypes and resistance mechanisms to endocrine therapy. For patients with HR-positive MBC, there are now an unprecedented number of endocrine-based treatment options that can improve long-term outcomes, while preserving or optimizing quality of life, and that can be used before selecting more cytotoxic chemotherapeutic regimens. In addition to antiestrogens, steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors, the selective estrogen-receptor degrader, fulvestrant, and new endocrine-based combinations provide significant and clinically meaningful improvements in outcomes in the first line setting and beyond. Also, new clinical scenarios and indications for monotherapy endocrine and targeted therapies continue to be explored. Patients have several therapeutic options when their disease progresses or becomes resistant, although the optimal sequencing of these therapies remains unclear. Ongoing research in the resistant/refractory setting is anticipated to continue improving the outlook for these patients. This review will discuss current and investigational approaches to sequential single-agent endocrine and endocrine-based combination therapy for the long-term management of patients with HR-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative MBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
基于支持向量机的序列可靠性优化方法%Sequential reliability-based optimization with support vector machines
王宇; 余雄庆; 杜小平
2013-01-01
T raditional reliability-based design optimization (RBDO ) is either computational intensive or not accurate enough .In this work ,a new RBDO method based on Support Vector Machines (SVM ) is proposed .For reliability analysis ,SVM is used to create a surrogate model of the limit-state function at the Most Probable Point (MPP) .The uniqueness of the new method is the use of the gradient of the lim-it-state function at the MPP .This guarantees that the surrogate model not only passes through the MPP but also is tangent to the limit-state function at the MPP .Then Importance Sampling (IS) is used to cal-culate the probability of failure based on the surrogate model .This treatment significantly improves the accuracy of reliability analysis .For optimization ,the Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA) is employed ,which decouples deterministic optimization from the SVM reliability analysis .The decoupling makes RBDO more efficient .The two examples show that the new method is more accurate with a moderately increased computational cost .%在工程设计中，可靠性优化设计通常计算量较大或精度不够。本文提出了一种基于支持向量机（Support Vector Machine）和MPP（Most Probable Point）的可靠性分析方法。用SVM 在MPP处替代原极限状态函数，并利用极限状态函数的梯度信息，使SVM模型穿过M PP并与原函数相切，再基于SVM采用重要抽样法计算失效概率。然后，将SORA（Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment ）与基于SVM 的可靠性分析方法相集成，将传统的双循环可靠性优化算法解耦为单循环，并通过基于SVM 的可靠性分析方法修正了SORA中由于线性近似带来的误差，保证了最优设计点处可靠性分析的精度。算例证明，该方法在处理非线性问题时具有精确度高和计算量适度的特点。
Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hui; Shao, Lingzhi; Wang, Minjuan; Berkovich, Yu A.; Erokhin, A. N.; Liu, Hong
2013-07-01
Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role in dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. Here we developed a ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility, named Horn-type Producer (HTP), which was capable of simulating the microgravity effect and the continuous cultivation of leaf-vegetables on root modules. The growth chamber of the facility had a volume of 0.12 m3, characterized by a three-stage space expansion with plant growth. The planting surface of 0.154 m2 was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved forward with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m2 was provided by a combination of red and white light emitting diodes on the internal surfaces. In tests with a 24-h photoperiod, the productivity of the HTP at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Long-term operation of the HTP did not alter vegetable nutrition composition to any great extent. Furthermore, the efficiency of the HTP, based on the Q-criterion, was 7 × 10-4 g2 m-3 J-1. These results show that the HTP exhibited high productivity, stable quality, and good efficiency in the process of planting lettuce, indicative of an interesting design for space vegetable production.
Sequential measurements of conjugate observables
Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2011-07-15
We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.
Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.;
The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....
Modelling sequentially scored item responses
Akkermans, W.
2000-01-01
The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is c
Sequential cloning of chromosomes
Lacks, S.A.
1991-12-31
A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.
Sequential cloning of chromosomes
Lacks, S.A.
1995-07-18
A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.
Thall, Peter F; Wooten, Leiko H; Logothetis, Christopher J; Millikan, Randall E; Tannir, Nizar M
2007-11-20
For many diseases, therapy involves multiple stages, with the treatment in each stage chosen adaptively based on the patient's current disease status and history of previous treatments and clinical outcomes. Physicians routinely use such multi-stage treatment strategies, also called dynamic treatment regimes or treatment policies. We present a Bayesian framework for a clinical trial comparing two-stage strategies based on the time to overall failure, defined as either second disease worsening or discontinuation of therapy. Each patient is randomized among a set of treatments at enrollment, and if disease worsening occurs the patient is then re-randomized among a set of treatments excluding the treatment received initially. The goal is to select the two-stage strategy having the largest average overall failure time. A parametric model is formulated to account for non-constant failure time hazards, regression of the second failure time on the patient's first worsening time, and the complications that the failure time in either stage may be interval censored and there may be a delay between first worsening and the start of the second stage of therapy. Four different criteria, two Bayesian and two frequentist, for selecting a best strategy are considered. The methods are applied to a trial comparing two-stage strategies for treating metastatic renal cancer, and a simulation study in the context of this trial is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of this design compared to standard methods are discussed.
Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong
2014-10-01
Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And
Schaedler, Emmanuelle; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Hortelano, Julie; Kehrer, Nadine; Claudepierre, Marie-Christine; Gatard, Tanja; Jakobs, Christopher; Préville, Xavier; Carpentier, Antoine F; Rittner, Karola
2017-01-23
TG4010 is an immunotherapeutic vaccine based on Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding the human tumor-associated antigen MUC1 and human IL-2. In combination with first-line standard of care chemotherapy in advanced metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), repeated subcutaneous injection of TG4010 improved progression-free survival in phase 2b clinical trials. In preclinical tumor models, MVATG9931, the research version of TG4010, conferred antigen-specific responses against the weak antigen human MUC1. The combination of a suboptimal dose of MVATG9931 and the type B TLR9 ligand Litenimod (Li28) markedly increased survival in a subcutaneous RMA-MUC1 tumor model compared to the treatment with MVATG9931 or Li28 alone. The requirements for this protection were (i) de novo synthesis of MUC1, (ii) Li28 delivered several hours after MVATG9931 at the same site, (iii) at least two vaccination cycles, and (iv) implantation of MUC1-positive tumor cells in the vicinity to the vaccination site. Subcutaneously injected MVATG9931 allowed transient local gene expression and induced the local accumulation of MCP-1, RANTES, M-CSF, IL-15/IL-15R and IP-10. After repeated injection, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, NK cells, pDCs, neutrophils, and macrophages accumulated around the injection site, local RANTES levels remained high. Delayed injection of Li28 into this environment, led to further accumulation of macrophages, the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1 beta, and an increase of the percentage of activated CD69(+) NK cell. Combination treatment augmented the number of activated CD86(+) DCs in the draining lymph nodes and increased the percentage of KLRG1(+) CD127(-)CD8(+) T cells at the injection site. In vivo depletion of macrophages around the injection site by Clodronate liposomes reduced local IL-18 levels and diminished survival rates significantly. Thus, sequential administration of MVATG9931 and Li28 improves local innate and adaptive immune defense
A new landmine discrimination approach based on sequential aspect features%基于方位特征序列的地雷鉴别算法
王玉明; 施云飞; 王建; 宋千; 黄晓涛
2013-01-01
在使用低频超宽带合成孔径雷达（UWB-SAR）对地雷进行探测的过程中，根据目标电磁散射随方位角和入射角的变化特性，提出一种利用双峰间距和频率凹点特征沿方位向变化的隐马尔科夫模型（HMM）鉴别算法。该算法首先针对目标感兴趣区域（ROI）图像估计其各方位回波响应，然后利用时频原子提取时域双峰间距和频率凹点，进而得到随方位角变化的特征序列，再通过 SAR 工作时方位角和入射角的变化特点以及训练样本确定 HMM参数，并在此基础上计算疑似目标新的特征矢量，采用马氏距离进行判别。实验结果表明了本文所提方法在目标鉴别方面的有效性。%Low-frequency ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB-SAR)is a promising technology for landmine detection.According to the scattering characteristics of body-of-revolution (BOR)targets along with azimuth angles and incident angles,a Hidden Markov model (HMM)discrimination algorithm is proposed,using such sequential features as double-hump distance and notch frequency.First,the algorithm estimated the target scatterings in all azimuths based on regions of interest (ROI).Second,sequential aspect features were extracted by sparse time-frequency representation.Then the HMMparameters were trained with the labeled samples and the probability of occurrence was computed to discriminate suspicions targets.The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective in BOR target discrimination.
Fereydoun Sharifi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this research, recognition of karstic water-bearing zones using the management of exploration data in Kal-Qorno valley, situated in the Tepal area of Shahrood, has been considered. For this purpose, the sequential exploration method was conducted using geological evidences and applying remote sensing and geoelectrical resistivity methods in two major phases including the regional and local scales. Thus, geological structures and lithological units in regional scale have been investigated for groundwater potential. In this regard, suitable potential maps have been provided in the geographical information system (GIS environment, using fuzzy data-driven and knowledge-driven methods. To obtain the final karstic water potential model, the prepared maps were combined using fuzzy ‘AND’ operator. In the local scale, geoelectrical surveys were conducted in the recognized high potential zones. Consequently, the results of geological investigations, analysis of lineaments extracted from satellite imagery and geoelectrical resistivity data modeling and interpretation were integrated to decide on the position of high yield extraction wells. As a result, karstic water zones in the study area were identified, and based on that, two suitable drilling locations to access and extract karstic groundwater in the study area have been suggested.
Incorvaia, Lorena; Bronte, Giuseppe; Bazan, Viviana; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Sergio; Pantuso, Gianni; Natoli, Clara; Russo, Antonio
2016-04-19
The recent advances in identification of the molecular mechanisms related to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, along with the understanding of molecular alterations involved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) pathogenesis, has allowed the development of several new drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).This process has resulted in clinically significant improvements in median overall survival and an increasing number of patients undergoes two or even three lines of therapy. Therefore, it is necessary a long-term perspective of the treatment: planning a sequential and personalized therapeutic strategy to improve clinical outcome, the potential to achieve long-term response, and to preserve quality of life (QOL), minimizing treatment-related toxicity and transforming mRCC into a chronically treatable condition.Because of the challenges still encountered to draw an optimal therapeutic sequence, the main focus of this article will be to propose the optimal sequencing of existing, approved, oral targeted agents for the treatment of mRCC using evidence-based data along with the knowledge available on the tumor behavior and mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment to provide complementary information and to help the clinicians to maximize the effectiveness of targeted agents in the treatment of mRCC.
Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Mª Jesús; Sevilla, Mª Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R
2017-03-15
A simple method based on FAAS was developed for the sequential multi-element determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg and Si in beverages and food supplements with successful results. The main absorption lines for Cu, Zn and Si and secondary lines for Mn and Mg were selected to carry out the measurements. The sample introduction was performed using a flow injection system. Using the choice of the absorption line wings, the upper limit of the linear range increased up to 110mgL(-1) for Mg, 200mgL(-1) for Si and 13mgL(-1) for Zn. The determination of the five elements was carried out, in triplicate, without the need of additional sample dilutions and/or re-measurements, using less than 3.5mL of sample to perform the complete analysis. The LODs were 0.008mgL(-1) for Cu, 0.017mgL(-1) for Zn, 0.011mgL(-1) for Mn, 0.16mgL(-1) for Si and 0.11mgL(-1) for Mg.
Hongmin Jia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A fluorescence chemosensor, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde azine (HNA was designed and synthesized for sequential detection of Cu2+ and biothiols. It was found that HNA can specifically bind to Cu2+ with 1:1 stoichiometry, accompanied with a dramatic fluorescence quenching and a remarkable bathochromic-shift of the absorbance peak in HEPES buffer. The generated HNA-Cu2+ ensemble displayed a “turn-on” fluorescent response specific for biothiols (Hcy, Cys and GSH based on the displacement approach, giving a remarkable recovery of fluorescence and UV-Vis spectra. The detection limits of HNA-Cu2+ to Hcy, Cys and GSH were estimated to be 1.5 μM, 1.0 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively, suggesting that HNA-Cu2+ is sensitive enough for the determination of thiols in biological systems. The biocompatibility of HNA towards A549 human lung carcinoma cell, was evaluated by an MTT assay. The capability of HNA-Cu2+ to detect biothiols in live A549 cells was then demonstrated by a microscopy fluorescence imaging assay.
A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test
C. Wu
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.
Davide Colombi
Full Text Available To describe changes over time in extent of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT assessed by semi-quantitative visual scores (VSs and fully automatic histogram-based quantitative evaluation and to test the relationship between these two methods of quantification.Forty IPF patients (median age: 70 y, interquartile: 62-75 years; M:F, 33:7 that underwent 2 MDCT at different time points with a median interval of 13 months (interquartile: 10-17 months were retrospectively evaluated. In-house software YACTA quantified automatically lung density histogram (10th-90th percentile in 5th percentile steps. Longitudinal changes in VSs and in the percentiles of attenuation histogram were obtained in 20 untreated patients and 20 patients treated with pirfenidone. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between VSs and selected percentiles.In follow-up MDCT, visual overall extent of parenchymal abnormalities (OE increased in median by 5%/year (interquartile: 0%/y; +11%/y. Substantial difference was found between treated and untreated patients in HU changes of the 40th and of the 80th percentiles of density histogram. Correlation analysis between VSs and selected percentiles showed higher correlation between the changes (Δ in OE and Δ 40th percentile (r=0.69; p<0.001 as compared to Δ 80th percentile (r=0.58; p<0.001; closer correlation was found between Δ ground-glass extent and Δ 40th percentile (r=0.66, p<0.001 as compared to Δ 80th percentile (r=0.47, p=0.002, while the Δ reticulations correlated better with the Δ 80th percentile (r=0.56, p<0.001 in comparison to Δ 40th percentile (r=0.43, p=0.003.There is a relevant and fully automatically measurable difference at MDCT in VSs and in histogram analysis at one year follow-up of IPF patients, whether treated or untreated: Δ 40th percentile might reflect the change in overall extent of lung abnormalities, notably of ground-glass pattern
Method of sequential mesh on Koopman-Darmois distributions
无
2010-01-01
For costly and/or destructive tests,the sequential method with a proper maximum sample size is needed.Based on Koopman-Darmois distributions,this paper proposes the method of sequential mesh,which has an acceptable maximum sample size.In comparison with the popular truncated sequential probability ratio test,our method has the advantage of a smaller maximum sample size and is especially applicable for costly and/or destructive tests.
Mitani, Constantina [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)
2013-04-10
Highlights: ► Drop-in-plug micro-extraction based on SI-LAV platform for metal preconcentration. ► Automatic liquid phase micro-extraction coupled with FAAS. ► Organic solvents with density higher than water are used. ► Lead determination in environmental water and urine samples. -- Abstract: A novel automatic on-line liquid phase micro-extraction method based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve (LAV) platform was proposed for metal preconcentration and determination. A flow-through micro-extraction chamber mounted at the selection valve was adopted without the need of sophisticated lab-on-valve components. Coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the potential of this lab-at-valve scheme is demonstrated for trace lead determination in environmental and biological water samples. A hydrophobic complex of lead with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was formed on-line and subsequently extracted into an 80 μL plug of chloroform. The extraction procedure was performed by forming micro-droplets of aqueous phase into the plug of the extractant. All critical parameters that affect the efficiency of the system were studied and optimized. The proposed method offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 10 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 125 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.8 μg L{sup −1} and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) at 50.0 μg L{sup −1} of lead was 2.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and applied for lead determination in natural waters and urine samples.
Asba Tasneem
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ClinicalTrials.gov registry provides information regarding characteristics of past, current, and planned clinical studies to patients, clinicians, and researchers; in addition, registry data are available for bulk download. However, issues related to data structure, nomenclature, and changes in data collection over time present challenges to the aggregate analysis and interpretation of these data in general and to the analysis of trials according to clinical specialty in particular. Improving usability of these data could enhance the utility of ClinicalTrials.gov as a research resource. METHODS/PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The purpose of our project was twofold. First, we sought to extend the usability of ClinicalTrials.gov for research purposes by developing a database for aggregate analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT that contains data from the 96,346 clinical trials registered as of September 27, 2010. Second, we developed and validated a methodology for annotating studies by clinical specialty, using a custom taxonomy employing Medical Subject Heading (MeSH terms applied by an NLM algorithm, as well as MeSH terms and other disease condition terms provided by study sponsors. Clinical specialists reviewed and annotated MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms, and an algorithm was created to classify studies into clinical specialties based on both MeSH and non-MeSH annotations. False positives and false negatives were evaluated by comparing algorithmic classification with manual classification for three specialties. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resulting AACT database features study design attributes parsed into discrete fields, integrated metadata, and an integrated MeSH thesaurus, and is available for download as Oracle extracts (.dmp file and text format. This publicly-accessible dataset will facilitate analysis of studies and permit detailed characterization and analysis of the U.S. clinical trials enterprise as a whole. In
STATE OF THE ART - MODERN SEQUENTIAL RULE MINING TECHNIQUES
Anjali Paliwal
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run t ime performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.
State of The Art - Modern Sequential Rule Mining Techniques
Ms. Anjali Paliwal
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.
Text Classification: A Sequential Reading Approach
Dulac-Arnold, Gabriel; Gallinari, Patrick
2011-01-01
We propose to model the text classification process as a sequential decision process. In this process, an agent learns to classify documents into topics while reading the document sentences sequentially and learns to stop as soon as enough information was read for deciding. The proposed algorithm is based on a modelisation of Text Classification as a Markov Decision Process and learns by using Reinforcement Learning. Experiments on four different classical mono-label corpora show that the proposed approach performs comparably to classical SVM approaches for large training sets, and better for small training sets. In addition, the model automatically adapts its reading process to the quantity of training information provided.
Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness
Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt
2013-01-01
B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...... was higher than on the current trial. According to the attention band hypothesis[Green and Luce, 1974, Perception & Psychophysics] these dependencies arise from a process similar to selective attention, but observations of rapid adaptation of neurons in the inferior colliculus based on stimulus level...
Fountzilas George
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2 and TOP2A parameters (gene status, mRNA and protein expression have individually been associated with the outcome of patients treated with anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic/predictive significance of the above parameters in early, high-risk breast cancer patients treated with epirubicin-based, dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods In a series of 352 breast carcinoma tissues from patients that had been post-operatively treated with epirubicin-CMF with or without paclitaxel, we assessed HER2 and TOP2A gene status (chromogenic in situ hybridization, mRNA expression (quantitative reverse transcription PCR, as well as HER2 and TopoIIa protein expression (immunohistochemistry. Results HER2 and TOP2A amplification did not share the same effects on their downstream molecules, with consistent patterns observed in HER2 mRNA and protein expression according to HER2 amplification (all parameters strongly inter-related, p values Conclusions This study confirms the favorable prognostic value of HER2/TOP2A co-amplification and the adverse prognostic value of high TOP2A mRNA expression extending it to the adjuvant treatment setting in early high-risk breast cancer. The strong adverse prognostic impact of high HER2/TOP2A mRNA co-expression needs further validation in studies designed to evaluate markers predictive for anthracyclines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000506998.
SUN Zheng-guo; SUN Cheng-ming; ZHOU Wei; JU Wei-min; LI Jian-long
2014-01-01
This research classiifed vegetation types and evaluated net primary productivity (NPP) of southern China’s grasslands based on the improved comprehensive and sequential classiifcation system (CSCS), and proposed 5 thermal grades and 6 humidity grades. Four classes of grasslands vegetation were recognized by improved CSCS, namely, tundra grassland class, typical grassland class, mixed grassland class and alpine grassland class. At the type level, 14 types of vegetations (9 grasslands and 5 forests) were classiifed. The NPP had a trend to decrease from east to west and south to north, and the annual mean NPP was estimated to be 656.3 g Cm-2yr-1. The NPP value of alpine grassland class was relatively high, generally more than 1200 g Cm-2yr-1. The NPP value of mixed grassland class was in a range from 1000 to 1200 g Cm-2yr-1. Tundra grassland class was located in southeastern Tibet with high elevation, and its NPP value was the lowest (<600 g Cm-2yr-1). The typical grassland class distributed in most of the area, and its NPP value was generally from 600 to 1000 g Cm-2yr-1. The total NPP value in the study area was 68.46 TgC. The NPP value of typical grassland class was the highest (48.44 TgC), and mixed grassland class was the second (16.54 TgC), followed by alpine grassland class (3.22 TgC), with tundra grassland class being the lowest (0.25 TgC). For all the grasslands types, the total NPP of forest meadow was the highest (34.81TgC), followed by sparse forest brush (16.54 TgC), and montane meadow was the lowest (0.01TgC).
基于序列分析的僵尸网络检测模型%Botnet detection model based on sequential analysis
范轶彦; 邬国锐; 陈监利; 汤博
2011-01-01
The contemporary IRC botnet detection methods are not suitable for botnet detection under infrequently command and control interactions. To detect small stealthy botnet, a botnet detection model based on sequential analysis is proposed, which is a complement to contemporary passive detection technologies. Several probe methods and detection algorithms are discussed considering response types of clients, and average round of detection is analyzed, only small portion of command and control interactions are observed to declare single or multiple IRC bot. The results show that botnet detection is completed in expected round under controlled false positive rate and false negative rate.%现有的IRC botnet检测技术不适合控制命令交互不频繁的botnet检测.为了实现小规模隐秘僵尸网络的检测,提出了一种基于序列分析的僵尸网络检测模型,对现有的被动检测技术进行补充.讨论了几种探测技术和检测算法,根据客户端响应类型选择检测算法,分析了平均检测轮数,只须观察少量的命令控制交互,能够对单个或多个IRC僵尸主机进行检测.实验结果表明,在保证误报率和漏报率的前提下该方法能在预定检测轮数内完成判定.
Sequentiality versus simultaneity: Interrelated factor demand
Asphjell, M.K.; Letterie, W.A.; Nilsen, O.A.; Pfann, G.A.
2014-01-01
Firms may adjust capital and labor sequentially or simultaneously. In this paper, we develop a structural model of interrelated factor demand subject to nonconvex adjustment costs and estimated by simulated method of moments. Based on Norwegian manufacturing industry plant-level data, parameter
Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection
Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.
2012-01-01
The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…
Sequentiality versus simultaneity: Interrelated factor demand
Asphjell, M.K.; Letterie, W.A.; Nilsen, O.A.; Pfann, G.A.
2014-01-01
Firms may adjust capital and labor sequentially or simultaneously. In this paper, we develop a structural model of interrelated factor demand subject to nonconvex adjustment costs and estimated by simulated method of moments. Based on Norwegian manufacturing industry plant-level data, parameter esti
Pui, Ching-Hon; Pei, Deqing; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Bowman, W Paul; Sandlund, John T; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Inaba, Hiroto; Bhojwani, Deepa; Gruber, Tanja A; Leung, Wing H; Downing, James R; Evans, William E; Relling, Mary V; Campana, Dario
2015-01-01
Summary Background The level of minimal residual disease (MRD) during remission induction is the most important prognostic indicator in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We determined the clinical significance of MRD in the context of a prospective clinical study in which sequential MRD measurements were used to guide treatment decisions. Methods Between 2000 and 2007, 498 evaluable patients with newly diagnosed ALL were enrolled in St. Jude Study XV. Risk of relapse was provisionally classified as low, standard or high according to presenting clinical and laboratory features. Final risk assignment to determine treatment intensity was based mainly on MRD levels measured on days 19 and 46 of remission induction, and on week 7 of continuation treatment. Additional MRD determinations were made on weeks 17, 48 and 120 (end of therapy). Findings Regardless of the provisional risk classification, 10-year event-free survival was significantly inferior for patients with MRD ≥1% on day 19 compared with that of patients having lower MRD levels: 69.2% (95% CI 49.6–82.4, n=36) versus 95.5% (91.7–97.5, n=244) (p<0.001) for the provisional low-risk group and 65.1% (50.7–76.2, n=56) versus 82.9% (75.6–88.2, n=142) (p=0.008) for the provisional standard-risk group. Twelve patients with provisional low-risk ALL and MRD ≥1% on day 19 but negative MRD (<0.01%) on day 46 were treated for standard-risk ALL and had a 10-year event-free survival of 88.9% (43.3–98.4). For the 244 provisional low-risk patients, an MRD level of <1% on day 19 predicted a superior outcome, regardless of the MRD level on day 46. Among provisional standard-risk patients with MRD <1% on day 19, the 15 with persistent MRD on day 46 tended to have an inferior 10-year event-free survival compared with the 126 lacking detectable MRD (72.7% [42.5–88.8] versus 84.0% [76.3–89.4], p=0.06) after receiving the same post-remission treatment for standard-risk ALL. Among patients attaining MRD
Lavorante, Andre F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Morales-Rubio, Angel; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Research Building, 50 Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Reis, Boaventura F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: reis@cena.usp.br
2007-09-26
It has been developed an automatic stop-flow procedure for sequential photometric determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in a same sample of water. The flow system was based on multicommutation process that was designed employing two solenoid micro-pumps and six solenoid pinch valves, which under microcomputer control carry out fluid propelling and reagent solutions handling. A homemade photometer using a photodiode as detector and two light emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission at 470 nm (blue) and 650 nm (red) as radiation sources, which was tailored to allow the determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in waters. The procedure for anionic surfactant determination was based on the substitution reaction of methyl orange (MO) by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS) to form an ion-pair with the cetyl pyridine chloride (CPC). Features such as a linear response ranging from 0.35 to 10.5 mg L{sup -1} DBS (R = 0.999), a detection limit of 0.06 mg L{sup -1} DBS and a relative standard deviation of 0.6% (n = 11) were achieved. For cationic surfactant determination, the procedure was based on the ternary complex formation between cationic surfactant, Fe(III) and chromazurol S (CAS) using CPC as reference standard solution. A linear response range between 0.34 and 10.2 mg L{sup -1} CPC (R = 0.999), a detection limit of 0.05 mg L{sup -1} CPC and a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (n = 11) were obtained. In both cases, the sampling throughput was 60 determinations per hour. Reagents consumption of 7.8 {mu}g MO, 8.2 {mu}g CPC, 37.2 {mu}g CAS and 21.6 {mu}g Fe(III) per determination were achieved. Analyzing river water samples and applying t-test between the results found and those obtained using reference procedures for both surfactant types provide no significant differences at 95% confidence level.
Active Sequential Hypothesis Testing
Naghshvar, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Consider a decision maker who is responsible to dynamically collect observations so as to enhance his information in a speedy manner about an underlying phenomena of interest while accounting for the penalty of wrong declaration. The special cases of the problem are shown to be that of variable-length coding with feedback and noisy dynamic search. Due to the sequential nature of the problem, the decision maker relies on his current information state to adaptively select the most "informative" sensing action among the available ones. In this paper, using results in dynamic programming, a lower bound for the optimal total cost is established. Moreover, upper bounds are obtained via an analysis of heuristic policies for dynamic selection of actions. It is shown that the proposed heuristics achieve asymptotic optimality in many practically relevant problems including the problems of variable-length coding with feedback and noisy dynamic search; where asymptotic optimality implies that the relative difference betw...
Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery
Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte
2015-01-01
The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...
Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A
2015-01-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the
Santos, Emília M G; Araújo, Alberto N; Couto, Cristina M C M; Montenegro, M Conceição B S M; Kejzlarová, Anna; Solich, Petr
2004-11-19
The work describes the construction, evaluation and analytical application of ion selective electrodes sensitive to penicillin-G antibiotics for pharmaceutical products analysis. Different types of polymeric membranes based on PVC (poly(vinyl chloride)) and EVA (ethyl-vinyl-acetate), without internal reference solution, were prepared using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinate (TPP) manganese(III) (Mn(III)TPP-Cl) as electroactive material. Different additives such as tetra-n-octylammoniumbromide (cationic additive) and sodium tetraphenylborate (anionic additive) were incorporated into the membranes to evaluate their influence on electrodes performance. The comparison of the developed detectors was based on general analytical characteristics, selectivity and lifetime. To accomplish the analysis of real samples, two selective membranes composed of 33.0% (w/w) of PVC, 66.0% (w/w) of o-NPOE and 1.0% (w/w) of Mn(III)TPP-Cl (type A) and 33.0% (w/w) of PVC, 66.0% (w/w) of o-NPOE, 1.0% (w/w) of Mn(III)TPP-Cl and 10% mol (relative to the molar concentration of Mn(III)TPP-Cl) of sodium tetraphenylborate (type B) were used. Type A electrode presented a linear response between 2 x 10(-5) and 10(-1) moll(-1) for penicillin-G, a slope of about -59 mVdec(-1) and a reproducibility of about +/-0.5 mVday(-1), while type B exhibited a linear response between 5 x 10(-5) and 10(-1) moll(-1) for penicillin-G, a slope of about -61 mVdec(-1) and a reproducibility of about +/-0.3 mV day(-1). The potentiometric analysis of penicillin-G in pharmaceutical products was carried out by direct potentiometry and the results obtained were compared with those provided by the HPLC reference method. These membranes (type A and type B) were used to prepare tubular electrodes that were coupled to a sequential injection system (SIA) and presented a linear range between 2 x 10(-4) and 1 x 10(-2) moll(-1) and slopes of -59.3 +/- 0.8 and -57.3 +/- 1.2 mVdec(-1), respectively. The tubular electrode constructed
Multi-Attribute Sequential Search
Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry
2007-01-01
This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…
单启兵; 孔敏
2012-01-01
In this paper, we first introduce two typical design methods of sequential control program based on S7-200 PLC for Siemens, and then we point out the instruction difference between S/R and Sequence Control Relay （SCR） by comparison. Experimental results show that it has ability in realizing sequential control on single device or production process and it is also easy for the beginner to learn programming by using SFC （Sequential Function Chart）.%以西门子S7-200PLC为例,介绍了两种典型的顺序控制程序设计方法,通过比较,指出了S/R指令和步进指令在设计PLC顺序控制程序时所具有的不同特点。实验结果表明,利用顺序功能图来编制用户控制程序,以实现单台设备或生产过程的顺序控制,使得PLC编程有规章可循,简单易学。
Comprehensive sequential interventional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma
ZHANG Liang; FAN Wei-jun; HUANG Jin-hua; LI Chuan-xing; ZHAO Ming; WANG Li-gang; TANG Tian
2009-01-01
Background Since the 1980s, various approaches to interventional therapy have been developed, with the development and achievement of medical imaging technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sequential interventional therapy especially personal therapeutic plan in 53 radical cure patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods From January 2003 to January 2005, a total of 203 patients with HCC received sequential interventional treatment in our hospital. Fifty-three patients achieved radical cure outcomes. Those patients were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), or high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), sequentially and in combination depending on their clinical and pathological features. PET-CT was used to evaluate, assess, and guide treatment.Results Based on the imaging and serological data, all the patients had a personal therapeutic plan. The longest follow-up time was 24 months, the shortest was 6 months, and mean survival time was 16.5 months.Conclusion Comprehensive sequential interventional therapy especially personal therapeutic plan for HCC play roles in interventional treatment of HCC in middle or advanced stage.
Sequential Testing: Basics and Benefits
1978-03-01
103-109 44. A. Wald , Sequential Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, 1947 45. A Wald and J. Wolfowitz , "Optimum Character of The Sequential Probability Ratio...work done by A. Wald [44].. Wald’s work on sequential analysis can be used virtually’without modification in a situation where decisions are made... Wald can be used. The decision to accept, reject, or continue the test depends on: 8 < (8 0/el)r exp [-(1/01 - 1/0 0 )V(t)] < A (1) where 0 and A are
Sequential operators in computability logic
Japaridze, Giorgi
2007-01-01
Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a semantical platform and research program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth which it has more traditionally been. Formulas in CL stand for (interactive) computational problems, understood as games between a machine and its environment; logical operators represent operations on such entities; and "truth" is understood as existence of an effective solution, i.e., of an algorithmic winning strategy. The formalism of CL is open-ended, and may undergo series of extensions as the study of the subject advances. The main groups of operators on which CL has been focused so far are the parallel, choice, branching, and blind operators. The present paper introduces a new important group of operators, called sequential. The latter come in the form of sequential conjunction and disjunction, sequential quantifiers, and sequential recurrences. As the name may suggest, the algorithmic ...
A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...
A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV/AIDS intervention ... the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital ... commenced with a quantitative survey to establish base-line information.
García-Garitagoitia José
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafmisaGKbaebaaaa@2D06@d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00. However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049. Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively. We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya. The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of
Cooperative Distributed Sequential Spectrum Sensing
S, Jithin K; Gopalarathnam, Raghav
2010-01-01
We consider cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios. We develop an energy efficient detector with low detection delay using sequential hypothesis testing. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is used at both the local nodes and the fusion center. We also analyse the performance of this algorithm and compare with the simulations. Modelling uncertainties in the distribution parameters are considered. Slow fading with and without perfect channel state information at the cognitive radios is taken into account.
Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator
Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.
2009-08-18
A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.
View Dependent Sequential Point Trees
Wen-Cheng Wang; Feng Wei; En-Hua Wu
2006-01-01
Sequential point trees provide the state-of-the-art technique for rendering point models, by re-arranging hierarchical points sequentially according to geometric errors running on GPU for fast rendering. This paper presents a view dependent method to augment sequential point trees by embedding the hierarchical tree structures in the sequential list of hierarchical points. By the method, two kinds of indices are constructed to facilitate the points rendering in an order mostly from near to far and from coarse to fine. As a result, invisible points can be culled view-dependently in high efficiency for hardware acceleration, and at the same time, the advantage of sequential point trees could be still fully taken. Therefore, the new method can run much faster than the conventional sequential point trees, and the acceleration can be highly promoted particularly when the objects possess complex occlusion relationship and viewed closely because invisible points would be in a high percentage of the points at finer levels.
Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K; Mote, Kaustubh R
2016-08-01
One of the fundamental challenges in the application of solid-state NMR is its limited sensitivity, yet a majority of experiments do not make efficient use of the limited polarization available. The loss in polarization in a single acquisition experiment is mandated by the need to select out a single coherence pathway. In contrast, sequential acquisition strategies can encode more than one pathway in the same experiment or recover unused polarization to supplement a standard experiment. In this article, we present pulse sequences that implement sequential acquisition strategies on one and two radiofrequency channels with a combination of proton and carbon detection to record multiple experiments under magic-angle spinning. We show that complementary 2D experiments such as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] or DARR and [Formula: see text], and 3D experiments such as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] can be combined in a single experiment to ensure time savings of at least 40 %. These experiments can be done under fast or slow-moderate magic-angle spinning frequencies aided by windowed [Formula: see text] acquisition and homonulcear decoupling. The pulse sequence suite is further expanded by including pathways that allow the recovery of residual polarization, the so-called 'afterglow' pathways, to encode a number of pulse sequences to aid in assignments and chemical-shift mapping.
Machado Vanderlei G.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Two multisite 5,5'-disubstituted 2,2'-bipyridine ligands containing N-methyl hydroxamic acids as substituents [5,5'-bis(N-methylhydroxamic-2,2'-bipyridine (4 and 5-methyl-5'-(N-methylhydroxamic-2,2-bipyridine (10] were synthesized. These ligands were used in order to illustrate the strategy of self-assembly through sequential complexation. According to this concept, the first metal added organizes the ligands disposed in 5,5'-positions to accomodate the second metal ion that is sequentially added. Thus, addition of Fe2+ to a solution of 4 led to a Fe2+-tris(bipyridine complex. Addition of Fe3+ to this solution yielded a trimetallic architecture, which was characterized. Ligand 10 yielded a mixture of bimetallic architectures through complexation with Fe2+ followed by Fe3+ ions. However, if the order of metal addition is changed, only one bimetallic complex is obtained. This is due to the fact that the first metal ion added (Fe3+ acts as a template, organizing the bipyridine ligands and preforming an adequate cavity for the Fe2+ ion.
Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization
Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav
2013-01-01
A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the
2013-01-01
为了动态、准确、高效地描述用户的访问行为，实现对不同应用层分布式拒绝服务(Application-layer Distributed Denial of Service, App-DDoS)攻击行为的透明检测，该文提出基于最大频繁序列模式挖掘的ADA_MFSP(App-DDoS Detection Algorithm based on Maximal Frequent Sequential Pattern mining)检测模型。该模型在对正常Web访问序列数据库(Web Access Sequence Database, WASD)及待检测WASD进行最大频繁序列模式挖掘的基础上，引入序列比对平均异常度，联合浏览时间平均异常度、请求循环平均异常度等有效检测属性，最终实现攻击行为的异常检测。实验证明：ADA_MFSP模型不仅能有效检测各类App-DDoS攻击，且有良好的检测灵敏度。%In order to describe the user’s access behavior dynamically, efficiently and accurately, a novel detection model for Application-layer Distributed Denial of Service (App-DDoS) attack based on maximal frequent sequential pattern mining is proposed, named App-DDoS Detection Algorithm based on Maximal Frequent Sequential Pattern mining (ADA_MFSP). After mining maximal frequent sequential patterns of trained and detected Web Access Sequence Database (WASD), the model introduces sequence alignment, view time and request circulation abnormality to describe the behaviour of App-DDoS attacks, finally achieves the purpose of attack detection. It is proved with experiments that the ADA_MFSP model can not only detect kinds of App-DDoS attacks, but also has good detection sensitivity.
基于FPGA的eStream序列密码实现分析%Implementation of FPGA-based eStream Sequential Cipher
徐远泽; 张文科; 尹一桦; 罗影
2015-01-01
The project of Europe eStream sequential cipher promotes the development of modern stream ci-pher, and the researchers of sequential cipher turn their attention to the design of light-weight stream ci-pher liable to hardware implementation. Grain-128, MICKEY2. 0 and TRIVIUM, these three stream ci-phers oriented to hardware implementation recommended by eStream sequential cipher are studied. Firstly, the basic principles of these three stream ciphers are presented, then their circuit configurations designed on FPGA,and finally,their comprehensive implementations are done on Xilinx Virtex-5 of FPGA platform with Verilog HDL language. Implementation result indicates that,of the three algorithms,TRIVIUM occu-pies the least FPGA logic resources while enjoying the highest throughput,and MICKEY2. 0 occupies the highest logic resources while enjoying the lowest throughput.%欧洲eStream序列密码计划推动了现代序列密码的发展,序列密码研究开始关注于易于硬件实现的轻量化序列密码设计。主要研究了eStream序列密码推荐的三种面向硬件实现的密码算法：Grain-128、MICKEY2.0和TRIVIUM。首先分别介绍了三种算法的基本原理,然后针对每种算法进行FPGA下的电路结构设计,最后采用Verilog HDL语言,在Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA平台上进行了综合实现。实现结果表明,在三种算法中,TRIVIUM算法占用FPGA逻辑资源最少,其吞吐量最高,而MICKEY2.0算法占用FPGA逻辑资源最多,同时吞吐量最低。
The Progression of Sequential Reactions
Jack McGeachy
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Sequential reactions consist of linked reactions in which the product of the first reaction becomes the substrate of a second reaction. Sequential reactions occur in industrially important processes, such as the chlorination of methane. A generalized series of three sequential reactions was analyzed in order to determine the times at which each chemical species reaches its maximum. To determine the concentration of each species as a function of time, the differential rate laws for each species were solved. The solution of each gave the concentration curve of the chemical species. The concentration curves of species A1 and A2 possessed discreet maxima, which were determined through slope-analysis. The concentration curve of the final product, A3, did not possess a discreet maximum, but rather approached a finite limit.
Transistor switching and sequential circuits
Sparkes, John J
1969-01-01
Transistor Switching and Sequential Circuits presents the basic ideas involved in the construction of computers, instrumentation, pulse communication systems, and automation. This book discusses the design procedure for sequential circuits. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the ways on how to generate the types of waveforms needed in digital circuits, principally ramps, square waves, and delays. This text then considers the behavior of some simple circuits, including the inverter, the emitter follower, and the long-tailed pair. Other cha
Sequential Divestiture and Firm Asymmetry
Wen Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Simple Cournot models of divestiture tend to generate incentives to divest which are too strong, predicting that firms will break up into an infinite number of divisions resulting in perfect competition. This paper shows that if the order of divestitures is endogenized, firms will always choose sequential, and hence very limited, divestitures. Divestitures favor the larger firm and the follower in a sequential game. Divestitures in which the larger firm is the follower generate greater industry profit and social welfare, but a smaller consumer surplus.
Sequential triangulation of orbital photography
Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.
1979-01-01
The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric triangulation as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.
Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction
Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando
2015-01-01
We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of
Sequential triangulation of orbital photography
Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.
1979-01-01
The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric triangulation as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.
Hasegawa, Takahiro
2016-09-01
In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ling, Chen; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tai-Peng; Li, Ai-Min
2013-11-27
A novel chelating resin (R-AC) bearing dual-functional groups (amino and carboxyl groups) was self-synthesized and it showed superior properties on synergistic coremoval of Cu(II) and tetracycline (TC) to commercial resins (amine, carboxyl, and hydrophobic types), which was deeply investigated by equilibrium and kinetic tests in binary, preloading, and saline systems. The adsorption of TC on R-AC was markedly enhanced when coexisted with Cu(II), up to 13 times of that in sole system, whereas Cu(II) uptake seldom decreased in the copresence of TC. Decomplexing-bridging, which included [Cu-TC] decomplexing and [R-Cu] bridging for TC, was demonstrated as the leading mechanism for the synergistic coremoval of Cu(II) and TC. Carboxyl groups of R-AC played a dominant role in decomplexing of [Cu-TC] complex and releasing free TC. Cu(II) coordinated with amine groups of R-AC was further proved to participate in bridging interaction with free TC, and the bridging stoichiometric ratio ([NH-Cu]: TC) possibly was 2:1. About 96.9% of TC and 99.3% of Cu could be sequentially recovered with dilute NaOH followed by HCl. Considering stable application for five cycles in simulated and practical wastewater, R-AC shows great potential in green and simple coremoval of antibiotic and heavy metal ions.
Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Lesur, Antoine; Devis, Laura; Campos, Alexandre; Cabrera, Silvia; van Oostrum, Jan; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventos, Jaume; Colas, Eva; Domon, Bruno
2016-08-16
About 30% of endometrial cancer (EC) patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease, which is associated with a drastic decrease in the 5-year survival rate. The identification of biomarkers in uterine aspirate samples, which are collected by a minimally invasive procedure, would improve early diagnosis of EC. We present a sequential workflow to select from a list of potential EC biomarkers, those which are the most promising to enter a validation study. After the elimination of confounding contributions by residual blood proteins, 52 potential biomarkers were analyzed in uterine aspirates from 20 EC patients and 18 non-EC controls by a high-resolution accurate mass spectrometer operated in parallel reaction monitoring mode. The differential abundance of 26 biomarkers was observed, and among them ten proteins showed a high sensitivity and specificity (AUC > 0.9). The study demonstrates that uterine aspirates are valuable samples for EC protein biomarkers screening. It also illustrates the importance of a biomarker verification phase to fill the gap between discovery and validation studies and highlights the benefits of high resolution mass spectrometry for this purpose. The proteins verified in this study have an increased likelihood to become a clinical assay after a subsequent validation phase.
Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.
2006-01-01
The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.
Robust sequential working memory recall in heterogeneous cognitive networks
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Sokolov, Yury; Kozma, Robert
2014-01-01
Psychiatric disorders are often caused by partial heterogeneous disinhibition in cognitive networks, controlling sequential and spatial working memory (SWM). Such dynamic connectivity changes suggest that the normal relationship between the neuronal components within the network deteriorates. As a result, competitive network dynamics is qualitatively altered. This dynamics defines the robust recall of the sequential information from memory and, thus, the SWM capacity. To understand pathological and non-pathological bifurcations of the sequential memory dynamics, here we investigate the model of recurrent inhibitory-excitatory networks with heterogeneous inhibition. We consider the ensemble of units with all-to-all inhibitory connections, in which the connection strengths are monotonically distributed at some interval. Based on computer experiments and studying the Lyapunov exponents, we observed and analyzed the new phenomenon—clustered sequential dynamics. The results are interpreted in the context of the winnerless competition principle. Accordingly, clustered sequential dynamics is represented in the phase space of the model by two weakly interacting quasi-attractors. One of them is similar to the sequential heteroclinic chain—the regular image of SWM, while the other is a quasi-chaotic attractor. Coexistence of these quasi-attractors means that the recall of the normal information sequence is intermittently interrupted by episodes with chaotic dynamics. We indicate potential dynamic ways for augmenting damaged working memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:25452717
Hualin Xie
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very
杨李梅; 杨慧杰; 黄坚; 杨新宇
2011-01-01
Objective In order to strengthen information management securit in electronic medical record , and speed up the implem entation of "Electronic Signature Law " in medical and health fields. Methods The application of sequential multi-signature based on RSA in electronic medical record is researched . Results With the help of this application . the safety and reliability of electronic medical record is ensured . Besides. security mechanism could be provided in the process of generating . saving , managing and calling the electronic medical record . Conclusion Technical possibility is provided to make electronic medical record have the same legal effect as paper record . so that legitim ate evidence is available to resolve medical disputes effectively .%目的 为了加强电子病案信息安全管理,加快在医疗卫生领域的落实.方法 初步探讨基于RSA的有序多重数字签名在电子病案中的实现与应用.结果 通过这种应用,保证了电子病案的安全与可靠,为电子病案的生成、保存、管理和调用提供了安全保障机制.结论 为电子病案与纸质病案具有相同的法律效力,提供了技术上的可能;为有效解决医疗纠纷提供合法的证据支持.
Automatic differentiation for reduced sequential quadratic programming
Liao Liangcai; Li Jin; Tan Yuejin
2007-01-01
In order to slove the large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP) problems efficiently, an efficient optimization algorithm based on reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) and automatic differentiation (AD) is presented in this paper. With the characteristics of sparseness, relatively low degrees of freedom and equality constraints utilized, the nonlinear programming problem is solved by improved rSQP solver. In the solving process, AD technology is used to obtain accurate gradient information. The numerical results show that the combined algorithm, which is suitable for large-scale process optimization problems, can calculate more efficiently than rSQP itself.
Group-sequential clinical trials with multiple co-objectives
Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R; Ochiai, Toshimitsu
2016-01-01
This book focuses on group sequential methods for clinical trials with co-primary endpoints based on the decision-making frameworks for: (1) rejecting the null hypothesis (stopping for efficacy), (2) rejecting the alternative hypothesis (stopping for futility), and (3) rejecting the null or alternative hypothesis (stopping for either futility or efficacy), where the trial is designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on all endpoints. For assessing futility, there are two fundamental approaches, i.e., the decision to stop for futility based on the conditional probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, and the other based on stopping boundaries using group sequential methods. In this book, the latter approach is discussed. The book also briefly deals with the group sequential methods for clinical trials designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on at least one endpoint. In addition, the book describes sample size recalculation and the resulting ef...
Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang
2014-05-28
Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.
On sequential countably compact topological semigroups
Gutik, Oleg V; RepovÅ¡, DuÅ¡an
2008-01-01
We study topological and algebraic properties of sequential countably compact topological semigroups similar to compact topological semigroups. We prove that a sequential countably compact topological semigroup does not contain the bicyclic semigroup. Also we show that the closure of a subgroup in a sequential countably compact topological semigroup is a topological group, that the inversion in a Clifford sequential countably compact topological semigroup is continuous and we prove the analogue of the Rees-Suschkewitsch Theorem for simple regular sequential countably compact topological semigroups.
Robust inference for group sequential trials.
Ganju, Jitendra; Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei
2017-03-01
For ethical reasons, group sequential trials were introduced to allow trials to stop early in the event of extreme results. Endpoints in such trials are usually mortality or irreversible morbidity. For a given endpoint, the norm is to use a single test statistic and to use that same statistic for each analysis. This approach is risky because the test statistic has to be specified before the study is unblinded, and there is loss in power if the assumptions that ensure optimality for each analysis are not met. To minimize the risk of moderate to substantial loss in power due to a suboptimal choice of a statistic, a robust method was developed for nonsequential trials. The concept is analogous to diversification of financial investments to minimize risk. The method is based on combining P values from multiple test statistics for formal inference while controlling the type I error rate at its designated value.This article evaluates the performance of 2 P value combining methods for group sequential trials. The emphasis is on time to event trials although results from less complex trials are also included. The gain or loss in power with the combination method relative to a single statistic is asymmetric in its favor. Depending on the power of each individual test, the combination method can give more power than any single test or give power that is closer to the test with the most power. The versatility of the method is that it can combine P values from different test statistics for analysis at different times. The robustness of results suggests that inference from group sequential trials can be strengthened with the use of combined tests. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sequential algorithm for fast clique percolation.
Kumpula, Jussi M; Kivelä, Mikko; Kaski, Kimmo; Saramäki, Jari
2008-08-01
In complex network research clique percolation, introduced by Palla, Derényi, and Vicsek [Nature (London) 435, 814 (2005)], is a deterministic community detection method which allows for overlapping communities and is purely based on local topological properties of a network. Here we present a sequential clique percolation algorithm (SCP) to do fast community detection in weighted and unweighted networks, for cliques of a chosen size. This method is based on sequentially inserting the constituent links to the network and simultaneously keeping track of the emerging community structure. Unlike existing algorithms, the SCP method allows for detecting k -clique communities at multiple weight thresholds in a single run, and can simultaneously produce a dendrogram representation of hierarchical community structure. In sparse weighted networks, the SCP algorithm can also be used for implementing the weighted clique percolation method recently introduced by Farkas [New J. Phys. 9, 180 (2007)]. The computational time of the SCP algorithm scales linearly with the number of k -cliques in the network. As an example, the method is applied to a product association network, revealing its nested community structure.
基于时序事件图的作战仿真溯因模型∗%Battle Simulation Model of Causal Traceability Based on Sequential Events Graph
王伟; 赵晓哲; 王勃
2016-01-01
通过对作战仿真结果进行因果关系分析，可以加深对作战计划的理解，为指挥决策提供支持，是仿真的重要一环。为了能够对仿真结果进行因果关系分析，首先阐述了溯因和因果关系的概念，对支持溯因的仿真输出数据进行了需求分析，进而构建了以事件为核心描述单元的仿真输出数据模型；根据对事件图基本概念的理解，提出了基于时序事件图的溯因模型，最后给出了仿真输出数据映射为时序事件图的转化算法。%Through the causality analysis was carried out on the operational simulation results, it can deepen the understand⁃ing of the operational plan, and provide support for command and decision making, so it is one of the most important aspects of the simulation. In order to analyse the causal relationship between the simulation results, this paper first expounds the ab⁃duction and the concept of causality, to support the back because of the simulation output data of demand analysis, then build the event as the core simulation output data model for describing the unit; According to the basic concept of event graph, it proposes back because of the model based on the sequential events figure, finally it gives the simulation output data mapping to a sequential event graph transformation algorithm.
A Bayesian sequential processor approach to spectroscopic portal system decisions
Sale, K; Candy, J; Breitfeller, E; Guidry, B; Manatt, D; Gosnell, T; Chambers, D
2007-07-31
The development of faster more reliable techniques to detect radioactive contraband in a portal type scenario is an extremely important problem especially in this era of constant terrorist threats. Towards this goal the development of a model-based, Bayesian sequential data processor for the detection problem is discussed. In the sequential processor each datum (detector energy deposit and pulse arrival time) is used to update the posterior probability distribution over the space of model parameters. The nature of the sequential processor approach is that a detection is produced as soon as it is statistically justified by the data rather than waiting for a fixed counting interval before any analysis is performed. In this paper the Bayesian model-based approach, physics and signal processing models and decision functions are discussed along with the first results of our research.
Abriantini, G.; Sitanggang, I. S.; Trisminingsih, R.
2017-01-01
Fires on peatland frequently occurred in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Fires on peatland can be identified by hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern mining is one of data mining techniques that can be used to analyse hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern discovery equivalent classes (SPADE) algorithm can be applied to extract hotspot sequential patterns. The objectives of this work are: 1) to obtain hotspot sequential pattern in Sumatra and Kalimantan in 2014 and 2015, and 2) to develop a web based application using Shiny framework that is available in R package for hotspot sequential pattern visualization in peatland of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Hotspot sequential patterns were obtained using minimum support of 0.01 with the focus of analysis is the hotspot sequences with length two or more events. This work generated as many 89 sequences with length 2 or more in Sumatra in 2014, 147 sequences in Sumatra in 2015, 48 sequences in Kalimantan in 2014, and 51 sequences in Kalimantan in 2015. Hotspot sequential patterns are visualized based on peatland’s characteristics, weather, and social economy. The features in this web based application have been tested and the results show that all features work properly according to the test scenario.
Sequential Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Imaging
Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke
2013-01-01
Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution...... and a range independent lateral resolution is obtained. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The lateral resolution increases with a decreasing F#. Grating lobes appear if F# 6 2 for a linear array with k-pitch...
Sensitivity validation technique for sequential kriging metamodel
Huh, Seung Kyun; Lee, Jin Min; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-08-15
Metamodels have been developed with a variety of design optimization techniques in the field of structural engineering over the last decade because they are efficient, show excellent prediction performance, and provide easy interconnections into design frameworks. To construct a metamodel, a sequential procedure involving steps such as the design of experiments, metamodeling techniques, and validation techniques is performed. Because validation techniques can measure the accuracy of the metamodel, the number of presampled points for an accurate kriging metamodel is decided by the validation technique in the sequential kriging metamodel. Because the interpolation model such as the kriging metamodel based on computer experiments passes through responses at presampled points, additional analyses or reconstructions of the meta models are required to measure the accuracy of the meta model if existing validation techniques are applied. In this study, we suggest a sensitivity validation that does not require additional analyses or reconstructions of the meta models. Fourteen two dimensional mathematical problems and an engineering problem are illustrated to show the feasibility of the suggested method.
A weight modification sequential method for VSC-MTDC power system state estimation
Yang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Ziming; Zhao, Kun; Li, Xinpeng; Han, Feng
2017-06-01
This paper presents an effective sequential approach based on weight modification for VSC-MTDC power system state estimation, called weight modification sequential method. The proposed approach simplifies the AC/DC system state estimation algorithm through modifying the weight of state quantity to keep the matrix dimension constant. The weight modification sequential method can also make the VSC-MTDC system state estimation calculation results more ccurate and increase the speed of calculation. The effectiveness of the proposed weight modification sequential method is demonstrated and validated in modified IEEE 14 bus system.
Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks
Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua
2010-01-01
Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...
Can post-error dynamics explain sequential reaction time patterns?
Stephanie eGoldfarb
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate human error dynamics in sequential two-alternative choice tasks. When subjects repeatedly discriminate between two stimuli, their error rates and mean reaction times (RTs systematically depend on prior sequences of stimuli. We analyze these sequential effects on RTs, separating error and correct responses, and identify a sequential RT tradeoff: a sequence of stimuli which yields a relatively fast RT on error trials will produce a relatively slow RT on correct trials and vice versa. We reanalyze previous data and acquire and analyze new data in a choice task with stimulus sequences generated by a first-order Markov process having unequal probabilities of repetitions and alternations. We then show that relationships among these stimulus sequences and the corresponding RTs for correct trials, error trials, and averaged over all trials are significantly influenced by the probability of alternations; these relationships have not been captured by previous models. Finally, we show that simple, sequential updates to the initial condition and thresholds of a pure drift diffusion model can account for the trends in RT for correct and error trials. Our results suggest that error-based parameter adjustments are critical to modeling sequential effects.
Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.
Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V
1997-09-01
This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.
Fluorescence sensor for sequential detection of zinc and phosphate ions
An, Miran; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Seo, Hansol; Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong-Seok
2016-12-01
A new, highly selective turn-on fluorescent chemosensor based on 2-(2‧-tosylamidophenyl)thiazole (1) for the detection of zinc and phosphate ions in ethanol was synthesized and characterized. Sensor 1 showed a high selectivity for zinc compared to other cations and sequentially detected hydrogen pyrophosphate and hydrogen phosphate. The fluorescence mechanism can be explained by two different mechanisms: (i) the inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and (ii) chelation-induced enhanced fluorescence by binding with Zn2 +. The sequential detection of phosphate anions was achieved by the quenching and subsequent revival of ESIPT.
A Fast Algorithm for Mining Sequential Patterns from Large Databases
CHEN Ning; CHEN An; ZHOU Longxiang; LIU Lu
2001-01-01
Mining sequential patterns from large databases has been recognized by many researchers as an attractive task of data mining and knowledge discovery. Previous algorithms scan the databases for many times, which is often unendurable due to the very large amount of databases. In this paper, the authors introduce an effective algorithm for mining sequential patterns from large databases.In the algorithm, the original database is not used at all for counting the support of sequences after the first pass. Rather, a tidlist structure generated in the previous pass is employed for the purpose based on set intersection operations, avoiding the multiple scans of the databases.
Recursive Algorithm and Alternate Operation Strategy in Sequential Tests
XU Hong-lin; CHEN Zhan-qi; GUO Lue
2009-01-01
Based on the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) developed by Wald, an improved method for successful probability test of missile flight is proposed. A recursive algorithm and its program in Matlab are designed to calculate the real risk level of the sequential test decision and the average number of samples under various test conditions. A concept, that is "rejecting as soon as possible", is put forward and an alternate operation strategy is conducted. The simulation results show that it can reduce the test expenses.
[Sequential enteral nutrition support for patients with severe cerebral stroke].
Chen, Jiefang; He, Xudong; Zhang, Lisan; Hu, Xingyue
2013-11-01
To evaluate the efficacy of sequential enteral nutrition support in patients with severe cerebral stroke. Forty-nine patients with severe cerebral stroke met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into sequential enteral nutrition group (Group A, n=24) and conventional enteral nutrition group (Group B, n=25). Patients in Group A received short-peptide-based enteral nutrition support first, then gradually transferred to intact protein enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, patients in Group B constantly received intact protein enteral nutrition support. The nutritional indexes and the rate of complications were compared between two groups. The nutritional indexes were decreased in both groups within 4 weeks after admission, but the decreasing levels of hemoglobin and albumin in Group A were significantly lower than those in Group B (P0.05). Sequential enteral nutritional support can improve the nutritional status and decrease the incidence of complications in critical patients with cerebral stroke.
GEOMETRIC METHOD OF SEQUENTIAL ESTIMATION RELATED TO MULTINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION MODELS
WEIBOCHENG; LISHOUYE
1995-01-01
In 1980's differential geometric methods are successfully used to study curved expomential families and normal nonlinear regression models.This paper presents a new geometric structure to study multinomial distribution models which contain a set of nonlinear parameters.Based on this geometric structure,the suthors study several asymptotic properties for sequential estimation.The bias,the variance and the information loss of the sequential estimates are given from geomentric viewpoint,and a limit theorem connected with the observed and expected Fisher information is obtained in terms of curvatvre measures.The results show that the sequential estimation procednce has some better properties which are generally impossible for nonsequential estimation procedures.
Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference.
Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn; Cho, Yang Seok
2017-01-01
An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.
Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.
2009-01-01
This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…
Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.
2009-01-01
This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…
2014-01-01
In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the p...
The Efficacy of Sequential Therapy in Eradication of Helicobacter ...
2017-05-22
May 22, 2017 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Background and ... of the protocols. H. pylori eradication rate with sequential therapy in our patients ... steadily increasing, including gastric cancer prevention .... H. pylori in our country were levofloxacin based. A recent.
Structural features of sequential weak measurements
Diósi, Lajos
2016-07-01
We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.
Amer, Walid; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Ramananarivo, Hugo Ronald; Fihri, Aziz; El Achaby, Mounir; Zahouily, Mohamed; Barakat, Abdellatif; Djessas, Kamal; Clark, James; Solhy, Abderrahim
2014-02-01
In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the phosphate precursors. These materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).
Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning
Velde, van der Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney
2016-01-01
Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of
Learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for in situ concept reasoning
van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; Besold, Tarek R.; Lamb, Luis; Serafini, Luciano; Tabor, Whitney
2016-01-01
Simulations are presented and discussed of learning sequential control in a Neural Blackboard Architecture (NBA) for in situ concept-based reasoning. Sequential control is learned in a reservoir network, consisting of columns with neural circuits. This allows the reservoir to control the dynamics of
Introducing a Model for Optimal Design of Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examinations
Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Yazdani, Kamran; Labaf, Ali; Norcini, John J.; Jalili, Mohammad
2016-01-01
In a sequential OSCE which has been suggested to reduce testing costs, candidates take a short screening test and who fail the test, are asked to take the full OSCE. In order to introduce an effective and accurate sequential design, we developed a model for designing and evaluating screening OSCEs. Based on two datasets from a 10-station…
Lieshout, M.N.M. van
2008-01-01
We advocate the use of Markov sequential object processes for tracking a variable number of moving objects through video frames with a view towards depth calculation. A regression model based on a sequential object process quantifies goodness of fit; regularization terms are incorporated to control
Amer, Walid [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Abdelouahdi, Karima [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Division UATRS, Angle Allal Fassi/FAR, B.P. 8027, Hay Riad, 10000 Rabat (Morocco); Ramananarivo, Hugo Ronald; Fihri, Aziz; El Achaby, Mounir [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Zahouily, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Matériaux, Catalyse et Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles, URAC 24, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan II, Mohammedia B.P. 146, 20650 (Morocco); Barakat, Abdellatif [SUPAGRO-INRA-CIRAD-UMR IATE 1208, Ingenierie des Agropolymères et Technologies Emergentes, 2, Place Pierre Viala-Bât 31, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Djessas, Kamal [CNRS-PROMES Tecnosud, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Clark, James [Green Chemistry, Centre of Excellence, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Solhy, Abderrahim, E-mail: a.solhy@mascir.com [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco)
2014-02-01
In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the phosphate precursors. These materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). - Graphical abstract: A new class of hybrid materials based on brushite{sub a}lginate and monetite{sub a}lginate were prepared for the first time by adopting a soft and clean route. Thanks to their gelling and swelling properties, alginate porous polysaccharide microspheres behave as nanoreactors for nucleating, growing and hosting of the phosphate cements such as brushite or monetite. - Highlights: • New structured hybrid materials are prepared from biopolymer and phosphates. • Evidence for a new route for the synthesis of hybrid materials alginate-brushite and alginate-monetite via ionotropic gel of alginate. • The concentration of phosphate has a role crucial for selectivity to monetite or brushite.
Saviuc, Crina; Ciubucă, Bianca; Dincă, Gabriela; Bleotu, Coralia; Drumea, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Popa, Marcela; Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Marutescu, Luminita; Lazăr, Veronica
2017-01-01
The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i.e., eugenol, β-pinene, eucalyptol, and limonene) and anti-inflammatory agents for potential use in the topical treatment of acne and other skin infections. The optimal antimicrobial combinations selected in this study were eugenol/β-pinene/salicylic acid and eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate. The possible mechanisms of action revealed by flow cytometry were cellular permeabilization and inhibition of efflux pumps activity induced by concentrations corresponding to sub-minimal inhibitory (sub-MIC) values. The most active antimicrobial combination represented by salycilic acid/eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate was included in a cream base, which demonstrated thermodynamic stability and optimum microbiological characteristics. PMID:28106736
Crina Saviuc
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i.e., eugenol, β-pinene, eucalyptol, and limonene and anti-inflammatory agents for potential use in the topical treatment of acne and other skin infections. The optimal antimicrobial combinations selected in this study were eugenol/β-pinene/salicylic acid and eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate. The possible mechanisms of action revealed by flow cytometry were cellular permeabilization and inhibition of efflux pumps activity induced by concentrations corresponding to sub-minimal inhibitory (sub-MIC values. The most active antimicrobial combination represented by salycilic acid/eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate was included in a cream base, which demonstrated thermodynamic stability and optimum microbiological characteristics.
Optimization of reversible sequential circuits
Sayem, Abu Sadat Md
2010-01-01
In recent years reversible logic has been considered as an important issue for designing low power digital circuits. It has voluminous applications in the present rising nanotechnology such as DNA computing, Quantum Computing, low power VLSI and quantum dot automata. In this paper we have proposed optimized design of reversible sequential circuits in terms of number of gates, delay and hardware complexity. We have designed the latches with a new reversible gate and reduced the required number of gates, garbage outputs, and delay and hardware complexity. As the number of gates and garbage outputs increase the complexity of reversible circuits, this design will significantly enhance the performance. We have proposed reversible D-latch and JK latch which are better than the existing designs available in literature.
Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria
2016-01-01
Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and
Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis
2015-09-08
Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.
Saure, Christian; Schroeder, Thomas; Zohren, Fabian; Groten, Anke; Bruns, Ingmar; Czibere, Akos; Galonska, Lars; Kondakci, Mustafa; Weigelt, Christian; Fenk, Roland; Germing, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido
2012-03-01
Patients suffering from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS (sAML) are characterized by poor response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. The purpose of our prospective single-center study was to examine the safety and efficacy of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following a sequential conditioning regimen as first-line therapy for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML. Between November 2003 and June 2010, 30 patients (20 high-risk MDS, 10 sAML) received fludarabine (4 × 30 mg/m(2)), amsacrine (4 × 100 mg/m(2)), and Ara-C (4 × 2 g/m(2), FLAMSA). After 2 to 3 days of rest, patients received high-dose melphalan alone (200 mg/m(2) for patients with an age 60 years; n = 24) or melphalan and thiotepa (10 mg/kg, Mel/Thio, n = 6). Following these high-dose conditioning regimens, a median number of 7.7 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight (range: 2.9 × 10(6)-17.2 × 10(6)) were transplanted from 13 related or 17 unrelated donors. Antithymocyte globulin (Fresenius 30-60 mg/kg) as well as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. All patients except 1 with primary graft failure achieved complete remission after HSCT. After a median follow-up time of 28 months (range: 7-81), 21 patients (70%) were alive and free of disease. Overall, 4 patients relapsed. At 2 years, overall survival, event-free survival, and treatment-related mortality were 70%, 63%, and 30%, respectively. Because of undue toxicity, thiotepa is no longer part of the conditioning regimen. Our results add to the body of evidence that a FLAMSA-based sequential conditioning therapy is effective for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML.
Liang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengping
2016-12-20
Ionic current rectification of nanofluidic diode membranes has been studied widely in recent years because it is analogous to the functionality of biological ion channels in principle. We report a new method to fabricate ionic current rectification membranes based on mesoporous silica confined in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Two types of mesostructured silica nanocomposites, hexagonal structure and nanoparticle stacked structure, were used to asymmetrically fill nanochannels of AAO membranes by a vapor-phase synthesis (VPS) method with aspiration approach and were further modified via sequence vapor infiltration (SVI) treatment. The ionic current measurements indicated that SVI treatment can modulate the asymmetric ionic transport in prepared membranes, which exhibited clear ionic current rectification phenomenon under optimal conditions. The ionic current rectifying behavior is derived from the asymmetry of surface conformations, silica species components, and hydrophobic wettability, which are created by the asymmetrical filling type, silica depositions on the heterogeneous membranes, and the condensation of silanol groups. This article provides a considerable strategy to fabricate composite membranes with obvious ionic current rectification performance via the cooperation of the VPS method and SVI treatment and opens up the potential of mesoporous silica confined in AAO membranes to mimic fluid transport in biological processes.
Soltani, Sahar; Madadlou, Ashkan
2016-01-20
Nanosized (<100 nm) zein spheres were employed for fabrication of a series of fish O/W Pickering emulsions. Although surface tension measurement informed the high potency of zein particles for interfacial adsorption, the prepared emulsions destabilized shortly. Electrostatic deposition of sugar beet pectin onto zein particles interfacial layer at pH 4.0 increased significantly the emulsion stability which was attributed to enhanced steric and electrostatic repulsions based on ζ-potential measurements. Pectin enrichment also increased the viscosity of the continuous phase of emulsion. Injection of the oxidative enzyme laccase into the pectin-enriched emulsion to cross-link the feruloyl-bearing pectin molecules and the subsequent addition of CaCl2 to set ion-mediated cross-linkages between carboxyl groups of pectin chains transformed Pickering emulsions to emulgels. The higher the pectin content, the shorter was the gelation time of emulsions. The obtained emulgels were self-standing and became harder along with increasing pectin content.
Sequential association rules in atonal music
A. Honingh; T. Weyde; D. Conklin
2009-01-01
This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class
Sequential association rules in atonal music
Honingh, A.; Weyde, T.; Conklin, D.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class
Sequential auctions, price trends, and risk preferences
Hu, A.; Zou, L.
2015-01-01
We analyze sequential auctions in a general environment where bidders are heterogeneous in risk exposures and exhibit non-quasilinear utilities. We derive a pure strategy symmetric equilibrium for the sequential Dutch and Vickrey auctions respectively, with an arbitrary number of identical objects f
李乡儒
2012-01-01
The neatest neighbor (NN) method is one of the most typical methods in spectral retrieval, automatic processing and data mining. The main problem in NN is the low efficiency. Therefore,focus on the efficient implementation problem and introduce a novel and efficient algorithm SHNN (sequential computation-based hash nearest neighbor algorithm). In algorithm SHNN, firstly, decompose and recognize the spectrum flux components based on their hashing power; Secondly, the nearest neighbor is computed in PC A space based on sequential computation idea. In the second procedure,the putative nearest spectra can be reduced based on hash idea,and the un-nearest spectra can be rejected as early as possible. The contributions of this work are; 1) anovel algorithm SHNN is introduced,which improve the efficiency of the most popular spectramining method nearest neighbor significantly;2) Its application in star spectrum,normal galaxy spectrum and Qso spectrum classificationis investigated. Evaluated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms experimentally on the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) released spectra. The experimental results show that the proposed SHNN algorithm improves the efficiency of nearest neighbor method more than 96%. The nearest neighbor is one of the most popular and typical methods in spectra mining. Therefore , this work is useful in a wide scenario of automatic spectra analysis, for example, spectra classification, spectra parameter estimation, redshift estimation based on spectra,etc.%基于近邻的方法是海量光谱数据获取、自动处理和挖掘中的一类重要方法,在应用中它们的主要问题是效率较低,为此文中提出了基于序贯计算的散列近邻法( SHNN).在SHNN中,首先使用PCA方法对光谱数据进行正交变换,使数据按照各成分的散列能力进行组织；然后在PCA空间中快速查找待识别光谱的近邻数据,在此过程中通过散列思想快速约减搜索空间,并用序贯计算法高效
Huber-Wagner S
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma
Finding Sequential Patterns from Large Sequence Data
Esmaeili, Mahdi
2010-01-01
Data mining is the task of discovering interesting patterns from large amounts of data. There are many data mining tasks, such as classification, clustering, association rule mining, and sequential pattern mining. Sequential pattern mining finds sets of data items that occur together frequently in some sequences. Sequential pattern mining, which extracts frequent subsequences from a sequence database, has attracted a great deal of interest during the recent data mining research because it is the basis of many applications, such as: web user analysis, stock trend prediction, DNA sequence analysis, finding language or linguistic patterns from natural language texts, and using the history of symptoms to predict certain kind of disease. The diversity of the applications may not be possible to apply a single sequential pattern model to all these problems. Each application may require a unique model and solution. A number of research projects were established in recent years to develop meaningful sequential pattern...
Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing
Kim, Kwang-Ki K.
2014-12-15
This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.
Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers
Beskos, Alexandros
2016-08-29
In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . âˆž>h0>h1â‹¯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V.
A solution for automatic parallelization of sequential assembly code
Kovačević Đorđe
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Since modern multicore processors can execute existing sequential programs only on a single core, there is a strong need for automatic parallelization of program code. Relying on existing algorithms, this paper describes one new software solution tool for parallelization of sequential assembly code. The main goal of this paper is to develop the parallelizator which reads sequential assembler code and at the output provides parallelized code for MIPS processor with multiple cores. The idea is the following: the parser translates assembler input file to program objects suitable for further processing. After that the static single assignment is done. Based on the data flow graph, the parallelization algorithm separates instructions on different cores. Once sequential code is parallelized by the parallelization algorithm, registers are allocated with the algorithm for linear allocation, and the result at the end of the program is distributed assembler code on each of the cores. In the paper we evaluate the speedup of the matrix multiplication example, which was processed by the parallelizator of assembly code. The result is almost linear speedup of code execution, which increases with the number of cores. The speed up on the two cores is 1.99, while on 16 cores the speed up is 13.88.
张勇; 孟庆浩; 吴玉秀; 曾明
2014-01-01
基于无线传感网络的气体泄漏源定位在环境监测、安全防护和污染控制等多个领域具有重要意义。提出一种基于分布式最小均方差( D-MMSE)序贯估计的气体泄漏源定位算法。其通过构建一个包含节点之间信息增益与网络能量消耗两方面参数的信息融合目标函数，并对目标函数寻优实现路由节点的调度与选择。所选节点在其测量值和前节点估计值并通过与邻居节点信息交互的基础上完成气体泄漏源位置参数估计量及其方差的更新与传递。为了降低网络能耗，邻居节点集的选择半径随估计量方差做动态调整。仿真分析表明所提算法对比单节点序贯估计定位算法在一定的能耗条件下可获得较高的定位精度和速度。%Distributed gas source localization with Wireless Sensor Networks has an important significance in the en-vironmental monitoring,security protection and pollution control and other fields. a gas leakage source localization ( GLSL) algorithm based on distributed minimum mean squared error( D-MMSE) sequential estimation is proposed. In the proposed GLSL algorithm, an information fusion objective function which combines the information utility measure and the communication cost between sensor nodes is constructed,and the sensor-node scheduling scheme is designed by optimizing the information fusion objective function;For each selected sensor node,the estimator and the corresponding mean square error are updated with its own observation and the noise corrupted decision from the previous node and transmitted to the next selected node by collaborating information within its neighborhood,and to decrease the energy consumption,the neighborhood radius is adjusted dynamically based on the mean square error. At last,the analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm could be applied to the GLSL with a realtively high accuracy, less time and relatively energy
Modeling of Non-Coherent Sequential Acquisition Process for DS/SS Signals
李艳; 马雨出; 张中兆
2003-01-01
A modified non-coherent sequential detection decision logic based on continuous accumulation to achieve fast PN code acquisition is proposed. To simplify the design and analysis, the equivalent relationship between the likelihood ratio of the current sample and that of all the previous samples is deduced. The scheme is proved to be an optimum sequential detection under certain assumptions. Because the average sample number (ASN) can not be calculated through the methods applied to the conventional sequential detection, an algorithm is also provided, which can estimate both the probability density function (pdf) and the upper threshole of ASN. The desired probabilities of false alarm and detection,as well as faster PN code acquisition compared to the conventional sequential detection can be achieved by employing this structure . In addition, Rayeigh-faded reception case is also taken into consideration. Performances of the proposed schemes are obtained, which suggest that the proposed non-coherent sequential detection is more desirable.
Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods
NeuroData; Paninski, L
2015-01-01
Vogelstein JT, Paninski L. Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods. Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI) Program on Sequential Monte Carlo Methods, 2008
Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...
an adjuvant to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine in lower limb surgery ... sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, ... significant side effects and reduces the postoperative analgesic requirement. ... acceptance spinal anaesthesia is fast becoming the procedure of.
Delayed Sequential Coding of Correlated Sources
Ma, Nan; Ishwar, Prakash
2007-01-01
Motivated by video coding applications, we study the problem of sequential coding of correlated sources with (noncausal) encoding and/or decoding frame-delays. The fundamental tradeoffs between individual frame rates, individual frame distortions, and encoding/decoding frame-delays are derived in terms of a single-letter information-theoretic characterization of the rate-distortion region for general inter-frame source correlations and certain types of (potentially frame-specific and coupled) single-letter fidelity criteria. For video sources which are spatially stationary memoryless and temporally Gauss--Markov, MSE frame distortions, and a sum-rate constraint, our results expose the optimality of differential predictive coding among all causal sequential coders. Somewhat surprisingly, causal sequential encoding with one-step delayed noncausal sequential decoding can exactly match the sum-rate-MSE performance of joint coding for all nontrivial MSE-tuples satisfying certain positive semi-definiteness conditio...
[Professor GAO Yuchun's experience on "sequential acupuncture leads to smooth movement of qi"].
Wang, Yanjun; Xing, Xiao; Cui, Linhua
2016-01-01
Professor GAO Yuchun is considered as the key successor of GAO's academic school of acupuncture and moxibustion in Yanzhao region. Professor GAO's clinical experience of, "sequential acupuncture" is introduced in details in this article. In Professor GAO's opinions, appropriate acupuncture sequence is the key to satisfactory clinical effects during treatment. Based on different acupoints, sequential acupuncture can achieve the aim of qi following needles and needles leading qi; based on different symptoms, sequential acupuncture can regulate qi movement; based on different body positions, sequential acupuncture can harmonize qi-blood and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess. In all, according to the differences of disease condition and constitution, based on the accurate acupoint selection and appropriate manipulation, it is essential to capture the nature of diseases and make the order of acupuncture, which can achieve the aim of regulating qi movement and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess.
Mining Sequential Patterns In Multidimensional Data
Plantevit, Marc
2008-01-01
Sequential pattern mining is a key technique of data mining with broad applications (user behavior analysis, bioinformatic, security, music, etc.). Sequential pattern mining aims at discovering correlations among events through time. There exist many algorithms to discover such patterns. However, these approaches only take one dimension into account (e.g. product dimension in customer market basket problem analysis) whereas data are multidimensional in nature. In this thesis, we define multid...
Visual tracker using sequential bayesian learning: discriminative, generative, and hybrid.
Lei, Yun; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin
2008-12-01
This paper presents a novel solution to track a visual object under changes in illumination, viewpoint, pose, scale, and occlusion. Under the framework of sequential Bayesian learning, we first develop a discriminative model-based tracker with a fast relevance vector machine algorithm, and then, a generative model-based tracker with a novel sequential Gaussian mixture model algorithm. Finally, we present a three-level hierarchy to investigate different schemes to combine the discriminative and generative models for tracking. The presented hierarchical model combination contains the learner combination (at level one), classifier combination (at level two), and decision combination (at level three). The experimental results with quantitative comparisons performed on many realistic video sequences show that the proposed adaptive combination of discriminative and generative models achieves the best overall performance. Qualitative comparison with some state-of-the-art methods demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in handling various challenges during tracking.
Finding Sequential Patterns from Large Sequence Data
Fazekas Gabor
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Data mining is the task of discovering interesting patterns from large amounts of data. There are many data mining tasks, such as classification, clustering, association rule mining, and sequential pattern mining. Sequential pattern mining finds sets of data items that occur together frequently in some sequences. Sequential pattern mining, which extracts frequent subsequences from a sequence database, has attracted a great deal of interest during the recent data mining research because it is the basis of many applications, such as: web user analysis, stock trend prediction, DNA sequence analysis, finding language or linguistic patterns from natural language texts, and using the history of symptoms to predict certain kind of disease. The diversity of the applications may not be possible to apply a single sequential pattern model to all these problems. Each application may require a unique model and solution. A number of research projects were established in recent years to develop meaningful sequential pattern models and efficient algorithms for mining these patterns. In this paper, we theoretically provided a brief overview three types of sequential patterns model.
A multi-sequential number-theoretic optimization algorithm using clustering methods
XU Qing-song; LIANG Yi-zeng; HOU Zhen-ting
2005-01-01
A multi-sequential number-theoretic optimization method based on clustering was developed and applied to the optimization of functions with many local extrema. Details of the procedure to generate the clusters and the sequential schedules were given. The algorithm was assessed by comparing its performance with generalized simulated annealing algorithm in a difficult instructive example and a D-optimum experimental design problem. It is shown the presented algorithm to be more effective and reliable based on the two examples.
刘亚雷; 颐晓辉
2011-01-01
为了研究运动声阵列对二维目标在复杂环境中的实时跟踪性问题,根据运动声阵列及二维目标的运动特点建立了状态方程与测量方程,并将其描述为块的形式.根据不同的状态块,利用小波变换把状态块分解到不同尺度上,分别在时域和频域上建立相应尺度上的状态与观测信息之间的关系；采取卡尔曼滤波器递推思想来实现运动声阵列的多尺度贯序式卡尔曼滤波算法,根据最小二乘误差估计理论推导了运动声阵列跟踪系统在球坐标系和直角坐标系下的误差,为提高系统跟踪精度奠定了理论基础,并为工程应用提供了实际方法.与传统的卡尔曼滤波算法相比,Matlab仿真结果表明了本文算法的有效性和优越性.%In order to study the motion acoustic array's real-time tracking to two-dimensional target in complex environment, the state equation and measurement equation based on the motion characteristics of dynamic acoustic array and two-dimensional target are established and converted into block form. Then, the state blocks are assigned onto different scales by wavelet transform. The relationship between the state and the measurement information in corresponding scale is established in time domain and frequency domain. After that, the multi-scale sequential Kalman filter algorithm is obtained based on the Kalman filter recursive theory, and the errors of motion acoustic array tracking system in spherical coordinates and rectangular coordinates are deduced by least square error estimation, which lays the theoretical foundation for improving the system tracking precision and provides a practical method for application. Compared with the traditional Kalman filter algorithm, the presented algorithm shows its validity and superiority in Matlab simulation.
Limited backward induction: foresight and behavior in sequential games
Marco Mantovani
2015-01-01
The paper tests experimentally for limited foresight in sequential games. We develop a general out-of-equilibrium framework of strategic thinking based on limited foresight. It assumes the players take decisions focusing on close-by nodes, following backward induction – what we call limited backward induction (LBI). The main prediction of the model is tested in the context of a modified Game of 21. In line with the theoretical hypotheses, our results show most players think strategically only...
A new sequential data assimilation method
HAN YueQi; ZHANG YaoCun; WANG YunFeng; YE Song; FANG HanXian
2009-01-01
A new sequential data assimilation method named "Monte Carlo H∞ filter" is Introduced based on H∞ filter technique and Monte Carlo method in this paper. This method applies to nonlinear systems in condition of lacking the statistical properties of observational errors. In order to compare the assimilation capability of Monte Carlo H= filter with that of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in solving practical problems caused by temporal correlation or spatial correlation of observational errors, two numerical experiments are performed by using Lorenz (1963) system and shallow-water equations respectively. The result is that the assimilation capability of the new method is better than that of EnKF method. It is also shown that Monte Carlo H∞ filter assimilation method is effective and suitable to nonlinear systems in that it does not depend on the statistical properties of observational errors and has better robustnesa than EnKF method when the statistical properties of observational errors are varying. In addition, for the new method, the smallest level factor founded by search method is flow-dependent.
Sleep memory processing: the sequential hypothesis
Antonio eGiuditta
2014-12-01
Full Text Available According to the sequential hypothesis (SH memories acquired during wakefulness are processed during sleep in two serial steps respectively occurring during slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep. During SWS memories to be retained are distinguished from irrelevant or competing traces that undergo downgrading or elimination. Processed memories are stored again during REM sleep which integrates them with preexisting memories. The hypothesis received support from a wealth of EEG, behavioral, and biochemical analyses of trained rats. Further evidence was provided by independent studies of human subjects. SH basic premises, data, and interpretations have been compared with corresponding viewpoints of the synaptic homeostatic hypothesis (SHY. Their similarities and differences are presented and discussed within the framework of sleep processing operations. SHY’s emphasis on synaptic renormalization during SWS is acknowledged to underline a key sleep effect, but this cannot marginalize sleep’s main role in selecting memories to be retained from downgrading traces, and in their integration with preexisting memories. In addition, SHY’s synaptic renormalization raises an unsolved dilemma that clashes with the accepted memory storage mechanism exclusively based on modifications of synaptic strength. This difficulty may be bypassed by the assumption that SWS-processed memories are stored again by REM sleep in brain subnuclear quantum particles. Storing of memories in quantum particles may also occur in other vigilance states. Hints are provided on ways to subject the quantum hypothesis to experimental tests.
A new sequential data assimilation method
无
2009-01-01
A new sequential data assimilation method named "Monte Carlo H ∞ filter" is introduced based on H ∞ filter technique and Monte Carlo method in this paper. This method applies to nonlinear systems in condition of lacking the statistical properties of observational errors. In order to compare the as- similation capability of Monte Carlo H ∞ filter with that of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in solving practical problems caused by temporal correlation or spatial correlation of observational errors, two numerical experiments are performed by using Lorenz (1963) system and shallow-water equations re- spectively. The result is that the assimilation capability of the new method is better than that of EnKF method. It is also shown that Monte Carlo H ∞ filter assimilation method is effective and suitable to nonlinear systems in that it does not depend on the statistical properties of observational errors and has better robustness than EnKF method when the statistical properties of observational errors are varying. In addition, for the new method, the smallest level factor founded by search method is flow-dependent.
Metamodel defined multidimensional embedded sequential sampling criteria.
Turner, C. J. (Cameron J.); Campbell, M. I. (Matthew I.); Crawford, R. H. (Richard H.)
2004-01-01
Collecting data to characterize an unknown space presents a series of challenges. Where in the space should data be collected? What regions are more valuable than others to sample? When have sufficient samples been acquired to characterize the space with some level of confidence? Sequential sampling techniques offer an approach to answering these questions by intelligently sampling an unknown space. Sampling decisions are made with criteria intended to preferentially search the space for desirable features. However, N-dimensional applications need efficient and effective criteria. This paper discusses the evolution of several such criteria based on an understanding of the behaviors of existing criteria, and desired criteria properties. The resulting criteria are evaluated with a variety of planar functions, and preliminary results for higher dimensional applications are also presented. In addition, a set of convergence criteria, intended to evaluate the effectiveness of further sampling are implemented. Using these sampling criteria, an effective metamodel representation of the unknown space can be generated at reasonable sampling costs. Furthermore, the use of convergence criteria allows conclusions to be drawn about the level of confidence in the metamodel, and forms the basis for evaluating the adequacy of the original sampling budget.
Field-Sequential Electronic Stereoscopic Projector
Lipton, Lenny
1989-07-01
Culminating a research and development project spanning many years, StereoGraphics Corporation has succeeded in bringing to market the first field-sequential electronic stereoscopic projector. The product is based on a modification of Electrohome and Barco projectors. Our design goal was to produce a projector capable of displaying an image on a six-foot (or larger) diagonal screen for an audience of 50 or 60 people, or for an individual using a simulator. A second goal was to produce an image that required only passive polarizing glasses rather than powered, tethered visors. Two major design challenges posed themselves. First, it was necessary to create an electro-optical modulator which could switch the characteristic of polarized light at field rate, and second, it was necessary to produce a bright green CRT with short persistence to prevent crosstalk between left and right fields. To solve the first problem, development was undertaken to produce the required electro-optical modulator. The second problem was solved with the help of a vendor specializing in high performance CRT's.
Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems
Ali, Konpal S.
2014-05-01
Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.
摆玉龙; 高海沙; 柴乾隆; 黄春林
2013-01-01
Sequential data assimilation methods have been widely applied in many data assimilation systems and each method has its own characteristics. In this paper,we introduce three typical assimilation methods, for example,Ensemble Kalman Filter,Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter and Deterministic Ensemble Kal-man Filter. Based on the classical nonlinear model (eg,Lorenz-96 model) ,the numerical experiments were developed to test the sensitivity of all these methods. Different key parameters were investigated with respect to four aspects,which were the number of ensembles,the number of observations,the inflation factor and the localization radius. The results show: the number of ensembles and observations will directly influence the assimilation results; the optimal selection of the inflation factors and the localization radius will improve the accuracy of the assimilation. According to the final comparative studies,the deterministic En-KF is a method that has a better robust performance. It can achieve a better assimilation effect,especially in the occasion of the small ensemble numbers.%顺序数据同化方法在数据同化系统中得到了广泛的应用,其性能各有优缺.选择3种典型的顺序数据同化算法,即集合Kalman滤波、集合转换Kalman滤波和确定性Kalman滤波,使用经典的Lorenz-96模型进行敏感性实验,研究不同的关键参数变化,如集合数目变化、观测数变化、误差放大因子变化和定位半径变化时对同化效果的影响.实验表明:集合数目和观测数目的多少直接影响3种方法的同化效果；协方差放大因子和定位半径的选择会提高同化精度.综合比较,确定性集合Kalman滤波算法是一种具有较强鲁棒性的滤波算法,能够在集合数较小的情况下达到较好的同化效果.
吴颖颖; 吴耀华; 沈长鹏
2012-01-01
To shorten the length of the virtual window and reduce the order picking time,the picking device was improved and a compressible dynamic virtual window algorithm was proposed.A gravity buffer and a flashboard were added to each dispenser.The items were launched to the gravity buffer in which the gap between each other was at fiost compressed,and then merged to the conveyor from the gravity buffer.Therefore the items were close to each other on the conveyor and the length of the virtual window was shortened.A model of the compressible dynamic virtual window algorithm was built based on the sequential picking strategy.The simulation with 3 sets of data collected from a tobacco distribution center showed that the picking time could be reduced by 87.45%~87.77%,and the picking time was decreased when the launching time of the dispenser and the merging time of the gravity buffer increased.%为缩短虚拟容器长度、减少订单拣选总时间,改进了拣选设备,提出了压缩动态虚拟视窗算法。该方法为每台拣选机设置一个重力缓存区及挡板,拣选时先将货物弹射至到重力缓存区,在缓存区内压缩货物间距;再把货物从重力缓存区合并至皮带输送机,实现货物的密集排列和虚拟容器长度的缩短。基于货物的顺序拣选策略,建立了压缩动态虚拟视窗算法的数学模型。以某地市卷烟配送中心的3批订单数据为例进行了仿真,结果表明该方法将拣选时间缩短了87.45%～87.77%,并且拣选时间随着拣选机弹射速度和重力缓存区货物合并速度的增加而减少。
Stanzel Sven
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patients were assessable for evaluation of toxicity and tumor response. Treatment included two cycles of induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1200 mg/m2 and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 at day 1, 8 and 22, 29 followed by concurrent radiotherapy (2.0 Gy/d; total dose 66.0 Gy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine every two weeks at day 43, 57 and 71. Radiotherapy planning included [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET based target volume definition. 10 patients were included in the phase I study with an initial gemcitabine dose of 300 mg/m2. The dose of gemcitabine was increased in steps of 100 mg/m2 until the MTD was realized. Results MTD was defined for the patient group receiving gemcitabine 500 mg/m2 due to grade 2 (next to grade 3 esophagitis in all patients resulting in a mean body weight loss of 5 kg (SD = 1.4 kg, representing 8% of the initial weight. These patients showed persisting dysphagia 3 to 4 weeks after completing radiotherapy. In accordance with expected complications as esophagitis, dysphagia and odynophagia, we defined the MTD at this dose level, although no dose limiting toxicity (DLT grade 3 was reached. In the phase I/II median follow-up was 15.7 months (4.1 to 42.6 months. The overall response rate after completion of therapy was 64%. The median overall survival was 19.9 (95% CI: [10.1; 29.7] months for all eligible patients. The median disease-free survival for all patients was 8.7 (95% CI: [2.7; 14.6] months. Conclusion
Stanzel Sven; Kaiser Hans J; Krohn Thomas; Reinartz Patrick; Pinkawa Michael; Piroth Marc; Gagel Bernd; Breuer Christian; Asadpour Branka; Schmachtenberg Axel; Eble Michael J
2007-01-01
Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patien...
Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing
Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung
2008-01-01
After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…
Alternating sequential operators from center-surround top-hat transform
Bai, Xiangzhi
2013-06-01
Constructing alternating sequential operators is the important way of improving the efficiency of morphological operations for image processing. And, the alternating sequential filters (ASFs), which are constructed by using the morphological opening and closing, have been the important alternating sequential operators of mathematical morphology. However, because the morphological opening and closing operations have the defect of image detail smoothing, ASFs could not perform very well for some detail preserving image processing applications. Center-surround top-hat transform has been proposed through reconstructing the used structuring elements following the properties of image regions, which ensures that the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform could protect some image details; and, the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform achieve the similar function as opening and closing for bright and black feature extraction. Therefore, based on center-surround top-hat transform, some new and effective alternating sequential operators may be constructed. In light of this, a new class of alternating sequential operators with improved performance based on the center-surround top-hat transform is proposed in this paper. The definition and properties of the new alternating sequential operators are given and analyzed. Also, an application of impulsive noise suppression is used to show the improved performance of the new alternating sequential operators comparing with ASFs. Moreover, because the new alternating sequential operators constructed in this paper have some superiorities over ASFs, they could be also widely used in different applications in which the ASFs perform well, which indicates that the new alternating sequential operators may be also a class of useful morphological operators for image analysis.
Review of Sequential Access Method for Fingerprint Identification
Saiful Akbar
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Real time fingerprint identification is usually equipped with specific computation machine architecture to optimize speed factor. Focusing on achieving better speed performance of fingerprint identification on common computation machine, a disquisition was conducted on sequential access method for fingerprint identification, with its underlying data structure designed to work without and with parallel processing. Hypothetically, parallel processing based on multi cores processor technology, can give faster result without reducing accuracy. Experiment confirms that speed performance of fingerprint identification using sequential access method with parallel processing outperforms the one without parallel processing. For both strategy, even though using parallel processing confirms faster result, experiment shows that searching time O(n still linearly depends on number of fingerprints in database. Avoiding such searching time trend, hypothetically, need strategy of direct access method utilization.
Continuous versus group sequential analysis for post-market drug and vaccine safety surveillance.
Silva, I R; Kulldorff, M
2015-09-01
The use of sequential statistical analysis for post-market drug safety surveillance is quickly emerging. Both continuous and group sequential analysis have been used, but consensus is lacking as to when to use which approach. We compare the statistical performance of continuous and group sequential analysis in terms of type I error probability; statistical power; expected time to signal when the null hypothesis is rejected; and the sample size required to end surveillance without rejecting the null. We present a mathematical proposition to show that for any group sequential design there always exists a continuous sequential design that is uniformly better. As a consequence, it is shown that more frequent testing is always better. Additionally, for a Poisson based probability model and a flat rejection boundary in terms of the log likelihood ratio, we compare the performance of various continuous and group sequential designs. Using exact calculations, we found that, for the parameter settings used, there is always a continuous design with shorter expected time to signal than the best group design. The two key conclusions from this article are (i) that any post-market safety surveillance system should attempt to obtain data as frequently as possible, and (ii) that sequential testing should always be performed when new data arrives without deliberately waiting for additional data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing
Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung
2011-01-01
After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.
Simple and flexible SAS and SPSS programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data.
O'Connor, B P
1999-11-01
This paper describes simple and flexible programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data, using SAS and SPSS. The programs read a stream of codes and produce a variety of lag-sequential statistics, including transitional frequencies, expected transitional frequencies, transitional probabilities, adjusted residuals, z values, Yule's Q values, likelihood ratio tests of stationarity across time and homogeneity across groups or segments, transformed kappas for unidirectional dependence, bidirectional dependence, parallel and nonparallel dominance, and significance levels based on both parametric and randomization tests.
A survey of sequential Monte Carlo methods for economics and finance
Creal, D.D.
2009-01-01
This paper serves as an introduction and survey for economists to the field of sequential Monte Carlo methods which are also known as particle filters. Sequential Monte Carlo methods are simulation based algorithms used to compute the high-dimensional and/or complex integrals that arise regularly in applied work. These methods are becoming increasingly popular in economics and finance; from dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models in macro-economics to option pricing. The objective of th...
Correlation and Sequential Filtering with Doppler Measurements
WANGJianguo; HEPeikun; HANYueqiu; WUSiliang
2004-01-01
Two sequential filters are developed for Doppler radar measurements in the presence of correlation between range and range rate measurement errors. Two ideal linear measurement equations with the pseudo measurements are constructed via block-partitioned Cholesky factorization and the practical measurement equationswith the pseudo measurements are obtained through the direction cosine estimation and error compensation. The resulting sequential filters make the position measurement be possibly processed before the pseudo measurement and hence the more accurate direction cosine estimate can be obtained from the filtered position estimate rather than the predicted state estimate. The numerical simulations with different rangerange rate correlation coefficients show thatthe proposed two sequential filters are almost equivalent in performance but both superior to the conventional extended Kalman filter for different correlation coefficients.
Fluoroquinolone Sequential Therapy for Helicobacter pylori: A Meta-analysis.
Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini B; Mihaescu, Anela; Wilhelm, Sheila M
2015-08-01
As resistance of Helicobacter pylori to standard first-line therapy is increasing globally, alternative treatment regimens, such as a fluoroquinolone-based sequential regimen, have been explored. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy with standard first-line treatment for H. pylori infection. Meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials. A total of 738 H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults who received fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy (5-7 days of a proton pump inhibitor [PPI] and amoxicillin therapy followed by 5-7 days of a PPI, a fluoroquinolone, and metronidazole or tinidazole or furazolidone therapy) and 733 H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults who received guideline-recommended, first-line therapy with standard triple therapy (7-14 days of a PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin) or standard sequential therapy (5 days of a PPI plus amoxicillin, followed by an additional 5 days of triple therapy consisting of a PPI, clarithromycin, and metronidazole or tinidazole). A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases (from inception through January 2015) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials that compared fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy with guideline-recommended, first-line treatment regimens in H. pylori-infected, treatment-naive adults. All selected trials confirmed H. pylori infection prior to treatment as well as post-treatment eradication. A meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.2. Treatment effect was determined with a random-effects model by using the Mantel-Haenszel method and was reported as a risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In the six randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria, 648 (87.8%) of 738 patients receiving fluoroquinolone-based sequential therapy and 521 (71.1%) of 733 patients receiving standard
Sequential Pattern Mining Using Formal Language Tools
R. S. Jadon
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In present scenario almost every system and working is computerized and hence all information and data are being stored in Computers. Huge collections of data are emerging. Retrieval of untouched, hidden and important information from this huge data is quite tedious work. Data Mining is a great technological solution which extracts untouched, hidden and important information from vast databases to investigate noteworthy knowledge in the data warehouse. An important problem in data mining is to discover patterns in various fields like medical science, world wide web, telecommunication etc. In the field of Data Mining, Sequential pattern mining is one of the method in which we retrieve hidden pattern linked with instant or other sequences. In sequential pattern mining we extract those sequential patterns whose support count are greater than or equal to given minimum support threshold value. In current scenario users are interested in only specific and interesting pattern instead of entire probable sequential pattern. To control the exploration space users can use many heuristics which can be represented as constraints. Many algorithms have been developed in the fields of constraint mining which generate patterns as per user expectation. In the present work we will be exploring and enhancing the regular expression constraints .Regular expression is one of the constraint and number of algorithm developed for sequential pattern mining which uses regular expression as a constraint. Some constraints are neither regular nor context free like cross-serial pattern anbmcndm used in Swiss German Data. We cannot construct equivalent deterministic finite automata (DFA or Push down automata (PDA for such type of patterns. We have proposed a new algorithm PMFLT (Pattern Mining using Formal Language Tools for sequential pattern mining using formal language tools as constraints. The proposed algorithm finds only user specific frequent sequence in efficient
Self arbitrated VLSI asynchronous sequential circuits
Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.
1990-01-01
A new class of asynchronous sequential circuits is introduced in this paper. The new design procedures are oriented towards producing asynchronous sequential circuits that are implemented with CMOS VLSI and take advantage of pass transistor technology. The first design algorithm utilizes a standard Single Transition Time (STT) state assignment. The second method introduces a new class of self synchronizing asynchronous circuits which eliminates the need for critical race free state assignments. These circuits arbitrate the transition path action by forcing the circuit to sequence through proper unstable states. These methods result in near minimum hardware since only the transition paths associated with state variable changes need to be implemented with pass transistor networks.
Asynchronous sequential machine design and analysis
Tinder, Richard
2009-01-01
Asynchronous Sequential Machine Design and Analysis provides a lucid, in-depth treatment of asynchronous state machine design and analysis presented in two parts: Part I on the background fundamentals related to asynchronous sequential logic circuits generally, and Part II on self-timed systems, high-performance asynchronous programmable sequencers, and arbiters.Part I provides a detailed review of the background fundamentals for the design and analysis of asynchronous finite state machines (FSMs). Included are the basic models, use of fully documented state diagrams, and the design and charac
An Annual Wind Power Planning Method Based on Time Sequential Simulations%基于时序仿真的风电年度计划制定方法
刘纯; 曹阳; 黄越辉; 李鹏; 孙勇; 袁越
2014-01-01
国内风电发展迅猛，但“三北”地区电力系统调峰能力有限，造成风电“弃风”现象严重。现有风电年度计划方法只能将风电电量预测结果纳入年度计划，与风电运行受阻的实际情况偏差较大，年度计划难以执行。文中提出一种基于时序仿真的风电年度计划方法，综合考虑风电出力特性、负荷特性、机组调峰特性、电网送出能力等因素，逐时段优化全网含风电的电力平衡，建立了用于研究省级电网年度风电计划的优化模型。以某省级电网为例，对比分析了时序仿真法和典型日分析法的风电平衡能力及其节能减排效益，研究了不同开机方式对风电平衡能力的影响。结果表明，采用滚动3d优化风电平衡模型符合电网调度实际情况，计算速度快，且能够提高年度风电上网电量，为年度计划制定提供了参考。%China”s wind power industry has developed rapidly these years.Because of the limited peak demand regulation capability of the power systems in Northeast,North and Northwest China,the curtailment of wind power has been serious.If we only consider the prediction of wind power,the existing annual wind power plan differs from the real situation after wind curtailment and as such it is difficult to do wind power planning.Considering wind power output characteristics,load characteristics,transmission capacity and some other factors,an annual wind power planning method based on time sequential simulation is proposed.The method can optimize the power balance with wind power at each time period of a year.An optimization model is built for analyzing the wind power plan of provincial power grid.Based on an actual provincial power grid,capabilities in wind power balancing,energy-saving,and emission reduction between time sequence simulation method and typical day analysis method are studied.The impacts of different generating schedules on the wind power
Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios
Ayatollahi Seyyed
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.
Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis
Broek, E.L. van den; Rikxoort, E.M. van
2005-01-01
Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture
Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis
van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra
2005-01-01
Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture
Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, SS. Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Buonaguidi, Roberto [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti, Spirito Santo Hospital, Pescara (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Galzio, Renato J. [Univ. of L' Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy). Dept. of Operative Unit of Neurosurgery and Health Sciences; Di Nicola, Marta [G. d' Annunzio Univ. of Chieti (Italy). Lab. of Biostatistics
2011-12-15
To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level {<=} 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.
Heungman Kim
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study was performed based on a sequential landscape investigation method of the best-known Buddhist temples in Korea to determine its characteristics through the comparison of the applied data acquisition method and the quantitative data of employed elements. The major objectives of this study can be determined as follows: first, consideration of the sequential method using image data; second, configuration of a subjective site and investigation of its environments; third, examination of landscape elements using images produced using normal and fish eye lens; and fourth, suggestion of a direction that investigates the characteristics of sequential landscape using a manner of visual perception through the comparison of the characteristics of landscape elements. Finally, a method that approaches the objective in the aspect of the visual world rather than the sequential approach in the visual field was summarized
Matrosova, A. Yu.; Kirienko, I. E.; Tomkov, V. V.; Miryutov, A. A.
2016-12-01
Reliability of physical systems is provided by reliability of their parts including logical ones. Insertion of malicious subcircuits that can destroy logical circuit or cause leakage of confidential information from a system necessitates the detection of such subcircuits followed by their masking if possible. We suggest a method of finding a set of sequential circuit nodes in which Trojan Circuits can be inserted. The method is based on random estimations of controllability and observability of combinational nodes calculated using a description of sequential circuit working area and an evidence of existence of a transfer sequence for the proper set of internal states without finding the sequence itself. The method allows cutting calculations using operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) that can depend only on the state variables of the circuit. The approach, unlike traditional ones, does not require preliminary sequential circuit simulation but can use its results. It can be used when malicious circuits cannot be detected during sequential circuit verification.
Sequential protein NMR assignments in the liquid state via sequential data acquisition
Wiedemann, Christoph; Bellstedt, Peter; Kirschstein, Anika; Häfner, Sabine; Herbst, Christian; Görlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai
2014-02-01
Two different NMR pulse schemes involving sequential 1H data acquisition are presented for achieving protein backbone sequential resonance assignments: (i) acquisition of 3D {HCCNH and HNCACONH} and (ii) collection of 3D {HNCOCANH and HNCACONH} chemical shift correlation spectra using uniformly 13C,15N labelled proteins. The sequential acquisition of these spectra reduces the overall experimental time by a factor of ≈2 as compared to individual acquisitions. The suitability of this approach is experimentally demonstrated for the C-terminal winged helix (WH) domain of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex of Sulfolobus solfataricus.
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Sequential spatial processes for image analysis
M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)
2009-01-01
htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects throug
A Bayesian sequential design with binary outcome.
Zhu, Han; Yu, Qingzhao; Mercante, Donald E
2017-03-02
Several researchers have proposed solutions to control type I error rate in sequential designs. The use of Bayesian sequential design becomes more common; however, these designs are subject to inflation of the type I error rate. We propose a Bayesian sequential design for binary outcome using an alpha-spending function to control the overall type I error rate. Algorithms are presented for calculating critical values and power for the proposed designs. We also propose a new stopping rule for futility. Sensitivity analysis is implemented for assessing the effects of varying the parameters of the prior distribution and maximum total sample size on critical values. Alpha-spending functions are compared using power and actual sample size through simulations. Further simulations show that, when total sample size is fixed, the proposed design has greater power than the traditional Bayesian sequential design, which sets equal stopping bounds at all interim analyses. We also find that the proposed design with the new stopping for futility rule results in greater power and can stop earlier with a smaller actual sample size, compared with the traditional stopping rule for futility when all other conditions are held constant. Finally, we apply the proposed method to a real data set and compare the results with traditional designs.
Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action
Ruitenberg, M.F.L.
2013-01-01
Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role
On Sequentially Co-Cohen-Macaulay Modules
Nguyen Thi Dung
2007-01-01
In this paper,we define the notion of dimension filtration of an Artinian module and study a class of Artinian modules,called sequentially co-Cohen-Macaulay modules,which contains strictly all co-Cohen-Macaulay modules.Some characterizations of co-Cohen-Macaulayness in terms of the Matlis duality and of local homology are also given.
Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action
Ruitenberg, M.F.L.
2013-01-01
Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role
A Parallel Programming Model With Sequential Semantics
1996-01-01
Parallel programming is more difficult than sequential programming in part because of the complexity of reasoning, testing, and debugging in the...context of concurrency. In the thesis, we present and investigate a parallel programming model that provides direct control of parallelism in a notation
Sequential auctions for full truckload allocation
Mes, Martijn R.K.
2008-01-01
In this thesis we examine the use of sequential auctions for the dynamic allocation of transportation jobs. For all players, buyers and sellers, we develop strategies and examine their performance both in terms of individual benefits and with respect to the global logistical performance (resource
Sequential Tests for Large Scale Learning
Korattikara, A.; Chen, Y.; Welling, M.
2016-01-01
We argue that when faced with big data sets, learning and inference algorithms should compute updates using only subsets of data items. We introduce algorithms that use sequential hypothesis tests to adaptively select such a subset of data points. The statistical properties of this subsampling proce
Sequential time interleaved random equivalent sampling for repetitive signal
Zhao, Yijiu; Liu, Jingjing
2016-12-01
Compressed sensing (CS) based sampling techniques exhibit many advantages over other existing approaches for sparse signal spectrum sensing; they are also incorporated into non-uniform sampling signal reconstruction to improve the efficiency, such as random equivalent sampling (RES). However, in CS based RES, only one sample of each acquisition is considered in the signal reconstruction stage, and it will result in more acquisition runs and longer sampling time. In this paper, a sampling sequence is taken in each RES acquisition run, and the corresponding block measurement matrix is constructed using a Whittaker-Shannon interpolation formula. All the block matrices are combined into an equivalent measurement matrix with respect to all sampling sequences. We implemented the proposed approach with a multi-cores analog-to-digital converter (ADC), whose ADC cores are time interleaved. A prototype realization of this proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling method has been developed. It is able to capture an analog waveform at an equivalent sampling rate of 40 GHz while sampled at 1 GHz physically. Experiments indicate that, for a sparse signal, the proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling exhibits high efficiency.
Sequential Combination Methods forData Clustering Analysis
钱 涛; Ching Y.Suen; 唐远炎
2002-01-01
This paper proposes the use of more than one clustering method to improve clustering performance. Clustering is an optimization procedure based on a specific clustering criterion. Clustering combination can be regardedasatechnique that constructs and processes multiple clusteringcriteria.Sincetheglobalandlocalclusteringcriteriaarecomplementary rather than competitive, combining these two types of clustering criteria may enhance theclustering performance. In our past work, a multi-objective programming based simultaneous clustering combination algorithmhasbeenproposed, which incorporates multiple criteria into an objective function by a weighting method, and solves this problem with constrained nonlinear optimization programming. But this algorithm has high computationalcomplexity.Hereasequential combination approach is investigated, which first uses the global criterion based clustering to produce an initial result, then uses the local criterion based information to improve the initial result with aprobabilisticrelaxation algorithm or linear additive model.Compared with the simultaneous combination method, sequential combination haslow computational complexity. Results on some simulated data and standard test data arereported.Itappearsthatclustering performance improvement can be achieved at low cost through sequential combination.
Sequential Detection of Fission Processes for Harbor Defense
Candy, J V; Walston, S E; Chambers, D H
2015-02-12
With the large increase in terrorist activities throughout the world, the timely and accurate detection of special nuclear material (SNM) has become an extremely high priority for many countries concerned with national security. The detection of radionuclide contraband based on their γ-ray emissions has been attacked vigorously with some interesting and feasible results; however, the fission process of SNM has not received as much attention due to its inherent complexity and required predictive nature. In this paper, on-line, sequential Bayesian detection and estimation (parameter) techniques to rapidly and reliably detect unknown fissioning sources with high statistical confidence are developed.
Sequential rank agreement methods for comparison of ranked lists
Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jensen, Andreas Kryger;
2015-01-01
rank genes according to their difference in gene expression levels. This article constructs measures of the agreement of two or more ordered lists. We use the standard deviation of the ranks to define a measure of agreement that both provides an intuitive interpretation and can be applied to any number...... of lists even if some or all are incomplete or censored. The approach can identify change-points in the agreement of the lists and the sequential changes of agreement as a function of the depth of the lists can be compared graphically to a permutation based reference set. The usefulness of these tools...
Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions
Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis
2010-01-01
When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's
Sequential Analysis in High Dimensional Multiple Testing and Sparse Recovery
Malloy, Matthew; Nowak, Robert
2011-01-01
This paper studies the problem of high-dimensional multiple testing and sparse recovery from the perspective of sequential analysis. In this setting, the probability of error is a function of the dimension of the problem. A simple sequential testing procedure is proposed. We derive necessary conditions for reliable recovery in the non-sequential setting and contrast them with sufficient conditions for reliable recovery using the proposed sequential testing procedure. Applications of the main ...
Sequential motif profile of natural visibility graphs
Iacovacci, Jacopo
2016-01-01
The concept of sequential visibility graph motifs -subgraphs appearing with characteristic frequencies in the visibility graphs associated to time series- has been advanced recently along with a theoretical framework to compute analytically the motif profiles associated to Horizontal Visibility Graphs (HVGs). Here we develop a theory to compute the profile of sequential visibility graph motifs in the context of Natural Visibility Graphs (VGs). This theory gives exact results for deterministic aperiodic processes with a smooth invariant density or stochastic processes that fulfil the Markov property and have a continuous marginal distribution. The framework also allows for a linear time numerical estimation in the case of empirical time series. A comparison between the HVG and the VG case (including evaluation of their robustness for short series polluted with measurement noise) is also presented.
SMCTC: Sequential Monte Carlo in C++
Adam M. Johansen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Sequential Monte Carlo methods are a very general class of Monte Carlo methodsfor sampling from sequences of distributions. Simple examples of these algorithms areused very widely in the tracking and signal processing literature. Recent developmentsillustrate that these techniques have much more general applicability, and can be appliedvery eectively to statistical inference problems. Unfortunately, these methods are oftenperceived as being computationally expensive and dicult to implement. This articleseeks to address both of these problems.A C++ template class library for the ecient and convenient implementation of verygeneral Sequential Monte Carlo algorithms is presented. Two example applications areprovided: a simple particle lter for illustrative purposes and a state-of-the-art algorithmfor rare event estimation.
Quantitative perceived depth from sequential monocular decamouflage.
Brooks, K R; Gillam, B J
2006-03-01
We present a novel binocular stimulus without conventional disparity cues whose presence and depth are revealed by sequential monocular stimulation (delay > or = 80 ms). Vertical white lines were occluded as they passed behind an otherwise camouflaged black rectangular target. The location (and instant) of the occlusion event, decamouflaging the target's edges, differed in the two eyes. Probe settings to match the depth of the black rectangular target showed a monotonic increase with simulated depth. Control tests discounted the possibility of subjects integrating retinal disparities over an extended temporal window or using temporal disparity. Sequential monocular decamouflage was found to be as precise and accurate as conventional simultaneous stereopsis with equivalent depths and exposure durations.
Sequential shrink photolithography for plastic microlens arrays.
Dyer, David; Shreim, Samir; Jayadev, Shreshta; Lew, Valerie; Botvinick, Elliot; Khine, Michelle
2011-07-18
Endeavoring to push the boundaries of microfabrication with shrinkable polymers, we have developed a sequential shrink photolithography process. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by rapidly fabricating plastic microlens arrays. First, we create a mask out of the children's toy Shrinky Dinks by simply printing dots using a standard desktop printer. Upon retraction of this pre-stressed thermoplastic sheet, the dots shrink to a fraction of their original size, which we then lithographically transfer onto photoresist-coated commodity shrink wrap film. This shrink film reduces in area by 95% when briefly heated, creating smooth convex photoresist bumps down to 30 µm. Taken together, this sequential shrink process provides a complete process to create microlenses, with an almost 99% reduction in area from the original pattern size. Finally, with a lithography molding step, we emboss these bumps into optical grade plastics such as cyclic olefin copolymer for functional microlens arrays.
Sequential pivotal mechanisms for public project problems
Apt, Krzysztof R
2008-01-01
It is well-known that for several natural decision problems no budget balanced Groves mechanisms exist. This motivated recent research on designing variants of feasible Groves mechanisms (termed as `redistribution of VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Groves) payments') that generate reduced deficit. With this in mind, we study sequential Groves mechanisms and consider optimal strategies that can lower the taxes that the players would have to pay under the simultaneous mechanism. We show that in the sequential pivotal mechanism for several variants of public project problems such strategies do exist. These strategies differ from truth-telling. In particular we exhibit an optimal strategy with the property that when each player follows it a maximal social welfare is generated.
A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing
Vos, Hendrik J.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (
Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults
Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…
A NEW INEXACT SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM
倪勤
2002-01-01
This paper represents an inexact sequential quadratic programming (SQP ) algorithm which can solve nonlinear programming (NLP ) problems. An inexact solution of the quadratic programming subproblem is determined by a projection and contraction method such that only matrix-vector product is required. Some truncated criteria are chosen such that the algorithm is suitable to large scale NLP problem. The global convergence of the algorithm is proved.
Sequential decision analysis for nonstationary stochastic processes
Schaefer, B.
1974-01-01
A formulation of the problem of making decisions concerning the state of nonstationary stochastic processes is given. An optimal decision rule, for the case in which the stochastic process is independent of the decisions made, is derived. It is shown that this rule is a generalization of the Bayesian likelihood ratio test; and an analog to Wald's sequential likelihood ratio test is given, in which the optimal thresholds may vary with time.
Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.
Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling
2016-02-01
Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.
Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.
Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J
2016-02-01
Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall
Design of Sequentially Randomized Trials for Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies
Ogbagaber, Semhar B.; Karp, Jordan; Wahed, Abdus S.
2016-01-01
An adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) is an outcome-guided algorithm that allows personalized treatment of complex diseases based on patients’ disease status and treatment history. Conditions such as AIDS, depression, and cancer usually require several stages of treatment due to the chronic, multifactorial nature of illness progression and management. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs permit simultaneous inference about multiple ATSs, where patients are sequentially randomized to treatments at different stages depending upon response status. The purpose of the article is to develop a sample size formula to ensure adequate power for comparing two or more ATSs. Based on a Wald-type statistic for comparing multiple ATSs with a continuous endpoint, we develop a sample size formula and test it through simulation studies. We show via simulation that the proposed sample size formula maintains the nominal power. The proposed sample size formula is not applicable to designs with time-to-event endpoints but the formula will be useful for practitioners while designing SMAR trials to compare adaptive treatment strategies. PMID:26412033
Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs.
Potvin, Diane; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J; Smith, Robert A
2008-01-01
The planning of bioequivalence (BE) studies, as for any clinical trial, requires a priori specification of an effect size for the determination of power and an assumption about the variance. The specified effect size may be overly optimistic, leading to an underpowered study. The assumed variance can be either too small or too large, leading, respectively, to studies that are underpowered or overly large. There has been much work in the clinical trials field on various types of sequential designs that include sample size reestimation after the trial is started, but these have seen only little use in BE studies. The purpose of this work was to validate at least one such method for crossover design BE studies. Specifically, we considered sample size reestimation for a two-stage trial based on the variance estimated from the first stage. We identified two methods based on Pocock's method for group sequential trials that met our requirement for at most negligible increase in type I error rate.
Sequential error concealment for video/images by weighted template matching
Koloda, Jan; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt;
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel spatial error concealment algorithm for video and images based on convex optimization. Block-based coding schemes in packet loss environment are considered. Missing macro blocks are sequentially reconstructed by filling them with a weighted set of templates...
A Sequential Hardware Trojan-based Framework for IP Copyright Protection%一种基于时序型硬件木马的IP版权保护结构
冯紫竹; 赵毅强; 刘长龙
2014-01-01
With the widespread use of Intellectual Property ( IP ) in System-on-Chip ( SoC ) design, protection of hardware IP cores against piracy during evaluation becomes a major concern. Embedding a sequential hardware Trojan inside an IP is a new solution to protect the evaluation version of hardware IP. This paper proposes an advanced framework to lengthen the Trojan’ s activation time which is the decisive factor of the expiry date of an IP. The sequential Trojan is inserted in the unused states of a Finite State Machine( FSM) in the target circuit and some rare nodes making up a sequence can be chosen as Trojan trigger conditions,and the normal function of the IP core is disturbed when the Trojan is activated. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved framework can effectively lengthen the activation time of the inserted Trojan by 120 times and simultaneously reduce the design overhead by 0 . 123% when reasonably choosing the number of states as 3 and the length of sequence as 4 .%随着IP核在SoC设计中的大量使用，其版权问题得到广泛关注，通过植入硬件木马实现IP核的版权保护是一个新的研究方向。针对其中植入木马激活时间短的问题，提出一种改进结构，使IP核评估版本满足有效期长度的要求。将时序型硬件木马植入原始电路状态机的冗余状态中，选取电路中部分节点构成的序列作为木马状态的转移条件，木马激活后影响电路的正常功能，使IP核的使用受到限制。仿真结果表明，通过合理调整状态数量及序列长度，能够在优化电路面积的同时有效延长木马的激活时间，当状态数为3、序列长度为4时，该方法能够在电路面积减少0.123%的基础上使激活时间提高约120倍。
Sequential monitoring of response-adaptive randomized clinical trials
Zhu, Hongjian; 10.1214/10-AOS796
2010-01-01
Clinical trials are complex and usually involve multiple objectives such as controlling type I error rate, increasing power to detect treatment difference, assigning more patients to better treatment, and more. In literature, both response-adaptive randomization (RAR) procedures (by changing randomization procedure sequentially) and sequential monitoring (by changing analysis procedure sequentially) have been proposed to achieve these objectives to some degree. In this paper, we propose to sequentially monitor response-adaptive randomized clinical trial and study it's properties. We prove that the sequential test statistics of the new procedure converge to a Brownian motion in distribution. Further, we show that the sequential test statistics asymptotically satisfy the canonical joint distribution defined in Jennison and Turnbull (\\citeyearJT00). Therefore, type I error and other objectives can be achieved theoretically by selecting appropriate boundaries. These results open a door to sequentially monitor res...
吴静; 李纯斌; 胡自治; 张德罡; 柳小妮; 申正东
2013-01-01
为了推进草原综合顺序分类的实用化进程，在草地发生学原理指导下，在草原综合顺序分类中引入甘肃省2008年每日1 km 分辨率的 MODIS 地表温度产品(MYD11A1)和0.5 km 分辨率的 MODIS 地表反照率产品(MYD09GA)，反演土壤水分和地表年积温，划分热量级和湿润度级，并对甘肃省草地进行分类，以野外调查数据为相对真值验证了结果，评价了分类精度.结果表明：甘肃省天然草地横跨寒冷-寒温-微温-暖温-暖热5个热量级，极干-干旱-微干-微润-湿润-潮湿6个湿润度级，共26个类，其中暖温干旱暖温带半荒漠类、微温干旱温带半荒漠类和寒温潮湿温性针叶林类是甘肃省最主要的几种草地类型，占全省面积的43.43%；草地类的分布呈现出明显的垂直地带性，类别划分结果符合研究区域的气候、地理位置和地貌特征.研究减少了以往综合顺序分类对气象站点分布和插值方法的依赖性，从数据源的角度解决了综合顺序分类法中站点数据向区域数据转换这一难题，改善了点数据外推的边界模糊问题，拓展了草原综合顺序分类的研究手段和方法，为推进草原综合顺序分类实用化进程提供了新的思路.%Grassland classification is a fundamental need of grassland science. It is also a challenge to develop a comprehensive grassland classification system because of the multivariable and multi-functional features of grassland ecosystem. The Comprehensive and Sequential Classification System of Grassland (CSCS), one of well known grassland classification systems, involves a hierarchy of three classification levels (class-subclass-type, class is the basic level) and is advanced in quantification indicators. However, there are at least two aspects need to be improved at the basic classification level of CSCS: 1) the grasslands are grouped into classes according to the data involving annual
Sequential data access with Oracle and Hadoop: a performance comparison
Baranowski, Zbigniew; Canali, Luca; Grancher, Eric
2014-06-01
The Hadoop framework has proven to be an effective and popular approach for dealing with "Big Data" and, thanks to its scaling ability and optimised storage access, Hadoop Distributed File System-based projects such as MapReduce or HBase are seen as candidates to replace traditional relational database management systems whenever scalable speed of data processing is a priority. But do these projects deliver in practice? Does migrating to Hadoop's "shared nothing" architecture really improve data access throughput? And, if so, at what cost? Authors answer these questions-addressing cost/performance as well as raw performance- based on a performance comparison between an Oracle-based relational database and Hadoop's distributed solutions like MapReduce or HBase for sequential data access. A key feature of our approach is the use of an unbiased data model as certain data models can significantly favour one of the technologies tested.
Transition from non-sequential to sequential double ionisation in many-electron systems
Pullen, Michael G; Wang, Xu; Tong, Xiao-Min; Sclafani, Michele; Baudisch, Matthias; Pires, Hugo; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Pfeifer, Thomas; Moshammer, Robert; Eberly, J H; Biegert, Jens
2016-01-01
Obtaining a detailed understanding of strong-field double ionisation of many-electron systems (heavy atoms and molecules) remains a challenging task. By comparing experimental and theoretical results in the mid-IR regime, we have unambiguously identified the transition from non-sequential (e,2e) to sequential double ionisation in Xe and shown that it occurs at an intensity below $10^{14}$ Wcm$^{-2}$. In addition, our data demonstrate that ionisation from the Xe 5s orbital is decisive at low intensities. Moreover, using the acetylene molecule, we propose how sequential double ionisation in the mid-IR can be used to study molecular dynamics and fragmentation on unprecedented few-femtosecond timescales.
Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John
2016-09-01
DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.
王明; 宋顺林
2010-01-01
发现频繁项集是关联规则挖掘的主要途径,也是关联规则挖掘算法研究的重点.关联规则挖掘的经典Apriori算法及其改进算法大致可以归为基于SQL和基于内存两类.为了提高挖掘效率,在仔细分析了基于内存算法存在效率瓶颈的基础上,提出了一种发现频繁项集的改进算法.该算法使用了一种快速产生和验证候选项集的方法,提高了生成项目集的速度.实验结果显示该算法能有效提高挖掘效率.
Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios
2003-01-01
The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.
Nonlinear interferometry approach to photonic sequential logic
Mabuchi, Hideo
2011-01-01
Motivated by rapidly advancing capabilities for extensive nanoscale patterning of optical materials, I propose an approach to implementing photonic sequential logic that exploits circuit-scale phase coherence for efficient realizations of fundamental components such as a NAND-gate-with-fanout and a bistable latch. Kerr-nonlinear optical resonators are utilized in combination with interference effects to drive the binary logic. Quantum-optical input-output models are characterized numerically using design parameters that yield attojoule-scale energy separation between the latch states.
Nonlinear sequential laminates reproducing hollow sphere assemblages
Idiart, Martín I.
2007-07-01
A special class of nonlinear porous materials with isotropic 'sequentially laminated' microstructures is found to reproduce exactly the hydrostatic behavior of 'hollow sphere assemblages'. It is then argued that this result supports the conjecture that Gurson's approximate criterion for plastic porous materials, and its viscoplastic extension of Leblond et al. (1994), may actually yield rigorous upper bounds for the hydrostatic flow stress of porous materials containing an isotropic, but otherwise arbitrary, distribution of porosity. To cite this article: M.I. Idiart, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).
A Sequential Algorithm for Training Text Classifiers
Lewis, D D; Lewis, David D.; Gale, William A.
1994-01-01
The ability to cheaply train text classifiers is critical to their use in information retrieval, content analysis, natural language processing, and other tasks involving data which is partly or fully textual. An algorithm for sequential sampling during machine learning of statistical classifiers was developed and tested on a newswire text categorization task. This method, which we call uncertainty sampling, reduced by as much as 500-fold the amount of training data that would have to be manually classified to achieve a given level of effectiveness.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED
Stanislav LICHOROBIEC
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.
Generalised sequential crossover of words and languages
Jeganathan, L; Sengupta, Ritabrata
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new operation, Generalised Sequential Crossover (GSCO) of words, which in some sense an abstract model of crossing over of the chromosomes in the living organisms. We extend GSCO over language $L$ iteratively ($GSCO^*(L)$ as well as iterated GSCO over two languages $GSCO^*(L_1,L_2)$). Our study reveals that $GSCO^*(L)$ is subclass of regular languages for any $L$. We compare the different classes of GSCO languages with the prominent sub-regular classes.
Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane
Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L
2014-04-01
A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.
Isolation of Polyvalent Bacteriophages by Sequential Multiple-Host Approaches.
Yu, Pingfeng; Mathieu, Jacques; Li, Mengyan; Dai, Zhaoyi; Alvarez, Pedro J J
2015-11-20
Many studies on phage biology are based on isolation methods that may inadvertently select for narrow-host-range phages. Consequently, broad-host-range phages, whose ecological significance is largely unexplored, are consistently overlooked. To enhance research on such polyvalent phages, we developed two sequential multihost isolation methods and tested both culture-dependent and culture-independent phage libraries for broad infectivity. Lytic phages isolated from activated sludge were capable of interspecies or even interorder infectivity without a significant reduction in the efficiency of plating (0.45 to 1.15). Two polyvalent phages (PX1 of the Podoviridae family and PEf1 of the Siphoviridae family) were characterized in terms of adsorption rate (3.54 × 10(-10) to 8.53 × 10(-10) ml/min), latent time (40 to 55 min), and burst size (45 to 99 PFU/cell), using different hosts. These phages were enriched with a nonpathogenic host (Pseudomonas putida F1 or Escherichia coli K-12) and subsequently used to infect model problematic bacteria. By using a multiplicity of infection of 10 in bacterial challenge tests, >60% lethality was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa relative to uninfected controls. The corresponding lethality for Pseudomonas syringae was ∼ 50%. Overall, this work suggests that polyvalent phages may be readily isolated from the environment by using different sequential hosts, and this approach should facilitate the study of their ecological significance as well as enable novel applications.
Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.
Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David
2016-01-01
In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strategic Path Planning by Sequential Parametric Bayesian Decisions
Baro Hyun
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to generate a path for a mobile agent that carries sensors used for classification, where the path is to optimize strategic objectives that account for misclassification and the consequences of misclassification, and where the weights assigned to these consequences are chosen by a strategist. We propose a model that accounts for the interaction between the agent kinematics (i.e., the ability to move, informatics (i.e., the ability to process data to information, classification (i.e., the ability to classify objects based on the information, and strategy (i.e., the mission objective. Within this model, we pose and solve a sequential decision problem that accounts for strategist preferences and the solution to the problem yields a sequence of kinematic decisions of a moving agent. The solution of the sequential decision problem yields the following flying tactics: “approach only objects whose suspected identity matters to the strategy”. These tactics are numerically illustrated in several scenarios.
Online Sequential Projection Vector Machine with Adaptive Data Mean Update
Lin Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple online learning algorithm especial for high-dimensional data. The algorithm is referred to as online sequential projection vector machine (OSPVM which derives from projection vector machine and can learn from data in one-by-one or chunk-by-chunk mode. In OSPVM, data centering, dimension reduction, and neural network training are integrated seamlessly. In particular, the model parameters including (1 the projection vectors for dimension reduction, (2 the input weights, biases, and output weights, and (3 the number of hidden nodes can be updated simultaneously. Moreover, only one parameter, the number of hidden nodes, needs to be determined manually, and this makes it easy for use in real applications. Performance comparison was made on various high-dimensional classification problems for OSPVM against other fast online algorithms including budgeted stochastic gradient descent (BSGD approach, adaptive multihyperplane machine (AMM, primal estimated subgradient solver (Pegasos, online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM, and SVD + OSELM (feature selection based on SVD is performed before OSELM. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the OSPVM.
Sequential decisions: a computational comparison of observational and reinforcement accounts.
Mohammadi Sepahvand, Nazanin; Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt
2014-01-01
Right brain damaged patients show impairments in sequential decision making tasks for which healthy people do not show any difficulty. We hypothesized that this difficulty could be due to the failure of right brain damage patients to develop well-matched models of the world. Our motivation is the idea that to navigate uncertainty, humans use models of the world to direct the decisions they make when interacting with their environment. The better the model is, the better their decisions are. To explore the model building and updating process in humans and the basis for impairment after brain injury, we used a computational model of non-stationary sequence learning. RELPH (Reinforcement and Entropy Learned Pruned Hypothesis space) was able to qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the results of left and right brain damaged patient groups and healthy controls playing a sequential version of Rock, Paper, Scissors. Our results suggests that, in general, humans employ a sub-optimal reinforcement based learning method rather than an objectively better statistical learning approach, and that differences between right brain damaged and healthy control groups can be explained by different exploration policies, rather than qualitatively different learning mechanisms.
Sequential decisions: a computational comparison of observational and reinforcement accounts.
Nazanin Mohammadi Sepahvand
Full Text Available Right brain damaged patients show impairments in sequential decision making tasks for which healthy people do not show any difficulty. We hypothesized that this difficulty could be due to the failure of right brain damage patients to develop well-matched models of the world. Our motivation is the idea that to navigate uncertainty, humans use models of the world to direct the decisions they make when interacting with their environment. The better the model is, the better their decisions are. To explore the model building and updating process in humans and the basis for impairment after brain injury, we used a computational model of non-stationary sequence learning. RELPH (Reinforcement and Entropy Learned Pruned Hypothesis space was able to qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the results of left and right brain damaged patient groups and healthy controls playing a sequential version of Rock, Paper, Scissors. Our results suggests that, in general, humans employ a sub-optimal reinforcement based learning method rather than an objectively better statistical learning approach, and that differences between right brain damaged and healthy control groups can be explained by different exploration policies, rather than qualitatively different learning mechanisms.
Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents
Kim, Do Hwan
2014-01-01
We demonstrate high-performance sequentially solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% for blend films using a donor polymer based on the isoindigo-bithiophene repeat unit (PII2T-C10C8) and a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). This has been accomplished by systematically controlling the swelling and intermixing processes of the layer with various processing solvents during deposition of the fullerene. We find that among the solvents used for fullerene deposition that primarily swell but do not re-dissolve the polymer underlayer, there were significant microstructural differences between chloro and o-dichlorobenzene solvents (CB and ODCB, respectively). Specifically, we show that the polymer crystallite orientation distribution in films where ODCB was used to cast the fullerene is broad. This indicates that out-of-plane charge transport through a tortuous transport network is relatively efficient due to a large density of inter-grain connections. In contrast, using CB results in primarily edge-on oriented polymer crystallites, which leads to diminished out-of-plane charge transport. We correlate these microstructural differences with photocurrent measurements, which clearly show that casting the fullerene out of ODCB leads to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. Thus, we believe that tuning the processing solvents used to cast the electron acceptor in sequentially-processed devices is a viable way to controllably tune the blend film microstructure. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid
2013-04-04
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the \\\\textit{lattice decoder}. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.
Sequential and competitive adsorption of peptides at pendant PEO layers.
Wu, Xiangming; Ryder, Matthew P; McGuire, Joseph; Snider, Joshua L; Schilke, Karl F
2015-06-01
Earlier work provided direction for development of responsive drug delivery systems based on modulation of the structure, amphiphilicity, and surface density of bioactive peptides entrapped within pendant polyethylene oxide (PEO) brush layers. In this work, we describe the sequential and competitive adsorption behavior of such peptides at pendant PEO layers. Three cationic peptides were used for this purpose: the arginine-rich, amphiphilic peptide WLBU2, a peptide chemically identical to WLBU2 but of scrambled sequence (S-WLBU2), and the non-amphiphilic peptide poly-L-arginine (PLR). Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) was used to quantify the rate and extent of peptide adsorption and elution at surfaces coated with PEO. UV spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were used to quantify the extent of peptide exchange during the course of sequential and competitive adsorption. Circular dichroism (CD) was used to evaluate conformational changes after adsorption of peptide mixtures at PEO-coated silica nanoparticles. Results indicated that amphiphilic peptides are able to displace adsorbed, non-amphiphilic peptides in PEO layers, while non-amphiphilic peptides were not able to displace more amphiphilic peptides. In addition, peptides of greater amphiphilicity dominated the adsorption at the PEO layer from mixtures with less amphiphilic or non-amphiphilic peptides.
Mean-Variance-Validation Technique for Sequential Kriging Metamodels
Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Ho Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-05-15
The rigorous validation of the accuracy of metamodels is an important topic in research on metamodel techniques. Although a leave-k-out cross-validation technique involves a considerably high computational cost, it cannot be used to measure the fidelity of metamodels. Recently, the mean{sub 0} validation technique has been proposed to quantitatively determine the accuracy of metamodels. However, the use of mean{sub 0} validation criterion may lead to premature termination of a sampling process even if the kriging model is inaccurate. In this study, we propose a new validation technique based on the mean and variance of the response evaluated when sequential sampling method, such as maximum entropy sampling, is used. The proposed validation technique is more efficient and accurate than the leave-k-out cross-validation technique, because instead of performing numerical integration, the kriging model is explicitly integrated to accurately evaluate the mean and variance of the response evaluated. The error in the proposed validation technique resembles a root mean squared error, thus it can be used to determine a stop criterion for sequential sampling of metamodels.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid
2012-10-01
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.
Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules
Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David
2015-01-01
In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10 to 100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. PMID:26496382
Strategic Path Planning by Sequential Parametric Bayesian Decisions
Baro Hyun
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to generate a path for a mobile agent that carries sensors used for classification, where the path is to optimize strategic objectives that account for misclassification and the consequences of misclassification, and where the weights assigned to these consequences are chosen by a strategist. We propose a model that accounts for the interaction between the agent kinematics (i.e., the ability to move, informatics (i.e., the ability to process data to information, classification (i.e., the ability to classify objects based on the information, and strategy (i.e., the mission objective. Within this model, we pose and solve a sequential decision problem that accounts for strategist preferences and the solution to the problem yields a sequence of kinematic decisions of a moving agent. The solution of the sequential decision problem yields the following flying tactics: “approach only objects whose suspected identity matters to the strategy". These tactics are numerically illustrated in several scenarios.
Sequential Multiple Response Optimization for Manufacturing Flexible Printed Circuit
Pichpimon Kanchanasuttisang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Flexible Printed Circuit or FPC, one of automotive electronic parts, has been developed for lighting automotive vehicles by assembling with the LED. The quality performances or responses of lighting vehicles are relied on the circuit width of an FPC and the etched rate of acid solution. According to the current operating condition of an FPC company, the capability of the manufacturing process is under the company requirement. The standard deviation of FPC circuit widths is at higher levels and the mean is also worse than specifications. Approach: In this process improvement there was four sequential steps based on the designed experiments, steepest descent and interchangeable linear constrained response surface optimization or IC-LCRSOM. An investigation aims to determine the preferable levels of significant process variables affecting multiple responses. Results: The new settings from the IC-LCRSOM improved all performance measures in terms of both the mean and the standard deviation on all process patterns. Conclusion: From this sequential optimization the developed mathematical model has tested for adequacy using analysis of variance and other adequacy measures. In the actual investigation, the new operating conditions lead to higher levels of the etched rate and process capability including lower levels of the standard deviation of the circuit widths and etched rate when compared.
Simultaneous computation within a sequential process simulation tool
G. Endrestøl
1989-10-01
Full Text Available The paper describes an equation solver superstructure developed for a sequential modular dynamic process simulation system as part of a Eureka project with Norwegian and British participation. The purpose of the development was combining some of the advantages of equation based and purely sequential systems, enabling implicit treatment of key variables independent of module boundaries, and use of numerical integration techniques suitable for each individual type of variable. For training simulator applications the main advantages are gains in speed due to increased stability limits on time steps and improved consistency of simulation results. The system is split into an off-line analysis phase and an on-line equation solver. The off-line processing consists of automatic determination of the topological structure of the system connectivity from standard process description files and derivation of an optimized sparse matrix solution procedure for the resulting set of equations. The on-line routine collects equation coefficients from involved modules, solves the combined sets of structured equations, and stores the results appropriately. This method minimizes the processing cost during the actual simulation. The solver has been applied in the Veslefrikk training simulator project.
Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release – a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....
Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....
Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis
2014-01-01
This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.
陈黎明; 陈文亮
2013-01-01
The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, a relatively recent bio—inspired approach mimicking the behavior of real bee colony, was applied to deal with the optimization problems of automobile structure. The metamodel of objective and constrains were gotten through combination of design of experiment and sequential response surface method. Then,the optimum design was obtained by the modified artificial bee colony algorithm. It can reduce the computing cost by the metamodeling techniques. Finally.a typical example was selected to proof this method. The comparison results between the simulated and experimental values show that this method has enough precision and satisfies the engineering practical demands.%将蜂群算法应用于汽车结构件的优化问题.先由试验设计和序列响应面法构建目标函数及约束条件的代理模型,再应用改进的蜂群算法求解最优设计.在优化过程中调用的是代理模型,显著减少了有限元计算次数,提高了优化效率.最后,选取典型实例对该算法进行验证,比较预期值与实际值的结果表明,该算法具备了足够的求解精度,能够满足工程实际要求.
Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making
Daniel Hausmann
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.
Information Geometry and Sequential Monte Carlo
Sim, Aaron; Stumpf, Michael P H
2012-01-01
This paper explores the application of methods from information geometry to the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler. In particular the Riemannian manifold Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm (mMALA) is adapted for the transition kernels in SMC. Similar to its function in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, the mMALA is a fully adaptable kernel which allows for efficient sampling of high-dimensional and highly correlated parameter spaces. We set up the theoretical framework for its use in SMC with a focus on the application to the problem of sequential Bayesian inference for dynamical systems as modelled by sets of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we argue that defining the sequence of distributions on geodesics optimises the effective sample sizes in the SMC run. We illustrate the application of the methodology by inferring the parameters of simulated Lotka-Volterra and Fitzhugh-Nagumo models. In particular we demonstrate that compared to employing a standard adaptive random walk kernel, the SM...
Modifications of sequential designs in bioequivalence trials.
Zheng, Cheng; Zhao, Lihui; Wang, Jixian
2015-01-01
Bioequivalence (BE) studies are designed to show that two formulations of one drug are equivalent and they play an important role in drug development. When in a design stage, it is possible that there is a high degree of uncertainty on variability of the formulations and the actual performance of the test versus reference formulation. Therefore, an interim look may be desirable to stop the study if there is no chance of claiming BE at the end (futility), or claim BE if evidence is sufficient (efficacy), or adjust the sample size. Sequential design approaches specially for BE studies have been proposed previously in publications. We applied modification to the existing methods focusing on simplified multiplicity adjustment and futility stopping. We name our method modified sequential design for BE studies (MSDBE). Simulation results demonstrate comparable performance between MSDBE and the original published methods while MSDBE offers more transparency and better applicability. The R package MSDBE is available at https://sites.google.com/site/modsdbe/.
A Variable Depth Sequential Search Heuristic for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
Paul, Gerald
2009-01-01
We develop a variable depth search heuristic for the quadratic assignment problem. The heuristic is based on sequential changes in assignments analogous to the Lin-Kernighan sequential edge moves for the traveling salesman problem. We treat unstructured problem instances of sizes 60 to 400. When the heuristic is used in conjunction with robust tabu search, we measure performance improvements of up to a factor of 15 compared to the use of robust tabu alone. The performance improvement increases as the problem size increases.
Out—of—Order Execution is Sequentially Consistent Shared—Memory Systems：Theory and Experiments
胡伟武; 夏培肃
1998-01-01
Traditional implementation of sequential consistency in shared-memory systems requires memory accesses to be globally performed in program order.Based on an event ordering model for correct executions in shared-memory systems,this paper proposes and proves that out-of-order execution does not influence the correctness of an execution providing certain condition is met.Simulation results show that out-of-order execution proposed in this paper is an effective way to improve the performance of a sequentially consistent shared-memory system.
Bootstrap Sequential Determination of the Co-integration Rank in VAR Models
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert
with empirical rejection frequencies often very much in excess of the nominal level. As a consequence, bootstrap versions of these tests have been developed. To be useful, however, sequential procedures for determining the co-integrating rank based on these bootstrap tests need to be consistent, in the sense...... in the literature by proposing a bootstrap sequential algorithm which we demonstrate delivers consistent cointegration rank estimation for general I(1) processes. Finite sample Monte Carlo simulations show the proposed procedure performs well in practice....
An Approach to Characterizing the Complicated Sequential Metabolism of Salidroside in Rats
Zhiqiang Luo
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Metabolic study of bioactive compounds that undergo a dynamic and sequential process of metabolism is still a great challenge. Salidroside, one of the most active ingredients of Rhodiola crenulata, can be metabolized in different sites before being absorbed into the systemic blood stream. This study proposed an approach for describing the sequential biotransformation process of salidroside based on comparative analysis. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to determine the relative contribution of each site to the total metabolism of salidroside. The results showed that salidroside was stable in digestive juice, and it was metabolized primarily by the liver and the intestinal flora and to a lesser extent by the gut wall. The sequential metabolism method described in this study could be a general approach to characterizing the metabolic routes in the digestive system for natural products.
Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.
Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho
2012-04-01
Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.
An Approach to Characterizing the Complicated Sequential Metabolism of Salidroside in Rats.
Luo, Zhiqiang; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yang; Lu, Lina; Yang, Ruirui; Yu, Guohua; Sun, Mohan; Xin, Shaokun; Tian, Simin; Chen, Xinjing; Zhao, Haiyu
2016-05-30
Metabolic study of bioactive compounds that undergo a dynamic and sequential process of metabolism is still a great challenge. Salidroside, one of the most active ingredients of Rhodiola crenulata, can be metabolized in different sites before being absorbed into the systemic blood stream. This study proposed an approach for describing the sequential biotransformation process of salidroside based on comparative analysis. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to determine the relative contribution of each site to the total metabolism of salidroside. The results showed that salidroside was stable in digestive juice, and it was metabolized primarily by the liver and the intestinal flora and to a lesser extent by the gut wall. The sequential metabolism method described in this study could be a general approach to characterizing the metabolic routes in the digestive system for natural products.
G-sequentially connectedness for topological groups with operations
Mucuk, Osman; Cakalli, Huseyin
2016-08-01
It is a well-known fact that for a Hausdorff topological group X, the limits of convergent sequences in X define a function denoted by lim from the set of all convergent sequences in X to X. This notion has been modified by Connor and Grosse-Erdmann for real functions by replacing lim with an arbitrary linear functional G defined on a linear subspace of the vector space of all real sequences. Recently some authors have extended the concept to the topological group setting and introduced the concepts of G-sequential continuity, G-sequential compactness and G-sequential connectedness. In this work, we present some results about G-sequentially closures, G-sequentially connectedness and fundamental system of G-sequentially open neighbourhoods for topological group with operations which include topological groups, topological rings without identity, R-modules, Lie algebras, Jordan algebras, and many others.
Sequential Analysis in High Dimensional Multiple Testing and Sparse Recovery
Malloy, Matt
2011-01-01
This paper studies the problem of high-dimensional multiple testing and sparse recovery from the perspective of sequential analysis. In this setting, the probability of error is a function of the dimension of the problem. A simple sequential testing procedure for this problem is proposed. We derive necessary conditions for reliable recovery in the non-sequential setting and contrast them with sufficient conditions for reliable recovery using the proposed sequential testing procedure. Applications of the main results to several commonly encountered models show that sequential testing can be exponentially more sensitive to the difference between the null and alternative distributions (in terms of the dependence on dimension), implying that subtle cases can be much more reliably determined using sequential methods.
Petermann, Ingemar; Sahlgren, Bengt; Helmfrid, Sten; Friberg, Ari T; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves
2002-02-20
We present a novel scheme based on sequential writing for fabrication of advanced fiber Bragg gratings. As opposed to earlier sequential methods this technique uses a cw UV laser source and allows for very precise control and repetitivity of the formation of the gratings. Furthermore it is possible to use high average irradiances without destroying the fiber, resulting in considerable reduction in fabrication time for complex gratings. The method has been applied to several test gratings, which proved its versatility and quality.
Applying Decision Theory to Career Counseling Practice: The Sequential Elimination Approach.
Gati, Itamar; And Others
1995-01-01
A practical procedure which is based on decision and information processing theories is presented to assist clients of career counselors. The proposed procedure, which is derived from the sequential elimination approach, considers the individual's limited cognitive and material resources and provides specific guidelines aimed at facilitating…
Alsolami, Fawaz
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
An Overview of Markov Chain Methods for the Study of Stage-Sequential Developmental Processes
Kapland, David
2008-01-01
This article presents an overview of quantitative methodologies for the study of stage-sequential development based on extensions of Markov chain modeling. Four methods are presented that exemplify the flexibility of this approach: the manifest Markov model, the latent Markov model, latent transition analysis, and the mixture latent Markov model.…
Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma: A Within-Subjects Analysis
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
Within-subject data from sequential social dilemma experiments reveal a correlation of first and second-mover decisions for which two channels may be responsible, that our experiment allows to separate: i) a direct, preference-based channel that influences both first- and second-mover decisions; ...
Effects of scalding method and sequential tanks on broiler processing wastewater loadings
The effects of scalding time and temperature, and sequential scalding tanks was evaluated based on impact to poultry processing wastewater (PPW) stream loading rates following the slaughter of commercially raised broilers. On 3 separate weeks (trials), broilers were obtained following feed withdrawa...
Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane
Jones, Russel B
2017-04-04
A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.
Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.
Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L
2017-08-01
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.
Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients
Jörg, David J; Jülicher, Frank
2016-01-01
Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentatio...
Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients
Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank
2016-10-01
Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentation between different animal species.
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-05
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
Isoscaling in Statistical Sequential Decay Model
TIAN Wen-Dong; SU Qian-Min; WANG Hong-Wei; WANG Kun; YAN Ting-ZHi; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; FANG De-Qing; GUO Wei; MA Chun-Wang; LIU Gui-Hua; SHEN Wen-Qing; SHI Yu
2007-01-01
A sequential decay model is used to study isoscaling, I.e. The factorization of the isotope ratios from sources of different isospins and sizes over a broad range of excitation energies, into fugacity terms of proton and neutron number, R21(N, Z) = Y2(N, Z)/Y1(N, Z) = Cexp(αN +βZ). It is found that the isoscaling parameters α and β have a strong dependence on the isospin difference of equilibrated source and excitation energy, no significant influence of the source size on α andβ has been observed. It is found that α and β decrease with the excitation energy and are linear functions of 1/T and △(Z/A)2 or △(N/A)2 of the sources. Symmetry energy coefficient Csym is constrained from the relationship of α and source △(Z/A)2, β and source △(N/A)2.
Mechanistic studies on a sequential PDT protocol
Kessel, David
2016-03-01
A low (~LD15) PDT dose resulting in selective lysosomal photodamage can markedly promote photokilling by subsequent photodamage targeted to mitochondria. Experimental data are consistent with the proposal that cleavage of the autophagyassociated protein ATG5 to a pro-apoptotic fragment is responsible for this effect. This process is known to be dependent on the proteolytic activity of calpain. We have proposed that Ca2+ released from photodamaged lysosomes is the trigger for ATG5 cleavage. We can now document the conversion of ATG5 to the truncated form after lysosomal photodamage. Photofrin, a photosensitizer that targets both mitochondria and lysosomes, can be used for either phase of the sequential PDT process. The ability of Photofrin to target both loci may explain the well-documented efficacy of this agent.
Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography
Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing
2015-03-17
A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.
Compound imaging using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation
Jensen, Casper Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Hemmsen, Martin Christian
2011-01-01
Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) is a technique with low complexity and the ability to yield a more uniform lateral resolution with range. However, the presence of speckle artifacts in ultrasound images degrades the contrast. In conventional imaging speckle is reduced by using...... spatial compounding at the cost of a reduced frame rate. The objective is to apply spatial compounding to SASB and evaluate if the images have a reduced speckle appearance and thereby an improved image quality in terms of contrast compared to ordinary SASB. Using the simulation software Field II, RF data...... detection the five second stage images are added to form the compounded image. Using a ProFocus scanner and the 8804 linear array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) measurements of a phantom containing water filled cysts are obtained to validate the simulation results. The setup is the same...
Composite SAR imaging using sequential joint sparsity
Sanders, Toby; Gelb, Anne; Platte, Rodrigo B.
2017-06-01
This paper investigates accurate and efficient ℓ1 regularization methods for generating synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Although ℓ1 regularization algorithms are already employed in SAR imaging, practical and efficient implementation in terms of real time imaging remain a challenge. Here we demonstrate that fast numerical operators can be used to robustly implement ℓ1 regularization methods that are as or more efficient than traditional approaches such as back projection, while providing superior image quality. In particular, we develop a sequential joint sparsity model for composite SAR imaging which naturally combines the joint sparsity methodology with composite SAR. Our technique, which can be implemented using standard, fractional, or higher order total variation regularization, is able to reduce the effects of speckle and other noisy artifacts with little additional computational cost. Finally we show that generalizing total variation regularization to non-integer and higher orders provides improved flexibility and robustness for SAR imaging.
Sequential hadronization and the opportunities it presents
Bellwied, R.
2016-08-01
Continuum extrapolated lattice QCD calculations of quantum number specific susceptibilities and the most recent RHIC and LHC data on produced particle yields, as well as their higher moment fluctuations, can be interpreted using a scenario of sequential flavor dependent hadronization during the QCD crossover transition. I will present the latest data from lattice QCD and experiment and confront the question whether the separation of strangeness and light quark chemical freeze-out could have consequences beyond a simple strangeness enhancement, firstly in the production of exotic strange states and secondly in the flavor dependent evolution of dynamic quantities such as in-medium energy loss and anisotropic flow, which are generated predominantly during the collective partonic phase.
Lipid peroxidation in experimental uveitis: sequential studies.
Goto, H; Wu, G S; Chen, F; Kristeva, M; Sevanian, A; Rao, N A
1992-06-01
Previously we have detected the occurrence of retinal lipid peroxidation initiated by phagocyte-derived oxygen radicals in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). In the current studies, the confirmation of inflammation-mediated lipid peroxidation was proceeded further to include measurement of multiple parameters, including conjugated dienes, ketodienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and fluorescent chromolipids. The assay for myeloperoxidase, a measure for the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the inflammatory sites was also carried out. The levels of all these parameters were followed through the course of EAU development. The sequential evaluation of histologic changes using both light and electron microscopy was also carried out and the results were correlated with lipid peroxidation indices. These data suggest that the retinal lipid peroxidation plays a causative role in the subsequent retinal degeneration.
Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection
Alan Huebner
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Computerized classification tests (CCTs often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of three different methods for controlling maximum item exposure rates in CCTs are compared. Specifically, the Sympson-Hetter, restricted, and item eligibility methods are examined in two studies realistically simulating different types of CCTs and are evaluated based upon criteria including classification accuracy, the number of items exceeding the desired maximum exposure rate, and test overlap. The pros and cons of each method are discussed from a practical perspective.
Design of the Sequential System Automata using Temporal Equivalence Classes
A. Ursu
1997-10-01
Full Text Available A design method of sequential system automata using temporal logic specifications is proposed in this paper. The method is based on well-known Z.Manna and P.Wolper temporal logic satisfiability analysis procedure [1] and is extended to include past time temporal operators. A new specification method which uses temporal equivalence classes is proposed to specify the behaviour of large digital circuits. The impact of the composition and decomposition operations of the temporal equivalence classes on the final automata has been studied. A case study is carried out which deals with the design of the synchronous bus arbiter circuit element. The SMV tool has been used to verify the temporal properties of the obtained automata.
Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.
Netusil, N R; Braden, J B
2001-03-01
Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.
Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions
Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.
2015-08-01
Nanowire growth by the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a `mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.
Hematocrit estimation using online sequential extreme learning machine.
Huynh, Hieu Trung; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Jinsul
2015-01-01
Hematocrit is a blood test that is defined as the volume percentage of red blood cells in the whole blood. It is one of the important indicators for clinical decision making and the most effective factor in glucose measurement using handheld devices. In this paper, a method for hematocrit estimation that is based upon the transduced current curve and the neural network is presented. The salient points of this method are that (1) the neural network is trained by the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) in which the devices can be still trained with new samples during the using process and (2) the extended features are used to reduce the number of current points which can save the battery power of devices and speed up the measurement process.
Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander Karl;
2014-01-01
In empirical analyses of games, preferences and beliefs are typically treated as independent. However, if beliefs and preferences interact, this may have implications for the interpretation of observed behavior. Our sequential social dilemma experiment allows us to separate different interaction...... channels. When subjects play both roles in such experiments, a positive correlation between first- and second-mover behavior is frequently reported. We find that the observed correlation primarily originates via an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs through a consensus effect......, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects best respond to stated beliefs. However, we also find evidence for a direct, preference-based channel. When first movers know...
Phase Space Structures of k-threshold Sequential Dynamical Systems
Rani, Raffaele
2011-01-01
Sequential dynamical systems (SDS) are used to model a wide range of processes occurring on graphs or networks. The dynamics of such discrete dynamical systems is completely encoded by their phase space, a directed graph whose vertices and edges represent all possible system configurations and transitions between configurations respectively. Direct calculation of the phase space is in most cases a computationally demanding task. However, for some classes of SDS one can extract information on the connected component structure of phase space from the constituent elements of the SDS, such as its base graph and vertex functions. We present a number of novel results about the connected component structure of the phase space for k-threshold dynamical system with binary state spaces. We establish relations between the structure of the components, the threshold value, and the update sequence. Also fixed-point reachability from garden of eden configurations is investigated and upper bounds for the length of paths in t...
Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions
Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis
2013-01-01
A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.
Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments
C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS
2012-01-01
There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.
The sequential propensity household projection model
Tom Wilson
2013-04-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The standard method of projecting living arrangements and households in Australia and New Zealand is the 'propensity model', a type of extended headship rate model. Unfortunately it possesses a number of serious shortcomings, including internal inconsistencies, difficulties in setting living arrangement assumptions, and very limited scenario creation capabilities. Data allowing the application of more sophisticated dynamic household projection models are unavailable in Australia. OBJECTIVE The aim was create a projection model to overcome these shortcomings whilst minimising input data requirements and costs, and retaining the projection outputs users are familiar with. METHODS The sequential propensity household projection model is proposed. Living arrangement projections take place in a sequence of calculations, with progressively more detailed living arrangement categories calculated in each step. In doing so the model largely overcomes the three serious deficiencies of the standard propensity model noted above. RESULTS The model is illustrated by three scenarios produced for one case study State, Queensland. They are: a baseline scenario in which all propensities are held constant to demonstrate the effects of population growth and ageing, a housing crisis scenario where housing affordability declines, and a prosperity scenario where families and individuals enjoy greater real incomes. A sensitivity analysis in which assumptions are varied one by one is also presented. CONCLUSIONS The sequential propensity model offers a more effective method of producing household and living arrangement projections than the standard propensity model, and is a practical alternative to dynamic projection models for countries and regions where the data and resources to apply such models are unavailable.
Visual mismatch negativity reveals automatic detection of sequential regularity violation
Gábor eStefanics
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Sequential regularities are abstract rules based on repeating sequences of environmental events, which are useful to make predictions about future events. As the processes underlying visual mismatch negativity (vMMN are sensitive to complex stimulus changes, this event-related potential component, like its auditory counterpart, may be an index of a primitive system of intelligence. Here we tested whether the visual system is capable to detect abstract sequential regularity in unattended stimulus sequences. In our first experiment we investigated the emergence of vMMN and other change-related activity to stimuli violating abstract rules. Red and green disk patterns were delivered in pairs. When in the majority of pairs the colors were identical within the pairs, deviant pairs with different colors for the second member of the pair elicited vMMN. Spatially more extended vMMN responses with longer latency were observed for deviants with 10% compared to 30% probability. In our second experiment utilizing oddball sequences, we tested the emergence of vMMN to violations of a concrete, feature-based rule of a repetition of a standard color. Deviant colors elicited a vMMN response in the oddball sequences. VMMN was larger for the second member of the pair, i.e. after a shorter stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA. This result corresponds to the expected SOA/(vMMN relationship. Our results show that the system underlying vMMN is sensitive to abstract probability rules and this component can be considered as a correlate of violated predictions about the characteristics of environmental events.
Decision-making in research tasks with sequential testing.
Thomas Pfeiffer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent controversial essay, published by JPA Ioannidis in PLoS Medicine, it has been argued that in some research fields, most of the published findings are false. Based on theoretical reasoning it can be shown that small effect sizes, error-prone tests, low priors of the tested hypotheses and biases in the evaluation and publication of research findings increase the fraction of false positives. These findings raise concerns about the reliability of research. However, they are based on a very simple scenario of scientific research, where single tests are used to evaluate independent hypotheses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present computer simulations and experimental approaches for analyzing more realistic scenarios. In these scenarios, research tasks are solved sequentially, i.e. subsequent tests can be chosen depending on previous results. We investigate simple sequential testing and scenarios where only a selected subset of results can be published and used for future rounds of test choice. Results from computer simulations indicate that for the tasks analyzed in this study, the fraction of false among the positive findings declines over several rounds of testing if the most informative tests are performed. Our experiments show that human subjects frequently perform the most informative tests, leading to a decline of false positives as expected from the simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the research tasks studied here, findings tend to become more reliable over time. We also find that the performance in those experimental settings where not all performed tests could be published turned out to be surprisingly inefficient. Our results may help optimize existing procedures used in the practice of scientific research and provide guidance for the development of novel forms of scholarly communication.
From Sequential Pattern Mining to Structured Pattern Mining:A Pattern-Growth Approach
Jia-Wei Han; Jian Pei; Xi-Feng Yan
2004-01-01
Sequential pattern mining is an important data mining problem with broad applications. However,it is also a challenging problem since the mining may have to generate or examine a combinatorially explosive number of intermediate subsequences. Recent studies have developed two major classes of sequential pattern mining methods: (1) a candidate generation-and-test approach, represented by (i) GSP, a horizontal format-based sequential pattern mining method, and (ii) SPADE, a vertical format-based method; and (2) a pattern-growth method, represented by PrefixSpan and its further extensions, such as gSpan for mining structured patterns. In this study, we perform a systematic introduction and presentation of the pattern-growth methodology and study its principles and extensions. We first introduce two interesting pattern-growth algorithms, FreeSpan and PrefixSpan, for efficient sequential pattern mining. Then we introduce gSpan for mining structured patterns using the same methodology. Their relative performance in large databases is presented and analyzed. Several extensions of these methods are also discussed in the paper, including mining multi-level, multi-dimensional patterns and mining constraint-based patterns.
From Sequential Pattern Mining to Structured Pattern Mining： A Pattern-Growth Approach
Jia-WeiHan; JianPei; Xi-FengYan
2004-01-01
Sequential pattern mining is an important data mining problem with broad applications. However, it is also a challenging problem since the mining may have to generate or examine a combinatorially explosive number of intermediate subsequences. Recent studies have developed two major classes of sequential pattern mining methods: (1) a candidate generation-and-test approach, represented by (i) GSP, a horizontal format-based sequential pattern mining method, and (ii) SPADE, a vertical format-based method; and (2) a pattern-growth method, represented by PrefixSpan and its further extensions, such as gSpan for mining structured patterns. In this study, we perform a systematic introduction and presentation of the pattern-growth methodology and study its principles and extensions. We first introduce two interesting pattern-growth algorithms, FreeSpan and PrefixSpan, for efficient sequential pattern mining. Then we introduce gSpan for mining structured patterns using the same methodology. Their relative performance in large databases is presented and analyzed. Several extensions of these methods are also discussed in the paper, including mining multi-level, multi-dimensional patterns and mining constraint-based patterns.
Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites
Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A., E-mail: puleo@uky.edu
2014-10-01
The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell
The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games
de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu
2014-01-01
In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential
Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions
Zamarro, G.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each
Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities
S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)
2011-01-01
textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction setting
Sequential Dependencies in Categorical Judgments of Radiographic Images
Beckstead, Jason W.; Boutis, Kathy; Pecaric, Martin; Pusic, Martin V.
2017-01-01
Sequential context effects, the psychological interactions occurring between the events of successive trials when a sequence of similar stimuli are judged, have interested psychologists for decades. It has been well established that individuals exhibit sequential context effects in psychophysical experiments involving unidimensional stimuli.…
Adaptive Learning in Extensive Form Games and Sequential Equilibrium
Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1999-01-01
This paper studies adaptive learning in extensive form games and provides conditions for convergence points of adaptive learning to be sequential equilibria. Precisely, we present a set of conditions on learning sequences such that an assessment is a sequential equilibrium if and only...... if there is a learning sequence fulfilling the conditions, which leads to the assessment...
A Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning and abstract transfer
Lu, H.; Rojas, R.R.; Beckers, T.; Yuille, A.L.
2016-01-01
Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect lin
Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities
S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)
2011-01-01
textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction
Interaction of Hypertext Forms and Global Versus Sequential Learning Styles
Dunser, Andreas; Jirasko, Marco
2005-01-01
In this study, the relevance of the distinction between sequential and global learners in the context of learning with hypertext was investigated. Learners with global learning style were expected to produce better results when learning with hypertext, whereas learners with sequential learning style should profit from a structural aid in form of a…
The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games
Jong, de Jasper; Uetz, Marc; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu
2014-01-01
In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential
Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Tsai, Tzung-Jium; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jin; Hsu, Ping-I
2015-02-01
Sequential therapy is a two-step therapy achieving a promising eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection. The rationale of sequential method has been proposed that amoxicillin weakens bacterial cell walls in the initial phase of treatment, preventing the development of drug efflux channels for clarithromycin and metronidazole used in the second phase. The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate whether the efficacy of reverse sequential therapy was noninferior to sequential therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection. From January 2009 to December 2010, consecutive H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to receive either sequential therapy (a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, followed by a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole) or reverse sequential therapy (a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole, followed by a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment by rapid urease and histology or urea breath test. One hundred and twenty-two H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive sequential (n = 60) or reverse sequential therapy (n = 62). The eradication rates, by intention-to-treat analysis, were similar: 91.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-98.7%) for sequential therapy and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .44). Per-protocol analysis also showed similar results: 91.8% (95% CI: 84.9-98.7%) for sequential group and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .43). The two treatments exhibited comparable frequencies of adverse events (11.3% vs 6.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (98.4% vs 100%, respectively). The overall resistance rates of antibiotics were clarithromycin 10.5%, amoxicillin 0%, and metronidazole 44.2% of patients, respectively. The dual
Multi-Stage Recognition of Speech Emotion Using Sequential Forward Feature Selection
Liogienė Tatjana
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The intensive research of speech emotion recognition introduced a huge collection of speech emotion features. Large feature sets complicate the speech emotion recognition task. Among various feature selection and transformation techniques for one-stage classification, multiple classifier systems were proposed. The main idea of multiple classifiers is to arrange the emotion classification process in stages. Besides parallel and serial cases, the hierarchical arrangement of multi-stage classification is most widely used for speech emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a sequential-forward-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification scheme. The Sequential Forward Selection (SFS and Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS techniques were employed for every stage of the multi-stage classification scheme. Experimental testing of the proposed scheme was performed using the German and Lithuanian emotional speech datasets. Sequential-feature-selection-based multi-stage classification outperformed the single-stage scheme by 12–42 % for different emotion sets. The multi-stage scheme has shown higher robustness to the growth of emotion set. The decrease in recognition rate with the increase in emotion set for multi-stage scheme was lower by 10–20 % in comparison with the single-stage case. Differences in SFS and SFFS employment for feature selection were negligible.
Ramazan Aygün
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The assumption of TCP-based protocols that packet error (lost or damaged is due to network congestion is not true for wireless networks. For wireless networks, it is important to reduce the number of retransmissions to improve the effectiveness of TCP-based protocols. In this paper, we consider improvement at the data link layer for systems that use stop-and-wait ARQ as in IEEE 802.11 standard. We show that increasing the buffer size will not solve the actual problem and moreover it is likely to degrade the quality of delivery (QoD. We firstly study a wireless router system model with a sequential convolutional decoder for error detection and correction in order to investigate QoD of flow and error control. To overcome the problems along with high packet error rate, we propose a wireless router system with parallel sequential decoders. We simulate our systems and provide performance in terms of average buffer occupancy, blocking probability, probability of decoding failure, system throughput, and channel throughput. We have studied these performance metrics for different channel conditions, packet arrival rates, decoding time-out limits, system capacities, and the number of sequential decoders. Our results show that parallel sequential decoders have great impact on the system performance and increase QoD significantly.
Aygün Ramazan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The assumption of TCP-based protocols that packet error (lost or damaged is due to network congestion is not true for wireless networks. For wireless networks, it is important to reduce the number of retransmissions to improve the effectiveness of TCP-based protocols. In this paper, we consider improvement at the data link layer for systems that use stop-and-wait ARQ as in IEEE 802.11 standard. We show that increasing the buffer size will not solve the actual problem and moreover it is likely to degrade the quality of delivery (QoD. We firstly study a wireless router system model with a sequential convolutional decoder for error detection and correction in order to investigate QoD of flow and error control. To overcome the problems along with high packet error rate, we propose a wireless router system with parallel sequential decoders. We simulate our systems and provide performance in terms of average buffer occupancy, blocking probability, probability of decoding failure, system throughput, and channel throughput. We have studied these performance metrics for different channel conditions, packet arrival rates, decoding time-out limits, system capacities, and the number of sequential decoders. Our results show that parallel sequential decoders have great impact on the system performance and increase QoD significantly.
Optimal sequential state discrimination between two mixed quantum states
Namkung, Min; Kwon, Younghun
2017-08-01
Recently, sequential state discrimination, as a quantum-key distribution protocol, has been proposed for multiple receivers. A previous study [J. A. Bergou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 100501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.100501] showed that every receiver could successfully perform a sequential state discrimination of two pure states with identical prior probabilities. In this study, we extend the sequential state discrimination to mixed states with arbitrary prior probability. First, we analytically obtain the condition of the receiver's optimal measurement. In addition, we show that the optimal probability for every receiver to share the mixed state prepared by the sender is not zero. Furthermore, we compare the sequential state discrimination to the strategies of quantum reproducing and quantum broadcasting. We find that there are cases in which, unlike that of the pure state, the sequential state discrimination of mixed states shows a better performance than the other strategies.
Sequential logic model deciphers dynamic transcriptional control of gene expressions.
Zhen Xuan Yeo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. METHODOLOGY: Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet
Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence
Denise Rossato Silva
2013-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer (LC is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. RESULTS: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years. Fourteen patients (58.3% were male, 20 (83.3% were White, and 22 (91.7% were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%, followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%. Seven patients (29.2% presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71% were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.
Benchtop isolation and characterization of functional exosomes by sequential filtration.
Heinemann, Mitja L; Ilmer, Matthias; Silva, Leslie P; Hawke, David H; Recio, Alejandro; Vorontsova, Maria A; Alt, Eckhard; Vykoukal, Jody
2014-12-05
Early and minimally invasive detection of malignant events or other pathologies is of utmost importance in the pursuit of improved patient care and outcomes. Recent evidence indicates that exosomes and extracellular vesicles in serum and body fluids can contain nucleic acid, protein, and other biomarkers. Accordingly, there is great interest in applying these clinically as prognostic, predictive, pharmacodynamic, and early detection indicators. Nevertheless, existing exosome isolation methods can be time-consuming, require specialized equipment, and/or present other inefficiencies regarding purity, reproducibility and assay cost. We have developed a straightforward, three-step protocol for exosome isolation of cell culture supernatants or large volumes of biofluid based on sequential steps of dead-end pre-filtration, tangential flow filtration (TFF), and low-pressure track-etched membrane filtration that we introduce here. Our approach yields exosome preparations of high purity and defined size distribution and facilitates depletion of free protein and other low-molecular-weight species, extracellular vesicles larger than 100nm, and cell debris. Samples of exosomes prepared using the approach were verified morphologically by nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the presence of previously reported exosome-associated proteins. In addition to being easy-to-implement, sequential filtration yields exosomes of high purity and, importantly, functional integrity as a result of the relatively low-magnitude manipulation forces employed during isolation. This answers an unmet need for preparation of minimally manipulated exosomes for investigations into exosome function and basic biology. Further, the strategy is amenable to translation for clinical exosome isolations because of its speed, automatability, scalability, and specificity for isolating exosomes from complex biological samples.
Cochegrue H.
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Modeling of refining processes using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts involves an exponentially increasing number of species and reactions, which may rapidly exceed several thousands for complex industrial feedstocks. When building a model for such a process, a priori lumped kinetic models by chemical family do no longer meet the current requirements in terms of simulation details, predictive power and extrapolability. Due to the large number of elementary steps occurring in bifunctional catalysis, it would be quite unrealistic to manually build a detailed kinetic network of this scale. Hence, computer generation of the reaction network according to simple rules offer an elegant solution in such a case. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to determine and solve the kinetic equations, mainly due to the lack of analytical detail required by a detailed model. For several refining processes, however, reasonable assumptions on the equilibria between species allow to perform an a posteriori relumping of species, thus reducing the network size substantially while retaining a kinetic network between lumps that is strictly equivalent to the detailed network. This paper describes a network generation tool and the a posteriori relumping method associated with the single-event kinetic modeling methodology. This a posteriori relumping approach is illustrated for and successfully applied to the kinetic modeling of catalytic reforming reactions. La modélisation des procédés de raffinage utilisant des catalyseurs bifonctionnels métal-acide fait intervenir un nombre exponentiellement croissant d'espèces et de réactions qui peut rapidement dépasser plusieurs milliers pour des charges industrielles complexes. Lors de la réalisation d'un modèle de procédé, l'utilisation de modèles cinétiques de regroupement a priori par familles chimiques ne satisfait plus les besoins actuels de simulation détail- lée, de prédictivité et d'extrapolabilité.
Metal fractionation of atmospheric aerosols via sequential chemical extraction: a review
Smichowski, Patricia; Gomez, Dario [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Unidad de Actividad Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)
2005-01-01
This review surveys schemes used to sequentially chemically fractionate metals and metalloids present in airborne particulate matter. It focuses mainly on sequential chemical fractionation schemes published over the last 15 years. These schemes have been classified into five main categories: (1) based on Tessier's procedure, (2) based on Chester's procedure, (3) based on Zatka's procedure, (4) based on BCR procedure, and (5) other procedures. The operational characteristics as well as the state of the art in metal fractionation of airborne particulate matter, fly ashes and workroom aerosols, in terms of applications, optimizations and innovations, are also described. Many references to other works in this area are provided. (orig.)
Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach.
Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong
2015-07-01
The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach.
Optimal power flow using sequential quadratic programming
Nejdawi, Imad M.
1999-11-01
Optimal power flow (OPF) is an operational as well as a planning tool used by electric utilities to help them operate their network in the most economic and secure mode of operation. Various algorithms to solve the OPF problem evolved over the past three decades; linear programming (LP) techniques were among the major mathematical programming methods utilized. The linear models of the objective function and the linearization of the constraints are the main features of these techniques. The main advantages of the LP approach are simplicity and speed. Nonlinear programming techniques have been applied to OPF solution. The major drawback is the expensive solution of large sparse systems of equations. This research is concerned with the development of a new OPF solution algorithm using sequential quadratic programming (SQP). In this formulation, a small dense system the size of which is equal to the number of control variables is solved in an inner loop. The Jacobian and Hessian terms are calculated in an outer loop. The total number of outer loop iterations is comparable to those in an ordinary load flow in contrast to 20--30 iterations in other nonlinear methods. In addition, the total number of floating point operations is less than that encountered in direct methods by two orders of magnitude. We also model dispatch over a twenty four-hour time horizon in a transmission constrained power network that includes price-responsive loads where large energy customers can operate their loads in time intervals with lowest spot prices.
Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion
Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long
2016-06-01
Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.
Sequential discrimination of qudits by multiple observers
Hillery, Mark; Mimih, Jihane
2017-10-01
We discuss a scheme in which sequential state-discrimination measurements are performed on qudits to determine the quantum state in which they were initially prepared. The qudits belong to a set of nonorthogonal quantum states and hence cannot be distinguished with certainty. Unambiguous state discrimination allows error-free measurements at the expense of occasionally failing to give a conclusive answer about the state of the qudit. Qudits have the potential to carry more information per transmission than qubits. We considered the situation in which Alice sends one of N qudits, where the dimension of the qudits is also N. We looked at two cases, one in which the states all have the same overlap and one in which the qudits are divided into two sets, with qudits in different sets having different overlaps. We also studied the robustness of our scheme against a simple eavesdropping attack and found that by using qudits rather than qubits, there is a greater probability that an eavesdropper will introduce errors and be detected.
NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel
2017-08-01
Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.
Potential benefits of sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatments of RNA virus infections.
Celia Perales
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy consisting of virus extinction associated with enhanced mutagenesis. The use of non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors has faced the problem of selection of inhibitor-resistant virus mutants. Quasispecies dynamics predicts, and clinical results have confirmed, that combination therapy has an advantage over monotherapy to delay or prevent selection of inhibitor-escape mutants. Using ribavirin-mediated mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, here we show that, contrary to expectations, sequential administration of the antiviral inhibitor guanidine (GU first, followed by ribavirin, is more effective than combination therapy with the two drugs, or than either drug used individually. Coelectroporation experiments suggest that limited inhibition of replication of interfering mutants by GU may contribute to the benefits of the sequential treatment. In lethal mutagenesis, a sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatment can be more effective than the corresponding combination treatment to drive a virus towards extinction. Such an advantage is also supported by a theoretical model for the evolution of a viral population under the action of increased mutagenesis in the presence of an inhibitor of viral replication. The model suggests that benefits of the sequential treatment are due to the involvement of a mutagenic agent, and to competition for susceptible cells exerted by the mutant spectrum. The results may impact lethal mutagenesis-based protocols, as well as current antiviral therapies involving ribavirin.
Sequential deposition: optimization of solvent swelling for high-performance polymer solar cells.
Liu, Yao; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hsin-Wei; Nordlund, Dennis; Sun, Zhiwei; Ferdous, Sunzida; Russell, Thomas P
2015-01-14
Organic solar cells based on a typical DPP polymer were systematically optimized by a solvent swelling assisted sequential deposition process. We investigated the influence of solvent swelling on the morphology and structure order of the swollen film and the resultant device performance. Morphological and structural characterization confirmed the realization of ideal bulk heterojunctions using a suitable swelling solvent. A trilayered morphology was also found with the conjugated polymer concentrated bottom layer, PC71BM concentrated top layer, and interpenetrated networks of donor and acceptor in the middle by solvent swelling instead of thermal annealing in the sequential solution processing method. We proposed a simple strategy to optimize the sequential deposition fabricated devices by tuning the concentration of the PC71BM solution instead of thermal annealing. The best device showed a PCE of 7.59% with a Voc of 0.61 V, Jsc of 17.95 mA/cm(2), and FF of 69.6%, which is the highest reported efficiency for devices fabricated by a sequential processing method and among the best results for DPP polymers.
Design and Processing of Bimetallic Aluminum Alloys by Sequential Casting Technique
Karun, Akhil S.; Hari, S.; Ebhota, Williams S.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Pillai, U. T. S.; Pai, B. C.
2017-01-01
Sequential casting is a facile and fairly new technique to produce functionally graded materials (FGMs) and components by controlled mold filling process. In the present investigation, functionally graded bimetallic aluminum alloys are produced by sequential gravity casting using A390-A319 and A390-A6061 alloy combinations. The control in pouring time between two melts has shown a significant effect on the quality and nature of interface bonding. The microstructure reveals good interface miscibility achieved through diffusion bonding between the alloys. A higher hardness of 160 BHN in the A390 region is obtained in both sequential cast systems, and a minimum value of 105 and 91 BHN is observed in the A319 and A6061 regions, respectively. The tensile and compression strength for A390-A319 are 337 and 490 MPa, whereas for A390-A6061, they are 364 and 401 MPa, respectively, which are significantly higher compared with the standard values of the base alloys, which confirms strong interface bonding. The A390 region shows higher wear resistance compared with other regions of the sequential cast system. The process described in this study is a potential and efficient approach to create good bonding between two different aluminum alloys to develop advanced functional and structural materials.
Articulated Human Motion Tracking Using Sequential Immune Genetic Algorithm
Yi Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We formulate human motion tracking as a high-dimensional constrained optimization problem. A novel generative method is proposed for human motion tracking in the framework of evolutionary computation. The main contribution is that we introduce immune genetic algorithm (IGA for pose optimization in latent space of human motion. Firstly, we perform human motion analysis in the learnt latent space of human motion. As the latent space is low dimensional and contents the prior knowledge of human motion, it makes pose analysis more efficient and accurate. Then, in the search strategy, we apply IGA for pose optimization. Compared with genetic algorithm and other evolutionary methods, its main advantage is the ability to use the prior knowledge of human motion. We design an IGA-based method to estimate human pose from static images for initialization of motion tracking. And we propose a sequential IGA (S-IGA algorithm for motion tracking by incorporating the temporal continuity information into the traditional IGA. Experimental results on different videos of different motion types show that our IGA-based pose estimation method can be used for initialization of motion tracking. The S-IGA-based motion tracking method can achieve accurate and stable tracking of 3D human motion.
Sequential feasible optimal power flow in power systems
HAN ZhenXiang; JIANG QuanYuan; CAO YiJia
2009-01-01
A sequential feasible optimal power flow (OPF) method is developed for large-scale power systems. One of the outstanding features of this method is that it can maintain feasibility for both equality and inequality constraints during iterations. In sequential feasible OPF, every iteration consists of two stages: Objective improving stage and feasibility enforcing stage. Analytical basis for each stage is provided. Numerical studies on various power systems up to 2383 buses indicate that the proposed feasible approach is promising. Compared with the conventional OPF algorithms, such as interior point method, the proposed sequential feasible OPF approach can be terminated at any iteration and yield a feasible operating point simultaneously.
The average value inequality in sequential effect algebras
Jun, Shen
2009-01-01
A sequential effect algebra $(E,0,1, \\oplus, \\circ)$ is an effect algebra on which a sequential product $\\circ$ with certain physics properties is defined, in particular, sequential effect algebra is an important model for studying quantum measurement theory. In 2005, Gudder asked the following problem: If $a, b\\in (E,0,1,\\oplus, \\circ)$ and $a\\bot b$ and $a\\circ b\\bot a\\circ b$, is it the case that $2(a\\circ b)\\leq a^2\\oplus b^2$ ? In this paper, we construct an example to answer the problem negatively.
Weak* sequential closures in Banach space theory and their applications
Ostrovskii, M. I.
2002-01-01
Let X be a Banach space. Given a subset A of the dual space X* denote by $A_{(1)}$ the weak* sequential closure of A, i.e., the set of all limits of weak*-convergent sequences in A. The study of weak* sequential closures of linear subspaces of the duals of separable Banach spaces was initiated by S.Banach. The first results of this study were presented in the appendix to his book "Theorie des operations lineaires" (1932). It is natural to suppose that the reason for studying weak* sequential ...
On the Limits of Sequential Testing in High Dimensions
Malloy, Matthew; Nowak, Robert
2011-01-01
This paper presents results pertaining to sequential methods for support recovery of sparse signals in noise. Specifically, we show that any sequential measurement procedure fails provided the average number of measurements per dimension grows slower then log s / D(f0||f1) where s is the level of sparsity, and D(f0||f1) the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the underlying distributions. For comparison, we show any non-sequential procedure fails provided the number of measurements grows at a...
Early detection of cutaneous melanoma by sequential digital dermatoscopy (SDD).
Kraus, Sophie Luise; Haenssle, Holger Andreas
2013-06-01
The early diagnosis and excision of cutaneous melanoma is essential for an improved prognosis of the disease. Besides the investigation of pigmented lesions with the unaided eye and conventional dermatoscopy, long-term sequential digital dermatoscopy has been shown to improve the sensitivity of melanoma detection, especially in high-risk patients. In addition to the static clinical and dermatoscopic assessment, the sequential digital dermatoscopy strategy helps to detect changes over time. This review summarizes the latest developments in the field of sequential digital dermatoscopy, describes current strategies for the selection of patients and lesions to monitor, and suggests objective criteria that should lead to an excisional biopsy.
Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms
Eldersveld, S.K.
1992-09-01
The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.
On sequential dynamical systems and simulation
Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.
1999-06-01
The generic structure of computer simulations motivates a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper) which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes. This will be done using both combinatorial/algebraic techniques and probabilistic techniques. Finally the authors give results on dynamical system properties for some special systems.
Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H
2001-01-01
patients with serological tumor markers should take into account the stochastic variation, i.e. the probability that observed increases and decreases may solely be due to analytical imprecision and normal intra-individual biological variation. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characteristic...... that it is necessary to adjust the assessment criteria to the type of marker, and that assessment may be facilitated if based on natural logarithmic transformed concentrations....
Advancing the objective structured clinical examination: sequential testing in theory and practice.
Pell, Godfrey; Fuller, Richard; Homer, Matthew; Roberts, Trudie
2013-06-01
Models of short-term remediation for failing students are typically associated with improvements in candidate performance at retest. However, the process is costly to deliver, particularly for performance retests with objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and there is increasing evidence that these traditional models are associated with the longitudinal underperformance of candidates. Rather than a traditional OSCE model, sequential testing involves a shorter 'screening' format, with an additional 'sequential' test for candidates who fail to meet the screening standard. For those tested twice, overall pass/fail decisions are then based on results on the full sequence of tests. In this study, the impacts of sequential assessment on student performance, cost of assessment delivery and overall reliability were modelled using data sourced from a final graduating OSCE in an undergraduate medical degree programme. Initial modelling using pre-existing OSCE data predicted significant improvements in reliability in the critical area, reflected in pilot results: 13.5% of students (n = 228) were required to sit the sequential OSCE. One student (0.4%) was identified as representing a false positive result (i.e. under the previous system this student would have passed the OSCE but failed on extended testing). Nine students (3.9%) who would have required OSCE retests under the prior system passed the full sequence and were therefore able to graduate at the normal time without loss of earnings. Overall reliability was estimated as 0.79 for the full test sequence. Significant cost savings were realised. Sequential testing in OSCEs increases reliability for borderline students because the increased number of observations implies that 'observed' student marks are closer to 'true' marks. However, the station-level quality of the assessment needs to be sufficiently high for the full benefits in terms of reliability to be achieved. The introduction of such a system has
Sequential vs alternating administration of VMP and Rd in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM.
Mateos, María-Victoria; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Hernández, Miguel-Teodoro; Ocio, Enrique-M; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez, Rafael; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Martín Ramos, María-Luisa; Oriol, Albert; Bargay, Joan; Bengoechea, Enrique; González, Yolanda; Pérez de Oteyza, Jaime; Gironella, Mercedes; Encinas, Cristina; Martín, Jesús; Cabrera, Carmen; Paiva, Bruno; Cedena, María-Teresa; Puig, Noemí; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; San-Miguel, Jesús
2016-01-28
Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) and lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) are 2 standards of care for elderly untreated multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We planned to use VMP and Rd for 18 cycles in a sequential or alternating scheme. Patients (233) with untreated MM, >65 years, were randomized to receive 9 cycles of VMP followed by 9 cycles of Rd (sequential scheme; n = 118) vs 1 cycle of VMP followed by 1 cycle of Rd, and so on, up to 18 cycles (alternating scheme; n = 115). VMP consisted of one 6-week cycle of bortezomib using a biweekly schedule, followed by eight 5-week cycles of once-weekly VMP. Rd included nine 4-week cycles of Rd. The primary end points were 18-month progression free survival (PFS) and safety profile of both schemes. The 18-month PFS was 74% and 80% in the sequential and alternating arms, respectively (P = .21). The sequential and alternating groups exhibited similar hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. Both arms yielded similar complete response rate (42% and 40%), median PFS (32 months vs 34 months, P = .65), and 3-year overall survival (72% vs 74%, P = .63). The benefit of both schemes was remarkable in patients aged 65 to 75 years. In addition, achieving complete and immunophenotypic response was associated with better outcome. The present approach, based on VMP and Rd, is associated with high efficacy and acceptable toxicity profile with no differences between the sequential and alternating regimens. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00443235.
Sequential protein unfolding through a carbon nanotube pore
Xu, Zhonghe; Zhang, Shuang; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan
2016-06-01
An assortment of biological processes, like protein degradation and the transport of proteins across membranes, depend on protein unfolding events mediated by nanopore interfaces. In this work, we exploit fully atomistic simulations of an artificial, CNT-based nanopore to investigate the nature of ubiquitin unfolding. With one end of the protein subjected to an external force, we observe non-canonical unfolding behaviour as ubiquitin is pulled through the pore opening. Secondary structural elements are sequentially detached from the protein and threaded into the nanotube, interestingly, the remaining part maintains native-like characteristics. The constraints of the nanopore interface thus facilitate the formation of stable ``unfoldon'' motifs above the nanotube aperture that can exist in the absence of specific native contacts with the other secondary structure. Destruction of these unfoldons gives rise to distinct force peaks in our simulations, providing us with a sensitive probe for studying the kinetics of serial unfolding events. Our detailed analysis of nanopore-mediated protein unfolding events not only provides insight into how related processes might proceed in the cell, but also serves to deepen our understanding of structural arrangements which form the basis for protein conformational stability.An assortment of biological processes, like protein degradation and the transport of proteins across membranes, depend on protein unfolding events mediated by nanopore interfaces. In this work, we exploit fully atomistic simulations of an artificial, CNT-based nanopore to investigate the nature of ubiquitin unfolding. With one end of the protein subjected to an external force, we observe non-canonical unfolding behaviour as ubiquitin is pulled through the pore opening. Secondary structural elements are sequentially detached from the protein and threaded into the nanotube, interestingly, the remaining part maintains native-like characteristics. The constraints of
sequential analysis of metals in municipal dumpsite composts of ...
DR. AMINU
2013-06-01
Jun 1, 2013 ... Keywords: Municipal dumpsite, compost, sequential extraction, mobility factor, bioavailability factor. ..... either plants or microorganisms (He et al., 1995). Thus, for the ... dumpsite composts production and application, and for.
Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review
Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.
2010-01-01
Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob
Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.
Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila
1979-01-01
A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)
DNA Sequential Logic Gate Using Two-Ring DNA.
Zhang, Cheng; Shen, Linjing; Liang, Chao; Dong, Yafei; Yang, Jing; Xu, Jin
2016-04-13
Sequential DNA detection is a fundamental issue for elucidating the interactive relationships among complex gene systems. Here, a sequential logic DNA gate was achieved by utilizing the two-ring DNA structure, with the ability to recognize "before" and "after" triggering sequences of DNA signals. By taking advantage of a "loop-open" mechanism, separations of two-ring DNAs were controlled. Three triggering pathways with different sequential DNA treatments were distinguished by comparing fluorescent outputs. Programmed nanoparticle arrangement guided by "interlocked" two-ring DNA was also constructed to demonstrate the achievement of designed nanostrucutres. Such sequential logic DNA operation may guide future molecular sensors to monitor more complex gene network in biological systems.
Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.
2016-01-01
The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming...
A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...
2016-09-03
Sep 3, 2016 ... show that corporate knowledge about HIV/AIDS is inconsistent .... Gilbert, Cattell, Edwards & Bowen • A sequential mixed methods ... 29 substantial ..... formal sector. However ..... Construction Engineering and Management.
Optimizing Standard Sequential Extraction Protocol With Lake And Ocean Sediments
The environmental mobility/availability behavior of radionuclides in soils and sediments depends on their speciation. Experiments have been carried out to develop a simple but robust radionuclide sequential extraction method for identification of radionuclide partitioning in sed...
On the Limits of Sequential Testing in High Dimensions
Malloy, Matthew
2011-01-01
This paper presents results pertaining to sequential methods for support recovery of sparse signals in noise. Specifically, we show that any sequential measurement procedure fails provided the average number of measurements per dimension grows less then log s / D(f0||f1) where s is the level of sparsity, and D(f0||f1) the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the underlying distributions. Moreover, we show that a simple procedure termed sequential thresholding guarantees exact support recovery provided the average number of measurements per dimension grows faster than 2 log s / D(f0||f1), a mere factor of 2 more than the lower bound. Lastly, we show any non-sequential procedure fails provided the number of measurements grows at a rate less than log n / D(f1||f0), where n is the total dimension of the problem.
Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review
Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.
2010-01-01
Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob
Multifold and sequential cross-coupling reactions with indium organometallics.
Pena, Miguel A; Pérez, Ignacio; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A
2002-10-07
Multifold and sequential palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions can be performed between triorganoindium compounds and oligohaloarenes using only a small excess of the organometallic reagent, low catalyst charge loading and short reaction times.
Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander Karl
2014-01-01
In empirical analyses of games, preferences and beliefs are typically treated as independent. However, if beliefs and preferences interact, this may have implications for the interpretation of observed behavior. Our sequential social dilemma experiment allows us to separate different interaction ...
Page 1 A STUDY OF ASSOCATION ENERGIES OF SEQUENTIAL ...
The analysis is performed on a, da, .......... , da, d sequential n-mer clusters. ... quantitative theoretical model needed to describe the structures and energetics of small water clusters that ... delocalized molecular orbital method both at the.
Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.
Lemaire, Patrick
2016-03-01
In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.
A Sequential Preparation of Organic Compounds for Senior Chemistry Classes
Merrigan, Cecilia; Crotty, Patricia
1971-01-01
Describes procedures suitable for student preparation of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and ethyl benzoate sequentially from benzyl alcohol. Preparation for benzyl chloride also given. All reagents except benzyl alcohol are common inorganic chemicals. (AL)
Sequential unilateral lung volume reduction for emphysema - Stretching the benefit.
Khorramnia, Sadie; Holsworth, Lynda; Mestitz, Hugh; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Gooi, Julian H; Snell, Gregory I
2017-01-01
Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction (BLVR) and Surgical Lung Volume Reduction (SLVR) and are two different approaches used to remodel severely emphysematous lungs to improve lung function and quality-of-life. We present a case initially referred for lung transplantation, where sequential left upper lobe BLVR and 7 years later right upper lobe SLVR, providing enduring physiological and functional improvement. The potential for sustained benefit via sequential unilateral lung volume reduction is under-appreciated.
Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1995-01-01
We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...
Sequential Adaptive RBF-Fuzzy Variable Structure Control Applied to Robotics Systems
Mohammed Salem
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a combination of sequential trained radial basis function networks and fuzzy techniques to enhance the variable structure controllers dedicated to robotics systems. In this aim, four RBFs networks were used to estimate the model based part parameters (Inertia, Centrifugal and Coriolis, Gravity and Friction matrices of a variable structure controller so to respond to model variation and disturbances, a sequential online training algorithm based on Growing-Pruning "GAP" strategy and Kalman filter was implemented. To eliminate the chattering effect, the corrective control of the VS control was computed by a fuzzy controller. Simulations are carried out to control three degrees of freedom SCARA robot manipulator where the obtained results show good disturbance rejection and chattering elimination.
A Real Option Model with Uncertain, Sequential Investment and with Time to Build
Marcos Eugênio da Silva
2005-12-01
Full Text Available This article develops a real option model with uncertain and sequential investment and with time to build. The model includes options to entry and to exit the activity and addresses the maximization problem of a company in view of the investment opportunity. The differential equation of the asset is obtained by using dynamic programming and risk neutral evaluation. Particularly, for the construction period, the differential equation is partial and elliptical, which demands the use of numeric methods. The main results of the article are that (i with uncertain and sequential investment and with time to build, the waiting value, which creates a gap between the investment decision rule based on NPV and that based on a real option model, may not very significant and (ii the increase in uncertainty may anticipate the decision to investment.
Wideband Circularly Polarized SIW Antenna Array That Uses Sequential Rotation Feeding
Fang-Fang Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A wideband right-handed circularly polarized (CP substrate integrated waveguide- (SIW- based diamond ring-slot antenna array at the X-band is presented in this study. The array consists of four elements that exhibit wideband impedance matching characteristics and good radiation performance. The array also employs a sequential rotation feeding method to achieve the wideband axial ratio (AR bandwidth. The feeding network is based on the SIW power divider with a delay line related to sequential rotation feeding. To validate our design, an antenna array is fabricated and measured. The measured impedance and AR bandwidths are 19.2% (VSWR<2 and 14.1% (AR<3 dB, respectively. Moreover, the antenna has a stable CP peak gain of more than 12 dBic from 10.1 GHz to 10.7 GHz.
Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization
Byrne, Charles
2008-02-01
The problem of minimizing a function f(x):RJ → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G_k(x)=f(x)+g_k(x), to obtain xk. The auxiliary functions gk(x):D ⊆ RJ → R+ are nonnegative on the set D, each xk is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:RJ → R over x in the set C=\\overline D , the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by \\hat x . We assume that the functions gk(x) satisfy the inequalities 0\\leq g_k(x)\\leq G_{k-1}(x)-G_{k-1}(x^{k-1}), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {f(xk)} is decreasing and converges to f({\\hat x}) . If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if \\hat x is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {xk} is bounded, and f(x^*)=f({\\hat x}) , for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if \\hat x is unique, x^*={\\hat x} and \\{x^k\\}\\rightarrow {\\hat x} . When \\hat x is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results for the induced proximal
Fast Algorithms for Discovering Sequential Patterns in Massive Datasets
S. Dharani
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Sequential pattern mining is one of the specific data mining tasks, particularly from retail data. The task is to discover all sequential patterns with a user-specified minimum support, where support of a pattern is the number of data-sequences that contain the pattern. Approach: To find a sequence patterns variety of algorithm like AprioriAll and Generalized Sequential Patterns (GSP were there. We present fast and efficient algorithms called AprioriAllSID and GSPSID for mining sequential patterns that were fundamentally different from known algorithms. Results: The proposed algorithm had been implemented and compared with AprioriAll and Generalized Sequential Patterns (GSP. Its performance was studied on an experimental basis. We combined the AprioriAllSID algorithm with AprioriAll algorithm into a Hybrid algorithm, called AprioriAll Hybrid. Conclusion: Implementation shows that the execution time of the algorithm to find sequential pattern depends on total no of candidates generated at each level and the time taken to scan the database. Our performance study shows that the proposed algorithms have an excellent performance over the best existing algorithms.
Evolutionary causes and consequences of sequential polyandry in anuran amphibians.
Byrne, Phillip G; Roberts, J Dale
2012-02-01
Among anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), there are two types of polyandry: simultaneous polyandry, where sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize eggs, and sequential polyandry, where eggs from a single female are fertilized by multiple males in a series of temporally separate mating events, and sperm competition is absent. Here we review the occurrence of sequential polyandry in anuran amphibians, outline theoretical explanations for the evolution of this mating system and discuss potential evolutionary implications. Sequential polyandry has been reported in a limited number of anurans, but its widespread taxonomic and geographic distribution suggests it may be common. There have been no empirical studies that have explicitly investigated the evolutionary consequences of sequential polyandry in anurans, but species with this mating pattern share an array of behavioural, morphological and physiological characteristics, suggesting that there has been common sexual selection on their reproductive system. Sequential polyandry may have a number of adaptive benefits, including spreading the risk of brood failure in unpredictable environments, insuring against male infertility, or providing genetic benefits, either through good genes, intrinsic compatibility or genetic diversity effects. Anurans with sequential polyandry provide untapped opportunities for innovative research approaches that will contribute significantly to understanding anuran evolution and also, more broadly, to the development of sexual-selection and life-history theory. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions
Abubeker, Jewahir Ali
2011-05-14
This paper is devoted to the consideration of an algorithm for sequential optimization of paths in directed graphs relative to di_erent cost functions. The considered algorithm is based on an extension of dynamic programming which allows to represent the initial set of paths and the set of optimal paths after each application of optimization procedure in the form of a directed acyclic graph.
Sequential Confidence Bands for Quantile Densities Under Truncated and Censored Data
Yong Zhou; Liu-quan Sun
2005-01-01
In this paper an asymptotic distribution is obtained for the maximal deviation between the kernel quantile density estimator and the quantile density when the data are subject to random left truncation and right censorship. Based on this result we propose a fully sequential procedure for constructing a fixed-width confidence band for the quantile density on a finite interval and show that the procedure has the desired coverage probability asymptotically as the width of the band approaches zero.
Martínez, Lía; Gotor,Vicente; Lavandera, Ivan
2016-01-01
A one-pot/two-step bienzymatic asymmetric amination of secondary alcohols is disclosed. The approach is based on a sequential strategy involving the use of a laccase/TEMPO catalytic system for the oxidation of alcohols into ketone intermediates, and their following transformation into optically enriched amines by using transaminases. Individual optimizations of the oxidation and biotransamination reactions have been carried out, studying later their applicability in a concurrent proc...
ISAR Image Formation Using Sequential Minimization of L0 and L2 Norms
Li, Gang; Wang, Xiqin; Xia, Xiang-Gen
2012-01-01
A sparsity-driven algorithm of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is proposed. Based on the parametric sparse representation of the received ISAR signal, the problem of ISAR image formation is converted into the joint estimation of the target rotation rate and the sparse power distribution in the spatial domain. This goal is achieved by sequential minimization of L0 and L2 norms, which ensure the sparsest ISAR image and the minimum recovery error, respectively.
Chemmangat Manakkal Cheriya, Krishnan; Ferranti, Francesco; Dhaene, Tom; Knockaert, Luc
2014-01-01
An enhanced parametric macromodelling scheme is presented for linear high-frequency systems based on the use of multiple frequency scaling coefficients and a sequential sampling algorithm to fully automate the entire modelling process. The proposed method is applied on a ring resonator bandpass filter example and compared with another state-of-the-art macromodelling method to show its improved modelling capability and reduced setup time.
Automated detection of structured coarse-grained parallelism in sequential legacy applications
Edler Von Koch, Tobias Joseph Kastulus
2014-01-01
The efficient execution of sequential legacy applications on modern, parallel computer architectures is one of today’s most pressing problems. Automatic parallelization has been investigated as a potential solution for several decades but its success generally remains restricted to small niches of regular, array-based applications. This thesis investigates two techniques that have the potential to overcome these limitations. Beginning at the lowest level of abstraction, the ...
Qiao, Lifen; Wang, Jin; Long, Guoxian; Jiang, Yueqiang
2017-01-01
There is debate surrounding which treatment is superior in overall survival (OS) rates in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) followed by second-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PCT), or the reverse sequence. Cross treatment of first- and second-line TKI and PCT makes it difficult to deduce which sequence (TKI-PCT or PCT-TKI) is better for OS. Using the keywords “lung cancer” and “EGFR” we identified clinical trials within the PubMed database which were published between January 2006 and November 2016. Basic characteristics and OS with hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals were searched and analyzed. In total, 457 articles were reviewed and nine clinical trials with 1,876 patients were of sufficient quality for further analysis. Fixed effects models were performed to pool the data in this meta-analysis. All nine studies were open-labeled, multicenter, Phase III randomized controlled clinical trials. The pooled hazard ratio was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.10) for OS between first-line TKI followed by second-line PCT compared to the reverse sequence. No statistically significant heterogeneity (I2=0, P=0.553) nor publication bias (Egger’s P=0.991) was observed among these studies. In conclusion, there was no OS benefit between first-line TKI followed by second-line PCT compared to the reverse sequence in EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. Chemotherapy was still useful and irreplaceable for the treatment of NSCLC, especially for those patients with EGFR unavailable for testing. PMID:28280362
Manuel Schölling
Full Text Available Our current view on how protein complexes assemble and disassemble at promoter sites is based on experimental data. For instance this data is provided by biochemical methods (e.g. ChIP-on-chip assays or GFP-based assays. These two approaches suggest very different characteristics for protein recruitment processes that regulate and initiate gene transcription. Biochemical methods suggest a strictly ordered and consecutive protein recruitment while GFP-based assays draw a picture much closer to chaotic or stochastic recruitment. To understand the reason for these conflicting results, we design a generalized recruitment model (GRM that allows to simulate all possible scenarios between strictly sequential recruitment and completely probabilistic recruitment. With this model we show that probabilistic, transient binding events that are visible in GFP experiments can not be detected by ChIP experiments. We demonstrate that sequential recruitment processes and probabilistic recruitment processes that contain "shortcuts" exhibit periodic dynamics and are hard to distinguish with standard ChIP measurements. Therefore we propose a simple experimental method that can be used to discriminate sequential from probabilistic recruitment processes. We discuss the limitations of this method.
Random sequential adsorption of n-star objects
Shelke, Pradip B.
2016-02-01
Random sequential adsorption (RSA) of n-star objects (consisting of n arms of equal lengths l, originating radially outward from the center with a uniform angular spacing of 2π/n) on a two-dimensional continuum substrate is studied. For all the values of n ranging from 3 to 200, the dynamics of adsorption is found to follow a power law ρ(∞) - ρ(t) ∼ t- p, where ρ(∞) and ρ(t) are respectively saturated and instantaneous number densities of the adsorbed objects. The exponent p is found to increase monotonically with n but still remains significantly lower than 0.5, the exponent for RSA of circular discs, indicating that RSA dynamics of this class of objects is totally different than that of circular discs. The exponent p does not follow the law p = 1/df, where df is degrees of freedom of the object. Also ρ(∞) reveals a systematic n dependence and an attempt is made to understand the same. Analytical and simulation results are found to be in fair agreement, however the treatment given is based on crude approximation and more profound theory is to be sought for better understanding of the dynamics of the process.
A mathematical programming approach for sequential clustering of dynamic networks
Silva, Jonathan C.; Bennett, Laura; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.; Tsoka, Sophia
2016-02-01
A common analysis performed on dynamic networks is community structure detection, a challenging problem that aims to track the temporal evolution of network modules. An emerging area in this field is evolutionary clustering, where the community structure of a network snapshot is identified by taking into account both its current state as well as previous time points. Based on this concept, we have developed a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model, SeqMod, that sequentially clusters each snapshot of a dynamic network. The modularity metric is used to determine the quality of community structure of the current snapshot and the historical cost is accounted for by optimising the number of node pairs co-clustered at the previous time point that remain so in the current snapshot partition. Our method is tested on social networks of interactions among high school students, college students and members of the Brazilian Congress. We show that, for an adequate parameter setting, our algorithm detects the classes that these students belong more accurately than partitioning each time step individually or by partitioning the aggregated snapshots. Our method also detects drastic discontinuities in interaction patterns across network snapshots. Finally, we present comparative results with similar community detection methods for time-dependent networks from the literature. Overall, we illustrate the applicability of mathematical programming as a flexible, adaptable and systematic approach for these community detection problems. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.
Leakage Power Reduction and Analysis of CMOS Sequential Circuits
M. Janaki Rani
2012-02-01
Full Text Available A significant portion of the total power consumption in high performance digital circuits in deep sub micron regime is mainly due to leakage power. Leakage is the only source of power consumption in an idle circuit. Therefore it is important to reduce leakage power in portable systems. In this paper two techniques such as transistor stacking and self-adjustable voltage level circuit for reducing leakage power in sequential circuits are proposed. This work analyses the power and delay of three different types of D flip-flops using pass transistors, transmission gates and gate diffusion input gates. . All the circuits are simulated with and without the application of leakage reduction techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed pass transistor based D flip-flop using self-adjustable voltage level circuit has the least leakage power dissipation of 9.13nW with a delay of 77 nS. The circuits are simulated with MOSFET models of level 54 using HSPICE in 90 nm process technology.
Herrera, L J; Fernandes, C M; Mora, A M; Migotina, D; Largo, R; Guillen, A; Rosa, A C
2013-06-01
This work proposes a methodology for sleep stage classification based on two main approaches: the combination of features extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signal by different extraction methods, and the use of stacked sequential learning to incorporate predicted information from nearby sleep stages in the final classifier. The feature extraction methods used in this work include three representative ways of extracting information from EEG signals: Hjorth features, wavelet transformation and symbolic representation. Feature selection was then used to evaluate the relevance of individual features from this set of methods. Stacked sequential learning uses a second-layer classifier to improve the classification by using previous and posterior first-layer predicted stages as additional features providing information to the model. Results show that both approaches enhance the sleep stage classification accuracy rate, thus leading to a closer approximation to the experts' opinion.
Cherry, Kevin M; Peplinski, Brandon; Kim, Lauren; Wang, Shijun; Lu, Le; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jianfei; Wei, Zhuoshi; Summers, Ronald M
2015-01-01
Given the potential importance of marginal artery localization in automated registration in computed tomography colonography (CTC), we have devised a semi-automated method of marginal vessel detection employing sequential Monte Carlo tracking (also known as particle filtering tracking) by multiple cue fusion based on intensity, vesselness, organ detection, and minimum spanning tree information for poorly enhanced vessel segments. We then employed a random forest algorithm for intelligent cue fusion and decision making which achieved high sensitivity and robustness. After applying a vessel pruning procedure to the tracking results, we achieved statistically significantly improved precision compared to a baseline Hessian detection method (2.7% versus 75.2%, prandom forest) with a sequential Monte Carlo tracking mechanism. In so doing, we present the effective application of an anatomical probability map to vessel pruning as well as a supplementary spatial coordinate system for colonic segmentation and registration when this task has been confounded by colon lumen collapse.
Adams, Daniel L.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Tsai, Susan; Tang, Cha-Mei; Stefansson, Steingrimur
2016-09-01
In tissue biopsies formalin fixed paraffin embedded cancer blocks are micro-sectioned producing multiple semi-identical specimens which are analyzed and subtyped proteomically, and genomically, with numerous biomarkers. In blood based biopsies (BBBs), blood is purified for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and clinical utility is typically limited to cell enumeration, as only 2–3 positive fluorescent markers and 1 negative marker can be used. As such, increasing the number of subtyping biomarkers on each individual CTC could dramatically enhance the clinical utility of BBBs, allowing in depth interrogation of clinically relevant CTCs. We describe a simple and inexpensive method for quenching the specific fluors of fluorescently stained CTCs followed by sequential restaining with additional biomarkers. As proof of principle a CTC panel, immunosuppression panel and stem cell panel were used to sequentially subtype individual fluorescently stained patient CTCs, suggesting a simple and universal technique to analyze multiple clinically applicable immunomarkers from BBBs.
Analysing neuronal correlates of the comparison of two sequentially presented sensory stimuli.
Brody, Carlos D; Hernández, Adrián; Zainos, Antonio; Lemus, Luis; Romo, Ranulfo
2002-01-01
In a typical sequential sensory discrimination task, subjects are required to make a decision based on comparing a sensory stimulus against the memory trace left by a previous stimulus. What is the neuronal substrate for such comparisons and the resulting decisions? This question was studied by recording neuronal responses in a variety of cortical areas of awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta), trained to carry out a vibrotactile sequential discrimination task. We describe methods to analyse responses obtained during the comparison and decision phases of the task, and describe the resulting findings from recordings in secondary somatosensory cortical area (S2). A subset of neurons in S2 become highly correlated with the monkey's decision in the task. PMID:12626017
A group sequential type design for three-arm non-inferiority trials with binary endpoints.
Li, Gang; Gao, Shan
2010-08-01
The three-arm design with a test treatment, an active control and a placebo group is the gold standard design for non-inferiority trials if it is ethically justifiable to expose patients to placebo. In this paper, we first use the closed testing principle to establish the hierarchical testing procedure for the multiple comparisons involved in the three-arm design. For the effect preservation test we derive the explicit formula for the optimal allocation ratios. We propose a group sequential type design, which naturally accommodates the hierarchical testing procedure. Under this proposed design, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the sequential effect preservation test when the variance of the test statistic is estimated based on the restricted maximum likelihood estimators of the response rates under the null hypothesis. When there are uncertainties for the placebo response rate, the proposed design demonstrates better operating characteristics than the fixed sample design.
PENG Dai-liang; HUANG Jing-feng; JIN Hui-min
2007-01-01
The sequential cropping index of arable land is important agricultural information. The aim of this article is to monitor and analyze the parameter, and offer reference for agricultural production. The cropping index of arable land in Zhejiang Province, China from 2001 to 2004 was calculated using the second order difference based MODIS (moderate resolution imagine spectroradimeter) vegetation data from NASA (National Aeronautic and Space Administration) in America and the land use map with a scale of 1:25 000. It was found that the peak of the time series of the NDVI curve indicated that the ground biomass of crops reached the maximum, and fluctuated with the crops growing processes such as sowing,seeding, heading, ripeness, and harvesting within one year. Thus, the sequential cropping index was defined as the number of peaks of the time series of the NDVI curve. The sequential cropping index of all cities in Zhejiang Province,China was worked out. It is seen from the spatial distribution that the cropping index in the southwest Zhejiang Province is larger than that in the northeast. As for the temporal distribution, the sequential cropping index decreased from 2001 to 2003, whereas it increased slightly from 2003 to 2004. However, the index of arable land was relatively low, as far as the geographic position and climatic resource were concerned, and the potential of the sequential cropping index was great.
Collinear cluster tripartition as sequential binary fission in the 235U(nth, f ) reaction
Tashkhodjaev, R. B.; Nasirov, A. K.; Scheid, W.
2011-11-01
The mechanism leading to the formation of the observed products of the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) is carried out within the framework of the model based on the dinuclear system concept. The yield of fission products is calculated using the statistical model based on the driving potentials for the fissionable system. The minima of potential energy of the decaying system correspond to the charge numbers of the products which are produced with large probabilities in the sequential fission (partial case of CCT) of the compound nucleus. The realization of this mechanism supposes the asymmetric fission channel as the first stage of sequential mechanism. It is shown that only the use of the driving potential calculated by the binding energies with the shell correction allows us to explain the yield of the true ternary fission products. The theoretical model is applied to research CCT in the reaction 235U( n th, f). Calculations showed that the heavy products of two fission channels of 236U*, 82Ge* + 154Nd* and 86Se* + 150Ce*, can undergo sequential fission forming the CCT products 70Ni, 74, 76Zn, 80Ge and 84Se with relatively large probabilities which can be observed in coincidence with corresponding partner nucleus. The obtained results can explain some of the observed CCT products Ni and Ge in coincidence with the Ge and Se isotopes in the experiments of the FOBOS group in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
On mining complex sequential data by means of FCA and pattern structures
Buzmakov, Aleksey; Egho, Elias; Jay, Nicolas; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.; Napoli, Amedeo; Raïssi, Chedy
2016-02-01
Nowadays data-sets are available in very complex and heterogeneous ways. Mining of such data collections is essential to support many real-world applications ranging from healthcare to marketing. In this work, we focus on the analysis of "complex" sequential data by means of interesting sequential patterns. We approach the problem using the elegant mathematical framework of formal concept analysis and its extension based on "pattern structures". Pattern structures are used for mining complex data (such as sequences or graphs) and are based on a subsumption operation, which in our case is defined with respect to the partial order on sequences. We show how pattern structures along with projections (i.e. a data reduction of sequential structures) are able to enumerate more meaningful patterns and increase the computing efficiency of the approach. Finally, we show the applicability of the presented method for discovering and analysing interesting patient patterns from a French healthcare data-set on cancer. The quantitative and qualitative results (with annotations and analysis from a physician) are reported in this use-case which is the main motivation for this work.